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NCE1

NexTone Certified Engineer


Course

Pre-requistie Software
Counterpath Software [Download X-Lite ]
Wireshark [Download]
WINSCP [Download]

Download the above mentioned programs


to your Desktop or Laptop.

Objectives
By the end of this course delegates will be able to

Understand VoIP essentials


Describe call signaling flows (SIP and H323)
Describe the basic NexTone product range
Provision End-points, Call Plans and Routes using
NexTone utilities and products
Access supporting documentation
Pass NCE1 test

Circuit Switching
Based on T1 or E1 circuits (SS7 and ISDN)
Maintains connection path
Bandwidth reserved through circuit life
Dedicated channel

PBX

PBX

Packet Switching
Payload broken up & sent individually as packets
Each Packet individually addressed
Connection path different for each packet
Packets only sent when there is payload

Call
Server

Call
Server

Circuit Switch vs. Packet


Switched
Circuit Switched

Packet Switched

Bandwidth

Fixed 56K or 64Kbps

Variable up to Gbps

Addressing

None Required

Required per packet

Latency

Minimal

Minimal to high

Payload during
silence

Yes

No

Intelligence

In Network

In CPE

G711 PSTN codec


8000 x 8-bit per second
Uncompressed
Used in PSTN

Packetised G711

84 Kbps 2600 Kbps when packetised

IP Source & Destination Addresses

http://www.bandcalc.com/

UDP/TCP Port Numbers

8 bits 8 bits
Checksums

Quality in VoIP Systems


CODEC used
Latency
Jitter
Packet Loss

Quantified by
MOS
R Factor

MOS & R Factor Voice Quality (G711)


MOS

R
User Satisfaction
R Factor
Default
Value

100
93
90

Very Satisfied

4.4
4.3

Satisfied

80
70
60
50

Some Users
Dissatisfied
Many Users
Dissatisfied
Nearly All Users
Dissatisfied

4.0
3.6
3.1
2.6

Not Recommended

1.0

Degradation that
occurs converting
voice to a signal and
back reduces the
theoretical maximum
R factor to 93.2, and
so the highest MOS
is 4.41

Voice Codec Sampling Rates


R-Factor
Standard
G.711

Algorithm
PCM

Transmission
Rate (Kbps)

MOS

CODEC
Impairment

64

4.1

R = R I d Ie
Id = delays

G.726

ADPCM

32

3.85

G.729

CS-ACELP

3.92

11

iLBC (Skype)

iLBC

13.33

4.0 ??

G.723.1

ACELP

5.3

3.56

19

T38

Facsimile transmission (fax)

Ie = Impairment

OSI & TCP/IP Layers


Application Layer
Application Layer

Presentation Layer
Transport Layer
Session Layer

Transport Layer
Internet Layer
Network Layer

Data Link Layer

Physical Layer

Network Access Layer

VoIP Media
Not necessarily voice
Utilises established IP technology
Resilient to packet loss
Application Layer
Delay intolerant
Uses RTP

SMTP,ICMP FTP,HTTP,
SIP, H323, RTP etc.

Transport Layer

TCP or UDP

Internet Layer

IP addressing, routing
and masking

Network Access Layer

Ethernet, Token Ring,


FDDI etc

UDP Review
Unreliable
Spray and Pray
Source Port

Destination Port

Length

Checksum
Data

TCP Review

Reliability
Multiplexing
Port Numbers

Source Port

Destination Port
Sequence Number
Acknowledgement Number

Data Offset

Reserved

U
R
G

A
C
K

P
S
H

R
S
T

S
Y
N

F
I
N

Window

Checksum

Urgent Pointer
Options

Padding
Data

VoIP Signalling
Media separate to signalling
Media and Signalling paths can be separate
Set-up and Tear-down

Main signalling protocols


H323
SIP
Overriding Principle
Place intelligence at network edge, not in
network core

Session Initiation Protocol


(SIP)
The Internet Engineering Task Force's (IETF's)
standard for multimedia conferencing over IP.
ASCII-based, application-layer control protocol
(defined in RFC 3261http://www.faqs.org/rfcs)
Used to establish, maintain, and terminate calls
between two or more end points.

Capabilities

Determines location - Supports address resolution,


name mapping, and call redirection.

Determines media capabilities - Via Session


Description Protocol (SDP)

Determines availability - Returns a message


indicating why target was unavailable.

Establishes sessions - Also supports mid-call changes


(e.g. Adding another end point & codec changes.)

IP Centrex features - Handles transfer & hold

SIP Architecture
SIP
Registrar
2

Gateway B

3
SIP
Proxy

Gateway A

4
SIP
Registrar
SIP
Proxy

5
4
1
SIP
Redirect
2

Gateway C

3
SIP
Registrar

Note: SIP Proxies are also known as Session Controllers

SIP Ladder Diagram

Why do we need a SIP Proxy?


