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LI

E)

RARY

OF THE

UNIVERSITY
Of ILLINOIS

z-

^
f^

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t^

HARRY AND LUCY


CONCLUDED.

LONDON;
PRINTED BY (JHAKLES

\VoOI>,

Poppin's Court, Fleet Street.

HARRY AND LUCY


CONCLUDED;
BEING

THE LAST PART


OF

EARLY LESSONS.
BY

MARIA EDGE WORTH.


IN

FOUR VOLUMES.

VOL.

Tbe

I.

business of Education, in respect of knowledge,


perfect a learner in all or
that disposition,

any one of the sciences

and those habits, that

may

is
;

not, as

think, to

but to give his

mind

enable him to attain an?

part of knowledge he shall stand in need of in the future coarse of his


'^f^-

LOCKE.

LONDON:
PRINTED FOR
72, ST. Paul's

R.

HUNTER,

churchyard axd
;

BALDWIN, CRADOCK, AND


47,

PATERNOSTER ROW.

1825.

JOY,

\^

v?^

^B^^^^^fa

?Z3

/J'zs

TO

THE CHILDREN OF
HER FATHER'S FRIEND,

CAPTAIN BEAUFORT,
THIS

BOOK

IS

DEDICATED
BY

MARIA EDGEWORTH.

Digitized by tine Internet Arcinive


in

2010 with funding from

University of

Illinois

Urbana-Champaign

http://www.archive.org/details/harrylucyconclud01edge

-'

P R E F x\ C E

ADDRESSED TO PARENTS.

These volumes

intended for young

are

people, from the age of ten to fourteen.

the series of " Early Les-

They complete
sons

;"

literary

an humble work, from which no

fame can be acquired, but which

have been most desirous


the belief that

any other

in

it

my

will

to

complete, from

be more useful than

power.

have had ano-

ther motive for finishing it;

though
1

may

it

may be no

one,

which,

concern of the public,

be permitted to name.

Lucy was begun by

my

father,

Harry and
above

fifty

PREFACE.

VIU

own

years ago, for the use of his

and published
any

at

a time

family,

when no one

literary character, excepting Dr.

of

Watts

and Mrs. Barbauld, had ever condescended


write for

to

was,

That

children.

believe, the

very

book

little

first

attempt to

give any correct elementary knowledge or


taste for science

in a narrative suited to

the comprehension of children, and cal-

culated to

amuse and

to instruct.
it

interest,

as well as

Finding, from experience, that

my father

answered the intended purpose,

continued the book at intervals

and

in

the last part, published in 1813, I had the

pleasure of assisting him.

municated many ideas

He

for the

then comcompletion

of his plan, which I thought too valuable


to

be abandoned.

knowledge of

considered, that a full

his views,

of acquaintance with his


ing,

might enable

me

to

and long habits

mode of

teach-

do justice

to his

PREFACE.
plan,

though

IX

was aware of the

difficulty

of combining ingenious with practicable


illustrations,

and

still

more sensible of the

accuracy requisite for elementary instruction.

with

The want

my

own,

of his

tempt peculiarly

encouraged
afforded
friends.

friends

mind working along

knew must be
felt

but

to persevere

me by

his

and

To name
would

gratify

in this at-

have been

by the assistance

my own

scientific

these kind and able

my vanity,

and might

ensure the confidence of parents

but

it

would, perhaps, have more the appearance


of ostentation than of candour, and mightleave others responsible for errors, which

have escaped the most careful


I

have endeavoured

to pursue, in this

Conclusion of Early Lessons,


object in their

revisal.

commencement

my

father's

to exercise

the powers of attention, observation, rea-

soning, and invention, rather than to teach

PREFACE.

any one science, or

make any advance

to

The essential

beyond first principles.


is

to excite a thirst for

which

it is

even to the

pour the

had taken

his preceptors

full tide

As Dr. Johnson

when he was describing

Boswell,

ing:

knowledge, without

in vain to
lips.

point

to give

said to

the pains

him

learn-

" Sir, anybody can bring a horse to the


water, but

who can make him drink?"

Consistently with the sort of instruction


to

as

be conveyed,

much

of the

it

was impossible

amusement

to give

arising from

incident and story, in this book, as in

some

others.

But the varying occurrences of

domestic

life,

and the
with

all

different characters of the children,

their

suit of their

riments,

the frequent changes of scene,

hopes and fears in the pur-

own

will,

little

hope,

schemes and expeproduce

sufficient

action to create interest, and to keep

awake

PREFACE.

No pernicious

attention.
criven,

XI

stimulus has been

no deception or cajolery employed

to effect

All attempts to cheat

our purpose.

children,

by the

promise that they

false

can obtain knowledg-e without labour, are

and

vain

The gods

hurtful.

thing to labour, and mortals,


old,

must pay that

price.

sell

every

young

The wages

or

of

industry should, how^ever, be rendered as


certain as possible

for the pupils will exert

themselves in proportion to their hopes,


that their efforts will be

recompensed by the

pleasure of success.

precautions in
effort

my power

of attention

Much

that

sufferable to

preceptors

in

all

to secure to

just reward.

young people,
a

didactic

if

offered

tone,

when suggested

especially

the

each

would be tiresome and

eagerly accepted
versation,

its

have taken

w^ill

in-

by
be

in con-

in conversations be-

PREFACE.

Xll

tween themselves

in these there is

a certain proportion of nonsense

make

always

an

alloy,

sense work

which

is

well.

Children can go on talking to one

another

necessary to

much

longer than they can bear to

hear the address, however wise or eloquent,

Young

of any grown person.

good

people, of

disposition, learn with peculiar ease

from each other, because the young teacher


has not

his

forg^otten

own

knowing exactly where they

how

to

remove them, or to

The

over the obstacles.

difficulties

lay,

he sees

assist

another

great preceptor,

standing on the top of the ladder of learning,

can hardly stretch his hand down to

the poor urchin at the bottom, looking


to

him

in despair

companion, who

can

assist

is

up

but an intermediate

only a few steps above,

him with a helping hand, can

show him where

to put his foot safely

rilMi

PREFACE.

xiii

and now urging, now encouraging, can


to

any height within his own

The system

of mutual instruction can

draw him up
attainment.

be

still

more advantageously pursued

teaching the rudiments

in

than

of science

may be extended

those of literature, and

even to higher branches of intellectual


education.

Upon

principle,

this

young brother

following volumes, the

employed

the

in

to teach his sister

learned, either from his

is

what he has
or from

father,

books.

Harry's

abilities

perhaps appear a
this the reader

as

he

and

little

knowledge

above his age

must excuse, and

will

but

attribute,

pleases, to education, or to accident,

or to natural genius.
disliked because

he

Harry

is

he has some redeeming

will not

not pedantic
faults

and

be

and

foibles,

which save him from the odium attached

PREFACE.

XIV

to a perfect cliaracter,

and from the danger

of being thought too good to be natural.

Lucy, on the other hand,

seem too childish and

may

volatile

spect for accuracy not being at


gi'eater

than that of the

at times

her re-

much

first

who

sailor,

said,

" We'll not quarrel for a handful of de-

But these

grees."

faults

produce the non-

sense and the action necessary to relieve


the reader's attention.

As

and

her becoming

the

penalties

affected

scientific

mother's and her


taste to

of
lady,

it

own good

guard against that

to the

is

left

danger

to

an
her

sense and good


evil.

All that

can be said or thought upon the subject by


the other sex,

burgh
**

ings

is

comprised in the Edin-

wit's declaration

do not care how

blue a lady's stock-

may

be, if her petticoats are but long

enough."

My father long

ago foresaw, what every-

'

PREFACE.
body now

feels, that

as well as literary

risen rapidly,

render

the taste for

scientific,

knowledge, which has

and has spread widely, would

necessary to

it

XV

make some

provision

for the early instruction of youth in science,


in

addition

when

the

establishments,
to

felt

and successful

alterations,

much,

may be prepared by

in the

In

even

for

many

mean

time,

be requisite, must

reasons be tardy

It

o^reat

paid to classical literature.

attention

public

to

private instruction.

has been feared by some, that the

general diffusion of knowledge will tend


to

damp

the energy of genius; and that

original invention will decline,

quence

of

increased

in conse-

cultivation.

This

might, perhaps, be the consequence of injudicious

cultivation.

If the

acquisition

of a great quantity of learning of


or of any kind, were

ultimate object, the

made

all

kinds,

the sole and

mind would be op-

PREFACE.

XVI
pressed,

the mass

and invention extinguished under


but of this there

is

no danger

if

the faculties be proportionably exercised,

and

if

the pupil be enabled to arrange,

and above

all to

employ

his

knowledge.

In science, [the hope of future discoveries,

and the ambition


and

tural,

young and

to invent, are great, na-

never-failing

excitements

to

old.

That very ingenious and very mysterious


philosopher. Dr. Hooke, speaks somewhere
in his

works of an algebraic formula, by

which he could determine what things are


possible or impossible to
invent.

perform or to

Without perfectly crediting or

perfectly understanding this veiled prophet,

we may hope and


power may be
exercise,

assisted

and improved by

by reasoning, and by judicious

experiments.
tions

believe, that the inventive

Many

admirable observa-

on the nature and conduct of the

PREFACE.

XVU

understanding, on the causes which have

prevented our advancement

and on the habits of

false reasoning, pre-

and prejudices, which enslave

possessions,

and disable our


in the

knowledge,

in

are to be found

faculties,

works of Bacon and of Hooke, of

These ob-

Locke, Stewart, and Playfair.

should not be

servations

dormant

suffered

to lie

in books, the admiration only of

the learned

nor should

we be

content with

merely citing them occasionally, to adorn


our writings, or to point our conversation.
Metaphysics,

being

after

much

have been thrown aside too

fashion,

dainfully,

and

their use

been confounded.
doing good service
form

too

all

that

in
dis-

and abuse have

Surely

it

would be

to bring into popular

metaphysicians have

dis-

covered, which can be applied to practice


in education.
father's object.

VOL.

I.

This was early and long

The

art of

my

teaching to inr
b

PREFACE.

XVlll

vent

dare not say

but

of awakening

and assisting the inventive power by daily


exercise and excitement, and

by the ap-

plication of philosophic principles to trivial

occurrences, he believed might be pursued


vs^ith infinite

advantage

to the rising gene-

ration.
I

have now stated

book

how

far

plished must be
and, above

all,

all

the objects of this

they have been accomleft

to time,

and parents,

to children to decide.

MARIA EDGEWORTH.
MaySlst, 1825.

"

Mamma,

do you

when my

ago,

recollect,

father

two years

was explaining

to

barometer and thermometer, and

us the

when he showed

us several

little

experi-

ments?" said Lucy, and she sighed.


" Yes,

my

dear,

very well," said

remember

that time

her mother; " but

why

do you sigh?"
'^

Because

Lucy.
" And
dear

are

was very happy


not you

then^''

said

happy now,

my

" Yes,
as

mamma,

but not so very happy

was then, because now

on with Harry as

VOL.

I,

used

do not go

to do."

"How

so?

hope that you have not

had any quarrel with your brother?"


" Quarrel

oh no, mamma,

be impossible
is

and he

But

as ever, I believe.

know how

it is,

quite so well as

much

together

is

as fond of

do not

yet, I

we do not suit each other


we did. We are not so
I do not know all he is

doing, nor go on with


of,

would

quarrel with Harry, he

to

so good-natured;

me

it

all

he

is

thinking

as I used to do."

"

My

dear Lucy, you and your brother

have been learning different things

some time
this

past;

and

must be; your

as

you grow

different

for

older,

employments

must separate you during a great part of


and so much the better, you will
the day
;

be the more glad

to

hours of amusement.

be together in your

Do

not you find

this?"

"Yes,

and

do,

mamma," said Lucy,

are not

same way.

sighed again.

" But

amused always

in the

after this buty she

now we

" but

Harry has grown so exces-

sively fond of mechanics,

and of

all

those

which

things,

scientific

learning from

my
?

those thino-s too

" So

uncle and papa."

said her mother.

mamma

am,

"

nearly so fond of them as

only

place,

am

not

was formerly

do not exactly know why

first

always

is

thought, Lucy, that you were fond of

**I

he

but, in the

suppose, because

do not

understand them now nearly so well as

Harry does

he has got very

far before

me."
" True," answered her mother, " you

have been
is

more necessary
" Yes,

for a girl to

mamma,

ing just after that


that

not

said, that

in the

more of
"

remember your sayhappy barometer time,


I

go

mornings. However,

arithmetic,

Then I was
room w4th

into his

learned

and drawinof, and danc-

and music, and work."

And you grew

fond of these

the better," said her mother.

not

know."

must not be.

allowed to

Harry

ing,

it

thought of nothing but experiments

papa

which

learningf other thino^s,

make you

less

''

so

This does

happy, does it?"


B 2

much

"No, no, mamma; but then came the


time when Harry and I ^^ere quite sepaThat

rated.

long

when you were


was

at

my

long

time,

mamma, and when

ill,

aunt Pierrepoint's

with her,

lt>ng

while

was

read nothing but stories and

poetry, and I heard

my

aunt and people

who were there reading plays. She used


to praise me for understanding wit, and for
repeating poetry. Then I grew very fond
But Harry

of them.

about wit,
first;

As

and
to

he

never understands

he says,

at last

they

similes,

him."
" Thei/ interrupt him
''

so grave always

is

Is that all?'

always

1"

it

at

interrupt

said her mother,

perhaps, Lucy, ]/ou interrupt him."

" Sometimes, perhaps,

do,

mamma

but he always finds out that similies are


not exact.

This

wonder why he

is

is

so

very provoking.

much

fonder of ex-

actness than I am."

" Probably because in science, which

he has been learning, he


step the use,

finds at every

the necessity of exactness.

He

could not go on without

mea-

in

it

surinof or in reasoning-."

"

Mamma,

actness

understand the use of ex-

some

in

perspective,

and

in proportion,

other day, and asked


for

him

and

me

to

was glad

by a

Harry came

you taught me.

as

In drawing in

things.

to

scale,

me

draw a

the
cart

to find that I

could help him in something."


^'

And

dare say he will be glad to

help you in his


different things,

turn.

You each know

which you can learn from

one another, and in which you can be of

mutual assistance.

This

is

just as

should

it

be between friends."

Thank you, mamma, you make me


I will ask Harry to
feel happy again.
bring me up to him in all he has been
learning, as fast as possible, that we may
"

go on together as we used

to

do,

if

you

have no objection, mamma."


"

Do

so,

my

you

dear Lucy

should not

but

warn

expect to go

you,

that

fast;

you must be content

to

and

you must submit

be inferior to

to

go slowly,

your brother for some time.

my

mortify you,

but

dear,

avoided, you must bear

mother," said
" there

before

is

cannot be

it

can bear

Lucy, hesitating a

one other thing

want

But

it.

little;

to say,

can be quite happy."

Say

*'

may

it."

mamma,

*'Very well,

This

then,

it

afraid of?

Not

my

dear: what are you

of me,

hope?"

Oh no, mamma, not afraid of you


I am not sure that the person, who

"'

but

said what

to tell 3^ou,

you should know

that

"

want

You can

that

and

?"

was

was

me

that one day,

aunt Pierrepoint's, she

scientific

Harry; but

that

papa used

things,

that, since I

now

tleman,

who

it

is

comes,

to

along with

had come

had not learned any thing of

And

-.V

my

telling somebody

teach

at

"Then

said Lucy.

I will,"

you must know, mamma,

when

it."

me what was said, then,


me from whom you heard

Cannot you, Lucy


*'Ican,

he said

like

tell

without telling
it.

would

mamma,

to her,

that sort.

the gen-

not to be named, laughed."

" Well,

was no great harm

there

in

that."

mamma;

" No,

only that he laughed in

And

a particular sort of way, scornfully.

was well for me I had left


such learning. That I should be a

he

said, that

off

much more
that ladies

it

woman

agreeable

had nothing

to

it;

do with science,

or ought to have nothing to

He

without

do with

said, that scientific ladies are

it.

always

displaying what they know, or what they

do not know.

He

Those were

his very words.

said, that scientific ladies

horrence.

them

And he

terribly.

time, that he

looked as

and

But now

think,

that

he abhorred
at the

knew papa had taught me

frio^htened,

wrong.

his ab-

was very sorry

any thing along with Harry.

and

if

were

it

was ashamed

thoug-ht

that I

was

all

it

was

all

am come home
right

for I see

how much papa likes that you should


know the scientific things that he is busy
about, and how happy it makes you
and
;

want

to

go on again with Harry

only

mamma,

wish,

that all people

same opinions about

the

this''

Her mother smiled, and

said,

my

you

can never be,

dear Lucy

many people have


But

this subject.

were of

" That
will find

upon

different opinions

agree with your

all will

nameless gentleman,

that

when women

pretend to understand what they do not,

whether about science or any thing


they are absurd and ridiculous.
talk

else,

And if they

even of what they understand, merely

to display their

knowledge, they must be

troublesome and disagreeable.

