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BDA 3073 CONTROL ENGINEERING

Many luxury automobiles have thermostatically controlled air-conditioning systems for the
comfort of the passengers. Sketch a block diagram of an air conditioning system where the driver
sets the desired interior temperature on a dashboard panel.

1.0

INTRODUCTION
Control engineering is based on the foundations of feedback theory and linear system analysis,

and it generates the concepts of network theory and communication theory. Accordingly, control
engineering is not limited to any engineering discipline but is applicable to aeronautical, chemical,
mechanical, environmental, civil, and electrical engineering.
A control system is an interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will
provide a desired system response. The basis for analysis of a system is the foundation provided by
linear system, which assumes a cause effect relationship for the components of a system. A component
or process to be controlled can be represented by a block as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Process under control


An open-loop control system utilizes a controller or control actuator to obtain the desired
response as shown in Figure 2. The open-loop control system utilizes an actuating device to control the
process directly without using device. An example of an open-loop control system is an electric toaster.

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BDA 3073 CONTROL ENGINEERING

Figure

2: Open-loop
control systems (no feedback)
A closed-loop control system (Figure 3) utilizes an additional measure of the actual output to

compare the actual output with the desired output response. The measure of the output is called the
feedback signal. A feedback control system is a control system that tends to maintain a relationship of
one system variable to another by comparing functions of these variables and using the difference as a
means of control. As the system is becoming more complex, the interrelationship of many controlled
variables may be considered in the control scheme. An example of closed-loop control system is a
person steering an automobile by looking at the autos location on the road and making the appropriate
adjustments.

Figure 3: Closed-loop feedback systems.

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1.1

THERMOSTATICALLY CONTROLLED AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS

1.1.1

Air Conditioning System


Air conditioning systems are designed to allow the driver and or passengers to feel more

comfortable during uncomfortably warm, humid, or hot trips in a vehicle. Cars in hot climates often are
fitted with air conditioning. In a self-contained air-conditioning unit, air is heated in a boiler unit or
cooled by being blown across a refrigerant-filled coil and then distributed to a controlled indoor
environment.

Figure 4: Car Air-conditioning system

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A comfort air-conditioning system is designed to help maintain body temperature at its normal
level without undue stress and to provide an atmosphere which is healthy to breathe. The heatdissipating factors of temperature, humidity, air motion, and radiant heat flow must be considered
simultaneously. Within limits, the same amount of comfort (or, more objectively, of heat-dissipating
ability) is the result of a combination of these factors in an enclosure. Conditions for constant comfort
are related to the operative temperature. The perception of comfort is related to one's metabolic heat
production, the transfer of this heat to the environment, and the resulting physiological adjustments and
body temperature.
Engineering of an air-conditioning system starts with selection of design condition:

Air temperature and relative humidity are principal factors.

Loads on the system are calculated.

Equipment is selected and sized to perform the indicated functions and to carry the
estimated loads.

Air conditioning facilitates the removal of heat from inside the vehicle. The principle applied is
that heat is removed by conduction and convection. An evaporator which is cold absorbs the heat from
the air that is passed through it and then cold air is forced out through the vents inside the car by the
blower motor. This is done by pressurizing refrigerant (134a) with a compressor and then releasing
refrigerant (134a) inside the air conditioner evaporator.

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Figure
5: Air

conditioning block diagram

A thermostat is a device for regulating the temperature of a system so that the system's
temperature is maintained near a desired set point temperature. The name is derived from the Greek
words thermos "hot" and statos "a standing". The thermostat does this by switching heating or cooling
devices on or off, or regulating the flow of a heat transfer fluid as needed, to maintain the correct
temperature.
A thermostat may be a control unit for a heating or cooling system or a component part of a
heater or air conditioner. Thermostats can be constructed in many ways and may use a variety of
sensors to measure the temperature. The output of the sensor then controls the heating or cooling
apparatus.

1.2

THE SYSTEM AND COMPONENTS WORKS

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Figure 6: Features on Cooling Circuit


The air conditioner automatically controls the cabin temperature using various parameters
including outside temperature, cabin temperature, solar strength, and engine cooling water temperature.
Some automobiles are equipped with an automatic climate control system to regulate the
temperature inside the car automatically. The climate control module is a computer which monitors and
adjusts to a temperature set by the user. The temperature is controlled by a combination of cold air from
the air conditioner to achieve a desired temperature. The blower motor speed is controlled by a solid
state speed controller. This controller electrically controls the speed of the blower motor and replaces
the conventional blower motor resistor system.
The air conditioning and heating unit provides thermal comfort to passengers inside no matter
what the temperature is outside. The air inside can be heated, cooled, disinfected or ventilated. The
climate control feature helps to maintain the desired temperature. The system that provides cooling,
heating and climate control is known as the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning) system.
Basic principles of fluid mechanics, thermodynamics and heat transfer provide cold and heat for the
particular system. The climate control settings allow all three to work together to achieve good indoor
air quality, thermal comfort and optimal pressure.
1.3

THE STRUCTURAL FEATURES

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Temperature control in an automobile passenger environment is more complex than that of a


static room in a building. To address driver and passenger comfort and safety, many factors must be
taken into account. Temperature and humidity should be controlled to provide an enjoyable ride.
However, it is also critical to keep windows from being fogged, which is caused by a temperature
differential between inside and outside air in combination with the interior humidity. To obtain
satisfactory control results, the strength of sunshine radiation and the automobile speed must also be
factored in.

