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1.

(a) Six Hundred Twenty three cubic metres of a fuel gas are passed through a
meter at 0.35 kg/cm ga, 9.4C. Barometer, 756mm Hg. Find the commercial
sales volume of this gas. (b) Tank contains 214 m of fuel oil at 11.7C. SG =
0.945. Find the volume and weight of this quantity of oil measured at
15.6/15.6.
(a) Atmospheric pressure
= 756 mm Hg (

kg
cm ) = 1.028
1 mm Hg

1.36 x 103

kg
cm

Absolute pressure of the gas


P = 0.35

kg
cm

+ 1.028

kg
cm

= 1.378

kg
cm

Absolute temperature of the gas


T = 9.4 C + 273 = 282.4 K
Absolute Temperature of atmosphere (assume standard) :
T = 15.6 C + 273 = 288.6 K
Volume of gas through meter = 623 m
Volume of gas at atmospheric conditions:

P1V 1
T1
V2 = (

P2V 2
T2

(combined gas laws)

P1V 1
T2
)
(
T1
P2 )
P1

T2

V2 = V 1 ( P 2 ) ( T 1 )

kg
cm
288.6 K
V2 = 623 m (
)
(
kg
282.4 K )
1.028
cm
1.378

V2 = 853 m ans.
(b) Volume at 11.7 C = 214 m
From page 118 text for fuel oils the volumetric coefficient of expansion
is 0.0007 per C
Thus corrected volume
= 214 m + 214 m (0.0007 per C) (15.6 -11.7)C
= 214.58 m
Weight of this volume of oil at SA = 0.945
W = 214.58 m (0.945) (

1000 kg
) = 203,000 kg ans.
m

6. Testing certain West Virginia Pocahontas coal by bomb calorimeter yielded


these results. T, 3.49C. Fuel sample, 1.0535 g. Fuse wire consumed, 0.0073
g. Water charged, 1855.68 g. Water equivalent of bomb, 470 g. Test coal had
0.96% moisture. Calculate Qh for dry coal. (Q of fuse wire, 1600 Cal per g.)
Solution:
Heat released by combustion
Qt = wCT
Where:
w = weight of water bath plus the equivalent weight of the
apparatus
w = 1855.68 g + 470 g
w = 2325.68 g
C = specific weight of water, 1 cal per g per C
T = temperature rise of water, 3.49 C
Therefore,

cal

Qt = 2325.68 g (1 g C ) (3.49 C) = 8116.6 cal


Heat from fuse wire
Qfw = 0.0073 g (1600

cal
g ) = 11.68 cal

Heat released by fuel


Qf = Qt - Qfw
Qf = 8116.6 cal 11.68 cal
Qf = 8104.92 cal
Thus, heat value of fuel
Qh =

Qf
m

Qh for dry coal, Qh =

8104.92cal
1.0535 g
cal
g
10.96

7693

= 7693

= 7767

cal
g
cal
g

ans.

8. Fuel oil of 16 B is stored in a tank to supply a boiler whose rated max.


steaming rate is 6804 kg per hr at 150 psig. Feedwater, 48.9C. Average
thermal efficiency, 70%. Consider that plants capacity factor is 45% and that
1 months supply is carried. Make any necessary assumptions and
calculate the number of 1.8 m dia x 4.6 m long cylindrical tanks needed to
hold this quantity.
Solution:
Capacity factor =

actual production
maximum possible

Thus at 45% capacity factor

kg
hr ) = 3062

Actual Steam rate = 45% (6804

kg
hr

Thermal efficiency of plant


t =

energy output
energy input
steam fuel

Ws (hshf )
Wf x Qh

Where:
Ws = steam rate,

kg
hr
kJ
kg

hs = enthalphy of steam,

kJ
kg

hf = enthalpy of feedwater ,

kg
hr

wf = fuel rate,

Qh = heat value of fuel,

kJ
kg

From steam table


For saturated steam at 10.54
hs = 2782

kg
cm

kJ
kg

For water at 48.9 C


hf = 204.5

kJ
kg

Heat value of the fuel,


Qh = 42, 450 43 (B +10)

kJ
kg

Qh = 42,450 43 (16+10)
Qh = 40,032

Thus, wf =

of fuel

kJ
kg

ws(hshf )
t Qh

3062
=

kg
kJ
(2782204.5)
hr
kg
kJ
70 (40,032 )
kg

= 281.64

kg
hr

Total amount of fuel required for 1 months (assume 30days per


month and 24 hrs. per day)
wf = 281.64

kg
hr

24 hrs
30 days

)
(
1 day
1 month

1 months = 304,

200 kg
Volume of fuel =

wf
pf

, but f = safh2O

Specific gravity of the fuel


Saf =

140
B +130

Thus, vf =

140
16+ 130

304,200 kg
1000 kg
0.96(
)
1 m3

Volume of one tank, v =

= 0.96

= 317 m

(1.8m)

(46m) = 11.70 m per tank

Number of tanks required:


=

317 m
m
11.70
tank

= 27 tanks ans.

