USE OF GEOSYNTHETICS

FOR
FILTRATION
AND
DRAINAGE
Functions of a Filter
Retain particles of the base
soil to be filtered
Avoid piping
• Allow free flow of water
- upstream of the filter
Avoid external clogging
(With unstable soils)
- through the filter
Avoid internal clogging
• Survive construction
and
environmental
stresses

Function
can
be
provided
by
either
natural
aggregates
or
by
Geotextiles

• Around trench drains
and edge drains

Beneath
pavement
bases and base courses
• Retaining walls and
bridge abutments
• Drain and well pipes
• Slope stabilization
• Earth dams and Levees
APPLICATIONS :
EROSION CONTROL
• Protection of runof
collection
• Slope protection
• Along stream banks
• Scour protection around
structures
• Construction facilities
across/adjacent to water
bodies
• Culverts, drop inlets,
artificial stream channels
Filter Applications
• Wrapping of trench
drains (Koerner, 1998)
• Wall drains
• Erosion protection
• Earth and rockfill dams
• Vertical consolidation
drains

Filtration Behaviour
• Clogging: the voids of
a
medium
are
progressively
filled
by
solid matter to the point
that the passage of water
is compromised
- Decrease in hydraulic
conductivity
• Internal clogging
- By mineral particles
-By precipitation and
chemical deposition in
the voids by water
containing iron, de-icing
salts
- By biological growth
encrustation in aerobic
Conditions
APPLICATIONS
DRAINAGE

:

Granular filter design
criteria
a)Retention Criteria:
d 15( filter)
<4 ¿ 5
d 85( soil)
b)Permeability
Criteria:
d 15( filter)
<4 ¿ 5
d 15( soil)
Geotextile
filter
requirements:
• Retention criteria
• Permeability criteria
• Anti-clogging criteria
• Serviceability criteria
• Durability criteria
Soil retention
A process in which the
particle movement is
resisted
by
granular
forces
Useful
design
parameters
1. Coefficient of Uniformity,
Cu
2. Linear Coefficient of
Uniformity, Cu’
3. Coefficient of Curvature,
Cc
Design Charts
Determination
of
soil
retention
requirements
such
as
particle
size
distribution,
Atterberg
limits, dispersion potential,
soil
density
conditions
indicating the efect of
confining stress, are all
considered
and
design
charts are prepared by
Giroud (1988).

0 FWHA Criteria Kgeotextile> FS x ksoil ψallow > FS x ψrequired For less critical conditions Kgeotextile > ksoil For Severe conditions Kgeotextile > 10 ksoil Min. . • Geotextiles should also be resistant to chemicals. porosity > 30% For woven geotextiles percent open area ≥ 4% Durability Criteria • Aspects such as geotextiles resistance to ultraviolet and adverse chemical environments need be studied in specific application.Clogging Criteria Use the largest available opening size satisfying the retention criteria For nonwovens. Laboratory Filter Characterization • Opening size O90 by wet sieving Permeability criteria Giroud Criteria Kg > is Ks Where is > 1. usually the O90 or O95. and D(soil)= representative soil particle size (mm).The porosity of a nonwoven geotextile is given by n = (1-μ/(tgρ)) * 100 μ is the mass per unit area of geotextile tg is the geotextile thickness and  is the density of filament Retention Criteria: Oe(geotextile) < B D(soil) where: Oe = efective opening size in the geotextile for which e is the present openings that are smaller than the opening size O (mm). • Exposure to sunlight extensively during must be protected by antioxidants such a carbon black or titanium oxide. B = a coefficient (dimensionless). usually the medium to larger fractions or D85.1 to 1 sec-1 Anti . permittivity conditions ψ > 0.

