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UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN

Centre
Course
Year
Trimester

: Centre for Foundation Studies


(CFS)
: Foundation in Science
: Year 1
: Trimester 3

Session

: 201501

Unit Code
Unit Title

: FHSC 1024
: Thermodynamics
Electromagnetism

and

Additional Tutorial 2: Temperature and Heat (Part 2)


1.

How many joules of energy are required to raise the temperature of 100 g of
gold from 20.0C to 100C?
(cgold = 129 J kg1 oC1)
[Answer: 1.03103
J]

2.

As part of an exercise routine, a 50.0-kg person climbs 10.0 meters up a


vertical rope. How many (food) Calories are expended in a single climb up the
rope?
(1 food Calorie = 103 calories)
[Answer: 1.17
Calorie]

3.

A 75.0-kg weight watcher wishes to climb a mountain to work off the


equivalent of a large piece of chocolate cake rated at 500 (food) Calories. How
high must the person climb?
[Answer:
2.85
km]

4.

What mass of water at 25.0 C added to a Styrofoam cup containing two 50.0 g
ice cubes from a freezer at 15.0 C will result in a final temperature of 5.0C
for the drink? (Ignore the small amount of the heat gained by the cup)
Specific heat capacity of water is 4.186 103 J kg1 K1,
Latent heat of ice is 3.337 105 J kg1,
Specific heat capacity of ice is 2.1 103 J kg1 K1.
[Answer: 461
g]

5.

What mass of water at 25.0C must be allowed to come to thermal equilibrium


with a 3.00-kg gold bar at 100C in order to lower the temperature of the bar
to 50.0C?
[Answer: 185
g]

6.

An aluminum cup contains 225 g of water and a 40-g copper stirrer, all at
27C. A 400-g sample of silver at an initial temperature of 87C is placed in the
water. The stirrer is used to stir the mixture until it reaches its final
equilibrium temperature of 32C. Calculate the mass of the aluminum cup.
(cAl = 900 J kg1 oC1, cAg = 234 J kg1 oC1, cwater = 4186 J kg1 oC1)
[Answer: 80 g]

7.

A 100-g aluminum calorimeter contains 250 g of water. The two substances


are in thermal equilibrium at 10C. Two metallic blocks are placed in the
water. One is a 50-g piece of copper at 80C. The other sample has a mass of 70
g and is originally at a temperature of 100C. The entire system stabilizes at a
final temperature of 20C. Determine the specific heat of the unknown second
sample.
(cAl = 900 J kg1 oC1, cCu = 387 J kg1 oC1, cwater = 4186 J kg1 oC1)
[Answer: 1.8103 J/kgoC]

8.

When a driver brakes an automobile, the friction between the brake drums
and the brake shoes converts the cars kinetic energy to thermal energy. If a 1
500-kg automobile traveling at 30 m/s comes to a halt, how much does the
temperature rise in each of the four 8.0-kg iron brake drums?
(The specific heat of iron is 448 J/kg C.)
[Answer: 47 oC]

9.

How much energy is required to change a 40-g ice cube from ice at 10C to
steam at 110C?
(Lf = 3.33 105 J kg-1, Lv = 2.26 106 J kg-1, cice = 2090 J kg-1 oC-1, cwater = 4186 J kg-1 oC-1,
cstream = 2010 J kg-1 oC-1)
[Answer: 0.12 MJ]

10.

A 40-g block of ice is cooled to 78C and is then added to 560 g of water in an
80 g copper calorimeter at a temperature of 25C. Determine the final
temperature of the system consisting of the ice, water, and calorimeter. (If not
all the ice melts, determine how much ice is left.) Remember that the ice must
first warm to 0C, melt, and then continue warming as water. The specific heat
of ice is 0.500 cal/g C = 2090 J/kg C.
(Lf = 3.33 105 J kg-1, cice = 2090 J kg-1 oC-1, cwater = 4186 J kg-1 oC-1, cCu = 387 J kg-1 oC-1)
[Answer: 16 oC]

11.

A 60.0-kg runner expends 300 W of power while running a marathon.


Assuming that 10.0% of the energy is delivered to the muscle tissue and that
the excess energy is removed from the body primarily by sweating, determine
the volume of bodily fluid (assume it is water) lost per hour.
(At 37.0C, the latent heat of vaporization of water is 2.41 106 J/kg.)
[Answer: 403 cm3]

UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN


Centre
Course
Year
Trimester

: Centre for Foundation Studies


(CFS)
: Foundation in Science
: Year 1
: Trimester 3

Session

: 201501

Unit Code
Unit Title

: FHSC 1024
: Thermodynamics
Electromagnetism

and

Solutions for Additional Tutorial 2: Temperature and Heat (Part 2)


1.
2.