Figure 7: Controller for Air Conditioning System


It is a controller which employs five sensors to obtain data for temperature control and humidity
control in an automobile. It prevents rapid change of temperature in the car when doors or windows are
opened and then closed. It even reacts to weather changes because interior humidity changes caused by
the weather can be detected by sensors.

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1.4

BASIC COMPONENT AND THE FUNCTION

1.4.1

AUTOMATIC TEMPERATURE CONTROL

The automatic temperature control refers to the maintenance of passenger compartment


temperature and humidity at a preset level, regardless of the outside weather conditions. Therefore, the
temperature control also holds the relative humidity in the compartment at a suitable level and prevents
window fogging. If the preset temperature is 297 K (24 C), the automatic control system maintains the
environment at 297 K with 45 to 55 percent humidity. In the hottest weather, the cooling system can
rapidly cool the automobile interior to the predetermined temperature and cycles to maintain the
temperature level. During cold weather, the system rapidly heats the passenger compartment to the
temperature level and then automatically maintains it.
Many automotive electronic temperature control systems incorporate self-diagnostic test
provisions where an on-board microprocessor controlled subsystem displays a code. This code
indicates the cause of the malfunction. Some systems also display a code to indicate the computer
which detects the malfunction. The code usually is a number, letter or alphanumeric, which varies from
car to car.

Figure 8: Typical Thermostat

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1.4.2

SENSORS
Sensors are extremely sensitive to slight variation in temperature, though they may be different

in physical appearance. The sensor is actually a resistor whose resistance value is determined by its
temperature. The change in the resistance value of each sensor is inversely proportional to the change
in temperature.

1.4.3

CONTROL PANEL
The control panel is found in the instrument panel at a convenient location giving access to both

the driver and front-seat passenger, and enables the operator to provide input control to the airconditioning and heating system. The control panel may be of manual, push button, or touch pad type
(Fig. 33.53A, B and C). Provisions are made on the control panel for the selection of compartment
temperature between 320 K and 330 K in one degree increments.

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Figure 9

2.0

SYSTEM MODELING OF SYSTEM

2.1

Mathematical model of each component including the disturbance/noise.


R(s) +
-

1
s 2 s 1
S

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1
s 3

C(s)

BDA 3073 CONTROL ENGINEERING

T ( s )=

G(s )
1+G ( s ) H ( s)

1
(
s ( s+1 ) ( s +3 ) )

1+

1+

s
s ( s +1 )( s+3 )
2

1
s ( s+1 ) ( s +3 )

1
(s)
s ( s +1 )( s+3 )

1
[ s ( s +1 ) ( s+ 3 ) ] +s
2

R(s) +

C(s)

C(s)

R(s)
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2.2

Input and output states selection


Input = User Set point
Output = Thermometer display
The input of the system is state as a user set point as temperature that being setup enters the
temperature controller. From there, its being followed the state flow that being given and goes
to the air conditioning controller. The output of the system can be defined as a thermometer
display as it give a result that have exactly to be the same with the input. There have been two
disturbances that we choose to fit on the programming. The disturbance that we choose for is
heat sources that we can get during breathing on the car and the fan speed of the air
conditioning. As we have fit it to our system, its also affecting the graph that being obtained.

2.3

Transferring the model into block diagram


i) Disturbance

Heat Source
External Temperature

Fan

Interior Dynamic

Kelvin

ii) Air conditioning control

User Set Point (In Celsius)

Temperature Control Chart

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AC Control

BDA 3073 CONTROL ENGINEERING

i.

Heat Source
Thermostat:
Car thermostat problem can cause the heat source because of waste of gas. It can stick
shut, in which case the Engine Temp light will come on or a high temperature will
show on your engine temperature gauge. A high temperature indication doesnt

necessarily mean a stuck thermostat; it could be a loss of engine coolant.


Compressor:
The most likely cause of an automotive air conditioner cooling problem is no refrigerant
in the system. If the refrigerant has escaped past a leaky compressor or O-ring seal,
leaked out of a pinhole in the evaporator or condenser, or seeped out through a leaky
hose, the leak needs to be identified and repaired before the system is recharged. On
many systems, the compressor will not turn on if the refrigerant is low because the "low
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pressure safety switch" prevents the compressor clutch from engaging if system pressure
is low. This protects the compressor from possible damage caused by a lack of
lubrication.
ii.

Fan

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