10.Reduce the analysis of a coal designated from table 5-4 to (a) moisture-free
basis (b) moisture-and ash-free basis.
Solution:
Take coal no. 1, Penna Anthracite
Proximate analysis
Moisture
2.19
%
Volatile Matter.
5.67 %
Fixed Carbon..
86.24
%
Ash
5.90
%
Total.
100.0 %
Ultimate Analysis
Sulphur..
0.57
%
Hydrogen.
2.70%
Carbon
86.37
%
Nitrogen
0.91
%

Oxygen

3.55

Moisture (included above)


Ash

5.40

%
Total.

100.0 %

Composition of water
1mol H2O
1mol H2 + mol O2
Mol. Weight of 1 mol H2O = 2+16 = 18
Atomic weight of 1 mol H2 = 2
Atomic weight of mol O2 = (32) = 16
Thus,
H2
2/18 or 1/9 H2O
O2
16/18 or 8/9 H2O
From the proximate analysis for 1 kg of the coal portion of moisture
that is hydrogen is 1/9 (0.0219 kg) = 0.00243 kg, portion that is
oxygen = 8/9 (0.219 kg) = 0.01947 kg
Thus, comparing with the ultimate analysis,
Free Hydrogen in 1 kg of coal:
= 0.0270 kg 0.00243 kg
= 0.02457 kg
Free Oxygen in 1 kg of coal:
= 0.0355 kg 0.01947 kg
= 0.01603 kg
(a) Analysis on moisture free basis =

analysis on as received basis


1moisture

1 moisture = 1- 0.0219 = 0.9781


Proximate analysis
Volatile Matter
0.9781 = 5.80 %
Fixed Carbon
0.9781 = 88.17 %
Ash..
0.9781 = 6.03 %
Total.
100.00 %
Ultimate analysis (moisture-free)
Sulphur.
0.969 = 0.59 %
Hydrogen
0.969 = 2.54 %

5.67

86.24 %
5.90

0.57

2.46

Carbon.

86.37 %

Oxygen

1.60

Ash.

5.90

0.969 = 89.13 %
0.969 = 1.65 %
0.969 = 6.09 %
Total

100.00 %
(b) Moisture and Ash-free
For : Proximate Analysis
1 moisture ash = 1 0.0219 0.059 = 0.9191
Thus,
Proximate analysis
Volatile Matter.
0.9191 = 6.17 %
Fixed Carbon.
0.9191 = 93.83 %
Total..
100.0 %
Ultimate Analysis
Sulphur..
0.9191 = 0.63 %
Hydrogen.
0.9191 = 2.70 %
Carbon
0.9191 = 94.91 %
Oxygen..
0.9191 = 1.76 %
Total..
100.00 %

5.67

86.24

0.57

2.46

86.37 %
1.60

12.Given a coal with proximate analysis as follows, find heating value and kg air
required per kg coal at 50% excess. Moisture, 4.47; volatile, 22.74; fixed
carbon, 53.72; ash, 19.07.
Solution:
(a) From table 5-5, for a coal with a range of volatile matter in
combustible of 16-36%
The heat value is
H.V. = (16,160 2,250) 2.326

J
g

Thus, H.V. = (16,160 2,250 x 22.74 %) 2.326


combustible

J
g

= 35,000

J
g

of

Percentage of combustible
= 1- moisture ash
= 1 4.47 % - 19.07 %
= 0.7646

g combustible
g coal

Thus, heating value of the coal:


H.V. = 35,000

760

J
g coal

J
g combustible

0.7646 g combustible
) = 26,
1 g coal

ans.

