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Physics

## HSC Physics Notes From Ideas to

Implementation 9.4
1. Increased understandings of cathode rays led to the
development of television
Other Useful Stuff:
The magnitude of the electric field strength at a particular point in space is define as the force
per unit charge at that point.

E=

F
q

Where:
E = electric field strength (NC-1)
q = size of the charge
F = force experienced by charge at that point.
Direction of the electric field is defined as the
direction in which a positive test charge would move
if placed in the field
Two oppositely charged parallel metallic plates
separated by a distance can produce electric fields.

E=

V
d

1.1 explain why the apparent inconsistent behaviour of cathode rays caused debate as to
whether they were charged particles or electromagnetic waves
Evidence supporting wave
Evidence supporting particles
They travelled in straight line

## The rays left the cathode at right

angles to the surface
Caused glass to fluoresce
Influenced/deflected by magnetic fields
If an object was placed in their path, a
They were not affected by electric
fields (later proved incorrect by J.J
(Maltese cross)
Thompson)
They could pass through thin metal
Could transfer momentum (could turn
foils without damaging them
Travelled much slower than light
Amongst all this evidence, and the demonstration that Heinrich Hertz performed in 1883 that
showed (incorrectly) that cathode rays are not deflected by electric fields, the belief that
cathode rays were electromagnetic waveforms became more widely accepted. However, in
1897, J.J Thomson finally came to the conclusion that cathode rays were streams of negatively
charged particles. He construed that a cathode ray tube at a high gas pressure (similar to
what Hertz used in his assumption) led to the gas within it to become ionised from the rays.
The ions would then be attracted to the plate with the opposite charge and cover the surface
of the plate - effectively neutralising the charge on the plate. This then allowed the cathode
rays to pass by unaffected. This discovery then led Thomson to evacuate a cathode ray tube
to a low pressure that would allow the rays to be influenced by the plates. He observed that
the particles were always deflected towards the positive plate; which confirmed that they
were negatively charged particles.
1.2 explain that cathode ray tubes allowed the manipulation of a stream of charged particles

From Ideas to Implementation
Physics
A cathode ray tube (or discharge tubes) is a glass tube that contains very low vacuum
pressure, with two electrodes connected to a high voltage source at either end. The cathode
ray tube is connected in series where a positive anode passes a stream of charged particles
(electrons) through to the negative cathode where they are emitted as a fluorescent glow.
However, at reduced pressures air conducts electricity. This is the principle for the cathode ray
tube as electricity flows throughout the tube.
The charged particles can further be manipulated when under the influence of magnetic and
electric fields, which can influence the direction of travel of the particles.

1.3 identify that moving charged particles in a magnetic field experience a force
A charged particle (stream/flow of electrons) sets up its own magnetic field when moving at a
constant velocity. This magnetic field will therefore interact with an external magnetic field
producing a force. Important to note Faradays field lines when travelling from positive to
negative particles plus same charged particles repel.
1.4 identify that charged plates produce an electric field
An electric field can be produced between two parallel plates that have a potential difference
between them. The electric field between two charged plates is uniform, with the field lines
running from the positive plate to the negative plate perpendicularly.
1.5 describe quantitatively the force acting on a charge moving through a magnetic field
If a particle with a charge is moving with velocity perpendicularly to a magnetic field of
strength B, the particle will experience a magnetic force given by:

F=qE

Where:
F = magnetic force (N)
q = size of charge (C)
E = strength of the electric field (V M-1)
Direction:
Positive charges, the forces act in the direction of the field.
Negative charges, the forces act in the opposite direction to the electric field.
The direction of the force can be given by the right hand push rule. If the particle is positive
(proton) than the flow of current will be in the direction of the velocity. If the particle is
negative, the current flows in the opposite direction to that of the velocity.
If the particle moves at an angle to the magnetic field, than the formula is:

F=qvB sin

is given from the line of velocity to the perpendicular to the magnetic field line. If the
particle is moving parallel to the field lines, = 0, therefore F = 0. Since the force acting on
the particle will be changing the path of the particle, then the direction of the velocity will also
change and more in a circular motion.
Direction is given by the right hand palm rule.