Therefore

they should take care not to do

so.

They

should be particularly cautious of talking

on

scientific subjects,

obtain

accurate

because they seldom

knowledge

therefore, likely to

make

they

are,

mistakes, and to

be either troublesome in asking questions,


or ridiculous

in

showing ignorance and

conceit."

" That
for

being

" Yes,

is,"

said Lucy, " if they set

up

scientific ladies."
if

they do that, they must take

9
the consequences, they will be disliked,''
said her mother.

" But then,

mamma,

afraid of being abhorred.

am

much

so

Even

are not conceited, will they be

if

they

abhorred,

mamma ?
" Not by persons of sense,
"

said her mother.


I

As far

think that sensible

my

dear,"

as I can judge,

men would be ready

any unaffected, unassuming wo-

to assist

man, who really wished

and would

to inform herself,

like her the better for

being

interested in their conversation, their writ-

and

ings,

"

their pursuits."

hope then, mamma, that

shall

be

an unaffected, unassuming woman."

"I hope
mother.
too,

so,

my

dear child," said her

" If your father did not hope so

he would never teach you any more

on these

subjects."

" I should be very sorry for that,"

said

Lucy.
" Yes,
for,

think you would,

even with your

little

my

dear;

experience, you

B 5

10
feel that there is

a real pleasure in go-

ing on, as you say, with your brother."


*'

Xhat

do, indeed,

grow

'*As you

mother,

*'

you

older," continued

will perceive,

quiring knowledge,
crease

husbands,

happy

women

to

or

their

ac-

not only in-

fathers,

friends,

men, but they increase

brothers,

they

if

as to be connected

are

so

with

sensible

own

pleasure

their

and hearing of

in reading

by

that,

her

power of being agreeable

their

companions

mamma."

scientific

ex-

periments and discoveries; they acquire a


greater variety

of

means of employing

themselves

independently, and at home.

But, above

all,

the acquisition of

know-

ledge not only enlarges but elevates the

mind, by

filling it

gratitude

towards that bountiful Provi-

with admiration and

dence who has established such wise laws


for

the welfare and

preservation of the

world."
" Yes, mother," said Lucy

and, after a

pause, in which she re-considered

all

her

11

mother had been saying, she returned to

what

still

mamma,

" But yet,

abhorred ; and
should

alarmed her imag^ination.

little

the acquiring knowledge

if

me

make

afraid of being

I feel

there

vain

the

is

danger."

" There

the danger

is

" But, as far as I have

said her mother.

women

ignorant

observed,

and often more

so,

well informed

and now,

are

all

so

are

than those

educated

as vain,

who

are

when almost
have a

they

that

and some acquaintance

taste for literature,

with scientific subjects, there


that

be sure,"

to

is

danger

less

any should be vain, of what

is

no pe-

culiar distinction."
*'

Oh, mother,

care," said

grow up
all this to

take the greatest

I will

Lucy

" you shall see as

and thank you

for explainino-

me."

" Perhaps,

my

have been saying

dear,

part of what

rather above

is

your

comprehension?"
" No,

mamma

not at

conceited to say so,

If

all.

think

it is

not

understand

12
perfectly well

it all

is

and now

and wrong, and

right

know what

my mind

settled

is

that I

am happy gain, and very glad


may have the pleasure of learning

again

from papa

that I

may go

and

my

all,

on again with Harry.

here he comes,
this

and, above

mamma

see

glad

And

him from

window, coming along the path from


Oh, mamma he has a great
uncle's.
!

walking

stick in his

bling like an old

hand, and he

man

is

hob-

of an hundred and

ten."
'^

hope he has

coming

her mother,

said

not hurt himself,"


the

to

win-

dow.
*'

No, mamma,

There

play.

believe he

the old

man

well as ever he did in his

is

life

is

only in

running as
;

and

I will

run and meet him."

As soon
make her

as

Lucy was near enough

voice

heard,

brother

why he walked

walking

stick

" It

my

is

she

not his," said Harry, "


it

to

asked her

with his uncle's

as she supposed

uncle has given

to

me."

it

to be.

it is

mine

13
" Yours

saw

it

and

How

before.

quite

it is

to you,

it

of use to him, and

never

beautifully varnished

and what a pretty head


uncle give

new

it

But why did

my

Harry ?

It

will be

of none to

would be

you," said TiUcy.


" There you are mistaken

pardon, Lucy.
to

me

same
^*

as

It will

would be

it

Same

sort of use

much

be of as

use

him, and of the

to

sort of use," said

beg your

Harry.
said Lucy;

!"

''

but

of what sort?"
" Guess,
"

said Harry.

"

suppose you mean in play,

old man, as

you did

just

now

to act

an

?"

" No, in earnest useful," said Harry.

"

^'What can you do with it?" said Lucy


for you are too young to walk with it,

and too old


"

Too

upon

to ride

old

it."

be sure

to

"

have not ridden

Harry, indignantly

upon a

hundred years.

stick these

said

am,''

Guess

again."

Lucy now wanted


derful stick

more

to

examine

closely, in

this

won-

hopes of

dis-

14
covering what

migLt be, but

merits

its

Harry seemed unwilling

to let

it

out of his

hands.
"

Oh

know what

money.

It

man had

like

is

the

in

It is full

it is.

the

staff

which the

Don

in

trial

of

Quixote,

which Sancho Panza found out was

full

money, because he would not

out of

let

it

of

his hands."

"

do not

mean,"

said

know what you

in the least

Harry,

" for

there

is

no

money in this."
" Then let me look at it I will not run
How heavy it is," obaway with it.
served Lucy, " what wood can it be made
;

of?

This outside seems


I

never

all

wood

but

be

it

be mahogany,

any so heavy.

felt
;

to

It

must be hollow, and there

must be something withinside of


" Stop stop do not shake it
1

turn

it

cannot

it."

do not

upside down; you will spoil

it,"

cried Harry.

"

Ho ho
!

inside of
said

it.

Lucy

then there
I

is

something with-

have found that much out,"

and you

say,

Do

not ^turn

15
it

upside down,' like the words on the box

came last week


So I guess
uppermost.'

Keep

of glass that

side

that there

You

glass within your stick.


is

Glass

a
a

glass

glass

Then

telescope?

What

can

it

can glass be in a walking

Of a great
ledge when you
*'

said Harry

"

deal, as

find

it is

it

is

it

a spy-

none of

Of what

is

magnifying

No,

be

this

smile, there

microscope ?

these

perhaps

stick,

you

use

Harry?"

will

acknow-

Guess again,"

out.

a thing that you have

seen."

" But

have seen so many

things,"* said

Lucy.
"

And

of which you

know

the use,"

said Harry.

" But

know

Tell

me

is it

used for ?

little

the use of

many

more," said Lucy

" For weighing something"


'*

stay, I

to say

yet
^*

it is

it is

am

not sure that

things

" what

said Harry
is

it

quite fair

used for weighing a thing, and

something."

know now,"

said

Lucy

" that mo-

16

you made with your hand up and

tion

down

thing that

and

Now

you have found

Harry.
" And
stick so
silver

now

is

air,

said

out,"

it

know what makes your


" The quickheavy," said Lucy.

the

mercury.

remember

ing the weight of mercury,


into

my

size,

one

two

hands
full

of this at

first,

barometer

cups of the

stupid

and not

was not

to

feel-

when papa put

of water, and the other

How

mercury.

guess

same
full

of

to think
it

was a

!"

Harry now showed where


stick

some-

a barometer."

it is

"

used for weighing

is

it

The

me.

aofainst the air, told

his walking

opened, and he showed her within-

side of

it

a barometer and thermometer

he explained

to

was screwed up
from shaking.

her

how

the quicksilver

tight, so as to

He told

prevent

it

her this was called

a portable barometer.
" Yes, it is portable," said Lucy

'^
;

it

can easily be carried from place to place.


It

must be convenient

to travellers.

But

17
in

is it

any other way better than the baro-

meter which hangs up in papa's room, or


than that which stands upon three legs in

my uncle's
Harry

was

library?"

he was not sure that

said, that

common

better for

changes of the weather


he, "

is

show

use, to

it

the

" but this," said

not merely a weather-glass, as ba-

This

rometers are sometimes called.

is

intended for another purpose."

"

What

^'

First, let

gave

it

other purpose?" said Lucy.

to

me

tell

me," said Harry

two years ago,

to

my

" becatr^

understand the barome-

my remembering

and with

Then he bid me

uncle

my having taken pains,

he was pleased with

ter,

you why

it

now.

try to find out the parti-

cular use of this portable barometer."


*^

And

did you, Harry?"

Yes, but

*^

who was
road.

present, put

my
it

father

me

was very stupid

head went quite

My

was helped.

off'

was very

back again, and

the

it

in

the

at

first.

right

My

wrong way, but

patient,

set

father,

and brought

upon the right

18
road.

Still

My

was very slow.

thouo^ht I should never find

was too

said

it

ther

had

said

should find

and thought again, and


off

left

fa-

it

This encouraged me, and

out myself.
tried

my

But papa

better tell rne.

he was almost sure that

He

out.

it

and that

difficult,

uncle

my

uncle

walking up and down the room

He was

fretting.

so

good

as to

be patient

too."

That was kind of him," said Lucy

*'

" I

know

tient

it

is

very

with people,

if

the time.

all

push them on

One

difficult to

be pa-

they are

slow in

when one knows

finding a thing out,

longs to

tell,

or

it

to

to it."

"

Papa did not push me," said Harry,


" that would have thrown me down
but
;

he pulled, he helped

by

step,

me

find

me on

as he does so nicely
it

gently, step
;

and he

let

out at last quite by myself."

" Well, then, you can do the same for

me, Harry."
" I will try," said Harry.
*'

Thank you.

But

first let

me

tell

you

19

have been saying to

all that I
all

that

mamma

has said to me."

She repeated

Mamma

you

me

that I

we used

and she said she thought that

you would be so kind


to

tells

on with you, Harry, as

do;

to

as well as she could,

it all,

ending with, "

may go

mamma, and

in all

you have been

"

I will try,"

"

hope

me up

as to bring

learning.*'

said Harry.

shall not

be very stupid,"

said Lucy.

" No, no, Lucy,

dare say you will

not; do not begin by thinking you will,


that

you go
will

a very bad

way

on, thinking

you

is

then

because
are

afraid

you

be stupid, instead of attending to

what

and said

asked

is

to

you.

Now,

Lucy, suppose you were at the bottom


of a deep well."
" If

then

were

at the

bottom of a well,

should find out the truth

you know the common proverb,

Cranbourne

tom of a

because
as

Mr.

said, that truth is at the bot-

well."

" Nonsense,"

my dear Lucy,

cried Harry;

20
"

now

you go

if

Mr. Cranbourne

to

says,

cannot attempt

you about the barometer."

to talk to

" Well,

be very attentive," said

will

" Suppose,

Lucy.

your wit, and what

then,

bottom of a well.

was

the

at

But should not

be

drowned ? " added she, in a low voice.


" Very true, I should not have said the
bottom of a well, but the bottom of a deep
pit," said

Harry.

" Oh, that

is

another

" I like that better.

affair,"

Now,

said Lucy,

then, I

am

at

the bottom of a deep pit."

"

Now,

weigh the
of this

then,

which do you think would

heaviest, the air at the

bottom

or the air at the top of a high

pit,

house?"
" I think

it

would weigh heaviest

at

the bottom of the pit," said Lucy.

"

Why ? "

"

Oh

tion," said

" Well,

asked Harry.

my

dear,

such an easy ques-

Lucy.

answer

it

at

any

rate,"

said

Harry.
''

Because,

in

the bottom of the

pit,

21
the air in the pit

above the

is

added

is

and

pit,

also

to the air that

you must add

the air that reaches to the top of the

all

house."
*^

you took

this

the pit, do

would

you understand

believe

barometer

you think
or fall

rise

Suppose

to the

bottom of

that

My

it.

the mercury

dear Lucy pray

think before you answer."

Lucy thought, and answered


it

would
*'

rise at the

Right;

now

bottom of the

you took

if

of a high house, would


"

think

"Why?"

it

"

would

it

fall,"

think

pit."

to the top

it

rise or fall?"

replied Lucy.

said Harry.

" Because then

there

would be

less

weight pressing upon the quicksilver in


the

cup,

and therefore

would be pressed up

into the tube."

" Very well indeed, Lucy

remember
barometer.

all

quicksilver

less

see

you

papa taught us about the

Now

suppose the pit was

sixty feet deep,

and that the house was

forty feet high.

Forty and sixty make a

hundred, you know."

22
" To be sure," said Lucy.

" Well,"

Suppose

slowly.

how much
take

it

Harry,

said

that

" Well
"

"
?

must

go

you observe exactly

the quicksilver

falls,

when you

from the bottom of the pit to the

top of the house, you would have a mea-

by which you could judge of

sure

the

whole height and depth."


"
I

see

should," said

Lucy

see the use of your barometer,

"

and

see

it is

very useful."

" But you do not see all yet," said


" By marking this you would not
Harry.
only

know how much

in that

hundred

the quicksilver falls

feet; but

by dividing

it,

you might know the


same thing afterwards, in any number of
feet, in any height to which you might
and making a

take

the

scale,

barometer

and by

this

you

would have an easy way of measuring


the height of mountains."

" Very ingenious


said Lucy.

"

Now

very convenient

understand the use

of your portable barometer perfectly."


" Not perfectly," said Harry.

" There

23
is

a great deal more to be learned about

heat at different heights, and rarefaction


of the

with

But

air.

will not

that,

especially

it

yet myself.

about

as

puzzle you

am

But

not clear

this

general notion, which papa says

enough

is

the

quit

at first."

" Quite
"

is

enough

me," said Lucy.

for

Thank you, Harry,

for telling

me no

more."

"

wish! oh how I wish !" cried


Harry, " that we had a mountain to meaI

sure with

my

portable barometer !"

" But," said Lucy,

^'

a mountain w411

come to you, for wishing for it, any


more than to Mahomet"
"Mahomet!" repeated Harry. "What
do you mean?"
" Do not you know, Harry, the com-

not

mon

Since

saying,

not

come

go

to

Harry,

to

the

when

the

mountain

will

Mahomet, Mahomet must


mountain?
I

You were

by,

read this in our Universal

24

Do

mamma.

History to

not you remem-

ber it?"

" No,

forget

remember some

you, Lucy,

than

worse

other sorts of things than

mamma

as

fore,

better

sorts of things

do."

And how much

"

How much

it.

understand

you do

there-

we can help one


time we shall know

says,

another, and then in

much between us. My dear


Harry, how convenient that will be, and
how happy we shall be."
" Very happy but we cannot be always together," said Harry, " so we must
learn to remember what we want for ourtwice

as

selves,

or

when we
"

We

be rather inconvenient

will

it

are separate."

be separated for a great

shall not

while," said Lucy.


to

mamma,

to

go to school
''

am

said yesterday

yet."

very glad of that," said Harry,

But,

happy going on at home,

my father,
my dear, to

learning from
!

Papa

heard him, that you are not

" for I shall be so

Lucy

"

and with you,


go back

to

Ma-

25
hornet, for I

do not

like to let that

go,

without in the least understanding what


it

means."
" Never mind

only a bit of wit," said

Lucy.
**

But cannot you explain

it

to

me?"

said Harry.

" No,
see

at

it

is

it

so easy, that if you do not

first,

make

cannot

it

plainer,"

said Lucy.

"

Do

try," said

" It

Harry.

means only

foolish for

that

commanding

Mahomet was

the mountain, in

a braggadocio way, to come to him; and

when

all

the people standing

by expected,

perhaps, that the mountain should obey

him, and come at his bidding, and


it

did not

stir,

he came

off in

when

a shabby

way, by saying, that since the mountain


did not come to him, he must go to the

mountain."
''Is that all!"

told

me

it

said Harry;

was a common saying."

" Yes, afterwards


VOL.

"but you

I.

it

came

to

be a com-

26

mon

saying, whenever a person proposes

something, which seems fine and grand,

and which they cannot

when they come

off

do,

really

and

with doing some-

common and easy, then comes the


saying about Mahomet and the mounthing

tain."

"

Thank you,"

if

he had

"

But

still

applied to

Oh

Thank you

for nothing."

do not understand how

my

measure with
"

^'

said,

said Harry, in a tone as

this

wishing for a mountain to

my

my

portable barometer."

dear Harry, do not be so

grave about it," said Lucy.


" I only look grave, because

am try" how the

ing to understand," said Harry,


story applied."

" I suppose

Lucy,

call it," said

few moments.
any more of
"

Only

did not apply

it

*'

as

you

after considering for a

But do not

let

us talk

it."

tell

me how

it

came

into your

"

when you

head?" said Harry.


