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Tuyn chon cac

Bt ng Thc
Hay va kho
tac gia :Trinh inh Trin lp 10A6
THPT ng Thuy Anh Thai Binh

Bi ton 1:cho cc s khng m a,b,c sao cho a2+b2+c2+abc=4 t M=min[(a-b)2;(b-c)2;(c-a)2]


chng minh rng : a+b+c3-

2
4

Li gii:
Trc ht ta chng minh a+b+c3 tht vy gi s a+b+c 3
9

*Nu 2(ab+bc+ca)a2+b2+c2 <=> (a+b+c)2 2(a2+b2+c2) th a2+b2+c2 2>4:v l


*nu 2(ab+bc+ca)a2+b2+c2 th p dng BT schur bc 3 ta c a2+b2+c2+abc
a2+b2+c2+

(++)[2(++)2 2 2 ]
9

2(+++2 +2 + 2 )
3

Quay li bi ton gi s BT cho la sai tc l a+b+c3-

2
4

4 v l vi vy a+b+c 3.

by gi :

*Trc ht ta chng minh (a-b)2+(b-c)2+(c-a)2 6 tht vy khng mt tng qut gi s a


0 ; 0 = min[(a-b)2;(b-c)2] t o d thy (a-b)2+(b-c)2+(c-a)2=2(ab)2+2(b-c)2+2(a-b)(b-c) 6 tip theo
Ta chng minh 2(ab+bc+ca+a2+b2+c2)4(a+b+c)+M tht vy BT<=>
2(ab+bc+ca+a2+b2+c2)tri=

4(++)2
3

()2 +()2 +()2


3

4(++)(3)
3

+M :ng vi v

2 + = 2 chng minh iu gi s l sai ta

s cm BT u bai ng tht vt xt cac trng hp sau:


+nu 2(ab+bc+ca)a2+b2+c2 d thy 8 2(a2+b2+c2)(a+b+c)2 ngoi ra v M
(++)2
6
(++)2
6

(++)2
6

2 +2 + 2
2

ta c 12-4(a+b+c)-M10-4(a+b+c)+
4

10 82 + 3 > 0

nu 2(ab+bc+ca)a2+b2+c2 p dng bt schur bc 4 ta c 3(a2+b2+c2+abc)


3(a2+b2+c2)+

(+++2 +2 + 2 )[2(++)2 2 2 ]
2(++)

3(a2+b2+c2)+ 2(ab+bc+ca)a2+b2+c2

ta ch cn ch ra 2(ab+bc+ca+a2+b2+c2)4(a+b+c)+M
nhng BT nay c chng minh trn vy iu gi s l sai tc la BT cho ng
Bi ton 2:cho cc s khng m a,b,c sao cho a2 b2 +b2 c2 +a2 c2+3 a2 b2 c2=6 chng minh rng
a+b+c 3

Li gii:gi s ngc li a+b+c=3 ta s chng minh a2 b2 +b2 c2 +a2 c2+3 a2 b2 c2 6 tht vy


t q=ab+bc+ca va r=abc BT trn tng ng q2-6r+3r2 6 r
1 2-3r 6 :
9

*4q 9 2 (4)2 6 ngay iu cn cm


*4q 9 3 3 4 9 nn ta ch vic cm q2-(4q-9)-6 0 <=
>(q-1)(q-3) 0: 1 3. Vy iu gi s l sai ta phi c a+b+c 3
Bi ton 3: cho cc s dng x,y,z chng minh rng:
2 +

2 ++ 2

2 +

2 +

+ 2 ++ 2 + 2 ++ 2 6

Li gii: chng ta s s dng bai toan 2 chng minh bai nay nhng vi 1 cht ci tin :t
3 2 +3

3 2 +3

3 2 +3

a=2 2 +2+2 2 ; b=2 2 +2+2 2 v c=2 2 +2+2 2 ta cn chng minh a+b+c


3 . 2 ta s chng minh a2 b2 +b2 c2 +a2 c2+3 a2 b2 c2 6 vy BT nay tng
ng vi (sau khi quy ng ):
6(2+yz)(y2+zx)(x2+xy+y2)+27(x2+yz)(y2+zx)(z2+xy) 16 (2+xy+y2)Ta c
*6(2+yz)(y2+zx)(x2+xy+y2)=6 3y3+ 6 2y2(x2+y2)+ 6 (5+z5)
+6xyz(x+y+z)(xy+yz+zx)+6xyz(x+y+z)( x2+y2+z2)+6xyz(x3+y3+z3)
*27(x2+yz)(y2+zx)(z2+xy)=54x2y2z2+27 3y3+27xyz(x3+y3+z3) v
16 (2+xy+y2)=16 2y2(x2+y2)+16xyz(x3+y3+z3)+48x2y2z2+32xyz[ (x+y)]
+16 3y3 t cac ng thc khai trin trn ta quy BT li l
17 3y3+6 (5+z5)+24 x2y2z2-10 2y2(x2+y2)20xyz[ (x+y)]+23xyz(x3+y3+z3) 0<=>
2 (-y)2(3x2+xy+3y2)+20xyz[x3+y3+z3- (x+y)+3xyz]+3xyz(x3+y3+z3-3xyz)+
9( 3y3-3 x2y2z2) 0: theo BT schur va am-gm. Nh vy ta chng minh c S=a2
b2 +b2 c2 +a2 c2+3 a2 b2 c2 6 by gi gi s a+b+c<3 t o t ka=m;kb=n va kc=p trong o
3

k=++ > 1 lc ny m+n+p=3 va m2n2+n2p2+p2m2+3m2n2p2> a2 b2 +b2 c2 +a2 c2+3 a2 b2 c2


6 ma theo bi 2 khi m+n+p=3thi m2n2+n2p2+p2m2+3m2n2p2 6: do o
a+b+c3(PCM)

Bi ton 4:cho cc s thc a,b,c [1; 1] tha mn + + + +

+ =0

Tm gi tr ln nht v nh nht ca P=a+b+c


Li gii:thc s khi ng trc cc bi hnh thc gon nh nhng t khe hlc bt tay vo lm
nhiu lc ta gp b tc va o la lc cn nhin no di goc khac tim c khe h. quay li
bi ton:khng mt tnh tng qut gi s ab 0
1

t a+ =x ; b+ =y v c+ = th th x+y+z=0 v x2;y2;z2 4 hn na x ,y,z theo th t


cng du vi a,b,c v ngoi ra gii cac phng trinh bc 2 qua php t trn ta c a=
2 4

;b=

;c =

(+)(+)2 4

t :