Q mc T 0.100 kg 129 J kg C 100 C 20.0 C 1.03 103 J

The internal energy converted to mechanical energy in one ascent of the rope is
Q PE g mgh
. Since 1 Calorie 1 000 calories 4 186 Joules ,

1 Calorie
1.17 Calorie
4 186 J

Q 50.0 kg 9.80 m s 2 10.0 m

3.

The internal energy converted to mechanical energy in the climb is


Thus, the required height is
h

4.

Q PE g mgh

500 Calories 4 186 J 1 Calorie 2.85 103 m 2.85 km


Q

mg
75.0 kg 9.80 m s2

Find the mass of water to be added to the cup.


0 Qw Qice
0 mw cw Tw mice Lf mice cice T1 mice cw T2
mw cw Tw mice ( Lf cice T1 cw T2 )
m ( L cice T1 cw T2 )
mw ice f
cw Tw
(50.0 g 50.0 g){333.7 J g [2.1 J (g K)](15.0 K) [4.186 J (g K)](5.0 K)}
mw
461 g
[4.186 J (g K)]( 20.0 K)

5.

The energy absorbed by the water equals the energy given up by the gold bar, and
the final temperature of both the water and bar is 50.0C since they come to thermal
equilibrium . Thus,
mc T

mwater

6.

water

mc T

gold

, or

3.00 kg 129 J kg C 100 C 50.0 C


4 186 J kg C 50.0 C 25.0 C

0.185 kg 185 g

The total energy absorbed by the cup, stirrer, and water equals the energy given up
by the silver sample. Thus,

mc cAl ms cCu mwcw T w

mc T

Ag

Solving for the mass of the cup gives

or
7.

mc

T Ag
1
ms cCu mw cw
mAg cAg
cAl
T w
,

mc

87 32 40 g 387 225 g 4 186 80 g


1

400 g 234

900
32 27

The total energy given up by the copper and the unknown sample equals the total energy
absorbed by the calorimeter and water. Hence,

mCu cCu T

Cu

munk cunk T

unk

mc cAl mw cw T w

Solving for the specific heat of the unknown material gives


cunk

cunk

8.

mc cAl mwcw T w mCucCu T Cu


munk T

, or

unk

100 g 900 J kg C 250 g 4 186


70 g 80C
50 g 387 J kg C 60 C 1.8 103 J kg C
1

J kg C 10 C

The kinetic energy given up by the car is absorbed as internal energy by the four
KE Q mdrums cFe T
brake drums (a total mass of 32 kg of iron). Thus,
or
1
1 500 kg 30 m s 47C
mcar vi2
T
2
mdrums cFe 32 kg 448 J kg C
2

1
2

9.

The energy required is the following sum of terms:


Q energy to reach melting point

energy to melt energy to reach boiling point

energy to vaporize energy to reach 110C

Mathematically,
Q m cice 0C- -10C

L f cw 100C-0C Lv csteam 110C-100C

This yields

J
J
Q 40 103 kg 2 090
10C 3.33 105

kg C
kg

J
J
J
6
4 186
100C 2.26 10
2 010
10C
kg C
kg
kg C

or
10.

Q 1.2 105 J 0.12 MJ

Assume that all the ice melts. If this yields a result T 0 , the assumption is valid,
otherwise the problem must be solved again based on a different premise. If all ice
melts, energy conservation yields
mice cice 0C- -78C

or
With

m c

w w

L f cw T 0C mwcw mcup cCu 25C T

mcup cCu 25C mice cice 78C L f

mw mice cw mcup cCu

mw 560 g, mcup 80 g, mice 40 g, cw 4 186 J kg C


cCu 387 J kg C, cice 2 090 J kg C,
and Lf

this gives

T 16 C

3.33 10
5 J kg

and the assumption that all ice melts is seen to be valid.

11.

In one hour, the energy dissipated by the runner is

E t 300 J s 3 600 s 1.08 106 J

Q 0.900 1.08 106 J 9.72 105 J


Ninety percent, or
, of this is used to evaporate
bodily fluids. The mass of fluid evaporated is
m

Q
9.72 105 J

0.403 kg
Lv 2.41 106 J kg

Assuming the fluid is primarily water, the volume of fluid evaporated in one hour is
V

6
3
m
0.403 kg
4
3 10 cm

4.03

10
m
403 cm3

3
1 000 kg m 3
1
m