1.6 discuss
qualitatively the electric field strength due to a point charge,
positive and negative charges and oppositely charged parallel
plates

From Ideas to Implementation
Physics
The flow of electrical field lines is:
Positive charge: field lines away from.
Negative charge: field lines into
Positive negative charge: constant electric field is established with flows from proton to
electron.
From a point charge the electric field strength that this particle emits becomes less the further
way you are from it. The strength is also affected by the type of point charge which you are
near.
For parallel charged plates, the electric field flow from the positively charged plate to the
negatively charged plate. The field duty is duly affected by the distance between the plates
and the strength of each potential difference (emf) across the individual plates. If the same
charged plates are placed near each other, they will repel.
1.7 describe quantitatively the electric field due to oppositely charged parallel plates
If the potential difference between two plates is V and the separation of the plates is d then
the electric field E is given by:

E=

V
d

Where:
E = electric field strength (Vm-1)
V = voltage across plates (v)
D = distance between plates (m)
A charge moving in this field will experience a force. The force F acting on a charge q is an
electric field E is given by:

F=qE

## 1.8 outline Thomsons experiment to measure the charge/mass ratio of an electron

J.J. Thompson created a cathode ray tube that had electric and magnetic fields in it. By doing
this, he observed that the cathode rays behaved differently when subject to an electric or
magnetic field, he varied:
Varying electric/magnetic fields: Thompson conducted this until the two fields cancelled
each others force out (positioned at right angles to each other) so the cathode rays
would be unreflected and pass through the fields to show a fluorescent glow. By
equating the magnetic field and electric force equations he determined the velocity and
path of the cathode rays.
When utilising the magnetic field and electric fields simultaneously, the cathode rays
could be made to pass through unreflected. When this happens the two forces are
balanced, that is,

Magnetic field alone: by applying the magnetic field uniformly across the cathode rays,
Thompson could determine the radius of the circle path travelled by the charged
particles.

Physics

## And since E and B could be calculated, v could be

found and
hence q/m could be calculated (the charge to mass
ratio).
Thomson found that all cathode rays had the same q/m ratio, that being a value that is
approximately 1800 times greater than the ratio for hydrogen ions. This meant that cathode
rays were about 1/1800 the mass of the hydrogen ion. This was the first discovery hat
cathode rays were subatomic particles.
1.9 outline the role of:
Cathode ray tubes are used in both convectional TVs and old CRT monitors- can also be
applied to oscilloscopes which create a green wave showing the variations in AC currently.
They operate by cathode rays being deflected in electron guns and fluorescing on a coated
screen that activates phosphors to present the correct colours and images.
Electrodes in the electron gun
An electron gun produces a narrow beam of electrons. It consists of a filament, a cathode and
two open-cylinder anodes. The filament produces the electrons by thermionic emission, that
is, heating the filament until electrons boil off. Anodes in the device help to accelerate and
focus the electrons, while a ring shaped electrode (the grid) between the cathode and the
anodes controls the brightness.
The deflection plates or coils
The deflection plates or coils are utilised to control the vertical and horizontal deflection of an
electron beam. This is done connecting a potential difference to the plates/coils which
produces an electric field between the plates/coils.
The fluorescent screen in the cathode ray tube of conventional TV displays and oscilloscopes
The fluorescent screen is glass that is coated
with a florescent material. When an electron
beam hits the screen, the coating fluoresces
and a spot of light is seen on the screen.

Physics

## 2. The reconceptualization of the model of light led to an

understanding of the photoelectric effect and black body
2.1 describe Hertzs observation of the effect of a radio wave on a receiver and the
photoelectric effect he produced but failed to investigate
The photoelectric effect is when electrons are released from a
metal surface; exposed due to electromagnetic radiation. This is
because the quanta of energy from the electromagnetic
radiation give the electrons the energy needed to escape from
the metal.
In Hertzs spark-gap coil experiment where he used an inductive
coil to create an oscillating spark from an AC current, he noticed
that light affected the intensity of the spark in the receiver. This
was discovered by placing glass an absorber of ultraviolet
light between the transmitter and receiver. Hertz discovered
that UV light from the transmitter spark was causing electrons to join the receiver spark,
making it stronger and allowing a spark to occur over a larger gap. Hertz did not investigate
this further, but today this phenomenon is known as the photo-electric effect, were electrons
are freed from a metal lattice when it is exposed to electromagnetic radiation allowing them
to flow across a gap.
2.2 outline qualitatively Hertzs experiments in measuring the speed of radio waves and how
they relate to light waves
Prior to Hertzs experimental investigations of radio waves, James Maxwell had proposed a
link between electricity and light and that there were existing electromagnetic waves with a
range of frequencies, that would all travel at the speed of 3 x 10 8. Hertz experimented with a
spark-gap coil and found that he could reliably generate a corresponding spark across a
parallel coil a few metres away. By analysing these results Hertz found that the waves
exhibited the properties of reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction and polarisation, and
they travelled at the speed of light. Hertz therefore provided experimental evidence that light
is a form of transverse electromagnetic wave and confirmed the existence of the
electromagnetic spectrum.