2
+ 2 4

+ 2 4

(*)Nu -1a ,b< 0 th a=

2 4

; b=

v c=

(+)(+)2 4
2

va nh th ta c

2P=2(a+b+c)= 2 4 + 2 4 ( + )2 4<0
(*)nu 0<a,b 1 a=

2 4

2 4

;b=

v c=

(+)+(+)2 4
2

Do o 2P=2(a+b+c)= ( + )2 4 2 4 2 4>0 t o ta ch cn tm min trong


TH1 v max trong TH2 d thy min va max i nhau ngoi ra tH2 dng chng minh vi
x,y2 th( + )2 4 2 4 2 4 23 tht vy gi s x
( + )2 4 2 + 4x + 2 4 bnh phng 2 v
BT<=>x(y-2)- 2 + 4x . 2 4 0: mt khc 2 + 4x ( 2 4 + 23)2=4(x2)- 43. 2 4 0 .Vy minP=-3 v max P = 3du = cc bn t tm
5: , ,
3

+ + + + + + 7

( + )( + )( + )( + + )
24

Li gii: vi moi a,b dng thi 8(a+b) ( + )4 lam tng t vi bc v ca ri nhn li


ta c 83 ( + )( + )( + ) ( + )4 t y lu la

(+)(+)(+) 4 (++) 3 (+)(+)(+) 1/7


) . 3 .
]
8
8

VP=7[ .(
3

+4

(+)
64

(++) 3 (+)(+)(+)
3

(+)(+)
3

2(++)
3

= + + + + + + .BT c chng minh du= xy ra


Khi v ch khi a=b=c
Bi ton 6: cho cc s khng m x,y,z v xy+yz+zx> 0 chng minh rng :
2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2

+z+ 2 + 2 + 2
Li gii: khng mt tng qut gi s z th th
2 ( ) + 2 ( ) + khc ta c
2 + 2
c 2 BT u<=>

v 2 + 2 + 2

2
3()2
4

+2
2

(binh phng 2 v ri tr i

0:hin nhin ng) do o :

2 + 2 2 + 2 + 2 =

(+)

2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2

(+)
+ +2
+
2
2

=z suy ra 2 + 2

2 + 2 + 2 + ta c pcm
Bai toan 6: cho cac s thc x,y,z [1; 1] va x+y+z=0 tim gia tr nh nht ca
P=1 + + 2 + 1 + + 2 + 1 + + 2
Li gii:
Ta chng minh P 3 tht vy binh phng 2 v bt<=>
2 +2 1 + + 2 . 1 + + 2 6 ap dng bt Cauchy_schwart ta co:
2 1 + + 2 . 1 + + 2 2 1 + . 1 + +2 || ta quy v cm bt
2 +2 1 + . 1 + +2 || 6 gi bt i xng cho x,y,z nn ko mt tng quat gi s
x xt cac th sau:

()1 + . 1 + 1 khi o d thy 2 1 + . 1 +


2 (1 + )(1 + )=6+2(xy+yz+xz)=6-x2-y2-z2 suy ra bt ng
(*)1 + . 1 + 1 ta co 2y + = 1 anh gia:
()2

21 + . 1 + =2-z-(1++1+)2 2
()2

21 + . 1 + =2-y-(1++1+)2 2

()2
4

va

2()2
3

()2

21 + . 1 + =2-x-(1++1+)2 2 ( )2 cng tng ng v v 3 bt trn ri


thay li vao bt cn cm ta quy v chng minh
3()2
4

2()2
3

(|| ||)2 0 thay z=-x-y va lu (|| ||)2 + (|| ||)2 x2+y2

bt cui ta ch cn cm

2
12

+2|xy| 12y20 nhng bt nay hin nhin ng .min=3 khi

x=y=z=0
2

Bai toan 7:Cho cac s thc a,b,c (3 ; 1] tim Gia tr ln nht ca :


2

9(ab) 3
16b c
6a 6b 8
P 2
2

2
2
2
2
a 3b c 1 2a 4b c 1 18ab 9a 9b 4
<Dinh de Tai>
Li gii:
Ap dng Bt am_gm va cauchy_schwart ta co:
2

16b c (2b c 1) 2 va 9(ab) 3 (a b 1)2 do o P

(a b 1)2
(2b c 1) 2
6a 6b 8
2

mt khac ta co:
2
2
2
2
2
a 3b c 1 2a 4b c 1 18ab 9a 9b 4
a2
b2
1
(a b 1) 2

a 2 b2 b2 c 2 b2 1
a 2 3b 2 c 2 1
(2b c 1)2
b2
c2
b2
1
2 2 2 2 2 2
VA
do o
2
2
2
2a 4b c 1 a b b c 2b a 1

5
1
1
6a 6b 8
2
2

mt khac vi moi a,b dng va 1ta co:


2 a 1 b 1 18ab 9a 9b 4

(ab 1)(a b)2


1
1
2

<=>
0:ung . ngoai ra lu y rng :
a 2 1 b 2 1 ab 1
(ab 1)(a 2 1)(b2 1)
18ab 9a 9b 4 2(3a 2)(3b 2) (3a 2) (3b 2) do o:

2
2

6a 6b 8
3a 2 3b 2
1
1
18ab 9a 9b 4

2
3a 2 3b 2
anh gia trn suy ra P

4
(3a 2)(3b 2)
2
t cac

2
(3
a

2)(3
b

2)

1
2
(3a 2)(3b 2)

5
2
2

tip theo t
2 ab 1
(3a 2)(3b 2) 1

(a 1)(a 2) 0 a 2 3a 2 tng t b 2 3b 2 nhn v v suy ra ab


5

(3 2)(3 2) t y kt lun P 2 du=khi a=b=c=1


1 1 1
Bai toan 8:cho cac s dng a,b,c thoa man (a b c)( ) =10 tim gia tri ln nht cua:
a b c