" I cannot

tell,"

said

Lucy

27
said something about wishing the

would come

tain

" No,

" that

Harry,

interrupted

no,"

was not what

you

to

moun-

said exactly."

" Well, never mind exactly^ about such


a thing

Lucy;

'^

as
I

you

that

my

this,

dear Harry,"

only know, that whatever


the sound

said,

about mountain,

brouo^ht

and Mahomet

my

"

into

The sound

" so,

after

of the
the

said
it

was

words

mountain

head."

of the words," said Harry

all,

words only came

the

jingling into your head from the sound,

and had nothing

to

and

all this

have been

do with the business


while trying to

make sense of nonsense."


" I told you it was nonsense

at first,"

said Lucy.

"

You

told

my

" Well,
wit,
*'

it

me

it

was

wit," said Harry.

dear, if one tries to explain

often turns into nonsense."

Then what

great

good

is

there in

wit ?
" If you understand
diverting

that

is

it

at

first, it is

good," said Lucy.

c2

very

28
" But

cannot understand

if I

at first,"

it

said Harry.

"

Why,

then,

cannot help

said

it,"

Lucy.

"

'^

That

*'

More provoking

rather provoking,*' said Harry.

is

this time.

is lost,

me," said Lucy,

have been trying and

ing to explain

for

try-

but in explaining, the wit

the pleasure at least

my

" But that was not

gone."

is all

fault,"

said

Harry.

" Yes, but

it

was,

my

dear,

for

not

understanding it at first,"
" That is the same thing you said before,

my

dear Lucy."

" Because
I

it is

have nothing
"

And

answer

made

make

to

before,

dear,

the

Lucy;

it,

same

that if I

cannot understand it I cannot,"


" And I come round again to
help

and

Harry."

else to say,

have only

my

the truth,

'

cannot

Harry.'

" That

is

arguing in a

circle,

as

papa

says," observed Harry.

"

do not know what

is

meant by

29

Lucy

circle," said

arguing in a

" 1 sup-

pose it is something in Euclid."


" No, my dear, Euclid never argues in
a circle, he only argues about a circle or
circles,"

"

I?i

and

us say no more about


so

much about one


"

it,"

it.

" Oh, let

hate saying

thing."

I like to stick to

derstand
" But

Lucy

said

about,''

one thing,

till

un-

said Harry.

when you

can't

said

"

Lucy

" you really are so slow, Harry, about


wit."

" Perhaps I am a little slow," said


Harry; " but recollect, Lucy, that you

acknowledged

yourself,

at last,

how

story did not apply, so

that the

could

un-

derstand it?"

" Well,
**

acknowledge,"

said

Lucy

but that excuse will do only for

this

once."

" I dare say


time,"

Lucy,

said

shall

Harry.

at those

two

find another next


''

But

men

now

carrying

look,
that

30

What

long ladder across the lawn.


they going to do with

They were going

it,

want to know ?

to carry

in the village, the steeple of

some

repair

go with him.

it

church

to a

which wanted

his father followed the

and Harry asked

are

men,

Lucy and he might


His father gave him leave,
if

and Harry carried

his portable barometer

with him, saying, that he thought he could


try

it

at the top of the church.

In the church there were

which

stairs

led

up

way

of going up to the top of the tower,

but by
fixed

it

was no

to the gallery, but there

means of a
steadily,

The men

ladder.

and Harry's father went

up. Harry wanted to follow, but his father


said he must not

had not time

come

to think

yet,

because he

of him,

till

their

business was finished.


''

it

My

is

dear Harry," said Lucy, "

very dangerous

you

able to go to such a height.


afraid to look at

my

head giddy."

think

will never
I

am

papa going up,

it

be

almost

makes

31

And when

him,

his father called

held the flap of his coat, and said,


deed, Harry, you had better give
^'

Give

up

it

He began

In-

up."
not.

run up the ladder with

to

But

he barometer in his hand.


called to

'^

it

would

no, that he

!"

she

him and bid him

his father

" stop,"

and

or-

dered him to give the barometer to one


of the masons,

who was behind him, whom

he requested

to carry

follow

"

him up

Oh

am

used,

mounting ladders, and

any body
"

Do

and

to

you know,

to

for him,

the ladder.

papa,

it

am

safe without

to take care of rae."

as

you are

not come up at

desired, or

all,"

Harry obeyed

you

shall

said his father.

and when he got high

up on the

ladder, he felt that his father

was

for

to

right;

though he had been used

go up ladders, he had never gone up

He

one that was nearly so high.

felt

an

unusual sensation of giddiness in his head.

He was

glad the

man was

close behind

him, he held fast to the sides of the ladder, stepped

up very

carefullv,

and seized

32
his

father's

him

at the top.

When

the roof of the

him
felt

who was

hand,

landed safely on

he looked about

tower,

when he looked down,

little

waiting for

giddy, and

it

his

head

still

was some mo-

ments before he recovered himself

suffi-

ciently to think even of his portable baro-

Then he recollected, that, in his


hurry to come up, he had forgotten to mark
meter.

how high
on

the

the mercury stood

He

ground.

when he was

did not

thoughts of immediately going


ladder again.

It

would do exactly

as

well,

at the top of the tower,

how much

to the

bottom

it
;

slate,

in his hand.
it,

down

the

to

it

mark the

now

stood,

and afterwards

to

would rise when he got


but Lucy had his pencil

He

and paper below.


on a bit of

the

occurred to him, that

height at which the quicksilver

see

like

wrote the figures

which one of the men had

After being a

he grew quite

little

used

to

at ease at this height,

and could think as well as when on the


firm ground.

When

the ladder, he was a

he was to go down

little startled

by hear-

33
ing Lucy

cry

out,

Oh, Harry, take

*^

>5

care.

His father stopped him, told Lucy she


foolish to call out, desired her

was very
to

go

and wait there

into the church,

which she

they should come;

did,

till

and

when she saw Harry


come down safely.

very glad she was,

and her father

Upon examining

had written

which he

which he had put

of slate,

the bit

his figures,

into his

on

and

bosom while

he came down the ladder, he found that


they were so rubbed,

make them

sible to

Lucy,

who was

that

it

was impos-

out.

afraid of his

going up
one figure

again,

was by turns

was an

eight, a nine, or a nought.

sure,

that

This would not do for Harry, he must

His father said he was

go up again.
right

and

this

the barometer

time he wrote

down what

was before he went up, and

carried paper and pencil with him.


father
It

was

was so good
all

done

His

accompany him.
and this time Lucy

as to

rightly,

did not say a word

till

Harry's foot was


c 5

34
off the last

rung of the ladder, and

safe

on

the ground.

Now

knew

they

quicksilver

had

exactly

fallen, in

how much

going up

top of the tower, and at what

Harry

at the bottom.

it

the

to the

had stood
must

said, that this

be compared with a table of measures,

which he had

home, which would

at

and inches.

the height, in feet

And

here be

tell

it

noted,

that

on

this,

and many other occasions, Lucy's readiness


in arithmetic

was of use

when he came

to

her brother,

The

to his calculations.

habit of writing her figures exactly under-

neath each other, in the right rows, and


of drawing straight lines and making neat
little

figures, all

proved of advantage when

she was called upon to write


for

him

down

in a great hurry, or to

and copy clearly

his scrawled

addition, multiplication,

totals

go over

sums

subtraction,

in

and

division.

On

the present occasion difficulties oc-

curred, and

Lucy

sat beside

quarter of an hour, writing

Harry

for a

down and

rub-

35
bing out figures upon a

and com-

slate,

plying by turns with contrary orders.

my

" Lucy,
subtract

dear, write

down

have you done


presently
meant
say
did
add, add."

from 930

it

it?"

" Stay a bit


"

My

say subtract?
"

yes."

add,

to

dear, I

'^Well,

452, and

no,

have added."

no,

must be divided

Now

multiply that by

stop.

first it

understand

this table

there

stay

do not

something

is

about heio;ht above the level of the sea


here, that I cannot

about

this

is

wrong.

all

my

lation

about expansion

and here

and

and heaven knows what.


I

are

allow

to

a calcu-

is

proportion,

Oh

do not know what

we

do not know how

thermometer

continued he,

dear Lucy

for the

wrono^

Then what

out.

expansion,''

" Oh,

reading.

make

it

am

is

all

about.'

This Lucy had suspected, but she had

good nature not

the
all

say so

and

as

she had done was right, she found

it

easy

to

be patient.

for the article ^or^^^/e

to

Harry ran

to

look

barometer; no, ha-

36
rometer, portable,

in

a Cyclopedia;

but

there opened to Harry's eyes such a quarto

scene of tables, and fractions, and algebraic signs, as quite

dismayed hini,^and

Lucy stood in stupefied silence beside him.


At leno^th he observed,
" There

is

a great difference between

having a general notion of any thing, and


knovs^ing

it

thoroughly.

thought

un-

derstood the use of this barometer perfectly,

but w^hen
out

come

to try,

cannot make

it

w^ell."

"It

too difficult," said Lucy;

is

will only puzzle yourself"

(she

"you
offered

to shut the book).

" No, no, 1 will try and puzzle

and w^hen papa comes


me, and show

When

me my

his father

in,

he

it

was

all

" But after

came

made

all,"

out,

"will

help

mistake."
in,

he did help

Harry, and with his assistance,


tience,

it

and pa-

clear.

said Lucy,

" though

you have found out the height of the


church, it was a difficult way of doing
it,

with

all

these calculations.

Would

not

37
it

by

have been easier

down from

letting

have measured

to

it

the top a string and

a vreight, a

plumb

lieve^ then

you could have measured the

line, as it is called I

and you would have had no

string,

be-

diffi-

culty."

"Very

have been the easiest way

we

because

measure high
with

downs,

and

ins

how

let

crooked mountains, miles


outs,

difficult that

sides, this puzzle

only because
I

am

it

and ups and

would

Be-

be.

with the portable baro-

me

meter would not plague

and

in this instance,

down a plumb
Lucy, when we want to

and

but consider,

high,

would

could get to the top of the

church at once,
line

" that

true," said Harry,

was

my

glad that

again;

first

it

time of

was

trial

we have conquered

the difficulty."

"It
I

is

very good of you to say we, for

did nothing but write

down

the figures,

and do the sums," said Lucy.


"

But

that helped

thank you for doing

me
it

very much, and

so patiently.

You

38

yawn above six times. And now,


my dear Lucy, if we had but a mountain
did not

to

measure

How

*'

!"

happy we should be going

the top of

any

together, at

it

to

rate," said

Lucv.

"LccY, your

hair

hanging into your

is

eyes this morning," said her mother.


" Yes,

mother," said Lucy,

''

because

quite out of curl."

it is

Did you

^'

curl

night,

Lucy

it

last

did indeed; and

said her mother.

"Yes, mamma,
curled very

but

uncle,

nicely this

it

morning early

went out

in

hopes of meeting

who was

to

have come

my

to break-

came in
The
again, my hair was all as you see.
breakfast bell rang, and I had not time to
fast

curl

and by the time that

it

again."

Her mother was


had not neglected

since

satisfied,

to

curl

it

at

Lucy
night.

39

which had sometimes been the

knew what had un-

father asked, if she

when

curled her hair

The damp

''

said she
curl in

"

"

damp

she went out.


mornincr,

of the

my

Her

case.

papa,"

hair always goes out of

weather."

So does mine, Lucy," said her mo-

ther.

"

not peculiar to your hair, to

It is

go out of curl

damp

in

weather."

But, Lucy, what do you

''

hair going out of curl

"Just what you

see,

"

mean by your

said her father.

papa; that

it

hangs

straight."
'*

You told me

ing uncurled
it

it

the moisture of the morn-

do you know how or why

does so?" said her father.


" No,

papa, not in the least;

you would
''

tell

When

wish

me."

your hair

is

curled, the parts

of one side of each hair are pressed close


together,

and the parts on the other side

are stretched out.

Give

me

that piece of

packthread."
It

was loosely

a bit of

it,

twisted.

and showed

He
her,

coiled

up

that in the

40
inner circle the parts are pressed together,
in the outer they are stretched.

and

"Now

mean, that
hair,

said

I see,"

when

just the

is

it

curl

Lucy; "and you

it.

my

same with

But

still

do not

understand how the damp straightens it."


" That you shall see directly," said her

and he dipped the curled pack-

father;

thread into a cup of water


wet,

all

became

it

" Yes,

it

" Look, and

has

filled

all

when

my

you

cancies,

hair,"

will see, that the water

the interstices, or vacancies,

parts of the cord.

and

Now

different

there are in your

in all hair, pores, or small va-

which can be

filled

with moisture,

like the interstices in this packthread,

which imbibe moisture from the


this

and

air,

as

packthread imbibed the water, and

you see

it filled

as well as

the pores on the inside,

on the outside."

Thank you, papa," said Lucy, " that


very nice. To know why my hair un-

"
is

was

But how ?

which you observed between the


hair,

it

straight.

has uncurled, like


"

said Lucy.

41
curls

derstand

^'Not

Now

a comfort.

at least

is

un-

it all."

said her father.

all,"

There

''

is

a property of hair which you do not yet

know

when

that

pores are

its

'

filled

papa

see,

it is

and becomes

wet, that

with moisture

you mean

it

is,

"

swells out,

thicker, like this cord."

" Not exactly like that cord, Lucy

cord shortens as

it

but hair lengthens

human

hair

when

is

that

swells out in breadth

when

it

is

easily affected

All

moist.

by moisture."

" Very easily, indeed," said Lucy, divid-

ing her uncurled locks on her forehead,

and trying
" I

to put

was not

nutes,

damp above ten miyou see how straight my

in the

and yet

hair has become.


say,

human

them out of her way.

hair

Indeed, papa, as you


is

very easily affected by

moisture/'
" Yes, fortunately," said Harry.

"Fortunately!" repeated Lucy;


fortunately
fortunately

"

you mean.

Why

*^

un-

do you say

have a reason, and a good one,"

42
"

said Harry.

It is

For one reason,

that property.

purpose, useful to
especially to

fortunate that hair has

men

men and women, but

all

of science."

" Fortunate and useful


" Brother,
tunate

how

one

for

can

or useful to

!"

Lucy.

said

possibly be for-

it

you,

or to

men

of

science in particular, or to any body, that

my

go out of

curl in

particular,

Lucy,

hair should so easily

damp weather?"
"

Not your

hair in

but hair in general," said Harry.


" What use," said Lucy, '^ if every
body's hair in the whole world was to

go out of

curl like this every

what use could

it

be but

look very deplorable, as

do when

my

hair

What good would


science, or
*'

in

is

this

to

damp day

make them

mamma

all

says

condition?

this

do

to

men

of

any men?"

You do

understand

not

Harry, smiling.

"

me,"

said

Did you never hear of

an hygrometer?"

"Hygrometer!"

said

Lucy,

''Yes,

have often heard of an hygrometer.

I
I

43
heard papa talking to you about hygrometers

very

last

Wednesday

^'

No

lately,

matter,"

and reading a great

no, last Thursday."

my

dear, interrupted her

" what day you heard

father,

about

it

me

reading

do you know or do you not

know what an hygrometer


Lucy

deal,

confessed

what

she

is?"

know

not

did

was but she thought it


had somethino; to do with a barometer
exactlij

it

and a thermometer, because

it

ends in

and she remembered long ago

meter;

her father had told her, that meter meant

and comes from some Greek

measure^

word

that

means

measure

to

therefore,

she supposed an hygrometer must be a

machine, or an instrument for measuring


something, but what, she did not
she guessed

it

know

was something about the

air.

Her

father

said,

that

right in thinking that

it

she was so
is

used to measure something.


that

it

that the

an instrument

He

measures moisture in the

name hygrometer

is

far

told her,
air

and

composed of

44
two Greek words, hugros,

moist, or mois-

and metron, measure,

ture,

Lucy

which contains,

liked this name,

as she observed, the history of the thing

and now she knew


could never forget

she thought she

this,
it.

Their uncle had not yet come in to


breakfast,

and

read

newspaper

the

their father

to

beginning to
their

mother,

Harry and Lucy went on

at the farther

end of the room, talking

each other.

"
"

Now

why

to

you can guess,"

said

Harry,

was very lucky that


your hair uncurls so easily in the damp.
You observed yourself, that you could
I said that it

always

know by your

damp day

hair whether

or not, whether air

is

it

is

moist

or not."

^*

"

So

for

it

hair

is

an hygrometer," said Lucy,

measures moisture.

hair might say,

Hygrometer ;

if it

or, in

am

sure

my

could speak Greek,

plain English, 'inoist^-

I measure!^
" Very true," said Harry

" but

still

you do not know the measure exactly of

45

HOW

moist,

do you

how damp

?"

" Yes, on very,


hair
it

may be

the day

damp days my

very

comes quite out of

curl,

you see

as

now," said Lucy, " and hangs quite

straight

but

only comes

it

of curl on days that are only a

little

little

out

damp

or damp-ish."

