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Stat Question Set #7

Anova Questions (Solution Set)


1.

Disintegration times are being considered for three different batches

Batch 1: 15, 28, 19, 21, 23, 26


Batch 2: 17, 18, 14, 20
Batch 3: 13, 10, 16, 11, 9
a.) Construct a box plot of the data, and state you observations of the plot.
Calculate Quartiles
Batch 1

Batch 2

Batch 3

Min

15

14

1st Quartile
2nd Quartile
(Mean)

19.5

16.25

10

22

17.5

11

3rd Quartile

25.25

18.5

13

Max

28

20

16

b.) Compute the mean and standard deviation of each batch sample.
Mean
Batch 1
Batch 2
Batch 3

22
17.25
11.8

Standard
Deviation
4.733
2.5
2.775

c.) Is there similar variability between batches 1 and 2?


State Hypothesis
Determine Critical Value
H 0 : 12 = 22 Assume =0.05
Ha: 12 22 F /2,v1,v2 = F 0.025,5,3 = 14.88 (using the F table)

Calculate t Statistic
L arg e S 2
F=
Small S 2

22.4
= 3.58
6.25
Since 3.58 < 14.88 then, we do not reject H 0 . Therefore at 95% Confidence (5%
significance) we find the sample variances are not significantly different.
F=

d.) Does batch 3 have a shorter disintegration time than batch 1?


Determine if Variances Are Equal
State Hypothesis

Determine Critical Value

H 0 : 12 = 32

Assume =0.05

Ha: 12 32

F /2,v1,v2 = F 0.025,5,4 = 9.364 (using the F table)

0.6

0.5

Density

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.025
0

9.364

Calculate t Statistic
L arg e S 2
F=
Small S 2

22.4
= 2.91
7.7
Since 3.54 < 9.364 then, we do not reject H 0 . Therefore at 95%
Confidence (5% significance) we find the sample variances are not
significantly different so we can pool the Variances for the t test
F=

Determine the Type of Test


Pooled variance t Test (Small sample size n<30, and we dont know s
but assume they are equal)
one Tail Test (Since we are looking for a Specific difference)

State Hypothesis

Determine Critical Value

H 0 : 1 3 0

Assume =0.05

Ha: 1 3 > 0

12 = 32 , so df=n 1 +n 2 -2
t /2,n1+n2-2 = t 0.05,6+5-2 =1.83 (using the t table)

0.4

Density

0.3

0.2

0.1

13>0
0.05
0.0

1.833

Calculate t Statistic

2
p

(
n1 1)S12 + (n2 1)S 22
=

t=

( x1 x2 ) ( 1 2 )

1
1
S p2 +
5 22.4 + 4 7.7
n1 n2
S p2 =
6+52
22 11.8
t=
= 4.23
2
S p = 15.87
1 1
15.87 +
6 5
Since 4.23>1.83 then, Reject H 0 therefore at 95% Confidence (5%
significance) we find batch 3 disintegration time is significantly shorter
than batch 1.

n1 + n2 2

e.) Are the means significantly different between these groups?


Calculator Data
Batch 1
Batch 2
Batch 3 Total
Mean
22
17.25
11.8
--Std dev
4.733
2.5
2.775
--132
69
59
260
x

3016

1209

727

4952

15

Calculate the Sum of Squares

Total Sum of Squares

Treatment Sum of Squares (Between Error)

( x )
SST = x
N

T 2 T 2 T 2 ( x )
SSA = 1 + 2 + 3
n1 n 2 n3
N

SST = 4952

SSA =

(260)2

132 2 69 2 59 260 2
+
+

6
4
5
15
SSA = 283.783

15

SST = 445.333

Sum of squares Error (Within error)


SSE = SST SSA

SSE = 445.333 283.783


SSE = 161.55
Anova Table

2.