(b) Also from table 5-5


Hydrogen in combustible for 16 %up volatile matter
H = 0.0457 + 0.0206 (22.74 %)
H = 0.0504

g hydrogen
g combustible

Total Carbon in combustible (with value from 0 to 36 %)


C = 0.943 0.242 (22.74 %)
C = 0.8879

g carbon
g combustible

From figure A-4 Appendix


Theoretical air needed per kg coal = 11.5C + 34.5(H -

O
8 ) + 4.3 S
Disregarding oxygen and sulphur
Theoretical air per kg combustible
= 11.5 (0.8879) + 34.5

(0.0504)

11.95

kg air
kg combustible

kg air
kg combustible
Per kg coal:
Theoretical

air:

0.7646 kg combustible
) = 9.13
kg coal

kg air
kg coal

11.95

With 50% excess:


Actual air supply = 1.5 (9.13
ans.

kg air
kg coal ) = 13.7

kg air
kg coal

14.The as-fired proximate analysis is taken of a coal of West Virginia origin.


Moisture, 1.75; volatile, 21.70; fixed carbon, 69.13; ash, 7.42. When burned
with what is presumed to be sufficient air for complete combustion, the CO 2
tests 10% by volume. What percent excess air is indicated?
Solution:

kg combustible
kg coal

= 1 moisture ash = 1- 1.75 % - 7.42 % = 0.9083

kg VM
kg coal
kg vombustible
0.9083
kg coal

= 0.239

kg FC
kg coal
kg combustible
0.9083
kg coal

= 0.761

0.217

Volatile Matter per kg combustible =

kg VM
kg combustible
0.6913

Fixed Carbon per kg combustible =

kg FC
kg combustible
From table 5-5, p. 129
Carbon in combustible (with value from 0 to 36 %)
C = 0.943 0.242 (0.239) = 0.885

kg carbon
kg combustible

Hydrogen in combustible (with value from 16% up)


H = 0.0457 + 0.0206 (.239) = 0.0506

kg hydrogen
kg combustible

From Equation 5-18, p.144


For complete combustion
Excess air =

20.9 R
CO 2(R+3)

R+ 2.37
R+ 3

Where:
R=

C'
H

C = Carbon burned per kg coal


C = 0.885

kg carbon
kg combustible

0.9083 kg combustible
)
1 kg coal

kg carbon
kg coal

C = (0.885 x 0.9083)

H = Hydrogen burned per kg coal

kg Hz
kg combustible

H = 0.0506

(0.885 x 0.9083)
(0.0506 x 0.9083)

Thus, excess air =

0.9083 kg combustible
)
kg coal

kg Hz
kg coal

H = (0.0506 x 0.9083)
Thus, R =

= 17.5

20.9(17.5)
10 (17.5+3)

(17.5+2.37)
(17.5+3)

= 0.815 or

81.5 % ans.
16.Predict the Orsat analysis resulting from the combustion of a coal designated
from table 5-4, with 50% excess air. 10% combustible in the refuse.
Solution:
With coal no.1 on table 5-4, the ultimate analysis given is
Sulphur
0.57 %
Hydrogen..
2.70 %
Carbon.
85.37 %
Nitrogen.
0.91 %
Oxygen
3.55 %
Ash.
5.90 %
Theoretical air requirement

= 11.5 C + 34.5 (H -

O
8 ) + 4.3 S

= 11.5 (0.8637) + 34.5 ( 0.0270 + 4.3 (0.0057)

kg air
kg coal

= 10.735

Since 10% of refuse is combustible, 90% of the refuse is ash


Thus,

90% refuse = 0.059

kg ash
kg coal

kg ash
kg coal
kg ash
0.90
kg refuse
0.059

Refuse =

= 0.0655

kg refuse
kg coal

If all the unburned combustible in the refuse is carbon:

0.0355
)
8

kg carbon unburned
kg refuse

Amount of unburned carbon is 10%

x 0.0655

kg refuse
kg coal
kg unburned carbon
kg coal

= 0.00655
Amount of burned carbon

= 0.8637 0.00655
= 0.85715

kg burned carbon
kg coal

Gaseous products of combustion at 50% excess air:


From Figure A-4 Appendix
Avail if the combustion constants:

kg C

CO2 = 0.85715 kg coal


3.146

kg H 2
kg coal

kg S
kg coal

(2

kg air
kg coal

kg H 2 O
kg H 2 )

kg SO 2
)
kg S

(0.232

kg O2
kg air )

kg O 2
kg coal ,
N2 = 1.5 x 10.735

kg N 2
kg coal

(9

kg SO 2
kg coal
O2 = 0.5 x 10.735

1.245

kg H 2 O
kg coal
SO2 = 0.0057

0.0114

kg CO 2
)
kg C

kg CO 2
kg coal
H2O = 0.027

0.243

(3.67

= 12.376

kg air
kg coal

(0.768

kg N 2
kg air ) + 0.0091

kg N 2
kg coal

Mols of products for 1kg coal: (CO2, O2 and N2 only for orsat analysis)