SIP
Registrar
SIP
Proxy

SIP Proxy

Wireshark Sniffing problems a


mile away

Exercise 1 - Wireshark / SIP


Use of Wireshark with a SIP Trace
Open file SIP_trace.cap
Understand the Wireshark display
A & B party numbers
Available and Chosen CODECS

Filtering

Exercise 2 - Wireshark / SIP


Creating and Using filters in Wireshark
Differentiating Leg 1 and Leg 2 of the call

Group III Fax (Setup)

Send Calling Tone (CNG)

Ring followed by Pick Up


Send Answering Tone (CED)

Preamble (DIS)
Preamble (DCS)

Modem Training (TCS)


Preamble (CFR)

Modem Training (send page 1)

Gateways and faxes (PSTN /


IP)

Fax
Gateway

SIP
Registrar
SIP
Proxy
IP Network
Fax
Gateway

Group III Fax / T38 (Setup)


In Band (RTP)

Send Calling Tone (CNG)

Ring followed by Pick Up


Send Answering Tone (CED)

Preamble (DIS)

T38
Messages

Preamble (DCS)

Modem Training (TCS)


Preamble (CFR)

Modem Training (send page 1)

Exercise 3 - T38

Open the file called SIP-T38_filtered.cap


What function is 207.113.13.152 performing?
At what point is the audio channel opened? Why is this?
Save the RTP payload as an audio file and listen to it
Explain the two things you hear
Compare the way signalling and media is routed. Explain
any difference.
What SIP messages occur between the two tones? Why is
this important?
There are four invite messages in the trace. Why is this?
(tip compare their IP addresses and Call ID)

SIP Transport Protocol

Making SIP reliable?

SIP

SIP

UDP

TCP

IP

IP

Ethernet

Ethernet

H323

Terminals

Telephones
Video phones
IVR devices
Voicemail Systems
Soft phones

Gateways

Comprised of a
Media Gateway Controller (MGC) - signalling
Media Gateway (MG) - Media
(may co-exist or exist separately

MGC
TDM

IP

MG

Gatekeeper
Gatekeeper (GK)
Public
Network

Admission
Control

Private
Network

Address
Resolution
Authorised End Points

IP Address

E164 number

65.120.74.22

65.120.74.22

+1 240 912 1300

67.121.76.120

67.121.76.120

+44 207 375 9922

123.101.6.11

+65 9786 1024

123.101.6.11

Note: H323 Gatekeepers are also known as Session Controllers

The Protocols
H.323 is a framework document that describes how
the various pieces fit together.
H323

H225 (Signalling)

RAS
Q931
(Registration (Call set-up &
Admission
tear-down)
Status)

H245
(Media
Related
Signalling)

Registration, Admission, and Status - RAS


GateKeeper Discovery
GK Request (GRQ)
GK Confirm (GCF)

Gatekeeper

GK Reject (GRJ)

Registration Confirm (RCF)

Gatekeeper

Location Request

Admission Request (ARQ)

Gatekeeper

Admission Reject (ARJ)

Location Request (LRQ)


Location Confirm (LCF)
Location Reject (LRJ)

Request in Progress
Request in Progress (RIP)

Registration Request (RRQ)

Registration Reject (RRJ)

Call Admission
Admission Confirm (ACF)

Gateway Registration

Gatekeeper

Gatekeeper

Optional Exercise 4 - H323 and Wireshark


RRQ & ARQ

Using Wireshark, open the file called


H225_RAS_Filtered.cap
What E.164 number is the RRQ Registering?
What number is the ARQ message looking
for?
What IP address does the ACF return?
Confirm this correct by using the ladder
diagram (flow graph)

H.225.0 Call signalling

Allows an endpoint to initiate and terminate


a call with another endpoint

Note: This looks


like Q931
because H225
refers to Q931

Exercise 5 - Wireshark / H225


Using Wireshark open the file called
H225_Q931_filtered.cap
What is the Call Reference Value on each
message?
What number is being called?
How long did the ringing last for before the call
was answered?
What was the Clearing Cause?
View a ladder diagram (flow graph)

H.245 Post Connection signalling

H.245 is used to negotiate capabilities and to


control aspects of the conference between
two or more endpoints

Open a
channel

Optional Exercise 6 - Wireshark / H245 Slow


Start

Using Wireshark open the file called


H225_setup_with_245_setup.cap
What message occurs before the first H245
message and why is this?
Open the ladder diagram (flow graph) What is
the significance of 32804 and 1232 on the first
H245 message?
What is the first TCS indicating?
Create a filter that shows H245 messages only
Save the file with H245 messages only

Optional Exercise 7 - H245 via Gatekeeper (SYN SYN


ACK)

Using Wireshark open the file called


H225_setup_with_245_setup.cap
What port numbers are being used on the H225
and H245 messages respectively?
Why do the port numbers change?
Open the file called
H323_trace_via_gatekeeper_with_SYN.cap
What function does SYN, SYN ACK perform?
Create and test two filters; one for Leg1 and
one for Leg2.