Source of
Variation
Treatment
(Between)

Sum of
Squares
283.783

Degrees of
Freedom
k-1=3-1
k-1=2

Error
Within

161.55

N-k=15-3
N-k=12

Total

445.333

N-1=15-1
N-1=14

Mean
Squares
283.783
2
MSA = 141.89
161.55
MSE =
12
MSE = 13.46
MSA =

F Test
141.89
F=
13.46
F = 10.54

F Critical
3.88
(From F
Table)

Two successive batches of acetaminophen tablets were prepared with different


binders. Batch 1 was prepared using a 10% starch paste, while batch 2 was
prepared with a 5% polyvinylpyrrolidone solution. Disintegration times in minutes,
were recorded for samples of each batch as follows

Batch A: 13.2 12.4 12.9 10.6 11.5 14.5


Batch B: 15.6 14.2 15.0 13.5 14.7 12.5
a.) If rapid disintegration is desired, would starch paste be a better choice than PVP?
Determine if Variances Are Equal
State Hypothesis

Determine Critical Value

H 0 : 12 = 22
Ha: 12 22

Assume =0.05
F /2,v1,v2 = F 0.025,5,5 = 7.146 (using the F table)

0.6

0.5

Density

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.025
0

7.146

Calculate t Statistic
L arg e S 2
F=
Small S 2

1.854
= 1.49
1.243
Since 1.49 < 7.146 then, we do not reject H 0 . Therefore at 95%
Confidence (5% significance) we find the sample variances are not
significantly different so we can pool the Variances for the t test
F=

Determine the Type of Test


Pooled variance t Test (Small sample size n<30, and we dont know s
but assume they are equal)
One Tail Test (Since we are looking for a Specific difference)
State Hypothesis

Determine Critical Value

H 0 : 1 2 0
Ha: 1 2 < 0

Assume =0.05
12 = 22 , so df=n 1 +n 2 -2
t /2,n1+n2-2 = t 0.05,6+6-2 =1.812 (using the t table)

0.4

Density

0.3

0.2

0.1

12<0

0.05
0.0

-1.812

(n1 1)S12 + (n2 1)S 22

t=

Calculate t Statistic

S p2 =

( x1 x2 ) ( 1 2 )

1
1
S p2 +
5 1.854 + 5 1.243
n1 n2
S p2 =
6+62
12.52 14.25
t=
= 2.41274
2
S p = 1.548
1 1
1.548 +
6 6
Since -2.41274<1.812 then, Reject H 0 therefore at 95% Confidence (5%
significance) we find starch as a better choice for shorter disintegration
time.

n1 + n2 2

b.) Suppose a third batch is prepared with 10% pregelatinized starch binder, with the
following disintegration times.
17.6 17.0 16.9 18.6 20.5 19.4
Does the type of binder used have a significant impact on disintegration times for
these three batches of tablets?

Calculator Data
Paste
PVP
Pre Gel Total
Mean
12.52
14.25
18.33
--Std dev
1.36
1.11
1.43
--75.1
85.5
110
270.6
x

949.27

1224.59

2026.94

4200.8

18

Calculate the Sum of Squares


Total Sum of Squares

( x )
SST = x
N

(270.6)2
SST = 4200.8
18

SST = 132.78

Treatment Sum of Squares (Between Error)


T12 T22 T32 ( x )
SSA =
+
+

n1 n 2
n3
N

75.12 85.5 2 110 2 270.6 2


+
+

6
6
6
18
SSA = 107.02
SSA =

Sum of squares Error (Within error)


SSE = SST SSA

SSE = 132.78 107.02


SSE = 25.76

Anova Table
Source of
Variation

Sum of
Squares

Degrees
of
Freedom
k-1=3-1
k-1=2

Treatment
(Between)

107.02

Error
Within

25.76

N-k=18-3
N-k=15

Total

132.78

N-1=18-1
N-1=17

Mean
Squares
107.02
2
MSA = 53.51
25.76
MSE =
15
MSE = 1.72
MSA =

F Test

F Critical

53.51
1.72
F = 31.1

3.68
(From F
Table)

F=

3. Tablet disintegration is under investigation. To find out if the tablet formulation has
an effect on the disintegration of 250mg Chlorpromazide tablets. An Analyst records
the disintegration times (in minutes) of tablets with each of four different tablet
formulations

A
16.8
20.8
13.8

B
17.1
15.3
17.7

C
12.8
8.3
13.7

D
21.3
21.3
24.8

Does the type of disintegrant in the formulation have an effect on the disintegration of
the tablets?
Calculator Data
A
Mean
Std dev
x

D
Total
22.47
--2.02
--67.4
203.7

17.1
3.51
51.4

16.7
1.25
50.1

11.6
2.89
34.8

905.32

839.79

420.42

1522.42

3687.95

12

Calculate the Sum of Squares


Total Sum of Squares
SST = x 2

( x )

Sum of squares Error (Within error)

N
(203.7)2
SST = 3687.95
12
SST = 230.14

SSE = SST SSA


SSE = 230.14 177.45
SSE = 52.69

Treatment Sum of Squares (Between Error)