3.146 kg CO 2
kg
44
mol

CO2 =

O2 =

1.245 kg O 2
kg
32
mol

N2 =

12.376 kg N 2
kg
28
mol

= 0.0715 mol CO2

= 0.389 mol O2

= 0.442 mol N2

Total
= 0.5524 mols
Probable Orsat Analysis:

0.0715
0.5524

CO2 =

x 100 % = 12.94 %

O2 =

0.0389
0.5524

x 100 %

= 7.04 %

N2 =

0.442
0.5524

x 100 %

= 80.02 %

Total

= 100.00 %

19.From the analysis of a coal sample taken during a test it is estimated that the
as-fired total carbon was 76.5% and free hydrogen was 4.7%. From other
tests C = 0.7263, Orsat: C0 2, 10.53; O2, 3.74; CO, 0.49; N2, 85.24. Find A:F
ratio.
Solution:
From Equation 5-15, p.139

N2

85.24

A:F = 3.03 C( CO 2+ CO ) = 3.03 (0.7263) ( 10.53+ 0.49 ) =


17.0

kg air
kg coal

ans.

25.A coal as designated from table 5-4 is burned in a pulverized coal furnace
with 20% excess air. Preheated air temperature, 148.9C; furnace outlet
temperature, 1010C. No incomplete combustion. Calculate the kJ absorbed
by the gases leaving the furnace, per kg coal.
Solution:
Again, Let us make use of coal no.1 :
Sulphur..
0.57 %
Hydrogen.
2.70 %
Carbon..
86.37 %
Nitrogen..
0.91 %

Oxygen.
Ash..
Theoretical air required

3.55 %
5.9 %

= 11.5 C + 34.5 (H -

O
8 ) + 4.3 S

= 11.5 (0.8637) + 34.5 (0.027 -

0.0355
)+
8

4.3 (0.0057)

kg air
kg coal

= 10.735

With complete combustion and 20 % excess air:


Products of combustion are
CO2 = 3.67

= 3.17

kg CO 2
kg C

(0.8637

kg CO 2
kg coal
H 2O = 9

= 0.243

= 0.0114

kg H 2 O
kg H 2

(0.027

kg Hz
kg Coal )

(0.0057

kg S
kg coal )

kg H 2 O
kg coal
SO2 = 2

kg SO 2
kg S

kg SO 2
kg coal
N2 = 1.2 x 10.735

kg N 2
kg coal

= 4.902

kg air
kg coal

(0.768

kg N 2
kg air ) + 0.0091

kg N 2
kg coal

O2 = 0.2 x 10.735

= 0.498

kg C
kg coal )

kg air
kg coal

(0.232

kg O2
kg air )

kg O 2
kg coal

Weight of dry flue gas (CO2, N2 and O2)


= 3.17 + 4.902 + 0.498
= 13.57 kg per kg coal
From Figure 5-5, p.138 at 1010 C, The specific heat:

kcal
kg C

For water vapour is 0.51

kcal

For Carbon dioxide is 0.27 kg C


For Oxygen is 0.249

kcal
kg C

For Nitrogen is 0.267

kcal
kg C

For specific heat of mixture

kg CO 2
kg coal

mtc = 3.17

kcal
kg C ) + 9.902

kg N 2
kg coal

mtc = 3.6237

kcal
kg O 2
)
+
0.498
kg C
kg coal

(0.27

(0.267

kcal
kg C )

kcal
kg coal C

kcal
kg coal C
kg dry gas
( 3.17+ 0.498+9.902 )
kg coal
3.6237

c=

(0.249

= 0.267

kcal
kg C

Sensible Heat absorbed by products of combustion


= Sensible Heat absorbed by dry flue gas + sensible heat
absorbed by water vapor.
= 13.57

kg gas
kg coal

= (3120 + 107)
= 3227

(0.267

kcal
kg gas C ) (1010 148.9)

kcal
kg coal

kcal
kg coal

Latent heat in products:


= mass of H2O vapour (hfg)
hfg = latent heat of vaporization of water at
148.9 C
= 560
Thus,

kcal
kg

Latent Heat = 0.243

kg H 2 O
kg coal

(560

kcal

kg H 2 O

= 136.1

kcal
kg coal
Therefore:
Total heat absorbed by products of combustion are 3227

kcal
kg coal

+ 136.1

kcal
kg coal
= 3363.1

kcal
kg coal

ans.