## From Ideas to Implementation

Physics

2.3 identify Plancks hypothesis that radiation emitted and absorbed by the walls of a black
body cavity is quantised
A black body is a perfect emitter or absorber of energy. Classical physics predicted that, as
the wavelength of radiation emitted becomes shorter, the radiation intensity would increase.
This increase in energy however, would increase without limit and violate the principle of
conservation of energy. This effect was known as the ultraviolet catastrophe. Experimental
observations from black body experiments showed that the radiation intensity corresponding
to a given temperature has a definite peak, passing through a maximum and then declining,
this could not be explained however. It is this problem that led to the beginning of the
quantum theory of physics, with Max Planck at the forefront of this. Planck hypothesised that
radiation (energy) is not emitted or absorbed by a black body continuously as classical
physics suggests, but rather it is emitted or absorbed in little bursts or packets of energy
quanta (or photons ) of energy. Mathematically this is E=hf where E is the energy of the
photon, h is a constant called Plancks constant (6.626 x 10 -34 j.s) and f is the frequency.
2.4 identify Einsteins contribution to quantum theory and its relation to black body radiation
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from substances, in particular metals,
when they are bombarded with light (usually in the high frequency range, such as ultraviolet).
This phenomenon was first discovered by Hertz, but was further experimentation was carried
out by Philipp Lenard. During his work Lenard studied the relationship between energy of the
emitted photoelectrons and the intensity and frequency of the incident light. The incident light
caused photoelectrons to be given off from the emitter and move towards the collector. These
results found by Lenard however, contradicted the predictions made in respect to classical
physics and the classical wave theory, ultimately meaning that classical physics was unable to
explain the photoelectric effect
However, Einstein used the basis of Plancks quantum idea (particle model) to explain the
photoelectric effect. He stated that:
- The energy of light is concentrated in bundles or packets of energy, or
photons.
- Each photon has energy given by Plancks relationship: E=hf, and therefore
relied on frequency
- A photon could give up all (or none) of its energy to one electron, but it could not
give only part of it
- The maximum kinetic energy of the
emitted electron (Ek max) was equal to
the initial photon energy minus the
work done in overcoming the
attractive forces near the surface;
that is, (Ek max) =hf- where is the
work function (=hf0) and f0 is the
threshold frequency that is the
minimum frequency that would

From Ideas to Implementation
Physics
cause photoemission. Note that the work function is a certain amount of energy
required for photoemission
2.5 explain the particle model of light in terms of photons with particular energy and
frequency
It can be understood that light is of a particle nature and consists of a stream of particles, or
packets of energy known as photons. The energy of a photon is represented by E=hf and is
proportional to the frequency of the light. This means that the higher the frequency of the
light, the more energy the photon possesses (i.e. photons of ultraviolent light have higher
energy than those of visible light such as blue, red etc.). The intensity of light depends of the
number of photons per unit area, which means that as intensity is increase the number of
photons will be increased.
2.6 identify the relationships between photon energy, frequency, speed of light and
wavelength: E = hf and c = f
The energy of a photon is given by the relationship

By combining
we can get a
between
wavelength,

E=

hc

relationship
energy and

Physics

## 3. Limitations of past technologies and increased research into

the structure of the atom resulted in the invention of transistors
3.1 identify that some electrons in solids are shared between atoms and move freely
The differences in conductivity between materials relate to the ease of movement of the
atoms electrons. In metals, electrons are delocalised and so are free to move through the
crystal lattice of positive ions under the influence of an electric field produced by connecting a
potential difference across the ends of the material.

3.2 describe the difference between conductors, insulators and semiconductors in terms of
band structures and relative electrical resistance
The band structure of a solid relates to the (energy bands) of an atom relate to the different
levels of electron orbitals.