3
4
3 3 3 < thy Trn Quc Lut>
ab bc ca a b c

Li giai:
Khng mt tinh tng quat gia s th thi (b-a)(b-c) 0<=>b2+ca ( + )
Ma b2 ca b(c a) <=>

b a a
b c c
1 va 1 cng tng ng v v ta co
a b a
c b c

a b
a c
b c
a c
( ) ( ) ( ) 2( ) 1 mt khac ta co :
b a
c a
c b
c a

1 1 1
a b
a c
b c
(a b) 2 (b c) 2 (c a) 2 )
(a b c)( ) 10 ( ) ( ) ( ) 7

1
a b c
b a
c a
c b
ab
bc
ca
a c 5
suy ra hay a2c ap dung BT Cauchy_schwart ta co:
c a 2

1 1 1
(a b)2 (b c)2 (c a) 2 ) (2a b c) 2 (b c) 2
(a b c)( ) 10 1

a b c
ab
bc
ca
a(b c)
bc
7

4a 2 5a(b c) (b c) 2

a(b c)(b c)2


0 (**) suy ra a + by gi ta se chng minh:
bc

5(a 2 b2 c 2 ) 6(ab bc ca) <=> 5a 2 6a(b c) 5(b2 c 2 ) 6bc 0 tht vy ta xet:


(+) nu ( + ) 4 thi t (*) ta co 4a 2 5a(b c) (b c)2 4(b c)2 0 ta co :

5a 2 6a(b c) 5(b2 c 2 ) 6bc 4a 2 5a(b c) 5(b2 c 2 ) 6bc a(a b c) 0


(+)nu 4 ( + ) lu y a(b c) 3bc c(a b) b(a 2c) 0 nn t (*) ta co :

4a 2 5a(b c) (b c)2 3(b c)2 0 <=> 5a 2


5a 2 6a(b c) 5(b 2 c 2 ) 6bc 5a 2

25
a (b c) 5(b 2 c 2 bc) 0 ta co:
4

25
4bc ab ac
a(b c) 5(b 2 c 2 bc)
0
4
4

B c chng minh quay lai bai toan ap dung gia thit va b ta co:

27(ab bc ca)(a b c)
10
48
27
128
5
1
( a b c )3 ( a b c )3
(a b c) 2
(a b c)3 (d
(a b c)3 ta co P
5
32
5
32
5
a 3 b3 c3 (a b c)3 3(a b c)(ab bc ca ) 3abc (a b c )3

dang chng minh) max P=5 khi (a,b,c)=(2;1;1)


Bai toan 9:Cho cac s thc dng a,b,c chng minh rng:

2(

a 2 b2 c 2
a 2 b2 c 2
) 3(a b c) 15
b
c a
abc
Li giai:

BT <=> 2(a3c c3b b3a) abc[15

a 2 b2 c2
3(a b c)] by gi chun hoa a+b+c=3
abc

( a b c) 2
(*)nu ab bc ca 1 hay ab bc ca
.gi s b nm gia a va c hay (b-a)(b-c) 0 xet
9
BT bai : tr hai v i 5(a+b+c) ri bin i ta co BT <=>

2[

(a b)2 (b c) 2 (c a) 2
(a b) 2 (b c) 2 (c a) 2

]5
ap dung BT cauchy-schwart:
b
c
a
a bc

(a c)2 (c a)2
2(a c)2 (a b c) 18(a c)2

V phi va BT hin nhin ng


V trai 2[

]
abc
bc
a
a(b c)
8

(*)khi ab+bc+ca1 quay li BT ban u t q ab bc ca; r abc ta co

15(a 2 b 2 c 2 )
abc[
3(a b c)] = r[6 10(3 q )] va:
abc
2(a3c c3b b3a) (ab bc ca)(a 2 b2 c 2 ) abc(a b c) (a b c)(a b)(b c)(c a)
q(9 2q) 3r 3(a b)(b c)(c a) suy ra ta chi cn chng minh bai toan khi a b c lu y la
(a b)2 (b c)2 (c a)2 4(3 q)3 27(q 2 r )2 vit lai BT a cho la:
q(9 2q) 3r r[6 10(3 q)] 3 4(3 q)3 27( q 2 r ) 2 tip theo t:
t 3 q 0; s q 2 r r 1 s t thay vao bt a cho va thu gon ta cn chng minh:

4t 3
ta co
8t 2t s(9 10t ) 3 4t 27 s (*) khi s
27
2

8t 2 2t s(9 10t ) 8t 2 2t 2

t 10t
t
t3
(9 10t ) 2t (1
)(
2
1) 0 do o
27
3 3
3

(*)<=> G( s) s 2 [(9 10t )2 243] 2s(8t 2 2t )(9 10t ) (8t 2 2t ) 2 36t 3 0


Ta co s (8t 2 2t ) 2 (9 10t ) 2 [(8t 2 2t ) 2 36t 3 ][243 (9 10t ) 2 ]

s 0 243(8t 2 2t ) 2 36t 3[(9 10t ) 2 243] <=> (4t 1) 2 t[9 3(1

<=>

10t 2
) ]
9

100t 3 28t 2
100t 2
1 t (27 2t )
2t )

4t 1 0 <=> (2 t )(
0
27
27
2
3
54

.Bai toan 10:cho cac s thc dng a,b,c sao cho (a 1)(b 1)(c 1) 1 4abc
chng minh rng: 1 abc a b c
Li giai:

1
1
1
t a ; b ; c bai toan tr thanh: cho cac s thc dng x,y,z sao cho:
x
y
z
x y z xy yz zx 3 chng minh xyz 1 xy yz zx . Khng mt tng quat gia s
th thi x, y 1 ta co xyz 1 xy yz zx z (1 x)(1 y ) 1 z xy
Khi z xy 1 thi BT hin nhin trai lai kt hp gia thit ta co ( z 1)( x y ) 2 x y

