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3.3.

4 System Design
The Balance by Design Method will be used in the design of this system. In this design
method, calculation is done from each hood then proceeds, segment by segment, towards the fan.
The following will be determined or calculated:

1. Calculate Volume Flow Rate

Obtained from the design data of welding slot


hood of ACGIH Ventilation Manual. Found in
Fig. 5 of Appendix A.

2. Determine duct velocity

Use minimum transport velocity required for


welding fumes found in Table 1.0 of Appendix
C

3. Calculate maximum duct


diameter

Use Equation 2.7 to determine the area of the


duct. The maximum duct diameter is obtained
using area of a circle A=pi*d2/4

4. Calculate duct velocity pressure

Use equation 2.8 to convert duct velocity


obtained at step 2 to velocity pressure

5. Determine slot velocity

Use 2000 fpm as discussed in section 3.3.2

6. Calculate Hood Static


Pressure
7. Identify sources of duct
pressure losses

8. Determine Straight Duct


Length

9. Calculate friction factor of the


straight duct

10. Calculate friction loss


11. Calculate Elbow Losses

This is the pressure loss experienced in the


hood. Use Equation 2.10 for slotted hood.
(Obtained from ACGIH)
Refer to section D of 2.2.4 for different
sources of duct pressure losses
Determine Straight Duct
Length

Use Equation 2.12 for


galvanized steel. (Obtained from
ACGIH)
With the straight duct length and friction
factor calculated previously, friction loss
can be calculated using Equation 2.11
Use Equation 2.14. Loss coefficient C in this
formula can be obtained from Table 1.1 Elbow
Loss Coefficient of Appendix C. (Obtained from
ACGIH)
Use Equation 2.18. Loss coefficient K in this
formula can be obtained from Graph 2 of Appendix
C.

12. Calculate Branch Entry

13. Calculate Duct SP Loss


I

Results from steps from 6, 10, 11, and 12 are to be


added and will be named as the duct sp loss.

Steps 1-13 basically covers the calculation of the pressure losses in each duct segment
(from hood towards the junction). Steps 1-13 will be repeated to a different segment of the
system. After it has been done, the duct SP loss for both segments/branches will be compared.

14. Calculate the ratio of the higher


SP to the lower SP loss

Use Table 1.7 of the appendix to


determine actions to be taken.

15. If ratio is less than 1.05

Flow of the branch with lower SP


loss will not be corrected

16. If ratio is at 1.05 to 1.20

The flow in the branch of lower SP loss


will be corrected using the equation
found in Table 1.8 Benchmarks for
balancing. Corrected velocity and
velocity pressure will also be
recalculated using equations 2.7 and
2.8

17. If ratio is greater than 1.20

The duct of the branch with lower


static pressure will be resized and
steps 1-13 will be repeated.

18. Repeat this until the ratio


satisfies the conditions in steps 15-

Use equations 2.7 and 2.8

17

After satisfying the condition, the pressure losses from the junction up until the fan will
be calculated. Steps 1-13 will be repeated. At this point the flowrate now will be the sum of the
flowrates of the two branches.