"A

damp!

little

peated Harry

" that

Damp-ish!'"

re-

very well for

is

common talking, but it does not describe


I do not know what
exactly how damp.
degree of moisture you mean to express

by damp-i^^."
" Pish

"

echoed Lucy.

not smile.
" You have

not yet told

said he, gravely,


is

made

to

Harry would

show

"

how

me, Lucy,"

the hygrometer

the measure of mois-

ture exactly."

" I do not

know

exactly^ brother.

suppose, for instance, you

my

when it
damp weather when
hair

straight,

is

is

knew how long

quite dry

it is

But

moist,

then in

and hangs

you could measure how long

it

46

grown

has

mean how much

has

it

lengthened by the damp."


" I could measure," said Harry, " but

how ?
" You could see whether my hair comes
down as far as to my eyebrows, or only
or this far," said Lucy, touching

this far,

different points

had a

" If

on her forehead.

lookino^-o^lass

would measure

this

for myself."

" This might do," said Harry


best

it

would do only

" but at

for yourself;

and

but badly for yourself, because you must,


to

mark your

spots
''

points,

have disagreeable

on your forehead always."


should not like that," said Lucy,

" nor would mamma, I am sure."


" Besides,"
continued
Harry,

would be rather inconvenient


run in search of

my

compasses and
hair and

you,
ruler,

with
to

to

''

me

it

to

pair of

measure your

your scale on your forehead.

This would be

rather

an inconvenient

hygrometer."

" Rather,

acknowledge," said Lucy,

47
" you would twitch

head

measuring each

too, in

pose

and

my

the hair off

all

hair,

sup-

should be afraid that you

would put out

my

eyes with the points

when you came

of your compasses,

measure the scale on

my

to

forehead,

should not like to be your hygrometer."


"

would much rather have one

would always stand or hang


said Harry

" or one that

my

about in

you manage
find out

how

to

how

do

pocket, better
that
to

for

my

in

room,"

could carry
still

me?

do that?

that

Could

Could you
I

found out

it."

" Did you indeed, brother? and do you


think

can?"

" Yes, if you

think

well,

and

you

if

go on thinking," said Harry.


''

I will,

am

then.

But

tell

me

exactly what

and what

to think about,

is

to

be

done," said Lucy.

Harry pulled a hair out of


head,

and

laid

paper before
stretching

it

it

her.

out,

his

own

on a piece of white
" There,"

"you

see

its

said

he,

length.

We

48
suppose

will

dry as

this hair is as

it

can

Now I will dip it into this bason


water.
Now that it has been wet, it

be.

longer than

was when

it

" Yes ; but

we want

on

it

this sheet

as exactly as

sure,

longer

when

it

is

when

to

know how much


easy to

is

it

of paper, and mea-

you
it

please,

is

how much

wet than

it

was

can

was quite dry."

it

" Very well," said Harry, " and


tell

is

was dry."

" Well,

longer," said Lucy.


lay

it

of

you, that you would find

of

fortieth

its

length longer.

have the utmost


moisture,

leno-th

to

it

be one

Then you

between extreme

and extreme dryness."

" And,"

continued

Lucy,

" I

could

divide this line on the paper between the

two black

dots,

points to which
dry,

and when

vided exactly,
a scale

by which you marked


it

when

stretched

it

it

was damp

it

would be what you

the

was

and, if dicall

you could measure how much,

in different

degrees of

damp

or

dry,

it

stretches or shortens."

" Very well, indeed," said Harry

" and

49
the scale on paper would be better than on

your forehead, you

That's one point

see.

fixed."

" That's one point gained," said Lucy,

"now what

done next?"

to be

is

" Next, you are to find out how, without the trouble of continually
hairs out of

my head

or yours,

plucking

and wetting

you might
know every day or hour, or at any time
or drying, and measuring them,

you

please,

much
**

how damp

moisture

it

how

far

it

make

Lucy,

said

is,

or

how

contains."

If I could but

itself,"

the air

the hair measure

and mark or show

''

shrinks or lengthens on this

paper in any time."


" Aye, if
is

you could," said Harry, "

that

the question."
" Suppose

had a very, very, very

weight," said Lucy

hair could support

then

could

tie it to

" so
it

little,

little

that this

without breaking,

one end of the hair,

and hang the hair by the other end

to

something, suppose a piece of wire stuck


into the wall

VOL.

1.

and

would put

this paper,

50
with our scale upon

it,

and when you look

just behind the weight,


at

it,

you would see how much the hair

had shrunk

damp

against the wall,

or lengthened, at

any time,

in

or dry."

"There papa!" cried Harry; "Lucy


has made out as far as I did the first
time I thought of making an hygrometer !"
Lucy looked much pleased with herself,
and with her brother

for

being pleased with

her.

"

And have

I really

invented an hygro-

meter, Harry?" cried she.


" Yes, but not a perfect one,
said Harry
to

" there

is

my

dear,"

a great deal more

be done."

What more ? " said Lucy


"To come to breakfast, in the first place,"
"

said her father.

This Lucy was ready to do, for she was


a

little

tired

but by the time she

had

refreshed herself by eating half her breakfast,

"

she

returned

What more

is

the hygrometer

to
?

to

the

question

be done, brother, about

51
"

To make

more convenient,"

it

" In your way,

Harry.

must always be

it

and besides,

up against a wall;

stuck

said

your divisions are so very, very small,

you can hardly see how much the

that

hair lengthens or shortens."


"

You might

take a magnifying glass,"

said Lucy.

" Well, that would help

you think of another way

Lucy thought

but cannot

"
?

for a little while,

and went

on eating her breakfast, and presently answered, " No, brother;

can think only

of taking a larger magnifying glass, a glass

Will

that magnifies more.

"

Still

there

tliat

do?"

an easier method

is

put

the magnifying glass out of your head."

" It must be a

an easier way,

more

for

difficult,

instead of

cannot find

it

out,"

said Lucy.

"

But

you
"

it

have

Come,

tinued he,

some

time.

easier,

is

found

it

will help
after she

"

Look

when

assure you,
out,"

you a

said

Harry.

little,"

con-

had considered
at the

hand of

for

that

D 2

^^

OF

^^

^^^

52
clock,"

and he pointed

to the dial-plate

of

a pendule, which was on the chimneyopposite

piece

" Look, the

to

the

breakfast-table.

hand now points

you see how

far

it is

from ten

Suppose that hand was


ten to eleven

to eleven

move

to

fro^l

" Well, suppose," said Lucy

can

Then which would have moved

the

easily
^'

Do

at ten.

suppose

farthest

'*

this."

which would have gone over the

most space ? the point of the hand, which


is at

the outside of the dial-plate, or that

part of the hand, which


centre

"

is

closest to the

The

point of the hand, which

is at

the

outennost part of the circle, would have

gone the

moved over
little,

be able

The part
would have moved

most space.

the

nearest to the centre


so

mean, would have

farthest; I

that I suppose I should hardly

to see or

measure by

my

eye

how

much."
*'

True," said Harry,

but you could

see,

"

you could not;

and you could measure

53
the space from ten to eleven easily

could

not you?"
" Certainly," said Lucy.
"

You

could guess the measure even by

your eye, v^ithout taking compasses or

magnifying
*'

Now

Lucy; "
and

glass," said Harry.

I see

must have

dial

show and

what you are about," said

to

little, leetle

my

for

plate,

measure the

hand,

hygrometer, to
least

motion of

the hair in shortening or lengthening."

" Right," said Harry


"

Do

not

" I can do

tell

me any

so far right."

more," said Lucy

myself now, and in a

for

it all

'^

minute."
"

Do

not be in such a hurry,

said Harry,

" Hurry
said

Well,

Lucy,
I

" or
I

you

am

never do

dear,"
it."

not in the least hurry,"

" only

would

will

my

like

fasten the

to

be quick.

end of the hair

to

make every, the smallest


motion of the hair, move the hand."
the axle, so as to

She paused.

She was not quite


of the manner in which this was
done.

clear

to be

54
"I will help you," said Harry. "Sup-

pose

"

"Suppose," said his mother, "that you


were to let Lucy finish her breakfast."
"

" for

and welcome," said Harry

will,

now

she has the principle of an hy-

grometer, which papa was explaining to

me

show her a
"

day, and of which

other

the

plate " said

said

"

By

Oh

"

Lucy

at breakfast,

yes,

"

may as well
may not I ?
I

mean an engraving,"
did not you know that ?"
to be sure," said Lucy

a plate,

Harry

will

plate after breakfast-"

have the plate


"

" I was only in play."

Breakfast

finished,

Harry went

to the

library to

look for the book, and Lucy

followed,

eager to see the drawing and

what she had been trying


He showed her in Rees's Cy-

description of
to invent.

clopedia two engravings of different hygrometers.


" This," said he, pointing to one,

was

55
invented by a great English engineer, of
the

name of Smeaton

and

by

this other

Monsieur de Saussure, the famous Swiss

exactly

of these

either

Smeaton's, but he

weight hung
is said,

my

Yours, Lucy

traveller.

to

it

uses

dear,

most

is

like

with

cord,

not

is

instead of a hair.

it,

however, that a hair

is

a
It

better than

a cord for our purpose."


"

And how

does the other man,

manage with

Saussure,

M. de

the hair?"

said

Lucy.

Harry pointed

showed

her, that one

fastened, as she

engraving, and

the

to

end of the hair

had proposed,

of the hand, and the hair


the axle

below.

to the axle

wo^nd round

but the other end, instead of

having a weight hung


tight,

is

and fastened

to

to

it,

is

strained

a frame of w^ood

Then, when the haii shortens or

lengthens, with

dryness

turns the axle of the

oi

hand a

moisture,

litde, or

it

much,

according to the shortening of the hair.

"Turns the
Lucy.

"

axle of the

see

it

would

hand
turn,

!"

repeated

when

the

56
would

hair shortens, because that

round

but

pull

it

do not see how, when the

hair lengthens, that

it

axle and the hand.

would turn back the


I

think that the hair

would only loosen round the

axle."

"True, Lucy, and accurate," cried Harry,


with

pleasure in

eyes

his

" but

look

again at this engraving. See here a weight

hanging

which

to this little cord,

is

wound

round the

axle, in a contrary direction to

the hair.

The weight

enough

just

is

to

keep the hair constantly strained, so as to


prevent
said

it

it

from loosening, as you rightly

would, round the axle,

not any thing to prevent

lengthens from
is

glad

now

it

told

have cleared

you
it

when

in

prints of a great

as

it

and

see no difficulty," said


it

quite

and

the difficulty,

away.

a puzzle.

the hair

Then,

for

am
you

hate to feel that

have only half understood, and

off

was

there

turns the axle

" I understand

Lucy.

moisture.

kept stretched,

hand."
" Yes;

it,

if

But, Harry,

to leave

here are

many more hygrometers."

57
" Yes, made of different substances,"
said Harry

many

*^
;

things beside hair,

know, can be used

you

changes of moisture
things which

and

show these

show

to

dryness;

Oh

"salt

of

often."

and sugar,

and some kinds of wood,

instance,

for

Lucy

yes," said

all

Some

easily.

them we have observed ourselves


"

the

which warp with the changes of the weawet

ther from

window

frame,

much

so

we

to dry.
I

The wood of

this

remember, was swelled

during the rain

last

week, that

could not open the sash."

" Yes, that sash

wood

of

fir

tree,

" and this sort

is

made

of deal

the

you know," said Harry;


of wood shrinks and ex-

pands quickly with dryness and moisture."


"

recollect,"

Lucy,

interrupted

read something about a creeping

"

wooden

hygrometer, in the notes to the Botanic

Garden.
because

My dear, I remember
it

was entertaining.

wooden automaton,

it

perfectly,

There was a

a machine that

moved

of itself"
"

know

of no such machine," inter-

D 5

58
rupted Harry.

*^

If

moved,

it

it

must have

been moved by some cause."


^'

Well, the damp,

Now let me

cause.

suppose, was the

go on, Harry.

wooden automaton, with

and four

with

feet,

which clawed on

It

a long back,

iron-pointed

little

by

was

little,

shoes,

so that

it

walked, or crept, or clawed, quite across


the floor of

its

master's room, in a month's

time, from the changes of


I

do not know how, but

taining,

and

more

you can

if

thing about

was very

dry.

enter-

me now much
show me how it was con-

will entertain

There was,

trived.

made

it

it

damp and

remember, some-

pflueino: the bits

the back,

of wood that

do not rightly know

how," said Lucy, " cross-ways."


" Cross-grain,
"

said Harry.

We

by, and I will try

explain

it

suppose you mean,"


will look for

if I

to you.

by and

it

can understand and

But now go

on,

and

guess some other substances of which hy-

grometers are made."


*'

do not

little,"

recollect

said Lucy.

any more

help

me

59
Harry pointed

to his mother's harp.

"I see mamma's harp," said Lucy, "but

me

that only puts

mind of

in

the last tune

she played."

"

Do

not you

broke yesterday?"
" Yes, I do, and

was!"

said

how

string

troublesome

it

remember

that

not go to Mrs.

Any-

Lucy;

'*

"

Mrs.
*'

that

recollect

Stay, now, do

body, but think of the cause of that string


breakino;."

"

Mamma

said, that

it

was cracked bv

the sudden change of the weather,"

"

What change ? "

''

From dry

Lucy.

" Oh,

to

now

damp,
I

believe," said

understand

know what you mean.


the

In

it

and

damp weather

moisture from the air gets into the

strings,

and swells them

them, that

if

and so shortens

they are held tight at each

end, they crack.

of catgut.

out,

Those

strings are

made

Catgut then would be a good

thing for an hygrometer."


" Yes," said Harry;

^^

but

now

will

60
you another thing used

tell

ters,

which

hygrome-

for

do not think you could guess

Ivory."
"Ivory no,
!

never should have thought

" I never

of that," said Lucy.

knew

ivory lengthens and shortens in

that

damp

or

dry weather."
'*

does though," said Harry; "there

It

are a great

many pores in

ivory

we

them without a magnifying

see

the moisture gets into


swells

other

common

day, which

dip

it

glass,

these pores,

But now, Lucy, there

out.

it

cannot

thing,

you may see

swelling, without

When

it,

hold in your shut hand, what,


of water, was as large as
"
"

But

itself,

spunge
if

it

my

a spunge

a spunge

would

you

any magnifying glass;

shrinks so that

it

an-

great pores

its

and then, when you squeeze the water


and dry

and

which you see every

you might guess.

in water

is

but

is

left

!"

out,

you could

when

full

head."
cried Lucy.

in a

room by

suck up water from the

air?"

" Yes, whether

it

is

left in

a room by

61
itself or not," said

"

Harry,

will absorb

it

(do not say suck up) moisture from the air

and

g;rows heavier

it

when

with moisture, or lighter as

spunge hygrometer

is

it

it

fillino-

is

The

dries.

measured, or mea-

by weight, not by lengthening or


shortening, expanding
or contracting.
sures

You do

look

as if

you understand

Lucy."

this,

"

not

do," said Lucy; " but

ing tired.

think

am grow-

have had enough

about hygrometers."
" No, no, you cannot be tired so soon
^'

guess once more," said Harry

may

easily guess this, because

it is

^*

you

a thing

used in your dress."

Lucy had observed, she said, that her


gloves often grew damp in wet weather.
She guessed leather. It was not what
Harry meant
leather

why

it

but he said that he thought

would do, and he did not know


had not been used perhaps as it

takes in moisture so easily,

pand

it

may

not ex-

or contract equally."

Encouraged by Harry's approbation of

62
her good guess of leather, Lucy was willing

and guess again.

to try

^'

But help me/'

said she.

Harry told

her, that the thing

and yet not so

is stiff,

be bent

it is

stiff

but that

springy and

She thouo^ht of several

he meant
it

can

elastic.

thino-s

which can

be bent, but she could not guess right;

and

then,

yawning and stretching

herself,

she repeated that she was tired, and that


she could not

must

guess any more

Harry

tell her.

whalebone, my
Then I will tell you
dear.
Come, have done yawning," said
I will not make you guess any
Harry
now I will show you something
more
entertaining; I will show you a nice little
hygrometer, made of an Arabian oats
"

'^

beard."
"

Show

it

me," said Lucy, stopping in

the midst of a full stretch.


^'

Here, in this print," said Harry.

" Only a print

thought you had the

real beard," said Lucy.

"

You might make an hygrometer your-

63
self, I

dare say, of a

common

English oat

beard," said Harry.

"Well, that
"

You were

you said

should

right after

was lucky

it

How

curled so easily.
that I

this
ters

odd

hair un-

Harry,

is,

it

my

all

life

without ever thinking of

it

on
till

morning, one of the best of hygrome-

My

knowing
prose
"

my

that

when

Harry,

all,

have been carrying

my head,

Lucy

like," said

having an hygrometer without

it,

like

is

all his life

the

man who

without knowing

talked

it."

do not know what man you mean,"

said Harry

"

come now, look

at

Arabian oat hygrometer, Lucy;

it,

it

this

the

is

great Doctor Hook's."


