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HRM

Unit 1
Personnel Management in Organizations:
Personnel management can be defined as obtaining, using and maintaining a satisfied
workforce. It is a significant part of management concerned with employees at work and
with their relationship within the organization.
According to Flippo, Personnel management is the planning, organizing, compensation,
integration and maintenance of people for the purpose of contributing to organizational,
individual and societal goals.
According to Brech, Personnel Management is that part which is primarily concerned with
human resource of organization.

Functions

Managerial Functions
-

Planning

Organizing & Job Analysis

Directing/Orientation

Motivating

Controlling

Operative Functions
-

Procurement/Staffing/Acquisition: Recruitment & Selection

Training &Development

Compensating

Utilizing

Maintaining

Terminating: Retirement, Redundancy, Resignation & Dismissal

Role of Personnel Manager


Personnel manager is the head of personnel department. He performs both
managerial and operative functions of management. His role can be summarized as:
1. Personnel manager provides assistance to top management- The top
management are the people who decide and frame the primary policies of the
concern. All kinds of policies related to personnel or workforce can be framed out
effectively by the personnel manager.
2. He advices the line manager as a staff specialist- Personnel manager acts like a
staff advisor and assists the line managers in dealing with various personnel
matters.
3. As a counsellor,- As a counsellor, personnel manager attends problems and
grievances of employees and guides them. He tries to solve them in best of his
capacity.
4. Personnel manager acts as a mediator- He is a linking pin between management
and workers.
5. He acts as a spokesman- Since he is in direct contact with the employees, he is
required to act as representative of organization in committees appointed by
government. He represents company in training programmes.

Job Analysis
Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and
requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a
process where judgements are made about data collected on a job.
The Job; not the person An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is
conducted of the Job, not the person. While Job Analysis data may be collected from
incumbents through interviews or questionnaires, the product of the analysis is a
description or specifications of the job, not a description of the person.
Purpose of Job Analysis
The
purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the 'job relatedness' of employment procedures
such as training, selection, compensation, and performance appraisal.
Determining Training Needs
Job Analysis can be used in training/"needs assessment" to identify or develop:

training content

assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training

equipment to be used in delivering the training

methods of training (i.e., small group, computer-based, video, classroom...)

Compensation
Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine:

skill levels

compensable job factors

work environment (e.g., hazards; attention; physical effort)

responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory)

required level of education (indirectly related to salary level)

Selection Procedures
Job Analysis can be used in selection procedures to identify or develop:

job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions;

appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a
candidate;

minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants;

interview questions;

selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job simulations);

applicant appraisal/evaluation forms;

orientation materials for applicants/new hires

Performance Review
Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop:

goals and objectives

performance standards

evaluation criteria

length of probationary periods

duties to be evaluated

Methods of Job Analysis


Several methods exist that may be used individually or in combination. These include:

review of job classification systems

incumbent interviews

supervisor interviews

expert panels

structured questionnaires

task inventories

check lists

open-ended questionnaires

observation

incumbent work logs

A typical method of Job Analysis would be to give the incumbent a simple questionnaire to identify job
duties, responsibilities, equipment used, work relationships, and work environment. The completed
questionnaire would then be used to assist the Job Analyst who would then conduct an interview of the
incumbent(s). A draft of the identified job duties, responsibilities, equipment, relationships, and work
environment would be reviewed with the supervisor for accuracy. The Job Analyst would then prepare a
job description and/or job specifications.
The method that you may use in Job Analysis will depend on practical concerns such as type of job,
number of jobs, number of incumbents, and location of jobs.
What Aspects of a Job Are Analyzed?
Job Analysis should collect information on the following areas:

Duties and Tasks The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties.
Information to be collected about these items may include: frequency, duration, effort, skill,
complexity, equipment, standards, etc.

Environment This may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to
perform a job. The work environment may include unpleasant conditions such as offensive odors
and temperature extremes. There may also be definite risks to the incumbent such as noxious
fumes, radioactive substances, hostile and aggressive people, and dangerous explosives.

Tools and Equipment Some duties and tasks are performed using specific equipment and
tools. Equipment may include protective clothing. These items need to be specified in a Job
Analysis.

Relationships Supervision given and received. Relationships with internal or external people.

Requirements The knowledges, skills, and abilities (KSA's) required to perform the job. While
an incumbent may have higher KSA's than those required for the job, a Job Analysis typically
only states the minimum requirements to perform the job.

Job Design
Job design is a continuous and ever evolving process that is aimed at helping employees make
adjustments with the changes in the workplace. The end goal is reducing dissatisfaction, enhancing
motivation and employee engagement at the workplace.
Job design is the process of:
a) Deciding the contents of the job.
b) Deciding methods to carry out the job.
c) Deciding the relationship which exists in the organization.
Job analysis helps to develop job design and job design matches the requirements of the job with the
human qualities required to do the job.
According to Michael Armstrong, "Job Design is the process of deciding on the contents of a job in
terms of its duties and responsibilities, on the methods to be used in carrying out the job, in terms of
techniques, systems and procedures, and on the relationships that should exist between the job holder
and his superior subordinates and colleagues."
Job analysis helps to develop job design and job design matches the requirements of the job with the
human qualities required to do the job.
Benefits of Job Design
The following are the benefits of a good job design:
1. Employee Input: A good job design enables a good job feedback. Employees have the option
to vary tasks as per their personal and social needs, habits and circumstances in the workplace.
2. Employee Training: Training is an integral part of job design. Contrary to the philosophy of
leave them alone job design lays due emphasis on training people so that are well aware of
what their job demands and how it is to be done.
3. Work / Rest Schedules: Job design offers good work and rest schedule by clearly defining the
number of hours an individual has to spend in his/her job.
4. Adjustments: A good job designs allows for adjustments for physically demanding jobs by
minimizing the energy spent doing the job and by aligning the manpower requirements for the
same.
Job design is a continuous and ever evolving process that is aimed at helping employees make
adjustments with the changes in the workplace. The end goal is reducing dissatisfaction,
enhancing motivation and employee engagement at the workplace.