2
z 1

(+)Nu 1 ta co xyz 1 xy yz zx xy ( z 1) 1 z ( x y ) d thy nu z ( x y ) 1 BT ung


trai lai t gia thit => x y z xy 2 z yz 1 1 x y z (1 x y xy ) z (1 x)(1 y )
(+)khi z 1 ta co xy ( z 1) 2 xy

xyz 1 z ( x y ) xy 1

x y z xy yz zx
1 va
3

2z
xy (1 z ) 0.BT c chng minh
z 1

Bai 11:cho cac s thc dng a,b,c thoa man ( a 1)(b 1)(c 1) 1 4abc
chng minh rng: abc

5 1
abc
2
Li giai:

t nh bai trn bai toan tr thanh: cho x,y,z dng va x y z xy yz zx 3

5 1
xyz 1 xy yz zx . Nu xy yz zx 1 BT hin nhin Khi xy yz zx 1
2
suy ra x y z 2 .t p x y z; q xy yz zx; va r xyz ta co p+q=3 va cn cng minh :
Chng minh:

5 1
5 1
) ap dung BT shur bc 4:
r 1 q ta co p 2 3 p 3q 3 p 9 p 3(
2
2

(4q p 2 )( p 2 q)
6p

( 5 1)

(2 p)(6 p)( p 2 p 3)
ap dung ta chi vic chng minh:
6p

(2 p)(6 p)( p 2 p 3)
q 1 2 p hay
12 p

F ( p) ( 5 1)(6 p)( p 2 p 3) 12 p 0 ta co

F ( p) ( 5 1)(3 p 2 14 p 3) 12

3( 5 1)
27
) 0 BT
21 3 12 0 suy ra F ( p) F (
2
4

c chng minh du= xy ra khi a=b=c

Bai 12: cho cac s dng a,b,c chng minh rng:


2

ab
bc
ca
a
b
c
9 3 abc
2
2

(c a )(b c)
(c a )(a b)
(b c)(a b) b c c a a b a b c
Li giai:
10

a
c
b
abc
va z
lu y rng:
x 2 y 2 z 2 va
;y
(a b)(b c)(c a)
bc
ab
ac

( a b c )3
a
b
c
abc
x2 y 2 z 2 2 x2 y 2 z 2

2
(a b)(b c)(c a) b c a c a b
(a b)(b c)(c a)
nn:

abc
x 2 . y 2 .z 2
3
t y vit lai BT cn chng minh la:

( a b c )3
x 2 y 2 z 2 2 x 2 . y 2 .z 2

4( xy yz zx) 2( x 2 y 2 z 2 ) 9 3

(*) 2

(*)

x 2 . y 2 .z 2
ta co anh gia:
x 2 y 2 z 2 2 x 2 . y 2 .z 2

ab
a
b
a
c
3

3 xy yz zx
(c a)(c b)
ca
bc
ca
ca
2

b c 2 (c a)(c b) <=> a3 b3 c3 3abc a2 (b c) :ung theo BT schur bc 3


a

ab

Suy ra x 2 y 2 z 2 2( x 2 y 2 y 2 z 2 z 2 x 2 ) mt khac ap dung BT schur bc 4 ta co:

2( xy yz zx) x 2 y 2 z 2

6 xyz ( x y z )
t o ta chi vic chng minh:
x y 2 z 2 xy yz zx
2

27
xyz ( x y z )3
d thy

64( x 2 y 2 z 2 2 x 2 y 2 z 2 ) ( x 2 y 2 z 2 xy yz zx)3
x2 y 2 z 2

1 x2 y 2 y 2 z 2 z 2 x2 1 x2 y 2 z 2


nn
2
2
2
4

x2 y 2 z 2 2 x2 y 2 z 2

5( x 2 y 2 z 2 ) 3 9( x 2 y 2 z 2 )

ta con phai chng minh:
4
2
4

3
xyz ( x y z )3
ap dung BT am_gm ta co:

16( x 2 y 2 z 2 ) ( x 2 y 2 z 2 xy yz zx)3
( x 2 y 2 z 2 xy yz zx)2 4( xy yz zx)( x 2 y 2 z 2 ) va 3xyz ( x y z ) ( xy yz zx)2
suy ra V phai

( x y z )2 ( xy yz zx)
( x y z )2

12( x 2 y 2 z 2 )( x 2 y 2 z 2 xy yz zx) 4( x 2 y 2 z 2 )[2( x 2 y 2 z 2 ) 3]

ta chi cn chng minh 6( x 2 y 2 z 2 ) 9 4( x y z )2 :ung vi xy yz zx 3

Bai 13:cho cac s thc khng m a,b,c chng minh:

11

a 2 bc 3 b 2 ca 3 c 2 ab
1

2 3
2
2
2
2
2
2
b c
a c
a b
2
Li giai:

Khng mt tinh tng quat gia s a b c ta co:

(*)Nu: a 2 3b 2 2c 2 ta chng minh

a 2 bc 3 b 2 ca 3 a 2 c 2 3 b 2 c 2

2 2 xet:
b2 c 2
a2 c2
b2 c2
a c

c 2 ab b 2 c 2

c 4 c 2b(a b) b(a 3 a 2b b3 ) 0
a 2 b2 a 2 c 2

:ung vi a3 a 2b b3 3 3b3 4b3 0 ta c VT

a2 c2
b2 c 2
3

2
. t
b2 c 2
a2 c2

a2 c2 3
t2 2
2
1
2

F
(
t
)

3
xet:
co
F
(
t
)

0 => F (t ) f ( 3 3) 3 3 3 2 3
2
2
2
t
b c
t
3
2

(*)Nu: a 2 3b 2 2c 2 ta chng minh

(a 2 c 2 )(b 2 c 2 )
c 2 ab

a 2 b2
a 2 b 2 2c 2

(a 2 c 2 )(b 2 c 2 )
c 2 ab

(c 2 ab)2 (a 2 b2 2c 2 )2 (a 2 b2 )2 (c 4 c 2 (a 2 b2 ) a 2 .b2 )
2
2
2
2
2
a b
a b 2c
4
2
2
4c (c ab) 4c 2 (a 2 b2 )(c 2 ab) 2 c 2 (a 2 b2 ) 2 (a b) 2 0 :ung vi
c 2 (a 2 b2 )2 (a b)2 c 2 (a 2 b2 )(a 2 b2 )2 4c 2 (a 2 b2 )(b 2 c 2 )2 4c 2 (a 2 b 2 )(c 2 ab)2 ta
c VT

a 2 c 2 3 b2 c 2
2 2
b2 c 2
a c
3

f (t ) t 2

1
a2 c2
b2 c 2

b2 c 2
c2 a2

t t 6

a2 c2
1 th thi VT
b2 c 2

1
1

ta co:
2
3 3
1
t
t 3
t

2(t 4 1)

t3

t 6 1
2(t 4 1) t 6 1 (t 2 1)(2t 6 t 4 t 2 1)