'^

do not care about the

Hook," said Lucy

" but let

o-reat

me

Doctor
tell

you

man who talked prose without


knowing it. He was a man in a play, a
about the

very entertaining play papa was reading

one evening when you were not listening.

There was a maid-servant teachinof her


old

master

his letters,

and asking him

what he does when he says the

letter

u.

64

Now
will

you

be the old man, and

shall

be the maid, and

will teach you.

Say u."

my

" Nonsense,

dear," said Harry.

"

Not at all nonsense,"


" you may ask papa."
" Well, but

Lucy

said

have not time now," said

Harry.

"And

the

maid taught him

continued Lucy

"

if I

to fence,"

had but a

stick I

would show you."


"

Now

your head

the play.

you,"
"

looking

Harry,

But here comes

my

mournfully.

uncle,"

he, as his uncle at this

" Uncle, will

the room.

off to

have no more good of

I shall

said

gone quite

is

continued

moment

entered

you look

at this

hygrometer for me?"


"

I will,

Harry, with pleasure," said his

obliging uncle.
"

And

so will

oblige you.

I,

My

Harry," said Lucy, "to

head

is

come back from

the play now."

For about three minutes she was


tive,

atten-

and she understood and admired,

to

65
Harry's hearts content, the

Arabian oat

hygrometer.
" Then, now, Lucy,

much
made

Harry

better," cried

" one which

is

of a kind of Indian grass, which grass

extremely sensible."
" Extremely sensible grass

is

show you a

I will

!"

interrupted

" Uncle, I never heard

Lucy, laughing.

Did

of extremely sensible grass before!

you?"
"

think i/ou are not extremely sensible

my

now,

little

niece," said her uncle, " to

begin punning, instead of minding what

your brother

know

is

that sensible

means

having quick, or great

know
for

Oh

Lucy

sensitive, that

is,

You

sensibility.

these words are applied to plants,

you have heard of

"

Surely you

telling you.

"

yes,
I

to

be

the sensitive plant."


sure,

uncle,"

was only playing.

said

know

the

two meanings of the word sensible as well


as

any body

and

have not only heard

of the sensitive plant, but seen


Pierrepoint's
its

it,

and not only seen

at
it,

aunt

and

leaves closing up, and shrinking back

66

my

from

touch, but

what

is

more, uncle,

have learned by heart Dr. Darwin's lines on


the sensitive plant, the

Mimosa."

She repeated them, and her uncle


were pretty

that they

lines,

said,

and that she

repeated them well.

"

And would

motto

not they

make a good

an hygrometer, uncle?" said

for

she.
**

Very good,"

"

And now," resumed

show you
"

One

said her uncle.

much

'^

me

let

hygrometer."

this

other motto,

Lucy:

my

dear uncle,

for the barometer," con-

have thought of
tinued

Harry,

without considering

how

she was trying her brother's pati-

ence, she went on

repeating, while she

held her uncle by the flap of his coat,


" You charmed, indulgent sylphs, their learned toil.
And crown'd with fame your Torricel and Boyle."
a Torricel!"

you mean
'^
No, it

cried Harry; " I suppose

Torricelli."
is

Torricel in the lines, I assure

you," said Lucy.


'^

It is Torricelli

out of the lines,

as-

67
sure you," said Harry.

man

such a

as Torricel,

Their uncle

Harry was

"There never was


was there, uncle?"

whispered

Lucy,

to

that

right.

''Well, never mii"d,

it

must be Torricel

here, for the sake of the line," said Lucy,

" else

it

on,

will

would be too
tell

Let

long^.

you what the

me

o;o

indulgent

She went

sylphs taught these people."'

on repeating.
*'

Beautiful lines, Lucy," said her uncle

" but

am

sure

you cannot understand

them, as you are not yet acquainted with


the air

pump."

"But Harry is," said Lucy, " and he will


explain it to me; will not you, Harry?"
Harry looked very

serious, sighed,

and

said nothino;.

"Why

do you

sigh,

Harry?"

" Because," said her uncle,


that

he

shall

"'

he

is

afraid

never be able to make you

understand

the air

pump, or any thing

you

are not

more

else, if

" Harry,

attentive."

beg your pardon,"

said Lucy.

68
" But you

know

was very

attentive at

first."

"And

will

be very attentive
"

hope," said her uncle.

at last I

Come, we

both be serious," added he, sitting


at the table

will

down

and drawing Lucy towards

him, he seated her on half his chair, put

one arm round

on

her,

and leaned

his other

the table, in an attitude of attention.

"Now

Harry, explain your hygrometer,

and spare the remains of that poor pen."


" But Lucy looks

tired,"

Harry.

said

" Have you a mind to see the hygromeor not ?

ter,

"

is,

have a

little

have a great mind

brother, only

them

mind," said Lucy

all,"

we need

to

" that

please you,

not go through

said she, as he placed the plates

before her.

" No, do not be frightened," said Harry

am not going to show them all to you


am going to show you only the very

" I
I

best."

"Stay," said his uncle, putting his hand

69
over tbe engraving to which Harry was

Do

"

pointing.

not show her that, show

her any other, she must not yet see that."

"Why not?
"

wonder why

said Lucy.

"

have a reason," said her

" But never

which

mind

hide under

about that

or think

my

hand,

attend to what your brother

uncle.

my

is

dear;

going to

show you."

"Which
Harry
or

shall I

" shall

show

her, uncle?" said

show her De Luc's ivory

whalebone hygrometer?"
"

The whalebone,

simple,

for that is

the most

think," replied his uncle.

Harry, with the article Hygrometer before him,

began

" Look here, Lucy, do you see

and

little

bit of

little ^,

this represents a small

thin

whalebone, cut across the grain; you

know what
whalebone

is
;

meant by the grain of the

but do you see

little

a and

little^?"

No
a,

b,

Lucy, instead of looking

was

peeping

at

the

at little

back of the

page, and reading something about a

little

70
man, and a

little

woman, and a weather

glass.

" Here

something very entertaining,

is

brother," said she, "I


''

must read

to you.

it

In the Dutch toys called weather glasses,

one end of the index supports a small

image of a man, and

The former

appears, or

bad weather
"

at our

the other of a

woman.

brought

is

out,

in

the latter in fair weather."

remember," said Lucy, " that once,

widow Green's

ther glass of this sort; but

wise enough to

saw a weawas not then

farm,

know

that

I
I

was called

it

an hygrometer."
" There

is

no great wisdom

know-

in

ing that name^' said her uncle.


I

wish you would show

make

this thing, brother," said

^'

me how

to

" that

can," answered Harry, " and

I will

Lucy

would be something indeed."


"

another day, Lucy

but

but one thing at a time.

can show you

Now

what you are about, because

pray mind

have other

things to do."

" Yes, Lucy,

consider your

brother's

71
time," said her uncle

own

to his

affairs

" he wants to

go

pray mind what you

are about."

"I

will,

will

indeed, uncle;

will

Harry," cried Lucy.

Harry began again with,


"Little
bone,

is

Z>

cut

across

thin

piece
grain."

the

of whale-

He was

going on with his explanation, and went


through

c,

d,

and

e,

confident that

was following him; but by

Lucy

that time

he

heard the sound of an ill-suppressed laugh,


and, looking up, he saw

Lucy with both

her hands pressed against her mouth, to

prevent her laughter from bursting forth.

What can you

"

be laughing

at,

Lucy?"

said he.

" Only at the odd figures of the


old

man and woman,

which
ing

the

ribbons
too,

in the

weather

little

glass,

never can think of without laugh-

woman
all

w^ith

her cap and red

awry, and her eyes crooked

and her arm a-kimbo, and her pipe

in

her mouth, doubled back against her snub

72
nose, flattening
!

look uncle

Her

Look Harry,

way.

this

it

uncle, instead of joining in Lucy's

merriment, said gravely, that she was wrong


to

waste her brother's time, and that he

was

afraid she

of science,

would never learn any thing

she were not more attentive.

if

Her mother came into the room while


her uncle was speaking, and Lucy looked
ashamed and mortified writhing as if with
:

"I did attend as

bodily pain, she said,

long as ever
longer, I

but

I could,

was so shockingly

my

" It was

could not any


tired."

said

fault,"

Harry

kept you too long, and told you too


at a time

but

me you wanted
I

had learned
" That

wrong
"

is

" I

much

did that, because you told


to get on,

and

to learn all

as quickly as possible."
true,"

said

Lucy;

"

was

there, I confess."

And

since

her uncle,

was wrong

'^

we

are

all

suppose

confessing," said

should confess

in praising you,

peating those lines."

Lucy, for re-

73
**

you

me

more, though

to repeat

was wrong,

think

knew

should."

suppose, not to like

"but

said Harry;

" for that encou-

brother did not like that

**

it,"

dear uncle,

Lucy

said

were,''

raged

my

my

Yes, indeed,

will

to like

try

poetry better."
"

And

will not repeat

it

at the

wrong

time," said Lucy.

" But Harry, another

day, you must not

tell

*^

me

and keep

tity,

was wrong
on

was

" I

it

and happy

so eager

said

know

you wanted

fast."

" Well, but


little

Harry

And besides, you

myself.
to get

but

such a quan-

so long at it"

said

not,"

I will

me

slower,

1 will

be content

and not

to

to

go a

do so much

at

once."
*^

Right,

" the only

my

dear Lucy," said her uncle

way

science at least,

slowly at

to
is

be quick
to

be content

to

in

go

remember, Lucy," said her

mother, " that was the


arithmetic;
I.

last,

first."

"You may

VOL.

at

you used

way you began

to tell

me

in

every day,

74

mamma, this is very slow work


now you can go on with it quickly."
*

"
I

am
"

great deal

more quickly than

but

;'

I can,

sure," said Harry.

Well Harry,

I will

be as slow as you

please in scientific things," said Lucy.

And

"

will never tire

you again so

sadly," said Harry, " if I can help

"I will never be


"

can help

if I
'^

tired again," said

Lucy,

it."

can help

If I

it."

it,"

repeated their

mo-

ther,

"

The

next day, Harry and Lucy, having

is

finished

a wise and safe addition."

their

morning's

business,

were

anxious to return to the hygrometer, and


to try their resolution of mutual

ance.
this

forbear-

But they had taken no exercise


day.

Their uncle advised them to

run out to their gardens, and divert themselves for an hour or two.

"

Remember,"

said he,

" iEsop's good

old fable, and excellent principle of un-

bending the bow."

75
" Yes," said Lucy, " the strings of mam-

ma's harp never crack


bers to

let

when

she remem-

them down, to loosen them

in

time,''

having: refreshed

After

an hour of

voluntary hard

that

which children of

work,

and

to call play,

themselves b\JT

after they

ao:es

all

bodily
ao-ree

had rested and

cooled themselves, while they gathered a


basket

full

of their

own

which of course they

straw^berries,

of

ate a proper pro-

portion to determine whether they were or

were not

ripe,

they returned to the house,

intending to offer these their


uncle.

first

straw-

But not

in the

berries

to

library,

nor in the breakfast room, ^'nor

their

;"

up the lawn, nor at the w^ood was he


and it was concluded, that he was gone
home to his own house, which was about
a quarter of a mile's walk from theirs.
"

We

had

him with our

better run after

basket," said Lucy.

" No, he will


I

am

come back before

sure," said Harry;

^'for

dinner,

mamma

he was to dine here, and there

is

E 2

said

his great

76
coat

in the hall.

still

Now let

us go to the

hygrometer."

Lucy

set

her

basket

of straw-

the farthest end of the room,

berries at
lest the

down

should

smell

disturb

her,

and

Harry took down and opened his large

But

volume.

their

hands were

in

no con-

dition to touch delicate engravings: his

were brown with garden mould, and hers


pink with the juice of strawberries.

The

dressing bell had rung, and their mother


strongly advised their dressing before they

began

to read.

This advice,

to drxss firsts

and then you

are ready to do whatever you 'please


often given

wards^ so

by age

afters-

to youth,

and so seldom taken, or well taken, was


in this instance acted

out one

murmur

upon

instantly, with-

of the tongue, or one

writhing of the body.

In

all

the self-complacency and safety

of being ready half an hour before dinner


time, they

met again

in the library,

where

they found their uncle.


^'Oh! uncle,

am

glad you are here/^

77
cried

Lucy

and

after presenting to

went

their strawberries, they

him

to their book.

Harry asked whether he should go on


with old whakhojie or not?
" Go on with old whalebone," said his
" Lucy should not leave that
uncle.

without understandino^
nifies

not that

it:

whether she understands that

it

siof-

parti-

cular thing or not, but this will be a trial

of her attention."
"

w^ll

be very attentive," said Lucy.

But observing
his

arm

her

that

placed

uncle

as before, so as to cover

one of

the hygrometers in the engraving, her cu-

Her uncle

riosity a little disturbed her.

remarking the turn of her eye,


''

advise you, Lucy, to repress your

curiosity.

my

said,

elbow,

Do

not think of what

is

under

but of what 3'Our brother

is

showing you."

Lucy repressed her

manded her
slowly,

curiosity,

attention.

and com-

Harry explained

and she followed step by step

patiently, undisturbed

too slow, or the

by the

fear of being

hope of showing

that slie

78

was very quick


her uncle's

at

and without one glance

what might be

arm,

a, h^ c,

r/,

De

of

to her brother's

Luc's whalebone hy-

and he

went on
find
felt

in the

And

from

far

glad to per-

kept her resolu-

same manner, she would


fix

do what she now

her attention.

now," said he, removing his arm

the

print

'*

reason for covering

you what

He

her own,

told her, that if she steadily

so difficult, to

"

said,

in time easy to

it

to

it

complete satisfaction.

Her uncle was, as he


ceive that Lucy had so
tion

it

went regularly through

grometer, and understood

and

keeping

his reason for

in that position, she

the

one thought of

or

you
this,

went home

know my

shall

and

I will

show

for."

took from his pocket, and

placed

between Harry and Lucy, a small cylindrical case,

of about three inches high,

covered with morocco leather.


'-'

It

is

like the case of

glass," cried

Lucy.

mamma's opera

" Is there an opera

glass in it?"
^'

No ;" Harry

smiled, for he

knew what

79

was

was

in

it

immediately

Le knew that

his favourite hygrometer.

took

it

His uncle

out of the case, and placed

side the engraving

it

it

be-

which he had covered

with his arm, telling Lucy, that he had

wished only
engraving,

to

till

delay showing her the

she could compare

the original, which he had walked


to bring for them.

upon looking
plate,

at

home

was so simple,

It
it,

with

it

that

and examining the

Lucy understood

directly.

it

composed of a kind of

It is

Indian

grass,

which, like the beard of the Arabian and


of the English oat, twists

and untwists

with dryness or moisture, but in a


greater degree, making,

it

ten to sixteen revolutions,

is

much

said,

from

from the ex-

treme of moisture to the extreme of dry-

Harry told

ness.

Lucy,

that

in

the

description

which he had read of

this

hygrometer,

it is

easily

said, that

it

shows, more

and quickly than any

other,

the

changes of moisture in the atmosphere.


''

It

is

so sensible,"

" as to be affected

continued Harry,

by the shutting and

80
opening of a door or window,

and

is

sure to feel the approach of any person,

and

to

indicate

by the motion of

it

its

hands.''

" Let us try now,

if it will

my

indicate

approach," said Lucy.

to

As she approached, the hands began


move and when, as her brother bid
;

her, she took


her,

it

up and held

the motion increased

nearer to

it

and when, as

he desired, she breathed through the holes

one hand, affected by her

in the sides,

breath,

seemed

to

fly

round the

circle,

while the other numbered the revolutions.

Lucy was pleased


her

could

brother

watching

its

breathed upon
" But,

you

tell

full

or

brother,"

me

much even
She

expect.

quick
it,

as

variations

as

stood

she

as

withdrew her breath.


said

" did not

she,

that this has been but lately

Why

did

Was

not

the grass always there, wherever this

was

invented.

How

comes that?

not people think of

found

in

it

before

India?"

"I suppose

it

was," said Harry;

"but

81

nobody had observed


about

know

that in Rees's Cyclopedia,

is,

it

AW

it.

kind of grass was disco-

says, that this

vered in India about the year 1800,


think,

was

Kater,

who was employed

some

not

survey, or

who wanted
measure

to

moisture

it

making

in

it

better

and

a very accurate hygrometer

the

is

and

observations,

smallest
tried

quantities

more sensible than

it

the

of

and

grass,

this

succeed, and found that

found

by Captain

uncle?

some

and he

it

lasts

Eno-

lish oat.''