FastStart (Fast Connect)


Fast Connect proposes the channel, data type
and required codec in the setup message
Fast Connect allows the media channels to be
operational before a CONNECT message is
sent.
The Alerting and / or Connect messages
contains accepted proposals

Optional Exercise 8 - Wireshark / H225 Fast


Start

Using Wireshark open the file called


323_fast_start.cap
View the flow graph via the statistics, VoIP
menu
What Codecs are offered in the Setup
message?
Which Q931 returns an OLC and what CODEC is
selected?
The H245 messages are sent between which
Q931 messages?
What ports are used for the Q931 element
What ports are used for the H245 element
Why could using two sets of ports cause

NAT Network Address Translation

Use a small pool of IP addresses for many


dial up customers
64.120.1.1

64.120.1.100

Customers

ISP

100 public IP
address
shared
across 254
dial up users

NAT

192.168.1.1
254 private IP
addresses
shared across
254 dial up
users

192.168.1.254

PAT Port Address


Translation

Use a single IP address for many ISP


customers (dial up and broadband)
64.120.1.1

64.120.1.1

Customers

ISP

1 public IP
address
shared
across 254
dial up /
broadband
users

NAT

192.168.1.1
254 private IP
addresses
shared across
254 dial up
users

192.168.1.254

PAT - Port Address


Translation
Private IP address

Public IP address and Port Number

192.168.1.1

64.120.1.1 Port 16384

192.168.1.2

64.120.1.1 Port 16385

192.168.1.3

64.120.1.1 Port 16386

192.168.1.252

64.120.1.1 Port 16334

192.168.1.253

64.120.1.1 Port 16635

192.168.1.254

64.120.1.1 Port 16636

Example Port Ranges


SSH 22
Telnet 23
HTTP 80
SIP - 5060
RTP - 16384-32767

http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/~rakerman/port-table.html#Table

Optional Exercise 9 - H225 Fast Start &


Tunneling

Using Wireshark, open the file called


323_fast_start_tunneled.cap
H245 messages are encapsulated in which
Q931 message?
Compare the port numbers used for standard
Q931 messages and the ones containing H245
messages.
What is the advantage of tunneling H245
messages in this way

SIP / H323 Interworking

Exercise 10 - Wireshark /
Interworking

Using Wireshark open the file called


H323_SIP_Interworking_unfiltered.cap
How would you get an immediate
understanding of what is happening?
How long did the call last on the H323
segment?
How long did the call last on the SIP segment?
Open H323_SIP_Interworking_unfiltered.cap
Filter this file so that non-call related TCP
packets are not displayed
Save the trace containing only call related
messages

VoIP Hardware

Example Topology
Voicemail

AS

AS

RSM

Softswitch
MGW

Application Aware
Element Management

SS7
PSTN

IP Network
Off-net Peering

VoIP

SBC

Endpoint Aware
Enterprise Network

IP

IP

IP

Consumer Broadband
Access of Choice

Session Controllers

Core Session Controller

signalling only device deployed in the network core


Programmable route engine
Centralized CDR collection
Call Admission Control on a network basis

Session Border Controller (Edge)

Deployed at the network edge to manage interconnects


(both media and signalling)
signalling Interoperability and interworking
Call Admission Control on a local basis
NAT and Media Routing for network security
Media processing for specialized applications such as
transcoding

MSx Architecture
INVITE,
REGISTER

ARQ, LRQ, Q.931

INVITE

Call Bridge (IWF)


SIP Ingress Leg

SIP Egress Leg

H.323 Ingress Leg

H.323 Egress Leg

ARQ, LRQ, Q.931

Route Engine

SOAP/XML
Policy
Database

CDR

Management
Agent

Rated
CDRs

MSX Licensable Features

Enable / Disable

SIP
H323
Firewall Control
RADIUS
NAT-traversal
Stateful Call Migration
SIP-T
Registrar
CAC
TOS and DiffServ
R-Factor Reporting

Values for

Max endpoints
Dynamic endpoints
Max calls
Media-routed vports
Max realms
Max number of routes

SBC Licensable Features

Enable / Disable

SIP
H323
Firewall Control
RADIUS
NAT-traversal
Stateful Call Migration
SIP-T
Registrar
CAC
TOS and DiffServ
R-Factor Reporting

Values for

Max endpoints
Dynamic endpoints
Max calls
Media-routed vports
Max realms
Max number of routes =
50

MSx Connections (HA)

MSx Hardware

Jarrell Since early 2006 V4.0 + 802.1q


Intel Platform
2 x XEON 3.2 GHz processors
2 x 72GB SCSI hard drives in RAID1 configuration
(can hold total of 5 drives)

6 x 10Mb/100Mb/1Gb Ethernet interfaces


(2 built-in, 2 dual port PCI cards)

3 x Intelligent NICs (Hot Knife)


Linux Operating System

NexTone MSx Software Performance


Concurrent Calls
Call Flow

CODEC

Calls Per Second

4.0

4.2

4.0

4.2

SIP-to-SIP

Signalling only

35,000

40,000

14%

175

175

0%

SIP-to-SIP

G.729

24,000

23,800

-1%

120

160

33%

SIP-to-SIP

G.711

9,500 (1)