T12 T22 T32 T42 ( x )


SSA =
+
+
+

n1 n2 n3 n4
N

51.4 2 50.12 34.8 2 67.4 2 203.7 2


+
+
+

3
3
3
3
12
SSA = 177.45
SSA =

Anova Table
Source of
Variation
Treatment
(Between)

Sum of
Squares
177.45

Degrees of
Freedom
k-1=4-1
k-1=3

Error
Within

52.69

N-k=12-4
N-k=8

Total

230.14

N-1=12-1
N-1=11

Mean
Squares
177.45
MSA =
3
MSA = 59.15
52.69
MSE =
8
MSE = 6.59

F Test
59.15
F=
6.59
F = 8.98

F Critical
4.07
(From F
Table)

4. A Batch of tablets was tested for dissolution in five different labs with the results as
follows

Lab

% Dissolution after 15 minutes

A
B
C
D
E

68,78, 63, 56, 61, 69


55, 62, 67, 60, 67, 73
78, 63, 78, 65, 70, 74
75, 60, 66, 69, 58, 64, 71, 71, 65, 77, 60, 63
65, 60, 66, 75, 75, 70

Is there any significant difference from lab-to-lab?


Calculator Data
A
B
Mean
65.83
Std dev
7.63
395
x

64
6.32
384

C
71.3
6.44
428

D
66.6
6.08
799

E
68.5
5.96
411

Total
----2417

26295

24776

30738

53607

28331

163747

12 6

Calculate the Sum of Squares


Total Sum of Squares

SST = x 2

( x )

Sum of squares Error (Within error)

N
(2417)2
SST = 163747
36
SST = 1472.30

SSE = SST SSA


SSE = 1492.30 189.7
SSE = 1282.58

36

Treatment Sum of Squares (Between Error)

T12 T22 T32 T42 T52 ( x )


SSA =
+
+
+
+

n1 n2 n3 n4 n5
N

395 2 384 2 428 2 799 2 4112 2417 2


+
+
+
+

6
6
6
12
6
36
SSA = 189.72
SSA =

Anova Table
Source of
Variation
Treatment
(Between)

Sum of
Squares
189.72

Degrees of Mean
Freedom
Squares
k-1=5-1
189.72
MSA
=
k-1=4
4
MSA = 47.43

Error
Within

1282.58

N-k=36-5
N-k=31

Total

1472.3

N-1=36-1
N-1=35

1282.58
31
MSE = 41.37
MSE =

F Test
47.43
F=
41.43
F = 1.14

F Critical
2.68
(From
FINV
Excel)

5. A company is concerned about the impurity levels in its product. One possible source
is one of the raw materials used to make the product. To test this, six batches were
prepared (using six different raw materials), and then three samples were randomly
selected form each batch and assayed for level of impurity. The results are as
follows:

Batch
1
2
3
4
5
6

Impurity, ppm
15 20 17
12 16 15
20 18 14
9 10 13
12 14 8
21 16 19

Does the raw material have a significant effect on the level of impurity?
Calculator Data
Batch
1
2
3
4
5
6
Total
Mean
17.3
14.3
17.33
10.67
11.3 18.7
--Std dev
2.52
2.08
3.06
2.08
3.06 2.52
--52
43
52
32
34
56
269
x

914

625

920

350

404

1058

4271

16

Calculate the Sum of Squares


Total Sum of Squares

SST = x 2

( x )

N
2
(
269 )
SST = 4271
18
SST = 250.94

Sum of squares Error (Within error)

SSE = SST SSA


SSE = 250.94 170.94
SSE = 80

Treatment Sum of Squares (Between Error)

T 2 T 2 T 2 T 2 T 2 ( x )
SSA = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5
n1 n2 n3 n4 n5
N

52 2 43 2 52 2 32 2 34 2 56 2 269 2
SSA =
+
+
+
+
+

3
3
3
3
3
3
18
SSA = 170.94

Anova Table
Source of
Variation
Treatment
(Between)

Sum of
Squares
170.94

Degrees of
Freedom
k-1=6-1
k-1=5

Error
Within

80

N-k=18-6
N-k=12

Total

250.94

N-1=18-1
N-1=17

Mean
Squares
170.94
MSA =
5
MSA = 34.19
80
MSE =
12
MSE = 6.67

F Test
34.19
F=
6.67
F = 5.13

F Critical
3.10
(From F Table)