" Accurately remembered, Harry,'' said

"but pray does the Cyclopedia


you how it happened that Captain

his uncle;
tell

Kater took notice of


" No,

uncle,"

this grass

said Harry

*'

how was

itr'

"

He

told a friend of mine,

evenino^, as

he was walkino^ without boots

he was annoyed by

in that grass,

quent catching

he took them
full

that one

in his stockings;

off at night,

its fre-

and when

he found them

of this grass, which had twisted

E 5

itself

82

When

into them.

observed

it

he pulled

Then

particularly.

tion being fixed, he


bility of this

it

his atten-

remarked the

grass to moisture,

thought of using

he

out,

sensi-

and he

for his scientific pur-

it

poses, as an hygrometer."
"'

How

very lucky, that

that day," said Lucy,

"

plagued him

it

by

sticking in his

stockings."

"

How

well

properties,

it

was, that he observed

when he took

it

out,"

its

said

Harry, " and that he thought of applying


it

to

some good

use.

should have thrown


serving

it

it

uncle, the world


this nice little

Would

am

afraid

away without ob-

at night, particularly, I

have been sleepy and

''

tired

might

and then,

would never have had

convenient instrument."

you, Harry, and would you,

Lucy," said their uncle, "like to have this


nice

little

convenient instrument for your

own?"
Their eyes brightening with pleasure,
they answered that they should like

very much.

it

83
"

Then

" I give

uncle.

in the

it

regularly, but

was only

it

that

it

her uncle, or for

keep

Lucy added,

so well as if she

it

would be

it

try to

to teach her patience,

she should not like

thought

hope

would

said that they

a register of
that if

you

it

dears," said their

you accuracy and patience."

will teach

They

my

yours,

it is

also of

some use

to

some other purpose.

Her uncle assured her, that it would


he said, that he had
be useful to him
;

two

one living in Ireland, the

friends,

America

other in

a register of the

atmosphere

they wished

damp

to

keep

or dryness of the

in those countries, to

be com-

pared with England.


'^

the

Then," cried Lucy, " we will keep


register

that will

for

England with pleasure

be something grand, and worth

while."
'^

But,"

tempt

said

this,

curacy,

member,

or
I

it
it

tell

her uncle,

must
will

you,

"

if

you

at-

be done with ac-

be of no use.
it

will be

Re-

a trial of

84

Do

your patience.

not begin

you think you can keep


six

unless

regularly for

it

months."

" Half a year

"

said Lucy, " that

Harry, however,

very long time."

undertake

not afraid to

had

it

was

because he

it;

He

barometer for a whole year.


his register
;

and had kept a register of a

tried,

accurate

is

was not

his figures

neat,

though

were too

it

large,

said

was
and

straggling often out of their proper co-

lumns

but

now he

his secretary,

could use Lucy as

and she could make nice

even figures.
Their uncle wrote for them some necessary directions.

be requisite

to

He
do,

said,

that

it

would

every time they re-

sum
number of

gistered their hygrometer, a

in divi-

sion of a certain large

figures.

This did not alarm Lucy, for she was


expert in division, and she rejoiced that

she should be able to do this


for her brother;

sum

readily

and that she should be

wanted and useful every day, or may be

85

They were eager

twice a day.

hygrometer

their

to their father; but

had gone from home

was

It

must

settled, that the first

hygrometer
to 7xad

off^

thing they
their

lives

examine and write down

be, to

Whoever has
gister, or to

their

Harry was always

registry.

and Lucy

he

a few days.

for

do every morning of

.should

show

to

down.

to write

tried to

keep a daily

re-

do any thing regularly every

day, and at a certain hour, must know,


that

it is

not a very easy task

and where

two persons are concerned, the


is

difficulty

more than doubled, with the chances

of one or the other failing in punctuality,

and quarrelling about whose


Harry and Lucy,

be.

fault

therefore,

it

might

by the

experienced and the candid, will be

al-

lowed some credit

re-

for

gister accurately every

keeping their

day

for a

month,

without having complained of each other.

Lucy repeated,
was

to

at the

that she

was very glad

it

be of some great use to her uncle,

end of the time

this motive,

for that, without

and the pleasure of helping

86
her brother, and of making nice figures

should not

for him, she confessed, that she

have patience
"

go on with

to

Thank you again and

for allowing

used to do.

with Harry as

knew

ever so much,

if I

happier already.

Harry was not fond of me, and

we

mamma,

again,

me to learn
I am much

mamma,

But,

it.

of him,

Could we,

could not be really happy.

mamma?"
my dear child,

if

do you think,
" In truth,

do not think

you could," said her mother.


''

am

sure, quite sure,

" Suppose

continued Lucy.

and

the histories,

we

could not,"
I

knew

all

and

all

the poems,

all

the stories in the whole world, and that

could draw, and play on the piano-forte,

and dance better than any body


universe,

am

in

the

sure, mother, I could never

be happy unless

loved

my

brother,

and

Nor could he be happy,


Scientific Diahe knew all the

he loved me.
even

if

'^

logues," and
drostatics,
''

all

the mechanics, and hy-

and optics

But, oh

"

cried

Lucy, interrupting

87
herself
'*

there

think,

is

enumeration of the

this

in

papa come home

mamma, what made you

quickly in the middle of

Lucy had

too

much

my

could not
start

up so

optics.''

discretion to produce

hygrometer the very moment her

their

ics,

fa-

came home she waited till he had


finished what he was saying to her mocomprehending that this might be
ther
of more consequence to him, and more
ther

interesting,
sion,

and

new

than even their


their

posses-

new arrangements.

As

soon, however, as he had leisure to attend


to her,

when he turned

to

Lucy, and hold-

ing out his hand to her said, " Have you

any thing new

to tell

me,

my

'"

little

girl

she answered eagerly, " Yes, papa, a great


deal

!"

He made room

for her

on one side

of him, and for Harry on the other, and

then they showed him their hygrometer

and Lucy told him


to

how much

she wished

understand what her brother had been

learning the preceding years

and she

told

88

him of Harry's

him

She promising

in science.

and he

slowly,

her as

tire

was glad

as fast as

as

he could, and

to

Her

as possible.

little

subject,

father

Harry had learned by

that

he knew

tell all

to

go

to

to his

his

on any

attempt, that he should not,

first

up

intention to bring her

sister

at

once, nor expect that she could at once

take as great an interest as he did, on sub-

which she was ignorant

jects of
larly

when

and

mortification,

go

she had to endure

through,

all

particu-

the labour

which a beginner must

before

learning

any new

science can be easy or entertaining.


father

His

advised Harry not to attempt to

describe

all

the small parts and detail of

machines, not to go over

all

the a b cs

of descriptions in engravings, which, how-

who

are to

make

them, would be unnecessary to Lucy.

He

ever requisite for those

advised Harry to try to give his


clear

of

sister

knowledge of the principles of some

the

coveries.

ever he

most useful inventions and

He
came

promised
to

any

to

assist

difficulty,

dis-

when-

but he de-

89
sired

him

by himself,

And he
ther

how he

to try first

could go on

explaining to

in

his

sister.

repeated to Lucy what her mo-

and uncle had said

He

tention.

told

had attempted

her,

to

her about at-

whenever he

that

lately to teach her,

he had

observed that she did not attend as well


as formerly.

"

know

cannot.

papa;

it,

do not know how

Lucy

not," said

seems, as

I try all

it

*^
;

my

it

is,

every word that

can-

is

said

were, to awaken some other

words; and every thing

makes me

lean, but

I see

somethino:

recollect

and hear
else,

and

thoughts are flying off backwards and

and sideways and every way,

forwards,

while Harry's can go on straight forward,

always thinking of what he


the very thing that
to

is

is

about, or of

said to him.

used

be able to do the same," said Lucy,

sighing.
^^

Sigh no more, Lucy," said her

smiling.

'^

No

great

harm

is

done.

father,

Your

habits of attention have been spoiled, and

your power of attending

is

consequently

90
diminished

own good

but with your

and good sense we

shall

soon set

will
this

all

Your perceiving and reupon what passes in your own

to rights again.

flecting

mind, will

assist

you very much."

" Papa," said Lucy, " I

know how

it all

happened. Aunt Pierrepoint did not think


it

signified

as

my

much whether I attended

She said

uncle says, or not.

And

quick enough.

strictly,

I will tell

was

you, papa,

what made a great impression upon m.

Once

heard a gentleman talking about

genius

and he said of me, that he won-

dered

how

little

learned every thing with so

attention

that I

about and listening to

and yet that


papa, to

was always looking


that people said,

all

was so quick.

am ashamed,

you any more," said Lucy,

tell

stopping.
*'

You have

little girl,

said quite enough,

to prove to

quite a goose.

me

As long

ashamed of being

that

as

flattered,

give

dear

you are not

any person
there

that they will learn to despise


flattery.

my

and

is

is

hope

dislike

up only those who get

91

who then
and swallow down more

over the pain of the shame, and


like

shamelessly,

it

and more of
ing fools to

wretched
'^

I shall

never be in that wretched

said Lucy, with a look of

much apprehension
care of me ?
"

And

"

father.
first,

*^
;

Harry, will you take

of myself," said Harry.

Well,

*'

end by be-

without knowing their

flattery,

mamma,"

state,

at last they

state."

hope

it, till

now to business," said


What do you wish to

their

learn

Lucy?"

She

said that she

wished

to

fectly acquainted with the

be made per-

air

pump, be-

cause Harry had reproached her with not

having understood
scription of
heart,

it,

He

and repeated.

his uncle's air

knew the
pump.

"Do

know

that

de-

said,

that to be

make her understand

pump, because she already

principle of a

I?"

fine poetic

which she had learned by

sure he could easily

not

that

common water

said Lucy, smiling;


I

knew

it ;"

"

did

and here she

92
again thought of the
prose

all

his

man who had

without knowing

life,

talked

but

it;

she refrained from making an allusion to

him, though

it

was ready on her

lips.

Harry recalled to her mind the experiments which their father had shown them

two years ago.


"

Do

not you remember," $aid he, " the

experiment he showed

us,

with a

tape that was put under a wine

roll

glass,

which was turned down, and plunged


a bason of water

of

into

and then the tape was

pulled out, and unrolled by degrees?''

Lucy remembered all this.


''
And what happened,"

said

Harry,

" when the tape was pulled from under the


glass

Lucy answered, " That the water

rose

in the glass."
'^

And why

?" said Harry.

"Because, when the tape was taken


there

was

left in

vacuum you
was

in the

place."

call

its
it

out,

place a vacancy, a

then the water which

bason rose into that vacant

93
'*

And why did


Because

*'

it

rise ?"

it

was pressed by the weight

of the

air,

pressing on

basin,

and

it

vent or resist

time

it

was

now

my

father

it

to

me

shown

was so

ciple

to

it

clearly."

clearly at th^

it

me," said Lucy

and explained

so slowly and clearly."

that

*^

you have proved

you understand the

water

rises,

or

is

prin-

first

on which pumps are made,

depends on making a vacuum,


the

said

satisfied,"

patient,

" Well," said Harry,

me

am

understood

first

*'

to

nothing to pre-

air,

You remember

" Because

into the glass

it."

" Very well


"

the water in the

all

was forced up

where there was no

Harry.

pursued Harry.

for

into

which

The

raised.

all

first

make a vacuum.
Now, Lucy, in a common pump, such
as there is in the yard for pumping up
water, where do you think the vacuum
thing to be done

is

to

must be before the water can

Lucy
in the

pump.

said, she

"

rise

supposed that

inside of the

body

it

must be

or tube of the

94

we

" Yes,
"

Now

tell

call

Oh

my

dear Harry, that

as

b(yre,

''

how

tell

you

it."

cult a question for

can

the bore,'' said Harry.

me how you would make

vacuum within
"

it

call

to
it,

is

too

diffi-

"

How

me," said Lucy.

make a vacuum
of a great

in the

pump ?

"Where is the difficulty?" said Harry.


Do not be frightened by the word bore

or, if

you are alarmed by the idea of a great

pump, suppose a little one,


please

as small as

you

as small, suppose, as the glass tube

of the barometer."
'^

That would be easy

suppose

to

could there be so small a

pump?"

but
said

Lucy.
"
size,

To be
only

sure,

it

would

now go on
dear

as well as of the largest

But

raise less water.

straight

forward,

Lucy

my

me any of your starting


You must let me ask you

do not ask

off questions.

questions,

and you are

to

answer ?

" If I can," said Lucy.


" You can, I assure yon,

my

dear," said

Harry, in his most persuasive tone, "

if you

95
you can, and keep
ask you how you would make a

will only believe that

steady.

vacuum
'^

me

Let

What

father

"

He
by

air into the glass,

But

out again.

said

and then drew

while he was pulling


roll

it

of tape

Lucy.

of tape/' said Harry

pose or use of putting the


the glass, and drawing

it

roll

of tape into

out again, you

will perceive, that putting in

and drawing

out any thing else in the same

would do
air that

"

manner

as well."

The purpose was,

Lucy,

to

you consider what was the pur-

''but if

"

Lucy

of tape, which

cannot get a

roll

recollect.

so as not to let any

into the small tube," said

" No, not a

"

roll

glass,

little,

me

let

do when he made a

put in a

up the whole

out, little

wine glass ?

in the

herself.

it

consider

my

did

vacuum
filled

tube?"

in this

was
and

in
to

first

to

the glass out of

force the
it,"

said

prevent any more after-

wards from getting into the place which


the tape took up, and which remained va-

96
cant as

it

was drawn

out, leaving a

vacuum

at last."

Now

**

you are coming on very

well,

Lucy," said Harry.


If I can put in

any thing of any

sort

into the little tube,

which forces the

air

**

out,

and then

if I

could keep the air out,

would be a vacuum

there

" Very well, you will

for you, Harry."

now

quite under-

stand a pump, and you will soon

how

to use

" As
to

it,

Lucy."

to that," said

pump

know

Lucy, "

already, only

am

know how
not strong

enough."
*'

Stay!

stay! Lucy;

pull a handle

pose

is all

knowing how

up and down^ which

you mean,

is

to

sup-

not understanding

mean by knowing what pumping


is, or how it is done.**
*'
I have seen men and maids often
pumping at the pump in the yard," said
what

Lucy.

"What happens when


Harry.

they

pump?"

said

97

The water comes out of the spout, after


they have pumped a little while," said Lucy.
" What do you mean by pumping?"
*'

persisted Harry.

"

cannot

cause
I

only

tell

know

"
'^

move

that they

fastened

the handle

believe there

to

which

it,

brings up the water

how

exactly, Harry, be-

never saw the inside of the pump.

and down; and


thing

you

but

is

up

some-

suppose

do not know

exactly."
I

believe not

then you

see,

said Harry

indeed,"

Mrs. Quick-Quick,

did not understand what

you

meant by pump-

Now

come with me, and I will


show you in my room the nice glass pump
which my father made for me. You caning.

not see into the inside of the


yard, but

in the

when once you have seen my

glass

pump you will

of

others."

all

pump

He showed

understand the inside

her in the

first

place a glass

top.

which there was a spout near the


The tube was open at the top, and

at the

bottom there was a

tube, in

VOL.

I.

little

door or

98

which opened upwards only

valve,

poured water into


that the water

without

rest

upon

any of

letting

its

tube, to shovv her,

this

would

" you

know

Look

in this tube.

the piston of a

"

like that at the

which

called

piston was

tight

there

is

air

into

the

was a valve

bottom of the tube, which

opened one way, and that was up-

also

Harry pushed

wards.
with

his

opened
did

said

nothing but

fitted
it

he

Now,"

The

pump."

at the top of

is

at this,

which

cylinder,

tube

there

this valve,

through

it

then emptied out the water.


he,

he

so.

finger,

easily,

He

it

up

several times

show Lucy

to

and he made her

that

it

feel that

it

then put the tube into a tub

of water, the tube resting on two blocks of

wood, which raised

it

from the bottom of

the tub, so that there was

room

for

the

water to flow in through the lowest valve.

Lucy, as he desired, held the glass tube


upright, while he pushed
to

down

the piston,

which there was a long handle.


"

Now,

Lucy,

what happens within

side of the tube?" said Harry.

99

"Nothing

that

know

of," said

she,

" but that you have pressed the air in the


tube closer together."
^'

Very

true

the bottom? Is

Lucy

said

it

"

And what

"

The

upon

it,"

He
"

do you see the valve


it

it

shut ?"

you are pressing down

said Lucy.

pressed the piston

Now
I

shut.

keeps

down

farther.

look again," said he, " and

me what happens
'^

shut or open?"

was

air that

at

see the

tell

?"

little

door

at the top of the

piston open," said she.

Harry asked her what she thought had

opened
"

it.

The

which

air,"

said she,

^^

underneath

it,

suppose you could not compress

any more, and which has forced

its

way

up.

He now drew up
asked what

the piston, and again

happened.