9,500(1)

0%

H323-to-H323

G.729

16,000

16,000

0%

80

100

25%

H323-to-H323

G.711

9,500 (1)

9,500 (1)

0%

IWF

G.729

10,000

15,000

50%

50

100

100%

IWF

G.711

9,500 (1)

9,500 (1)

0%

(1)G.711 media is Ethernet bandwidth constrained to approx 9,500 concurrent media


(2)Benchmarks performed on Jarrell platforms for all releases
(3)Test Result as of 12/2006
(4)Customer specific configuration may have significant impact on performance

Jarrell Physical Port Layout


ETH 4

ETH 5
ETH 3

ETH 2
HK0.0

Console

ETH 1
ETH 0

HK0.1
Spare

Interface Usage Conventions

For consistency, NexTone recommend

eth0 for management


eth1 for heartbeat / control
eth2, 3, 4 & 5 for signalling
hk0,0 and 0,1 for Media

hk0,2 will be available


for lawful intercept

Configuring an MSx
SIP
Registrar
SIP
Proxy

SSH Client
(PuTTY)

Via
CLI

RSM Lite
Via
RSM console
GUI

RSM
Console

Web browser

RSM Console
Open RSM using Internet Browser
Open RSM Console

View available systems and select the one


you want (double click)

Maximise the RSM Console window

MSx Integrated CAC


INVITE

Call Bridge (IWF)


SIP Ingress Leg

SIP Egress Leg

ARQ, LRQ, Q.931


H.323 Egress Leg

H.323 Ingress Leg

CAC Logic
Global or Local

Policy

Media Routing Fabric

ARQ, LRQ, Q.931


INVITE, REGISTER

Static

NAT/PAT

H.323

Dynamic

SIP

Unauthorized Media

Authorized Media

Media

CAC

Creating an endpoint for your XLite


4

Personalize

Set to PublicRealm

Select
Route
Media

3
Select SIP
and
Configure

Select
Automatic NAT Detection
IMPORTANT only select
this when using public IP
addresses

Setting up the X Lite 6


STEPS
1
Right Click

Edit Properties

VOICEMAIL Remove tick


from Check from VOICEMAIL

Change 3 fields under ACCOUNT

TOPOLOGY Remove tick


from ENABLE ICE

PRESENCE set mode to


disabled

Exercise 11 - X-Lite trace exercise


Before performing this exercise, close the X-Lite
from the bottom right of the task bar
Start an Wireshark recording on the appropriate
interface of your PC
Start up X-Lite and make a call to one of your
colleagues.
After terminating the call, stop the Wireshark
trace
What is the registration process?
What are the A and B party addresses?
What addresses are used for media?
Save and listen to the Audio Element of the
trace.

RFC2833 Encoding of DTMF digits


DTMF Dual Tone Multi Frequency
Used for communicating numerical choices
e.g. press 1 to accept you 1million price!
Quality of Tone affected by Codec
2833 bypasses codec

2833

RTP

101010

DTMF = 1

Exercise 12 Wireshark Trace with


DTMF
Trace a call.
Once connected, press the number pad to
create DTMF tones and observe what happens
Filter the resulting trace to distinguish between
RTP carrying voice and RTP carrying DTMF

Reasons to Transcode (V4.x


only)

Primarily to limit bandwidth


Administrative decision, not endpoint capability
RFC2833 (DTMF) payload type mismatch
Handle aberrant endpoints

Capabilities
Transcoding Audio Streams
(G.711m/aG.729)
Convert DTMF tones to RFC2833
Detection of Fax tones
Fax transcoding (T.38 G.711m/a)

Security Network construct

Describes U media flow

Transcoder

Firewall

Most secure arrangement

signalling path
Media path

Route Functionality

Filter

Stripper

Adder

Routes
Called Party # - Filters and removes
Prefix
- Added to beginning of Called Party #

1969 1 240 912 1300

1 240 912 1300


44 207 621 0818
33 20 4919570

1 240 912 1300

1969 44 207 621 0818

44 207 621 0818


1969 1 240 912 1300
1969 44 207 621 0818
1969 33 20 4919570

1969 33 20 4919570

33 20 4919570

Route Setup
Select DNIS

Select Egres or Ingres

Call Plans
Groups one or more Route Plans
Enables single End Point for multiple
destinations

Call Plan
Route Plan A

Route Plan B

Route Plan C

Calling Plan Bindings

Setting up routes

Create an End Point


Select device (e.g. SIP Gateway)
Select unique IP address
Select Any Realm

Create a Route Plan


Select Egress or Ingress
Add or Strip prefix digits (steering circuits)

Create a Call Plan


Link chosen Route Plans to Call Plan
Return to End Point and Choose Call Plan

End Point /Port Definitions

End Point
How you set up permission for an End Point to be
connected to the NexTone
End Point Registration ID
IP address

Port Definitions

Realm
Zone
Call Plan
Maximum number of concurrent calls

Create Call Routes, Plans and


Bindings

Trace Routes
Traces virtual routes through the NexTone
End Points do not need to be connected

*
Trace Route from
ingress End Point

Trace Route Results


Carrier

Priority

Prefer Priority
Inferior Priority
Null
Final

Routing Exercise 13
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Note: Use the assigned IP


addresses for your End Points
where y is a unique number of your
choice. Use the assigned number
for your steering digits

Create Two End Points

XX_In (SIP gateway)


XX_CarrierA (H323 gateway)

Create One ingress Route

XX_In

Create four egress Routes

XX_Fr_out
XX_UK_out
XX_US_out
XX_Brazil_out

6.