7
0
4
t3
t
t7
1 3
4
3
t .(t 3 )
t
1
nn f (t ) f (1) 2 3 (PCM)
2
f (t )

Bai 14:cho cac s thc khng m a,b,c chng minh rng:

12

a 2 bc
b 2 ca
c 2 ab

b2 c2
a2 c2
b2 a 2

2(a 2 b 2 c 2 )
1

ab bc ca
2
Li giai:

a 2 bc
b 2 ac
a2 c2
b2 c 2

2 2
Khng mt tinh tng quat gia s: a b c d thy:
b2 c 2
a2 c2
b2 c 2
a c
Mt khac:

2(a 2 b 2 c 2 )
2(a 2 b 2 2c 2 )
(vi hin nhin ab bc ca (a 2 c 2 )(b 2 c 2 ) )

2
2
2
2
ab b ca
(a c )(b c )

(*)TH1:nu a 2 3b 2 2c 2 tng t bai 13 ta co


minh f (t ) t

f ( 3)

c 2 ab b 2 c 2
t cac anh gia ta quy bt v chng

a 2 b2 a 2 c 2

a2 c2
2
1
1
3 d co f(t) ng bin ngoai ra
2(t )
0 trong o t
b2 c 2
t
t
2
8
1

>0 ta co pcm
3
2

(*)nu a 2 3b 2 2c 2 thi

(a 2 c 2 )(b 2 c 2 )
c 2 ab

(theo bai 13) do o ta chi vic chng minh:


a 2 b2
a 2 b 2 2c 2
(a 2 c 2 )(b 2 c 2 )
a2 c2
b2 c2
1

2(

)
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
a b 2c
b c
a c
2

a2 c2
b2 c 2

b2 c 2
a2 c2

Bai 15:Cho cac s thc dng a,b,c chng minh rng :

a3
b3
c3
a 3 b3 c 3

b 2 8c 2
c 2 8a 2
a 2 8a 2
a 2 b2 c2
Li giai:
Ap dung BT holder ta co VT 2 . (2a b)3 (b2 8c2 ) (2 a2 ab)3 vy ta cn phai chng

minh: (2 a2 ab)3 (a2 b2 c2 ) (a3 b3 c3 ) (2a b)3 (b2 8c2 ) y la bt rt kho minh
a c gng nhng cach chng minh khng c tt cac ban thng cam:
Ta co D=
=

(2a b) (b
3

8c2 ) (8a3 12a2b 6b2 a b3 )(b2 8c2 )

6 a4c 16 a3b2 76 a3.c2 144abc(a b c) =

13

3 ab(a3 b3 ) 45 a3 (b2 c2 ) 144abc(a b c) 3( a 2 11 ab)(a b)(b c)(c a)

Do o ta chi cn chng minh bai toan khi chun hoa a+b+c=3 t


p a b c 3; q ab bc ca; r abc lu y

(a b)2 (b c) 2 (c a) 2

4( p 2 3q)3 (2 p3 9 pq 27) 2
= 4(3 q)3 27(q 2 r )2 t o khng
27

my kho khn ta biu din c theo p,q,r thi

D= 135q 2 r (810 108q) 9(9 q)(3 q) 27(q 1) 4(3 q)3 27(q 2 r ) 2

Bt tr thanh

27(6 q)3 (9 2q) (27 9q 3r )[135q 2 r (810 108q) 9(9 q)(3 q) 27( q 1) 4(3 q )3 27(q 2 r ) 2 ]
(**)Nu 2 thi 4(3 q)3 27(q 2 r )2 9q 2 4q3 54(q 2)r 27r 2 9q 2 4q 3 ta chi cn
chng minh :

27(6 q)3 (9 2q) (27 9q 3r )[135q2 9(9 q)(3 q) r (810 108q) 27q(q 1) 9 4q ] lu
y vi 2 thi F(r)= (27 9q 3r )[135q2 9(9 q)(3 q) r (810 108q) 27q(q 1) 9 4q ] la
ham nghich bin theo r nn F(r) (0)= 9(3 q)[135q2 9(9 q)(3 q) 27q(q 1) 9 4q ] Mt
khac q 9 4q

3 3
3 ta chi vic chng minh
2

(6 q)3 (9 2q) (3 q)[45q 2 3(9 q)(3 q) 27(q 1)] = \(3 q)[42q 2 9q 108]
t u=2 0 Bt tr thanh (u 4)3 (5 2u ) (u 1))(42u 2 177u 294) chng minh khng kho
xin danh ban oc
( **)khi q 2 vit lai BT cn chng minh:
27(6 q)3 (9 2q) (27 9q 3r )[135q 2 r (810 108q) 9(9 q)(3 q) 27( q 1) 4(3 q )3 27(q 2 r ) 2 ]

t t 3 q 1; s q 2 r q 3 t va r=1-s-t ta co :
V Phai= 27(t 3)3 (3 2t ) va V TRai= 3(1 s 2t ).K trong o :

K= 135(3 t )2 (1 s t )(486 108t ) 9t (12 t ) 24(4 t ) 4t 3 27 s 2


= 234t 2 324t 729 27(4 t ) 4t 3 27 s 2 t o ta cn chng minh

14

(3 t )3 (3 2t ) [26t 2 36t 81 3(4 t ) 4t 3 27 s 2 s(12t 54)](1 s 2t ) hay


G(s) s 2 (54 12t ) s(156t 2t 2 27) 2t 4 31t 3 127t 2 9t 3(4 t )(1 s 2t ) 4t 3 27 s 2 0
d thy G(s) s(156t 2t 2 27) 2t 4 31t 3 127t 2 9t 3(4 t )(1 s 2t ) 4t 3 27 s 2
(*)nu s0 ta chng minh