Lucy saw the

valve at the top of the piston shut, and she

saw the water rush

throusrh the valve at

the bottom of the glass

pump, and
F

rise in

100
its

And when Harry

tube.

down

again plunged

came through
the valve in the piston, and when he drew
it up again it carried up all the water to
the piston, the water

the top of the tube, where

flowed out

it

of the spout.

"Just as

it

does in the great real pump,"

said Lucy.

"

And now you do know what

by pumping,"

He pumped
let

mean

said Harry.

on for some time, and then

her take the handle, and work for her-

He

self.

repeat her explanation,


fied,

made her

questioned her, and

and she was

till

he was

satisfied, that

satis-

she clearly

understood, that the thing to be done in

pumping, and by pumping,


air out

is

to force the

of a certain space, to produce a va-

cancy or vacuum, into which the ^^ter


rushes and rises

"

Or

rather," said Harry,

" to speak more accurately,

supported
water.
there

is

is

pressed and

by the surrounding

Perhaps

ought

no perfect vacuum.

be too exact with you

at

air

and

to tell you, that

But

first,

will not

lest I

should

101
Therefore

you.

tire

not

I will

between a

the differences

tell

you

all

pump,

lifting

and a sucking pump, and a forcing pump


besides, I

am

myself.

all

not sure that

I w^ill

not

water always finding


" I

am

very

much

tell

its

know them

you even about

own

level."

obliged to you," said

Lucy.
"

Nor

will I tell you," continued Harry,

" about the weight of the column of water,

which a

certain quantity of air can sus-

tain."
''

think

that," said

do know something about

Lucy

''
;

or I did

However, thank you

much

at

different

for

know

not telling

a time, especially about

pumps you

talked

once.

me

too

all

the

Leave

of.

head quite clear with the vacuum.


I

it

my

That

understand now, and the use which

is

made of it and I understand all that happens when the piston of the pump is pulled
;

up and pushed down."


^'

And now

" what
let

that

pumping

you know," said Harry,

is,

us go to the great

will ask

pump

mamma

to

in the yard,

102
that

you may

see,

Lucy, the same sort of

thing in large, that you have

seen

in

small."

Their mother went with them to look at

pump

the

The handle was


Harry could not well manage

in the yard.

so high, that
to use

it

but his mother called for one of

who pumped

the servants,

The

servant

filled

for

a tub with the water,

which he had pumped up


lifted

and

it

all

to carry

and,

as

he

away, he said, that he

the servants in the house were very

glad, that the

of order,
it

it

them.

pump, which had been out

was now well repaired, because

had been great labour

to

them

to

go

to

the windlass-well in the garden for water,

whenever

was wanted, and

it

many times a-day. This


made Lucy the more sensible,

heavy tubs of
observation

to bring

it

as she said, of the great convenience of a

pump.
" This

is

a really and truly useful ma-

chine," continued she

great numbers of

" useful to great,

people,

for

the

com-

monest business, that must be done every

103
day, and almost every hour

and

it

as

is

easy for ignorant people to use, as for the

most learned
vance

what

How

happy the man must have

pump, when he
and felt the water com-

been who made the


found

would

and saw

ing,
*'

it

it

do,

first

pouring out
!

Delightful

"Now,

an excellent contri-

at the

spout

!"

said Harry.

"

my

Harry,

dear, tell

me some-

thing about the air pump."


'^

No, no,

my

dear, that

would be

too

much," said Harry, looking very prudent.


"

One pump a-day is enough for you,


will keep the air pump till to-morrow."
After

next?

all this

How

wisdom, what did they do

did Harry and Lucy spend

the remainder of this morning, two whole

hours?

we

we shall not be believed, except by those who are themselves children,


or by those who know children right well,
If

and

tell,

their

wisdom

sudden

falls

from the

heiofhts of

to the depths of folly.

Harry and Lucy spent


of this morning in

all

that remained

pumping

up, through

104

pump, the water of a puddle


in Harry's garden. They could have ladled
it all out in three minutes, and two moderate sized tubs would have held it, and

the

little

glass

have carried

it

away.

all

But

this

would

have been too obvious, too easy a way of


going to work.
the glass

pump

It

must

and so they worked on

their backs ached,

till

and

had so soaked

dle water

pass through

all

till

the dirty pud-

into the leather of

the piston, and so clogged the valve with

mud,

that

During
the

would move no more.

it

pumping and draining of

this

puddle,

many misadventures

befel

Harry's trowsers and Lucy's clean frock


clean no more

the advantage of

with hands

It

may be recorded

little

for

washerwomen, who,

unskilled,

may

unadvisedly

attempt to wash out fresh spots, that the

more Lucy

tried to get rid

of hers, the

more they appeared. What seemed quite


out while it was wet, came in again as
soon as

it

dried.

And

the spots spread

into blotches, with obstinate edges of yel-

low; so that altogether the frock, instead

105
of looking better for these operations, was

worse than ever


Before
lucky

was half dry

it

before

and scrub the

was

wheels

it

had half

oh,

how

un-

dried, after dip

the sound of carriage-

fifth,

heard

Their garden was

morning

called his throne, a

visitors!

sight

in

full

Up jumped

house.

of the

Harry, upon what he

heap of

stones,

from

whence he had a full view of the carriage.


It was one he had never seen before.
Lucy clambered after him, to share the
exalted view from his throne, and to assist
his

judgment with her eyes and her imagi-

nation.

lady was getting out of the

Lucy did not know who

carriage.

it

was,

she confessed, but she imagined that

it

must be a certain Mrs. Hanbury, who

owed her mother


^'

am

sure

it

visit.

is

Mrs. Hanbury, and

dare say that her daughter


therefore

bury

I will

not go

in,

always very

fine,

like that she should

see

is

in this

sad condition.

is

for

and

with her;

Miss Hanshould not

me in this frock
And oh! Harry,

f5

106
they must not see you in those trowsers.

show you how Mrs. Hanbury and


Miss Hanbury would look at us. We will

I will

not go in."

Go in! upon no account/' said Harry.


"As to my trowsers, I do not care what
"

your

Miss Hanbury or Mrs. Hanbury

fine

how

think, or

but

they look at them, or at me;

hate going into a

room where

there

are strangers."

Harry observed, however, that notwithstanding Lucy's certainty, that the visitors

were Mrs. and Miss Hanbury, no

girl

got

out of the carriage, and there was a gentle-

man.
"

How

there

who

is

can that be?" said Lucy, "for

no Mr. Hanbury.

they may,

we

Let them be

will not

go

in," re-

peated she.

To

He

Harry heartily assented.

this

disliked morning visitors particularly.


''

So do

Lucy.

"

I
I

so does every body,'* said

hope

from the house.


send for

us.

they will
I

hope

Harry,

not

mamma

we had

see

us

will not

better

sit

up

107

your observatory, in the great sycamore

in

tree."

Come up

"

Harry.
pull

this

instant,"'

Give me your hand, and

''

you

then

cried
I

will

up.''

In Harry's observatory, in the great syca-

more

tree,

time,

till

they both sat snugly for some

he saw through the branches

some people standing

at the

drawing-room

That they might not be seen by

window.

Harry advised leaving the

these people,

observatory, and removing a step higher,


into

what he called

his dark attics,

where

the branches were so thick, that he was

sure no morning visitors could see


or think of looking for

there

many

them

them,

he had

sat

a time, he said, while ladies

had passed under the

tree chattering, with-

out ever spying him.

Scarcely, however,

had they mounted, and

safely

selves

in

the

which, to

truth,

were

ill

attics,

lodged themsay the

able to hold two lodgers at

a time, when Harry exclaimed,


''

ma

It is

all

is

mam-

window, beckoning

to us."'

over with us

herself at the

there

108
"

But she cannot see

us," said Lucy.

" unless

" Certainly not," said Harry,

she saw

my

clambering up here into the


'

when

white trowsers,

White trowsers

Oh

was

attics."

am

sure

said Harry, "

wav-

no,

she did not," said Lucy.

But there she

^'

is,"

ing her handkerchief, Lucy."


^'

Do

not go, do not go in;

for

have a green streak worse than

Lucy

said

rest,"

does not see

want us

us,

"I am

and

for

the

all

mamma

dare say she does not

really herself,

Hanbury asked

sure

now

but perhaps Mrs.

me, and

mamma

just

beckoned."

The

signal

was repeated

at intervals,

two or three times. Lucy had some doubts,


but the fear of Mrs. Hanbury 's seeing her
dirty

gown

ceased to

prevailed.

and they remained

wave,

their tree nearly

The handkerchief
in

an hour, a much longer

time than they had expected.

been resolute from the


waverings during

first,

this hour.

Harry had

and had no

As he

quite at ease in his tree, he said, "

sat

Now

109
is

my

a good time to think of the puzzle

uncle gave me, about a three gallon, a


five

gallon,

and an eight gallon

Lucy interrupted him


scrambling up and

vesel."

several times,

down

by

to see if the car-

riage vras gone, or whether

mamma waved

At

her handkerchief again.

hav-

length,

ing succeeded in solving his problem, he


held her fast by the gown, insisting upon

her sitting

still

and thinking of

as he assured her,

appear

to

go much

it,

which,

would make the time


faster.

There was a

''

gentleman who had two haymakers.

One

hot day they worked very hard making hay,

and when they had finished the hay


late in the

them

to

evening, the gentleman called


his

door,

hall

and

good men, you must be very


give you

rick,

some beer

to

said,

My

'

thirsty, I will

drink.

Here

are

eight gallons for you; but you must divide


this

beer so that each of you

may have

exactly half, and this you must do before

you drink a drop of


" That

was

it.'"

very

easily

done,"

said

no
Lucy; "each was
puzzle

is

have

to

there in this

What

four.

"Stay, stay, Mrs. Quick-Quick, you will

be puzzled yet

before

you have done.

The gentleman had only


his house,

gallons

it

said

is

the

the beer was

three vessels in

held eight

first

in this

the second

held five gallons, and the third three gallons,

Now

and these two were empty.

manage

it

as

you

will,

Lucy; and with

these vessels divide the beer so that

man

has four

You may pour

the beer

can prove to me, that each


gallons exactly.

backwards and forwards as often


please,

you

as

vou

from one of these vessels to an-

other."

Lucy began, and poured from one to


another in imaofination for some time,
without success
there

always
vessel,

was
five

at

pour how she would,

the

gallons in the eight

and three

in the five.

how it
showed how she

perceived

end of her measures

could

At

gallon

last

be done,

she

and

could prove to Harry

Ill
that she

equally;

it

''

four

Harry, in the eight gallon ves-

gallons,
sel,

had divided

and four gallons

the five

in

gallon

vessel/'

So completely had her


absorbed by

this puzzle,

attention been

that she

had not

heard the sound of the departing wheels


of the visitors' carriage

and when she

again peeped out of their hiding place,

were

they

was

carriag^e

When
them,

sooner

surprised

to

see

that

the

Q:one.

they went in their mother told

that she

made

the lady

was sorry they had not

their

because

appearance,

and gentleman who had been

with her were remarkably agreeable people,

and had told many things

that

were

entertaining and interesting.

" Then,

mamma,

it

was not Mrs. and

how very
mamma, we have

Miss Hanbury?" said Lucy;


provoking.

am

sorry,

''

missed hearing entertaining things.

Who

were the people?"


" Sir Rupert and

of your father's."

Lady Digby,

friends

112
"

never lieard of them before," said

Lucy.

my

''

Very

"

Mamma, what

likely,

things did they


"

dear."
sort

tell ?"

of

entertaining

said Lucy.

They gave us an account of a

ship-

wreck, which happened lately on part of


the sea shore, near the place

where they

ive.

mamma

Oh,

^'

tell

it

me,"

cried

Harry.
^'

Yes, pray,

mamma,"

^'

First tell

me, did not you see

said Lucy.

beckoning and making signals

come

in,

my

dears

me

you

to

to

said their mother.

"

mamma, we saw you," said


" but we thought that it would
Harry
be tiresome, and we did not like to go
*'

Yes,
;

in

go on with what

liked better to

was about."
His mother told Harry, that she would
not have beckoned to him unless she had
til

in

ought
^'
;

it

was worth

And," added

must now

his while to

she,

smiling,

abide by your

own

come
" you

choice,

113
for

never

will

tell

you of the ship

wreck.
'^

Pray,

at

Harry," said Lucy

my

that

fault

mamma,

least,

'*
;

we

tell

because

did not

it

come

did not like to come, because

my

mamma."
very much

frock,

"

It

is

soiled,

to

it

was

all

in.

look

at

indeed," said

her mother.
"

my
^'

my

With

the water from

glass

pump, mamma," said Harry

that

was

my

puddle and

fault."

Her mother asked Lucy why she could


not put on another frock. " Have not you
any other, Lucy ?"
" Yes, mamma," said Lucy, colouring,
^'

have

but

could not put on any of

them, because one

up

to here

And

tucks.
it

and

is

so short,

forgot to let

this

comes

down

the

another has a great tear in

intended to have

mended

it

given

it

to

morning; and one sleeve

mamma. I
was reaching down

be
is

half out of the third,

tore

last night, as I

a book

from the uppermost

shelf."

it

114

Her mother

said, that there

must be no

more experiments of any kind,

till

Lucy

should have these things mended.


" I

know

that

said Lucy.

^'

will

so.

and

let

while

go up

shipwreck
" I

" but

away,

mamma,"

my room

directly,

But,

mamma,

could

you

be

so

Harry the story of the

tell

said

could^'
I

to

the tucks.

am

kind as to

quite right,

expected you would say

down
I

is

will

In the

not.

should be sorry to
not present

but

her mother, smiling,

tell it

first

place,

when you were

do not intend

to tell

him at all for if I were to repeat


to him every thing entertaining which I
heard this morning, he would depend
upon my doing the same another time,
and he would not exert himself to conit

to

quer that feeling of bashfulness,

which

room where
and which makes him

prevents his coming into a


there are strangers,

always

say,

of the room,
affairs.'

'

would

rather stay

and go on with

out

my own

115

"

Now,

brother, for the air

pump," cried

Lucy, " as you used to say,

Now, papa,

for the barometer.'"


^'

My uncle,"

good
to

as to lend

show you.

said Harry, " has been so

me

pump

his portable air

Was

not

it

good of him

to

lend it?"

" Very good indeed," said Lucy

how convenient
portable

to

" and

have so many things

Portable barometer, portable hy-

grometer, portable air pump."

"

Now, Lucy,

recollect

what was the

great thing to be done in pumping," said

Harry.
" Was not

it

to

make a vacuum?"

Lucy, hesitating, as

said

if

she was afraid of

my

dear," said Harry.

makino^ a mistake.
" Yes, to be sure,
"

Be

quite certain about that."

"

am

quite certain," said she;

only afraid to say


not be

it

at

first,

lest I

was

should

riorht."

" But do not be afraid.

know

'*

a thing,

know

it

When

very firmly.

you

The

116

between yesterday and

truth cannot alter


to

day

nor can the truth ever

alter,

you

know."
"
''

That

Was

pump,

is

not
or

a great comfort," said Lucy.

Boyle who invented the

it

was

air

Torricelli ?"

it

" Neither," said Harry

*'
;

was

it

that

poetry you repeated, which put that mis-

when once
one has got any thing wrong into one's

take

your head.

into

head there

But

-And

no getting

is

you are

it

partly right.

out again.

Boyle im-

proved the air-pump very much, and


is

it

sometimes called the Boylean vacuum,

that

too

the

honest a
first

use of

But Boyle was

Boyle's vacuum.

is,

man

vacuum.
it

for the

and always

said,

to claim for his

mean

pump.

air
it

the

first

own

making

He knew,

was Otto Guerick's

invention."
*^

Well,

" you
I

dare say

it

was," said Lucy

need not say any more about

do not care much who made the

vacuum, nor who


the air

pump,"

first

made use

of

it

it.

first

for

117
"

You do

not

what you

sider

vented

the

pump,

somebody

or

my

would you,

great,

dear,

Suppose

say.

air

my

Lucy,

had

in-

something

as

like

sister,

else should take

con-

that

me

from

the

honour and glory of the invention?"


" No,

you are
sure

should not," said Lucy

my

brother, and alive

people,

been dead

*'

''

me

it

It signifies

Suppose

not

be

But those other

or
care

it

to

and

long ago,

any body?"

a great deal," said Harry.

was

my
?

now

they have

besides,

and buried

signifies

father,

to

Mr. Otto Guerick and Mr. Boyle,

nothing to

what

and

should be anxious that you were

not robbed of the glory.

are

" but

my

great

father, or

my

grandshould

grandfather,

would not vou

Then

so

would Otto Guerick's, or Boyle's children,


or grandchildren, or great grandchildren,
if

And

there are any living.

great family of Boyles,

you think

there

know

and do

that for the world they

give up the Boylean vacuu7}i?"

is

would

118
"

now

" But

suppose not," said Lucy.

us go on to the air

let

and the vacuum,


" So

we

let

be whose

it

will," said

pump

Harry

itself,

will."

it

" but before

show it to you, remember,


you are going to see is a pump
ing out air, not for pumping up
I

that
for

what

pumpSo

water.

put water quite out of your head."