From the End Points setup, select the


appropriate Plans

7.

Use Trace Route on the XX_In End


Point to assess how the NexTone would
route messages You should observe
other End Points steal your traffic

8.

Apply Steering Digits on the Ingress and


Egress Legs You should observe that
you retail all your own traffic

Create Two Call Plans

XX_In
XX_CarrierA_out

Bind

Fr_out to Carrier A
UK_out to Carrier A
US_out to Carrier A

Brazil_out to Carrier A

Call Routing Precedence

Zone
Trunk Group
Call Plan Priority (LCR)
ToD (Time of Day) in binding
Longest Match number of digits
End Point Priority set up in end point
Utilisation (total call numbers or
bandwidth that you defined)

Call Routing Precedence

Zebedee
Told
Clarence
That Dougal
Liked
Ermintrude's
Underwear

Clarence

Zones
Zone2

- Zones define groups of devices


which calls may route between.
- All defined zones can route in
and out of the Null Zone

Zone3

Zone1
Null Zone
Routing Precedence
Zone
Trunk Group ID
CP Route Priority
Time of Day
Longest Match
Endpoint Priority
Load Factor
Utilization

Zone5

Zone 2

Zone Routing
Zone1

Null Zone
Zone1

Call comes into Zone1

A
B
Routing Precedence
Zone
Trunk Group ID
CP Route Priority
Time of Day
Longest Match
Endpoint Priority
Load Factor
Utilization

Zone2
- Call comes into Zone1. It is
available to route to any device in
Zone1 and Null Zone.
- Anything in Null Zone can route to
any Zone

Device E not available for


Route destination because it
is not in the same Zone

Trunk Group ID
Trunk Group ID
Information is in:
H.323 = Circuit ID or
SIP = URI Header

DestTG: 789

Null Zone

DestTG: 123
DestTG: 123

TO: dtg123 (destTG)


FROM: stg456 (sourceTG)

Routing Precedence
Zone
Trunk Group ID
CP Route Priority
Time of Day
Longest Match
Endpoint Priority
Load Factor
Utilization

Zone1

DestTG: 789

DestTG: 123
- Calls can be routed upon Destination TG or Source TG in SIP or
H.323 header
- Destination and Source TG information can be changed by
MSC/MSW for new Destination or Source TG information.
- If TrunkID narrows down to several devices or fails, next step in
searching for destination is Call Plan Route Priority.

Call Plan Route Priority


- Call from Italy (ANI =
calling party number)
- Call destined for Brazil
(DNIS = Numbers dialed)

ANI: 39 xxxx xx xxxx


DNIS:55 xxx xxx xxxx

Routing Precedence
Zone
Trunk Group ID
CP Route Priority
Time of Day
Longest Match
Endpoint Priority
Load Factor
Utilization

Brazil 55 (10)
Cuba 53 (10)

Italy (10)
Brazil 55 (20)
Cuba 53 (10)

Available Brazil (55) routes


Selected Brazil (55) route

Italy (10)
Cuba 53 (20)

Italy (10)
Cuba 53 (10)

1
X

Italy (10)
Brazil 55 (30)
Cuba 53 (10)

- Available routes to Brazil includes any device support DNIS


country code 55
- Route Priority (xx) is defined in the Call Plan Aggregate
Binding, the higher number wins.
- Call Hunt will try other available routes (sequential) if highest
Priority Route is not available.

Time of Day
- Call from Italy (ANI =
calling party number)
- Call destined for Brazil
(DNIS = Numbers dialed)

ANI: 39 xxxx xx xxxx


DNIS:55 xxx xxx xxxx

Routing Precedence
Zone
Trunk Group ID
CP Route Priority
Time of Day
Longest Match
Endpoint Priority
Load Factor
Utilization

Brazil 55 (0)
ToD (100) 9AM-5PM
Cuba 53 (10)
Selected Brazil (55) route

Available Brazil (55) routes

Italy (10)
Cuba 53 (20)

Italy (10)
Cuba 53 (10)

Italy (10)
Brazil 55 (10)
Cuba 53 (10)

3
X

Italy (10)
Brazil 55 (10)
Cuba 53 (10)

- Available routes to Brazil includes any device support DNIS


country code 55
- Route Priority to Brazil is100 for Device 1from 9AM to 5PM
daily (Time of Day).
- Call Hunt will try other available matched routes (next
highest priority) if ToD device is not available.