Human resource planning

Human resource planning is a process that identifies current and future human
resources needs for an organization to achieve its goals. Human resources planning should serve
as a link between human resources management and the overall strategic plan of an organization.
Aging worker populations in most western countries and growing demands for qualified workers in
developing economies have underscored the importance of effective Human Resources Planning.
As defined by Bulla and Scott, human resource planning is the process for ensuring that the human
resource requirements of an organization are identified and plans are made for satisfying those
requirements.
Need:
Human resource planning is important and ongoing because of both internal and external
environmental changes. Internally, businesses are impacted by turnover and retirements.
Externally, they are impacted by changes in technology, changes in the economy, and changes in
the industry and consumer demand that may require skills that do not currently exist within the
company. All of these impacts have an effect on the type and numbers of employees that are
needed for the business to remain successful.

Human Resource Procurement


The first operative function of human resource is procurement. It is concerned with procuring
and employing people who possess necessary skill, knowledge and aptitude. Under its purview you have
job analysis, manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement, induction and internal mobility.
Job analysis: It is the process of collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities
pertaining to a specific job.
Human resources planning: It is a process of determining and assuring that the organisation will have
an adequate number of qualified persons, available at proper times, performing jobs which would meet
their needs and provide satisfaction for the individuals involved.
Recruitment: It is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for
jobs in the organization.
Selection: It is the process of ascertaining qualifications, experience, skill and knowledge of an applicant
with a view to appraising his/her suitability to the job in question.
Placement: It is the process that ensures a 360 fit, matching the employees qualifications, experience,
skills and interest with the job on offer. It is the personnel managers responsibility to position the right
candidate at the right level.
Induction and orientation: Induction and orientation are techniques by which a new employee is
rehabilitated in his new surroundings and introduced to the practices, policies, and people. He must be
acquainted with the principles which define and drive the organization, its mission statement and values
which form its backbone.
Internal Mobility: The movement of employees from one job to another through transfers and
promotions is called internal mobility. Some employees leave an organization due to various reasons
leading to resignation, retirement and even termination. These movements are known as external
mobility. In the best interest of an organization and its employees, such job changes should be guided by
well-conceived principles and policies.

PLACEMENT AND INDUCTION


Q1). What is placement?
Ans. Placement is a process of assigning a specific job to each of the selected candidates. It involves
assigning a specific rank and responsibility to an individual. It implies matching the requirements of a job
with the qualifications of the candidate.
Q2). Give the significance of placement?
Ans. The significances of placement are as follows: -

* It improves employee morale.


* It helps in reducing employee turnover.
* It helps in reducing absenteeism.
* It helps in reducing accident rates.
* It avoids misfit between the candidate and the job.
* It helps the candidate to work as per the predetermined objectives of the organization.
Q3). What is induction?
Ans. Once an employee is selected and placed on an appropriate job, the process of familiarizing him
with the job and the organization is known as induction.
Induction is the process of receiving and welcoming an employee when he first joins the company and
giving him basic information he needs to settle down quickly and happily and stars work.
4). What are the objectives of induction?
Ans. Induction is designed to achieve following objectives: * To help the new comer to overcome his shyness and overcome his shyness nervousness in
meeting new people in a new environment.
* To give new comer necessary information such as location of a caf, rest period etc.
* To build new employee confidence in the organization.
* It helps in reducing labor turnover and absenteeism.
* It reduces confusion and develops healthy relations in the organization.
* To ensure that the new comer do not form false impression and negative attitude towards the
organization.
* To develop among the new comer a sense of belonging and loyalty to the organization.
Q5). What are the advantages of formal induction?
Ans. The advantages of formal induction are: * Induction helps to build up a two-way channel of communication between management and workers.
* Proper induction facilitates informal relation and team work among employee.
* Effective induction helps to integrate the new employee into the organization and to develop a sense of
belonging.
* Induction helps to develop good relation.
* A formal induction programme proves that the company is taking interest in getting him off to good
start.
* Proper induction reduces employee grievances, absenteeism and labor turnover.
* Induction is helpful in supplying information concerning the organization, the job and employee welfare
facilities.
6). What are the contents of induction programme?
Ans. A formal induction programme should provide following information: * Brief history and operations of the company.
* The companys organization structure.
* Policies and procedure of the company.
* Products and services of the company.
* Location of department and employee facilities.

* Safety measures.
* Grievances procedures.
* Benefits and services of employee.
* Standing orders and disciplinary procedures.
* Opportunities for training, promotions, transfer etc.
* Suggestion schemes.
* Rules and regulations.