Atterberg limits.0 Minimum allowable geotextile permeability. typical hydraulic gradient. dispersion potential. If the geotextile is woven. chemical resistance requirements are not serious. Kg ≥ is Ks ≥ 1. as the permeant is uncontaminated ground water. The edges of adjacent geotextile panels were . percent open area ≥ 4 % (4) Survivability Criteria Choose a geotextile material that satisfies the criteria in Fig.071 ≤ 0. application favors Permeability ID is in the range of 35% and 65% APPLICATIONS IN FILTRATION AND DRAINAGE & EROSION CONTROL Geotextile filter requirements: • Retention criteria • Permeability criteria • Anti-clogging criteria • Serviceability criteria • Durability criteria Soil retention A process in which the particle movement is resisted by granular forces Useful design parameters 1. corresponding to d15 = 0. or O95 = 0. It was used between the drainage layer and sand layer to provide separation and filtration. Mirafi® FW402 is a woven monofilament polypropylene geotextile fabric. Cc Design Charts Determination of soil retention requirements such asparticle size distribution. From chart 1. corresponding to moderate installation conditions and low contact stress. (1)Soil retention criteria Since drainage medium is gravel.5x1. The geotextile was placed on top of the drainage layer to provide filtration and separation between dissimilar materials. In addition. are all considered and design charts are prepared by Giroud (1988). WL The objective of this work was to design the field cross section to provide maximum drainage for stormwater.5 Cu' d50 ≤ 1. (5) Durability Criteria Ultra violet resistance is not expected to be a problem owing to the complete burial of the Case studies: Filtration & Separation .Titan Stadium. i = 1. soil density conditions indicating the efect of confining stress.7x0. use the largest available O95.0x10-5 cm/s.geotextile.0 x (5.Oshkosh.18mm (2) Permeability criteria From charts. Cu’ 3.18mm.017mm. It was chosen because it has both the high strength needed for durability and a high percent open area for long term clogging resistance that also promotes a high water-flow rate. Coefficient of Uniformity.2. If the geotextile is nonwoven. Linear Coefficient of Uniformity. (3) Anti .0x10-5 cm/s) ≥ 5. Its high tensile strength was essential to support the anticipated equipment loads that occur during construction and deployment of the artificial surface. provide adequate structural stability for construction equipment and facilitate deployment of the artificial surface. Ks = 5(10-5) cm/s From Tables. Geotextile apparent opening size o95 ≤ 1.Clogging requirements From anti-clogging requirements. Cu 2. porosity should be more than 30%. Coefficient of Curvature. which satisfies the retention criteria. Mirafi® FW402 & Mirafi® 170N was the geotextile product used in filtration and separation.

• NOTE: many of these factors are described in USDA (1997) . • Shoreline erosion factors: – soil type – wave height – beach slope – duration and intensity of storm • All afect the amount of erosion. do not vary more than one order of magnitude. The most commonly used in the US is: • USLE ‐ Universal Soil Loss Equation: A = R x K x LS x C x P where: A = computed soil loss (tons/acre or kg/hectare) for a given storm period or time interval R = rainfall factor K = soil erodibility value LS = slope length and steepness factor C = vegetation or cover factor P = erosion control practice factor • All factors. storm duration and channel shape. consider: Why Is It Needed? There are public laws that : • preclude the polluting of surface waters with sediments • preserve topographic integrity • preserve soil for farming • preserve foundation integrity for structures founded on soil. • In short: where soil and moving water interact at the ground surface – reducing flow in any manner – flattening slopes – widening channels Design Procedures for Erosion Control in Slopes and Channels Slopes • There are several methods of estimating soil loss. • Rainfall‐induced erosion factors: – intensity and duration of rainfall – slope of land – soil type • All afect the amount of erosion and the erosion control measures selected. • Scour: – The amount of scour. around bridge piers for example.overlapped to provide full coverage over the area. in addition to soil type. Factors Influencing Types of Erosion Geosynthetics in Erosion Protection Geosynthetics in Sediment and Erosion Control • Introduction and Applications • What is it? • Erosion control is a means of keeping a soil in place or catching a soil after it has been displaced but before it moves into surface waters. C changes several orders of magnitudes. depth of stream. is afected by pier shape. except C. Strategy • Choose least costly erosion control measure and evaluate: – LOW cost nothing (fallow ground) Plants degradable RECPs permanent RECPs permanent TRMs soft armor – HIGH cost hard armor w/geotextile filter • In conjunction with these choices. Where Is It Needed? • It is needed on construction and agricultural sites and natural places where water causes soils to displace.