Longest Match
- Call from Italy (ANI =
calling party number)
- Call destined for Brazil
(DNIS = Numbers dialed)

ANI: 39 xxxx xx xxxx


DNIS:55 321 xxx xxxx

Routing Precedence
Zone
Trunk Group ID
CP Route Priority
Time of Day
Longest Match
Endpoint Priority
Load Factor
Utilization

Brazil 55 3 (10)
Cuba 53 (10)
Available Brazil (55) route

Italy (10)
Brazil 55 321 (10)
Cuba 53 (10)

Selected Brazil (55) route


Available Brazil (55) route

Italy (10)
Cuba 53 (20)

Italy (10)
Cuba 53 (10)

3
X

Italy (10)
Brazil 55 (10)
Cuba 53 (10)

- Available routes to Brazil includes any device support DNIS


country code 55
- Route Priority is equal (10) for all devices with Brazil routes,
therefore number Longest Match.
- Call Hunt will try other available routes (next longest match)
if longest match is not available.

Endpoint (Device) Priority


- Call from Italy (ANI =
calling party number)
- Call destined for Brazil
(DNIS = Numbers dialed)

ANI: 39 xxxx xx xxxx


DNIS:55 xxx xxx xxxx

Routing Precedence
Zone
Trunk Group ID
CP Route Priority
Time of Day
Longest Match
Endpoint Priority
Load Factor
Utilization

EP Priority: 1
Brazil 55 (10)
Cuba 53 (10)
Available Brazil (55) route

EP Priority: 20
Italy (10)
Brazil 55 (10)
Cuba 53 (10)

Selected Brazil (55) route


Available Brazil (55) route

Italy (10)
Cuba 53 (20)

Italy (10)
Cuba 53 (10)

2
X

EP Priority: 10
Italy (10)
Brazil 55 (10)
Cuba 53 (10)

- Available routes to Brazil includes any device support DNIS


country code 55
- If all routes and longest match are equal with no Time of Day,
then Endpoint Priority is the next selection.
- Call Hunt will try other available routes (next lowest priority
endpoint) if highest Endpoint priority is not available.

Device Load
1
ANI: 39 xxxx xx xxxx
DNIS:55 xxx xxx xxxx

Selected Brazil route

Brazil 55 (10)
Cuba 53 (10)

EP Priority: 10
10 calls current
Secondary call hunt route
Italy (10)
Brazil 55 (10)
Cuba 53 (10)

Routing Precedence
Zone
Trunk Group ID
CP Route Priority
Time of Day
Longest Match
Endpoint Priority
Load Factor
Utilization

EP Priority: 10
12 calls current

With everything else equal, the next factor to review is Device


current call load. The lowest device call load receives the next
call, regardless of total device load capable or percent of device
load.

Device Utilization
Brazil 55 (10)
Cuba 53 (10)

ANI: 39 xxxx xx xxxx


DNIS:55 xxx xxx xxxx

Secondary call hunt route

Selected Brazil route

Routing Precedence
Zone
Trunk Group ID
CP Route Priority
Time of Day
Longest Match
Endpoint Priority
Load Factor
Utilization

EP Priority: 10
10 calls current
Total Max: 100
Load Percentage: 10%
Italy (10)
Brazil 55 (10)
Cuba 53 (10)
EP Priority: 10
10 calls current
Total Max: 200
Load Percentage: 5%

If call loads are equal for the devices, then device utilization
percentage will determine who gets the next call. The lowest call
utilization percentage will receive the next call, regardless of total
max load available.

Exercise 14 - Routing
Precedence

Using the exercise, prove routing precedence


decisions for
Binding priorities
Optionally
Longest Match
End point Priority

What are Realms?


A Pair of IP addresses

One Realm Signalling Address


n Media Signalling Addresses (normally 1)

Unique Logical Addresses

The need to create Realms


When are Realms necessary?
Realms are needed when you have IP routing
issues

If you want to hide your customers and vendors from each


other
If you have overlapping address spaces from either your
customers or vendors
Your customers or vendors want different IP addresses than
others
Your network has specific routing requirements

Stateful Proxy Back to Back User Agent (B2B


UA)

Proxy Registrations - Registering


to a softswitch
Realm dedicated
To softswitch

Private
Realm1

Softswitch

End Point 1
End Point 2
End Point ..
End Point ..
End Point n

Public
Realm2

Registration flow

Configuring End Point Proxy


registrations

Proxy Registrations Message


Flow

System commands
cd = change directory (root dir = cd /)
exit (logout) = logout
pwd current directory
find name <filename> print = find a file
.
when you know its name
file = try to determine if the file is an ASCII
text file or a directory
ps ef = list of processes
ps elf = list of processes with full information
(mem, cpu, etc)

System commands cont.


cp = copy file
rm = remove (delete) file
rmdir = remove (delete) directory
mv = move (rename) file
cat = catalog (type) file
more = catalog (type) a long file and pause for
each full screen
head = type out the first few lines of a file

System Commands cont.