Conductor
Energy level

Condition band
Valence band

## From Ideas to Implementation

Insulator
Conduction band
Energy gap

Physics
Semi-conductor
Condition band
Energy gap

Valence band

Valence band
3.3 identify absences of electrons in
a nearly full band as holes, and recognise that both
electrons and holes help to carry current
When an electron is excited into the conduction
band, it leaves a vacancy in the valance band.
This vacancy is known as a hole. The hole
behaves like a positively charged particle and
moves in the opposite direction to the electron. In
reality, the other electrons in the valence band
move to fill the vacancy, but in doing so the leave
behind another vacancy, resulting in the apparent
motion of the hole. It is this motion of electrons and holes that contribute to an electric
current.
3.4 compare qualitatively the relative number of free electrons that can drift from atom to
atom in conductors semiconductors and insulators
Conductors
Large number of electrons can drift from atom to atom in the conduction band.
Semiconductors
There are some electrons available to drift from atom to atom in the conduction band; this can
be increased by adding energy in the form of heat.
Insulators
There are no electrons available to drift from atom to atom in the conduction band.
3.5 identify that the use of germanium in early transistors is related to lack of ability to
produce other materials of suitable purity
Germanium, a group IV element, was first used to produce transistors as it was the most pure
material available. However, Silicon (also a group IV element), became more prominent as
purification methods had been developed for it. Silicon was also more abundant and cheaper
than germanium and could retain its properties at high temperatures, therefore making it
more favourable.
3.6 describe how doping a semiconductor can change its electrical properties
Doping a semiconductor involves replacing some of the atoms of the Group IV element
(silicon/germanium) with atoms from Group III or Group V of the periodic table. Group III
elements include boron, aluminium, gallium and indium, while Group V elements include
nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic and antimony. Doping a semiconductor can change the
semiconductors electrical properties by changing the number of holes present of the number
of free electrons, this changes how well semiconductor conducts.

3.7 identify differences in p and n-type semiconductors in terms of the relative number of
negative charge carriers and positive holes
A group IV element will have 4 valence electrons, with no excess electrons or holes. However
when doped some free electrons or holes may be present. If a group IV element is doped with
a group V element (with 5 valence electrons), there will be one electron left out of the
covalent bond. This then produces an n-type semiconductor because it has excess negative
charges. If a group IV element is doped with a group III element (with 3 valence electrons),
there will be one electron short of bonding (i.e. a positive hole is formed). This then produces
a p-type semiconductor because there is a deficiency of electrons.
3.8 describe differences between solid state and thermionic devices and discuss why solid
state devices replaced thermionic devices

From Ideas to Implementation
Physics
Solid state devices and thermionic devices operate with the same purpose. They can modify,
amplify or switch electric signals. However a few differences between the two are:
- Solid state devices are much more reliable to thermionic devices
- Solid state devices used less energy to run
- Solid state devices are much lighter, smaller and cheaper than thermionic devices
- Thermionic devices take longer to start up and produces vast amounts of heat
- Thermionic devices are much more fragile and had poor durability
It is for these reasons that solid state devices replaced thermionic devices. An increase in
mass communication such as radios and transmitters ultimately led to solid state devices
becoming more preferable

## 4. Investigations into the electrical properties of particular

metals at different temperatures led to the identification of
superconductivity and the exploration of possible applications
4.1 outline the methods used by the Braggs to determine crystal structure
The Braggs used the interference patterns of reflected X-rays off a crystal to determine its
crystal lattice structure. They did this by using an X-ray tube to emit X-rays onto a sample.
They determined that X-rays could penetrate the surface of matter and reflect from the
atomic lattice planes within the crystals, due to their short wavelength (approximately the
size of an atom). These reflected waves often interfered (superimposed) with one other,
sometimes causing constructive interference, resulting in intensity maximum and destructive
interference, resulting in an intensity minimum. The interference pattern is also known as
diffraction, as it was believed by the Braggs that the crystal lattice acts as a diffraction grating
Layers of a crystal lattice or diffraction grating
(a device for
producing interference effects). A photographic film was used to allow for the
interference pattern of the X-rays to be seen (bright spots represented intensity maximums or
dconstructive interference). Measuring the geometry of the interference pattern then allowed
the Braggs to deduce the spacing of the lines on the diffraction grating (crystal lattice).
Ultimately, with the use of Braggs Law, analysis of the interference pattern as well as the
angles
involved
allowed
the calculation of the crystal layer spacing which would
Reflected
X-rays that
will interferetherefore
with each other
to produce for
a pattern
determine the crystal lattice structure.