(98t 2 9t ) 2 72t 3 (4 t ) 2 (1 2t ) 2 (
D thy bt ung vi t1 ngoai ra lu y

98
t 3) 2 8t (4t 4 28t 3 33t 2 56t 16) (1)
3

243(4 t ) 2 (1 2t ) 2 |1562 27 2t 2 | (2) va hn na

G(s) s(156t 27 2t 2 ) 98t 2 9t 3(4 t )(1 2t ) 4t 3 27 s 2 0


q(s) s 2 (156t 27 2t 2 )2 243s 2 (4 t )2 (1 2t )2 2(98t 2 9t )(156t 27 2t 2 )
(98t 2 9t )2 36(4 t )2 (1 2t ) 2 0 theo anh gia (1) va (2) ta co:

q( s) 2s 2 (156t 27 2t 2 ) 2 2s(98t 2 9t )(156t 27 2t 2 )

(98t 2 9t ) 2
0
2

(*)nu s0 ta xet:

1
thi s(156t 27 2t 2 ) 0 mt khac 3(4 t )(1 s 2t ) 4t 3 27 s 2 3(4 t )(1 3t ) 4t 3
5

Va theo( 1) (98t 2 9t )2 72t 3 (4 t )2 (1 2t )2 36(4 t )2 (1 3t ) 2 (3) suy ra bt ung

1
ta chng minh c (98t 2 9t )2 72t 3 (4 t )2 (1 3t ) 2 ta chi cn chng minh:
5

98t 2 9t s(156t 27 2t 2 ) 3(4 t )(1 3t ) 4t 3 27 s 2 s dung (3) va lam tng t nh trn ta d


dang co PCM. By gi xin b sung thiu sot ta cn phai chng minh 98t 2 9t s(156t 27 2t 2 ) 0
nhng Khi s 2

4t (156t 27 2t 2 ) 2
4t 3
2
(98
t

9)

vic chng minh


vi t 1 dang.
27
27

Bai toan 16:Cho n 3 s thc : x1 x2 ... xn sao cho:

x1 x2 ... xn 0

15

x12 x22 ... xn2 n(n 1) tim min cua P x1 x2 ( trich VN TST -2011) (p/s:bai nay con hoi max
nhng max tim n gian xin danh ban oc ,chung ta quan tm n min hn)
Li giai
(*)Vi n=3, nu: x3 1 thi x1 x2 1 xet vi 1 x3 0 :
T: ( x1 x3 )( x2 x3 ) 0 x1 x2 2 x32 2 suy ra :

6 x12 x22 x32 2( x1 x2 ) 2 2 x1 x2 2( x1 x2 ) 2 4 x1 x2 1


Mt khac cho ( x1; x2 ; x3 ) (2; 1; 1) thi P=1 vy khi n=3 min P=1
(*) vi n 4 gia s x1 x2 ... xk 0 xk 1 xk 2 ... xn trong o 1 k n 1 ta lai xet:
(+)vi k 3 thi : n(n 1) x12 x22 ... xk2 xk21 ... xn2 x12 x22 ... xk2 ( xk 1 xk 2 ... xn ) 2

x12 x22 ... xk2 ( x1 x2 ... xk ) 2 x12 x22 (k 2) x32 ( x1 x2 (k 2) x3 ) 2


2( x12 x1.x2 x22 ) x3 ( x1 x2 ) (2k 5) x3 ( x1 x2 ) (k 1)(k 2) x32

( x1 x2 ) 2 (2

2k 5 (k 1)(k 2)
n(n 1)

) ( x1 x2 ) 2 (
) suy ra x1 x2 2
2
4
4

(+) vi k=2: n(n 1) x12 x22 ... xn2 ( x1 x2 ) 2 ( x3 x4 ... xn ) 2 = 2( x1 x2 ) 2


Suy ra x1 x2

n(n 1)
62
2

(+)vi k=1 nu n 5 thi n(n-1) x12 ( x2 x3 x4 ... xn ) 2 2 x12 suy ra x1

n(n 1)
>3
2

x2 x3 ... xn (n 2) x1 9

2 .xet Khi n=4. Gia s x1 3 x2 x3 x4 3


n 1
n 1
4
nhng x22 x32 x42 12 x12 3 :mu thun (d dang co) Do o x1 3 ta co
Ma P x1 x2

12 x12 x22 x32 x42 x12 x22 ( x3 x4 )2 2 x3 .x4 x12 x22 ( x1 x2 ) 2 2 x22 2 x1 ( x1 x2 )

6( x1 x2 ) hay x1 x2 2 .ma x1 x2 ... xn1 1; xn 1 n thi P=2.vy khi n 4 thi min P=2
Bai toan 17:Cho cac s thc dng a, b, c, x, y , z va s nguyn dng K 1 chng minh rng:

16

2x
ab
x y

a,

b, k 1

2y
bc
yz

2z
ac a b c
xz

2x k
2y k
2z k
a b k 1
b c k 1
c a abc
x y
yz
zx
Li giai:
2

2x
2z
x
z
b
c
b
c
2 a
x y
z x x y
zx
y
x
2y

b
c
bc
a, VP-VT=
4
2
x y
zx
yz

y
x
b
c
x y
zx

ta chi cn co 2

2y
xy
bc 2
bc
yz
( x y )( z x )

xy

( x y )( z x)

2y
bc t o chng minh VT-VP 0
yz

2y
0 2 x( y z ) ( x y )( x z ) ( x y )( z x) 0
yz

tuy no khng ung nhng bng cach tng t trn ta lai quy c BT v chng minh :

( x y )( y z ) 0 va ( z x)( y z ) 0 nhng:

( z x)( y z ).( x y)( y z ).( x y)( z x) ( x y) 2 ( y z) 2 ( z x) 2 0 suy ra it nht 1 trong 3 BT


trn la ung ta co PCM
b, vi k=1 a chng minh trn, xet vi k 2 ap dung BT am-gm ta co