ls = list files in this directory
ls l = list files with sizes and dates
ls al = list hidden files too (files that start with .
are hidden like the startup file .bash_profile)
ls |more = list files and pauses when screen full
diff = compare two files
date display the current date and time (also
used to set the date & time)

Alias Commands - subset

allstart - Start the iServer


=. /iserver all start;

allstat - Displays the status of iServer


= ./iserver all status;

allstop - Stop the iServer


=./iserver all stop;

nd - Changes to the standard NexTone


directory
= ./cd /usr/local/nextone/bin

Alias Commands Subset


(Cont.)
tc = 'tail -f /export/home/nextone/*CDT' Opens and
tails the current CDT file. Displays the CDRs as
they are generated
ti = 'tail -f /export/home/iserver.log' Opens and
tails the iserver.log file
lstat = ./cli lstat;- Displays the license information
cstat = ./cli stats; - Displays the number of setup
messages per last 10 second, 10mins, 10 hours

Aliases Commands
narsagent

Type nn this will place you in the narsagent


directory
/opt/narsagent

Type ./narsagent all status


This will confirm that the nars processes cdrserver &
logpp are running

./narsagent all version


To confirm the version of narsagent

./narsagent all stop


./narsagent all start

Critical monitoring CLI


commands

cd /tmp
Changes to the tmp directory

ifconfig a
Lists phsical interfaces and assigned IP addresses

tethereal i eth1 w motest.cap


Starts ethereal recording
Control C to stop

Exercise 15 - Tracing from an MSx


interface
Identify the physical interface that is
responsible for the training RSA
Perform a Wireshark trace on this interface
ensuring the file is saved on the /tmp directory.
Transfer the Wireshark file from the MSx to your
own PC
Analyse the trace identify what codec is used,
how long the call lasted and which party
terminated the call.

CDR Related Call Flow

Leg 1

Leg 2

CDR Commands RSM Console (Billing Tab)


Change Billing Type:
Post Paid (default)
Prepaid
CDR Type (storage):
Daily (default)
Fixed
Sequential
Timer (customized)
CDR Directory Path:
/home/nextone/cdrs (default)

CDR Options:
CDR Legs (Leg 1 End as default)
Show Hunting Attempts

Optional Exercise 17
Open the manual supplied on training disk and
find the explanation of CDR fields
Identify the fields that contain the

Call Duration
E164 called number
Start Time of call
Calling Number
Call ID
Clearing Cause

Transfer Dyyyymmdd.CDR (C:/VAR/CDRS) onto


your PC and extract this info from the CDRs
Where yyyy = year, mm = month and d = date of calls made during this course

Replacing High Availability


Licenses

NAT Traversal (layer 3)


192.168.1.52

192.168.1.11

RSA 212.158.226.151
RMA 212.158.226.152

85.22.3.1

ISP
Signalling

Signalling

SRC 192.168.1.52 port 10762

SRC 85.22.3.1 port 37345

DST 212.158.226.151 port 5060

DST 212.158.226.151 port 5060

Media inside SDP

Media inside SDP

SRC 192.168.1.52 port 11234

SRC 212.158.226.152 port 20000

DST 212.158.226.152 port 11234

DST 212.158.226.152 port 20000

Signalling

Signalling

SRC 212.158.226.151 port 5060

SRC 212.158.226.151 port 5060

DST 192.168.1.52 port 10762

DST 85.22.3.1 port 37345

Media inside SDP

Media inside SDP

SRC 212.158.226.152 port 11234

SRC 212.158.226.151 port 20000

DST 192.168.1.52 port 11234

DST 85.22.3.1 port 20000

NAT-T (layer 5)

Problem with SDP


Invite and 200 OK message uses SDP to indicate the
address used for media. This means it passes through
NAT intact (with private IP)

192.168.1.52

Signalling Layer 3

Signalling Layer 5 (SDP)

SRC 192.168.1.52 port 10762

Media Add 192.168.1.52

DST 212.158.226.151 port 5060

192.168.1.11

85.22.3.1

ISP

Signalling Layer 3

Signalling Layer 5 (SDP)

SRC 85.22.3.1 port 37345

Media Add 192.168.1.52

DST 212.158.226.151 port 5060

RSA 212.158.226.151
RMA 212.158.226.152

Signalling Layer 3

Signalling Layer 5 (SDP)

SRC 85.22.3.1 port 37345

Media Add 212.158.226.152

DST 212.158.226.151 port 5060

RSM

Review RSM (1)


RSM

Accounts and
Rating Data
Reports and
Configuration

Internet

CDRs

Browser

MSX2

MSX3

Rate
Data

MSXn

MSX1

RSM Component Overview

NexTone RSM Module


Options
Route Analysis Module (RAM) - processes CDRs to

determine route profitability and quality of service (ASR).


Events and Statistics Module (ESM) - provides
summaries of operational events (Alarms and Actions).
Adaptive Routing Module (ARM) - dynamically
modifies call routing based on changes in rate and quality
of service.
Business and Billing Module (BBM formerly BAM)
processes CDRs to produce on demand route profitability
business reports
Web Interface Module (WIM) compulsory module
enabling secure web access to the system for operational
staff and customers.

