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Thermodynamic tutorial

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Centre

Course

Year

Trimester

(CFS)

: Foundation in Science

: Year 1

: Trimester 3

Session

: 201501

Unit Code

Unit Title

: FHSC 1024

: Thermodynamics

Electromagnetism

and

1.

How many joules of energy are required to raise the temperature of 100 g of

gold from 20.0C to 100C?

(cgold = 129 J kg1 oC1)

[Answer: 1.03103

J]

2.

vertical rope. How many (food) Calories are expended in a single climb up the

rope?

(1 food Calorie = 103 calories)

[Answer: 1.17

Calorie]

3.

equivalent of a large piece of chocolate cake rated at 500 (food) Calories. How

high must the person climb?

[Answer:

2.85

km]

4.

What mass of water at 25.0 C added to a Styrofoam cup containing two 50.0 g

ice cubes from a freezer at 15.0 C will result in a final temperature of 5.0C

for the drink? (Ignore the small amount of the heat gained by the cup)

Specific heat capacity of water is 4.186 103 J kg1 K1,

Latent heat of ice is 3.337 105 J kg1,

Specific heat capacity of ice is 2.1 103 J kg1 K1.

[Answer: 461

g]

5.

with a 3.00-kg gold bar at 100C in order to lower the temperature of the bar

to 50.0C?

[Answer: 185

g]

6.

An aluminum cup contains 225 g of water and a 40-g copper stirrer, all at

27C. A 400-g sample of silver at an initial temperature of 87C is placed in the

water. The stirrer is used to stir the mixture until it reaches its final

equilibrium temperature of 32C. Calculate the mass of the aluminum cup.

(cAl = 900 J kg1 oC1, cAg = 234 J kg1 oC1, cwater = 4186 J kg1 oC1)

[Answer: 80 g]

7.

are in thermal equilibrium at 10C. Two metallic blocks are placed in the

water. One is a 50-g piece of copper at 80C. The other sample has a mass of 70

g and is originally at a temperature of 100C. The entire system stabilizes at a

final temperature of 20C. Determine the specific heat of the unknown second

sample.

(cAl = 900 J kg1 oC1, cCu = 387 J kg1 oC1, cwater = 4186 J kg1 oC1)

[Answer: 1.8103 J/kgoC]

8.

When a driver brakes an automobile, the friction between the brake drums

and the brake shoes converts the cars kinetic energy to thermal energy. If a 1

500-kg automobile traveling at 30 m/s comes to a halt, how much does the

temperature rise in each of the four 8.0-kg iron brake drums?

(The specific heat of iron is 448 J/kg C.)

[Answer: 47 oC]

9.

How much energy is required to change a 40-g ice cube from ice at 10C to

steam at 110C?

(Lf = 3.33 105 J kg-1, Lv = 2.26 106 J kg-1, cice = 2090 J kg-1 oC-1, cwater = 4186 J kg-1 oC-1,

cstream = 2010 J kg-1 oC-1)

[Answer: 0.12 MJ]

10.

A 40-g block of ice is cooled to 78C and is then added to 560 g of water in an

80 g copper calorimeter at a temperature of 25C. Determine the final

temperature of the system consisting of the ice, water, and calorimeter. (If not

all the ice melts, determine how much ice is left.) Remember that the ice must

first warm to 0C, melt, and then continue warming as water. The specific heat

of ice is 0.500 cal/g C = 2090 J/kg C.

(Lf = 3.33 105 J kg-1, cice = 2090 J kg-1 oC-1, cwater = 4186 J kg-1 oC-1, cCu = 387 J kg-1 oC-1)

[Answer: 16 oC]

11.

Assuming that 10.0% of the energy is delivered to the muscle tissue and that

the excess energy is removed from the body primarily by sweating, determine

the volume of bodily fluid (assume it is water) lost per hour.

(At 37.0C, the latent heat of vaporization of water is 2.41 106 J/kg.)

[Answer: 403 cm3]

Centre

Course

Year

Trimester

(CFS)

: Foundation in Science

: Year 1

: Trimester 3

Session

: 201501

Unit Code

Unit Title

: FHSC 1024

: Thermodynamics

Electromagnetism

and

1.

2.

The internal energy converted to mechanical energy in one ascent of the rope is

Q PE g mgh

. Since 1 Calorie 1 000 calories 4 186 Joules ,

1 Calorie

1.17 Calorie

4 186 J

3.

Thus, the required height is

h

4.

Q PE g mgh

Q

mg

75.0 kg 9.80 m s2

0 Qw Qice

0 mw cw Tw mice Lf mice cice T1 mice cw T2

mw cw Tw mice ( Lf cice T1 cw T2 )

m ( L cice T1 cw T2 )

mw ice f

cw Tw

(50.0 g 50.0 g){333.7 J g [2.1 J (g K)](15.0 K) [4.186 J (g K)](5.0 K)}

mw

461 g

[4.186 J (g K)]( 20.0 K)

5.

The energy absorbed by the water equals the energy given up by the gold bar, and

the final temperature of both the water and bar is 50.0C since they come to thermal

equilibrium . Thus,

mc T

mwater

6.

water

mc T

gold

, or

4 186 J kg C 50.0 C 25.0 C

0.185 kg 185 g

The total energy absorbed by the cup, stirrer, and water equals the energy given up

by the silver sample. Thus,

mc T

Ag

or

7.

mc

T Ag

1

ms cCu mw cw

mAg cAg

cAl

T w

,

mc

1

400 g 234

900

32 27

The total energy given up by the copper and the unknown sample equals the total energy

absorbed by the calorimeter and water. Hence,

mCu cCu T

Cu

munk cunk T

unk

mc cAl mw cw T w

cunk

cunk

8.

munk T

, or

unk

70 g 80C

50 g 387 J kg C 60 C 1.8 103 J kg C

1

J kg C 10 C

The kinetic energy given up by the car is absorbed as internal energy by the four

KE Q mdrums cFe T

brake drums (a total mass of 32 kg of iron). Thus,

or

1

1 500 kg 30 m s 47C

mcar vi2

T

2

mdrums cFe 32 kg 448 J kg C

2

1

2

9.

Q energy to reach melting point

Mathematically,

Q m cice 0C- -10C

This yields

J

J

Q 40 103 kg 2 090

10C 3.33 105

kg C

kg

J

J

J

6

4 186

100C 2.26 10

2 010

10C

kg C

kg

kg C

or

10.

Assume that all the ice melts. If this yields a result T 0 , the assumption is valid,

otherwise the problem must be solved again based on a different premise. If all ice

melts, energy conservation yields

mice cice 0C- -78C

or

With

m c

w w

cCu 387 J kg C, cice 2 090 J kg C,

and Lf

this gives

T 16 C

3.33 10

5 J kg

11.

Ninety percent, or

, of this is used to evaporate

bodily fluids. The mass of fluid evaporated is

m

Q

9.72 105 J

0.403 kg

Lv 2.41 106 J kg

Assuming the fluid is primarily water, the volume of fluid evaporated in one hour is

V

6

3

m

0.403 kg

4

3 10 cm

4.03

10

m

403 cm3

3

1 000 kg m 3

1

m

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