Physics

## 4.2 identify that metals possess a crystal lattice structure

The atoms in a crystal are in a regular repeating pattern called the crystal lattice. In each type
of crystal structure a certain fundamental grouping of atoms is repeated indefinitely in three
dimensions, called a unit cell. It is these unit cells that repeat itself throughout the crystal to
form the lattice. A few types of crystals are molecular crystals and infinite arrays, which
include metallic crystals, ionic crystals and continuous covalent crystals.

4.3 describe conduction in metals as a free movement of electrons unimpeded by the lattice
General metals have only one, two or three electrons in their valance shell. These electrons
are only loosely bound to the positive ions, meaning that a metal consists of a lattice of
positive ions surrounded by a sea of electrons that are free to move under the influence of
an electric field. These electrons move randomly and collide with each other and the lattice
constantly. This random motion of electrons results with no net movement of charge.
However, when a potential difference is applied to the metal an electric field is established
that creates a force that causes the electrons to drift in a common direction. This drift
-e electric field
velocity is proportional to the
-e applied
-e

-e

-e + -e

+
Sea or cloud of electrons
-e
-e

+-e +

-e

+-e +
-e

+-e

+ -e

+ -e +

+
+

-e

+
-e +

Positive ions

4.4 identify that resistance in metals is increased by the presence of impurities and scattering
of electrons by lattice vibrations
The resistance in a metal increases when electrons collide with impurities or imperfections in
the lattice. Similarly, resistance increases when the temperature of the metal increases,
leading to the ions of the lattice to vibrate. This vibration impedes electron movement and
increases the probably of electrons to collide with it, thus disrupting their movement and
increasing the resistance.

Resistance ()

## 4.5 describe the occurrence in superconductors below their critical temperature of a

population of electron pairs unaffected by electrical resistance
Superconductivity is the phenomenon exhibited by certain conductors where they have no
resistance to current. The transition from resistance to no resistance is called the critical
Normal
conductivity
temperature. Below this temperature, the
flow
of electrons becomes ordered, and collisions
with the lattice stop. This allows electron pairs (discussed later on) to move through the
material without loss of energy
there is zero resistance to movement.
Critical temperature, Tc

Normal conductivity
Superconductivity

Temperature (K)

Physics

## 4.6 discuss the BCS theory

The BCS theory explains how superconductivity occurs. The theory states that at the critical
temperature of a material, an electron moving through the lattice is able to attract atoms
close to it and distort the lattice. This causes the atoms of the lattice to become slightly closer
together, meaning that there is an area of slightly increased positive charge. This extra
positive charge then draws in an electron which links up which another electron when they
absorb energy known as a phonon that is released from the distortion of the lattice. The link
up of electrons is called a Cooper pair. A Cooper pair can move through the lattice without loss
of energy, and is unaffected by impurities or lattice vibration. The discharge and absorption of
phonons between the electrons will allow them to remain together, however the bond will be
broken when the temperature of the material rises.

Lattice distortion

Electron

Cooper pair

4.7 discuss the advantages of using superconductors and identify limitations to their use
No resistance means no energy losses
Need expensive and sophisticated
cooling systems in order to maintain
o Low volt transformers
low temperature
o Electricity can be sent infinite
distances
o Avoids loss of efficiency via
transformers (transformers would
no longer be necessary as
electricity could be transmitted at
the desired current meaning that
Allows for more efficient generators
High installations costs
o High magnetic fields means
greater currents in same rotor
Allows for:
Current high temperature
o The development of magnetic
superconductors are ceramic and are
resonance imaging (MRI) machines too brittle/not ductile enough to be
o The development of Maglev trains

From Ideas to Implementation
o The development of
superconducting quantum
interference devices (SQUIDs) that
are necessary for doctors to
analyse aspects of the brain
o Greater efficiency in computer
systems
o More efficient generators as high
magnetic fields means greater
currents in same rotor
Essential in the operation of particle
accelerators
Lower demand for new power stations

Physics