RSM License (2)


LICENSE CUSTOMER=TestCust
VERSION="2.1
PRODUCT="RSM
PRODUCTVERSION="4.0
EXPIRES="Thu Jun 15 17:00:00 2006"
SERVER mac="00:0F:0C:77:A8:B7"
AGENT hostid="0x1fab1e05"
AGENT hostid="0x1fab1f05"

Exercise 18 Viewing the RSM &


MSx Licence
Use CLI to view MSX licence (cli lstat)
Open up the RSM license
Note the licenced features
Select RSM logo and note details

NexTone CDRs

MSx generates CDRs in real-time


50+ fields recording various call states
Flexibility in defining field formats
Rating
per origination partner
route
buy-sell
Greatly simplifies integration into existing billing
systems
Real-time Database inserts (multi-streamed to one
or multiple databases)

RSM Reporting

Overview

The RSM provides the following reports:


Engineering
ASR reports with configurable color codes
QoS stats within the ASR reports
List calls reports

Business
Minutes, dollar amount, revenue and profit reports
BBM (or BAM) license required

Route profit
Profit report per plan and per region (route)
BBM (or BAM) license required

Custom
MISC reports based on dialstring, duration, error description, ISDN
CC, PPD and rating status etc

RSM Rating
Carrier A

Buy Plan

Sell Plan

Europe

LCR

Africa

Carrier B

America

Carrier C

Source

Destination

Rate

Source

Destination

Rate

Source

Destination

Rate

Carrier A

Europe

Carrier B

Europe

Carrier C

Europe

Carrier A

Africa

Y
Z

Carrier C
Carrier C
Carrier C

Africa
Africa
America

America

Africa
Africa
America

Carrier A

Carrier B
Carrier B
Carrier B
Carrier B

America

Carrier C

America

Rating Sequence
Periods
Regions = Dial Strings
Rates - $$$$
Routes

Join Regions and Rates


Select Buy or Sell
Select End Point / Port

Periods
Weekly
Timed
Example

Periods
Regions = Dial Strings
Rates - $$$$
Routes Join Regions and Rates

Regions

Regions mean Dial Strings e.g.. All


following codes are UK mobile operator O2
447803
447804
447805

Periods
Regions Dialstrings
Rates - $$$$ Routes Join
Regions and Rates

Rates
Select Cost
Choose period

Periods
Regions = Dial Strings
Rates - $$$$
Routes Join Regions and Rates

Routes

Combining Regions (Dial Strings) & Cost Code

Periods
Rates - $$$$
Regions = Dial Strings
Routes Join Regions & Cost Code
Carrier Plan

Viewing CDRs

To find more detail, click here

CDR View

Sell

Buy

Exercise 19 Rating

Create a buy calling plan for all calls that go to


your own softphone (Remember order)
Rates
Regions
Routes

Create a sell plan for calls originating from your


own softphone to other extensions beginning
with a 20 or 30

Exercise 20 - Actions and


Alarm
Create an ACTION XX_Mail_overspend that
can send an e-mail account when overspend
occur
Create an ALARM XX_overspend so that when
the spend on an endpoint reaches $5 or over
the above action is carried out
PART 2 is carried out after rating

Exercise 21
Ensure that the rates are adjusted to activate
Alarm
Generate calls
Check to ensure you have received an Email
Create a BLOCKING ACTION and add to your
existing CDR alarm
Reactivate the alarm
Generate calls, after email ensure that calls
have been blocked

LCR
LCR based on regions
Regions associated with multiple Carriers (via
Carrier Plan)
LCR chooses Carrier based on the lowest price
available for a specific region
Change Region used in previous exercise to
20or30
Click on LCR and then Show

LCR (continued)
LCR can be used to create Calling Plans
Process

Download Current Update


Save callplans.xml to local PC
Open RSM Console
Import the Call Plans (Click Update device)

What Makes NexTone Unique?


Set
Sophisticated
Policies

Analyze
Policies

Set Triggers &


Thresholds

Dynamic Border
Policy Enforcement
& Learning
React to Alarms
& Enforce Policies

Monitor
Behaviour &
Report

NexTones
Service
Management
Solution
Puts
Control And
Power Back
In The Hands
Of The
Service
Providers

Support

Support Agreement
24 hour follow the sun working (US, India and UK)
Via Web

http://support.nextone.com/fplogin
Enter account or sign up new one
User name is always the e-mail address
View old & existing tickets (company specific)
Create new tickets and update old ones
Priority 1, 2 or 3

Via Phone

+1240 686 3983


Should only use for this priority

Support Screenshot

Objectives
By the end of this course delegates will be
able to
Understand VoIP essentials
Describe call signalling flows (H323 and SIP)
Describe the basic NexTone product range
Provision End-points, Call Plans and Routes
using NexTone utilities and products
Access supporting documentation
Pass NCE1 test