(k 1)a

2x
ab
x y

2x
2 x k 1
ab (k 2) k 2
a b (1)
x y
x y

(k 1)b

2y
bc
yz

2y
2 k 1
bc (k 2) k 2
b c (2)
yz
yz

(k 1)c

2z
2z
2 z k 1
ca
ca (k 2)k 2
c a (3)
zx
zx
zx

Cng v v (1),(2),(3) kt hp

2x
ab
x y

2y
bc
yz

2z
ac a b c (cu a) ta co PCM
xz

Bai toan 18:Cho cac s thc hng m a,b,c sao cho ab bc ca 1 chng minh rng:

17

1
1
1
1

2
ab
bc
ca
2
Li giai:
Khng mt tinh tng quat gia s a b c xet cac trng hp:
(*)TH1: a 1 luc nay ta se chng minh 2 BT sau t o suy ra kt qua bai toan:
(+)

25
1
1
1
1
1
5

tht vy : BT (ab bc ca)

2
ab bc ca 2
4
a ,b ,c (a b)(a c)
a ,b,c (a b)

Lu y: (ab bc ca)

4abc

(a b)(a c) 4 (a b)(b c)(c a) 4 mt khac:

a ,b , c

1
1
2
( a b) 2
1
2
( a b) 2

2
(a b)2 (a c)(b c) (a c)2 (b c) 2 (a b) 2 (a c)(b c) 4(ab bc ca)(a b) 2
a ,b , c ( a b )

(ab bc ca)
ab
c
ab
2c 2
c(c a)(c b)
ab
2c 2

(a b)2
(a b)2 a b (a b)2 (c a)(c b) (a b)(b c)(c a) (a b) 2 (c a)(c b)
1
ab
2c 2
2(ab bc ca) (a b) 2
9

t o
t o: (ab bc ca)
2
2
2
(a b) (a c)(b c)
(a c)(b c)
4(a b)
4
a ,b , c ( a b)
suy ra BT nay ung
(+)

1
1
2 1 <=>
2 1
(a c)(b c)
a ,b , c
a2 1

a ,b , c

<=> 1

1 a2
1 b2
1 c2
1 ab

2 2 thay c
thi BT tr thanh:
2
2
2
ab
1 a
1 b
1 c

1 a2
1 b2
2(1 ab)2
1

2 2 lu y ab 1 ab 2(1 ab)
2
2
2
2
3
1 a
1 b
(1 a )(1 b )

Do o: 2

1
lu y

2(1 ab)2
1 a 2b 2

(1 a 2 )(1 b2 )
(1 a 2 )(1 b2 )

(1 a 2 )(1 b2 )
1 a2
1 b2
1 a 2 1 b2

(binh png ln BT
0 :ung)
1 a2
1 b2
1 a 2 1 b2
(1 a 2 )(1 b2 )
1

1 a 2 1 b2
2(1 a 2b2 )
(1 a 2b2 )
t
t=
=> 0 t 1

1 a 2 1 b2
(1 a 2 )(1 b2 )
(1 a 2 )(1 b2 )

18

Ta chi cn chng minh

2 t 1 2t 2 1 t 2 2 3t 2t 2 2 2 0 :ung do 0 t 1

(*)TH2: a 1 b c trc ht ta co :
2

1
1
2
b
2
1
1
a

a b c

(ab bc ca) a c b c 2
bc

ac bc
ac
c 1
c 1
2

2
c
c
2
abc
a b 2 vi c
4c 4 2
1 2
4
2
2
c 1
c 1
c 1
c 1

1
a b 2 vi a b 2 ta co
ab
1
1
1
f '(a b)

0 => f (a b) f (2) 2
2 a b 2 2 ( a b)3
2

(+)nu a b 2 xet f (a b)

(+)nu a b 2 t 1 a(b c) bc 2 c c 2 c 2 1 vit lai bt la

1
1
1
1
1
1
(#) ta chi cn chng minh khi 2

0
ab
ac
2
ac
bc
bc

(#)

2 a b
2(a b)( a b 2)

1
1
2

2
ac bc
c 1 s dung cac anh gia sau:
1
1

2
ac
bc

1
1

2 a b 2 2 a b ( a b 2) ta chi vic chng minh:


ac
bc

a b
2a b
1
1
2

4 0 co: 2 a b c(a b) (a 1)(1 b) c(a b)


ac bc
4
2
c2 1
(ab bc ca)(

1
1
c 2 (a b 2c)
=

) a b 2c
ac bc
(a c)(b c)

2c 2 (a b)
( a b) 2
c 2 (a b 2c) (a b)2
2
2
2 c 1
t o

2 c 1
(a c)(b c)
(c2 1)
( a c b c )2
4 2
2a b
1
1
2
c ( a b)
2
2c 2 (a b)
2

4
2 c 1
4
=
ac bc
c2 1
2
2
c2 1
c2 1
19

2( c 2 1 1)2

c(a b)( 2 1 c)( 2 1 c)


0 :ung. Vy BT ung trong moi trng hp ta co
2(c 2 1)
c2 1
PCM du bng xy ra khi va chi khi (a, b, c) (1;1; 0) va hoan vi

Nhn xet:Bai trn ta a dung co 1 chng minh kha ngn cho iran 96
Bai toan 19:cho cac s thc x, y, z thoa man:

( x y)2 ( y z )2 ( z x)2 8 va x3 y 3 z 3 1 tim min P= x 4 y 4 z 4


Li giai:
(*)nu xy yz zx 1 ta co: 4 x 2 y 2 z 2 xy yz zx x 2 y 2 z 2 1 x 2 y 2 z 2 3
=> x 4 y 4 z 4

( x 2 y 2 z 2 )2
3
3

(*)nu xy yz zx 1 x 2 y 2 z 2 3. lai co

8 3( x 2 y 2 z 2 ) ( x y z )2 9 ( x y z )2 1 x y z 1.ta lai xet cac trng hp:


[-(+)-]nu 1 x y z 0 .trong 3 s x,y,z tn tai 2 s cung du gia s xy 0 .ta co:

1 x3 y3 z 3 x3 y 3 ( x y)3 3xy( x y ) x, y 0 .thay x,y bi a,-b( a, b 0 ) ta co

z 2 ab z (a b) a 2 b 2 4

by gi ta xet:
z 3 a 3 b3 1 1

z ab

Khi a 3 b3

17
8
thi z 3
ta co
9
9
4

a 4 b4 4
a 3 b3 3 3 3 3
4
17
4
2

(a b 1) 2 3 3 3,013286... 3
9
9
2
2
Khi a 3 b3

a 3 b3
a 3 b3
8
lu y 4 z 2 z (a b)
f (a b) f '(a b) z
0
9
ab
( a b) 2

4 f ( a b) f ( 3

a 3 b3
a 3 b3
) ( z t ) 2 trong o t 3
mt khac theo bt holder:
2
2

20

a 4 b 4 3 a 3 b3
4
(a b ) (1 1) (a b )

t mt khac ta co
2
2

4 3

z 3 1 a 3 b3

3 4

17 a3 b3 17 3
z
17
chng minh a 4 b 4 z 4 3 ta chi vic chng

t 3
4 2 4
t
4

minh 16(2t 4 z 4 ) 3( z t )4 t u

z 3 17
ta cn chng minh:

t
4

16 1 3


4
3 16
g (u) 16u 32 3(u 1) 0 . Ta co g '(u) 12u 1 12u 1 3
0
3 u

3
17

17

17
17 3
g (u ) g 3
32 16. 3 1 3
0,8287... 0
4
4
4

[-(+)-] xet 0 x y z 1 luc nay lu y rng :

x 4 y 4 z 4 ( x 2 y 2 z 2 )2 2( xy yz zx)2 4 xyz ( x y z ) t gia thit d dang suy ra:

2
8 ( x y z )2
2
2
x

( x y z)2 4

t m x y z (0 m 1) ta co
xy yz zx
3

xyz 1 4(x y z)

x4 y 4 z 4

(m2 8)2
(m2 4)2 12m(1 4m)
m2 (1 m2 ) 12m(1 m) 5(1 m2 )
2

3
3
9
9
9
9

Vy ta lun co x 4 y 4 z 4 3 du = khi ( x, y, z ) (1,1, 1) va hoan vi

Bai 20:Cho a,b,c la dai 3 canh cua mt tam giac nhon chng minh rng:

(a b c)2 (b c a)2 (c a b)2


(a b c)(b c a)(c a b)
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
(a b c )(b c a )(c a b )
abc
Li giai:
21

Chu y rng : cos A cos B cos C 1

b2 c 2 a 2 a 2 c 2 b2 a 2 b2 c 2

1
2bc
2ca
2ab

a(b2 c 2 a 2 ) b(a 2 c 2 b 2 ) c(a 2 b 2 c 2 ) 2abc (a b c)(b c a)(c a b)

2abc
2abc

T o khng my kho khn ta vit lai BT a cho la :

(cos A cos B cos C 1) 2


4 2(cos A cos B cos C ) . By gi t :
2 cos A.cos B.cos C
x 2 cosA; y 2 cosB va z 2cosC th thi : x 2 y 2 z 2 xyz 4 ta cn chng minh :

( x y z 2)2
( x y z 2)2
4 x y z
xyz ( bi ta d dang chng minh x y z 3 )
xyz
4 x y z
(*)Khng mt tinh tng quat gia s z max( x, y, z ) suy ra 1 z 2 xet s thc t sao cho:

4 x2 y 2 z 2 xyz 2t 2 z 2 t 2 z <=> z (t 2 xy ) x 2 y 2 2t 2 nhn xet

x2 y 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
x 2 y 2 2t 2 z (t 2 xy ) z t 2
( z 2)( x y 2t ) 0 2t x y lai co
2

z (t 2 xy) x 2 y 2 2t 2 2( xy t 2 ) t 2 xy do o :
x 2 y 2 2t 2 z (t 2 xy) 2(t 2 xy) ( x y)2 4t 2 2t x y t y ta chn c:

x y
t
2

x2 y 2
vi chu y: 4 z 2 t 2 ( z 2) t 2 z 1 .
2

(*)t f ( x, y, z )

( x y z 2)2
(2 t z 2) 2 2
t z
xyz thi f (t, t, z )
4 2t z
4 x y z

cho gon ta cho u x y z; v 2t z thi v u 2 t x y 0 va 3 v u ta co

f ( x, y, z) f(t, t, z)

(u 2)2 (v 2)2
(u v)(4u 4v uv 12)

z(t 2 xy)
z(t 2 xy)
4u
4v
(4 u)(4 v)

4
( x y 2t )
1 z (t 2 xy ) ( x y 2t )(4 1) z (t 2 xy ) 3( x y 2t ) z(t 2 xy )
(4 u )(4 v)

22

Chu y la ta co: z (t 2 xy ) x 2 y 2 2t 2 ( z 2)(t 2 xy ) ( x y ) 2 t 2 xy

Ma 4 x 2 y 2 z 2 xyz

( x y)2
z2

( x y)2 ( z 2) ( x y) 2 (2 z) 2

z
4
4

(2 z ) 4(2 z) (x y) 2 ( x y ) 2 (2 z ) (2 z) 4 t 2 ( x y) 2 t 2 ( x y) 2

( x y)2

Vi x y

(2 z )(2t x y )(2t x y )
z (2t x y )(2t x y )
z (t 2 xy )
2
t
t2

x2 y 2
2t x y 3
z (2t x y )(2t x y )
3(2t x y )
t
3 => z (t 2 xy )
2
t2
2
t
t

f (x, y, z) f (t, t, z) 3( x y 2t ) 3(2t x y ) 0 ta cn chng minh f (t, t, z) 0


Thay t 2 z ta co :

f (t , t , z )

(2 z ) 6 z 4 2 z z (4 z 2 2 z )
(2 2 z z 2) 2
z (2 z )
4 z 2 2 z
4 z2 2 z

( z 2)2 ( 2 z 1) 2
0 bai toan c chng minh.du= xy ra khi a=b=c.
4 z 2 2 z

Nhn xet:Ngoai ra vi b cua x,y,z kia thi du= xy ra khi x=y=z hoc (x,y,z)=(2,0,0) cung han vi

Trn y la 20 bt ng thc kho minh gp trong thi gian hoc


Cac li gii u do kin ca nhn nn s co mt s li gii
khng c p mt .vi la ln u lam nn khng tranh khi sai
sot mong cac bn thng cm va cho kin v cac li gii file
tuyn chon sau c hay hn .xin cm n
Facebook minh la :Dinh de Tai

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