*'

have put water quite out of

understand that the

out
let

"

pump

is

pump

to

But, brother, before you begin,

air.

me

air

my head.

say one thing."

Say

it

" No,
bellows

it

is

then,

if it is

is

only that

sort

not poetry."
think a pair of

of air

pump.

Hey,

Harry ?
*'

Well, that

is

You

not foolish, Lucy.

may call a pair of bellows a sort of air


pump only that bellows never could be a
right air pump without two valves.
But
;

do not go on thinking of them


I

am

explaining to you.

uncle's air

continued

pump.
Harry,

You

Now
see

all

the time

look at
this

my

glass,"

and he pointed

to

119

which stood over a

glass bell,

lai'D-e

" Lucy, what do you

of frame or stand.
think

in this glass?"

is

" Air,
''

suppose," said Lucy.


of

It is full

to get all the

And

it.

and of nothing

air,

"

said Harry.

of

sort

The thing

air

that

that

be done

to

is

in the bell out

is

be done by means

to

is

else,"

of these pumps," continued he, pointing


to

two

tall

cylinders of brass,

upon the stand with the


communicated

at the

which opened

which stood

glass bell

they

bottom with a pipe,

into the

bell.

There was

a handle, by which, as he told Lucy, she

move

could

the pistons of these

pumps up

and down.

way in which the piston


moved up and down in the water pump
''

Just in the

yesterday," said she.


is

all

this

nearly

pumps

same

the
air

out,

the other water.

"

as

see,

thing,

you

understand

see

it

only that
said,

and

all

per-

it

fectly."
*'

Stay, stay, Mrs. Quick-Quick,

not understand

it

all

you do

perfectly yet.

You

120
see only the likenesses, but there are differences which

cannot,

cause

my

yet,

and

dear Mrs. Quick-Quick,

be-

you do not see

more time

takes a great deal

it

to

see the differences than to catch the likenesses, Mrs.

Quick

"

She put her hand upon

mouth

his

before

he could repeat the offensive words.


" Brother, do not call

Quick,

and

please,

and

will

the likenesses I see.

Mrs. Quick-

be as slow

as

you

you of any of

will not tell

and only nod

me

I will

be quite

my head, when

silent,

understand

ever so perfectly."
'^

Then look

at the air

pump which

" and observe

before you," said Harry,

what

do.

am going

handle which you see


will raise

up one of the

to

move

at the top,

pistons.

underneath the piston?"


" Nothing," said Lucy at
afterwards she added, "

is

the

which

What
first;

is

but

believe there

is

a vacuum."

"True.
said Harry.

And what happens

directly?"

121
" Air comes in directly to

fill it,

sup-

pose," said she.

"

Where does

come from?"

it

said

Harry.
"

must come from the

It

Lucy,

this pipe," said

bell throug^h

which leads from

^'

the bell to the bottoms of the pumps."

" Then,

when

piston

the

said Harry.

there?"

is

than there was before.

less air in the bell


Is not

happens, there

that

down

*'

Now move

and what hap-

again,

pens?"
*'

You would

press the air that

is

under

the piston back again up the pipe into the


bell," said

Lucy, "

the bottom of the


it,

and prevents

though

it

if

there

pump

is

not a valve at

that shuts against

from going back.

do not see

it,

suppose there

such a valve, because you told

was necessary

in all

But

me

that

is
it

pumps."

You suppose rightly, and you remember very well," said Harry. " There
^'

is

such a valve, and

it

prevents the air

from going back into the


VOL.

I.

bell,

when

122

push the piston down.

But what be-

comes of the air?"


"

comes out

It

the valve in the piston,

" Very true.

open

into the

through

suppose."

Now

air

move

will

the

handle again, and repeat the operation.


I

we

should have told you, that

sisted in

pumping by

are as-

the expansive force

of the air."
"

do not understand

" Yes, you do,

that," said

my dear,

recollect the experiments

if

you

Lucy.

will only

papa showed you

with a bladder," said Harry.


"

Ages ago?" said Lucy.


" Yes, you remember seeing the bladout with the expansive force

der swell
of the air

and you may

blowing

after

we

tried

not

to

in air for

some

more

force in

recollect,

that

time,

when

we

could

air

we

the bladder swelled out so that

could hardly hold

its

mouth together

to

tie it."

"
''

rememboi

If

we had

it,"

said Lucy.

let

go the

string,"

said

123
" and the

Harry,

had

mouth of the bladder


what would have hap-

opened,

pened ?"
*'

The

would have forced

air

way

its

out," said Lucy.

" Yes

empty

every

fill

pumped

you know, will expand, and

air,

out

the air that

all

now

the bell, and

we can make

Now

place.

that

we

it,

is

it

call

it

have

can from

as

empty

vacuum,

though very accurate people would


you, Lucy, that

is

it

as

tell

not a perfect va-

cuum."
"
I

do

It will

think

me," said Lucy, " and

for

understand the

air

pump

really

now.

Is

there any other difference be-

tween

it

and the water pump, brother?

You
"

said there
I

was a

did say so, and

you what

it

is,

if

questions patiently.
glass water

that pressed

pump

will explain to

you

will

answer

What was

that

it

my

in the

you saw yesterday,

up the water

below the piston


" It

difference."

into the

vacuum

?" said Harry.

was the outer

air

the weight of

G 2

124
the outer air pressing

upon the surface

of the water that was in the tub, forced

up

the water

into the tube."

"True; the same

" But here

said Harry.
it

upon.

to press

is

How

no water for

then

this va-

is

filled ?"

cuum
"

pumps,"

in all water

By

the

weight or force of the

air

itself only, I believe," said she.


''

What

air?

'

said Harry.

" It must be the air in the bell," said


she,

'^

for I

But

see no other.

that

so

enough

that there cannot be weight

little

is

in that."

" No," said he,


that this

pump

of the

air

which

acts,

itself.

"

it

is

not by weight

but by the spring'wess

This

wanted you

is

the difference

between

to observe,

pump and water pumps."


By the springiness of the air?"

the air
"

said

Lucy.
" Yes," said Harry, " you

felt

the force

of that springiness in the bladder

was

full

Lucy

when

it

feel

it

of air."
said

she

should like to

125
acrain.

blew

She had almost forgotten


and

into a bladder,

and when
together

it

was

when

with

filled it

felt

air,

bid her try to press

full

she tried to do

it

ceived the sort of resistance that

and she

Harry

it.

it

she per-

made,

it

the force with which, after she

had squeezed

it,

returned to

it

former

its

place and form.

"
''

The same
what

or

is

in the bell,

called the elasticity of the air


is

what

fills

the piston, each time

here

is

the

it is

vacuum below

Now

drawn up.

the description and plate of

Scientific

Dialoo^ues,

you need know about


I will just

in Rees's
left

Harry,

said

springiness,"

and
it

this

all

is

look at the print of the air

out any thing that

As he opened

ought

if

in

that

Stay,

at present.

Cyclopedia, and see

it

pump
have

to tell you."

the book, and as

Lucy

saw the engravings, she looked a

little

alarmed.
" There seem to be as

pumps

air

as

many

hygrometers,"

different

said

she,

sighing.
'^

Do

not be afraid,

am

not going to

126

show them

now

that

you

to

all,"

said Harry

you know the general

you would soon

feel

it

" but

principle,

easy, as I

did, to

understand them."

Oh

^'

no!" said Lucy, "there seem

to

be such a number of pipes and valves, and


little

"

as and

and

^'s,

They only relate

p's

and

^'s."

to the contrivances to

prevent the outer air from coming

we

pumping

are

which

One pump

other only as

and most

it

easily,

is

it is

constantly

better than an-

does this most eftectually,

and as

it

more

perfectly

By

empties or exhausts the vessel.


bye,
sel

is

should

tell

it is

hausted

the

this glass ves-

and when

it

is

called an Cuchausted receiver,

was puzzled
"

you that

called a receiver,

emptied

while

the air out of the vessel

that is to be emptied,

trying to do.

in,

at first

by those words, ex-

receiver.'"

Thank you, Harry,

for

remembering

that for me."

"

Now, my dear Lucy, you

little at

at the

pump yourself,
pump yesterday."

the air

water

shall

as

work a

you did

127
"

Oh

joyfully

thank you, thank you," said she,


" there

oneself;

memory.

a thing so well in

fixes

it

nothing like working

is

my

remember the look and touch

of the thinofs

much

better afterwards."

While Harry was placing the machine,


so that

it

should be convenient to Lucy,

she turned to look at the book of engravings, that lay


*'

How

open on the

well

this

said she.

"

not quite,

perhaps.

It

is

mind about the


" This
" there

is

is

air

table.

pump

very like

is

my

done,"
uncle's

take care to

I will

differences.''

very like

said

it,"

Harry;

no difference of any conse-

quence."
" If

we had

Lucy, "

not had

think

my

you could have made me

understand the air

pump

engraving

is,

this

seen the glass

that

pump

valve and the piston

quite well from

after

the outside of a

having

and

its

but without that

because

pump.

my

yesterday,

could not have understood


representation

uncle's," said

it

from

this

see here only

Even though you

128

had described the


them

me

to

and explained

valves,

ever so clearly,

should not

have understood them so well as by having

moved them

seen and touched them, and


myself."

" Certainly," said Harry

seeing the

real thing,

" but next to

engravings

these

or drawings help one very

much.

Look,

though you see only the outside of the

pump

in that perspective view, here

pump,

inside of an air

You know what

you.
tion

laid

all
is

the

is

open

meant by a

for

sec-

"
?

'^Oh

"Suppose any
two, what you see in-

yes," said Lucy.

thing to be cut in

when they are separated,


is a section.
Papa explained that, and
showed it to me, when he cut a lemon in
side of each part,

two

me.

for

well as

if

remember

saw

it

before

this minute, as

my

eyes,

the

look of the lemon, with the pippins cut in


half,

each in their

open too

" Very

Harry,

and

well,

" you

little cells,

remember

my

the cells cut

dear,"

remember very

interrupted
well

what

129
is

meant by a

understand

section,

therefore

and

plate

this

you

this

figure.

me
you know

But, Lucy, never be ashamed to


if
I

you do not understand


have but just learnt

and
to

remember

the

will

tell

things myself,

tliese

odd mistakes

used

in

when

engravings

now

make, and the puzzles

was

papa was teaching me."

Lucy looked

the

at

without alarm, because, as she

knew what

they represented, they did not puzzle her,

and she was not

afraid of being tired.

After having; looked at the section, she


said
as if

it

made

the whole as plain to her eye

had been made of

it

Some-

glass.

thing farther, she said to herself, about a

man's having; a window in his breast: but


either she did not say

Harry

to hear, or

it

loud enough for

he did not think

to the purpose, for

it

without attending to

he shut the book, saying, "

Now we

had enough of the

now you were

pump
^'

much

prints.

it

have

thought just

very eager to work the

air

yourself, Lucy."

So

am

still,"

said

Lucy;

G 5

''

only

it

130

was not quite ready, and


the prints

looked

Now

between times.

at

me

let

pump."
"

Pump away;

ing her
to

how

move

how

it

to

this

way," said he, show-

hold the handle, and

how

backwards and forwards, and

she worked two pistons at the same

time.

She worked
After she had

it,

but not without

pumped

for

difficulty.

some minutes,

she found the difficulty increasing,

asked from what

and

this arose.

Harry said, from the resistance made by


the pressure of the outward

comes PTeater

air,

as the receiver

is

which be-

more and

more exhausted. He took off the receiver,


and put her hand over the hole at the top
of the pipe, which communicates with the

pumps, and bid her move the


with her other hand gently.

and

felt

that part of the

pistons

She did

so,

palm of her hand,

which was over the pipe, drawn

in.

Her

brother repeated, " gently, gently," as she

moved

the handle.

was no occasion

Indeed, soon there

to say so to her, for she

131

drawn

the palm

felt

and she grew red with

painful,
*'

in so as to be quite

Oh

brother,

cannot take

do?"

it

me

hurts

my hand

be friofhtened

there

very much;

What

away.

" Stop pumping," said he,

fright.

'''

shall

and do not

no dano;er."

is

She stopped pumping, and her brother


turned a screw, so as to

it

the air into the

This relieved her hand.

receiver.

held

let

up

to

show him a purple

She

circle all

round the inside of the hand.

He

pitied

it

little

a very

little.

Lucy

thought not quite enough.


*'

it

know," said he, " exactly how much

hurts you, because

a hundred times to
dear,

There
to

wanted you
is,

as

you

have done the same

my own

nothing like feeling,

make one remember


At

first

My

to feel as I did myself.

said,

you think caused

hand.

this

well.

What do

Lucy answered,

that she did not

know.
" Because you are thinking of the pain
in

your hand," said he.

132
" That

" but

said Lucy,

true,"

is

What

pretty well over now.

it

is

did you ask

me:
*'

asked you what caused that kind of

sucking in of your hand into the exhausted


receiver

She thought

for

an

and an-

instant,

swered,
"

believe

outer

air,

was the pressure of the

it

which was trying

that hole, to

to get in at

the vacuum, and which

fill

was prevented by the palm of


which
Well,

it

then drove in as

now

am

pressure

of the

you must

let

sure

me

was a very pretty

He was

so

could.

air

the

'

and now

;'

it

? }j

of the viewless air.'

after her, declaring

it.

it

when

it

had some

Lucy had

quite at the right time,

on.

it

have felt

line, besides,

sense in

interrupt him, or

as

hand,

repeat the line,

Harry repeated

common

viewless

The spring and pressure

'

much

my

it

said

it

did not

any thing that was going

much pleased with

he begged of her to repeat

all

it,

that

those lines

133
again for him; and

when they went

out to

garden soon afterwards, instead of

their

beginning

he desired her to say

dig,

to

the lines once more, for that he must learn

them by

Thus he

heart.

some of her

him some of

acquired from

while she

poetry,

for

taste

learnt from her

his love of

science.

In repeating these lines, Lucy observed

which of them alluded


and which

had

first

and

air

the air

to

to the barometer,

pump,

^yhen she

learned them by rote, barometer

pump had been

so

jumbled

in her

head, that she could not understand them.


(C

How

Of

from the lake below;

liquid silver

Weigh

And
she

up exhausted tubes bright currents flow


the long column of th' incumbent skies,

with the changeful

now knew

described

and the succeeding


" How,

as in brazen

The membrane

moment

fall

or rise

the barometer

lines the air

pumps

pump

the pistons move.

valve sustains the weight above

Stroke follows stroke, the gelid vapour

And

falls.

misty dew-drops dim the chrystal walls

Rare and more rare expands the

And

fluid thin.

silence dwells with vacancy within."

134

While Harry was learning these


by

Lucy stopped

heart,

as she

lines

prompted

concerning " gelid vapour"


and "misty dew-drops," and objected, " I

the couplet

do not understand about misty dew-drops


on the chrystal

walls.

any vapour on the glass

Her brother

did not perceive

bell."

told her, that these lines

alluded to a fact which he had not yet

mentioned

to

which

her,

his

had

father

but very lately told him, and he was not


clear

enough yet about

explain

to

it

attempt to

to her.

it

Lucy said she was satisfied to wait;


that it was best not to know every thing
at once,

and pleasant

have something

to

But
though the

to look forward to.

altogcether

confessed, that

air

she

pump was

curious and ingenious, to use the air to

pump she
and a much more

drive itself out, yet the water

thought a
useful

much

grander,

machine.

pump was

She thought the

air

not of any use.

Harry smiled, and answered,


thought at

first.

But,

my

'^

So

dear, that

was

135

owing to my ignorance. And when you


know more you will find that the air pump
There are many expeis of great use.
riments in natural history, as papa showed

me, that could never have been


discoveries

you a

little

For instance,

it.

peep

we could
pump, have known

and a feather would

the ground in the

no

same

air to resist the fall

"

to give

into the matter,

never, without an air


that a 2:uinea

was

of either of them."

guinea and a light feather

heavy

oh, brother

assure you

fall to

time, if there

guinea and a feather

" Very true,

and

could never have been

that

made without

tried,

as

you

will

see one of these days."


*'

this

Harry,

think

recollect I

read

it

somewhere

too about

the

and something

guinea's

making no

more noise than the feather when

You
"

heard

about the guinea and the feather be-

fore, or

else

now

will
I

Harry,

show me

am
"

this too, will

not sure that


I tried

did not find

it

so.

you?"

can, Lucy," said

in this air

was

it falls.

pump, and

The guinea

fell

136

on the metal plate here


this plate

makes a
"

^'

and

must

whether

am

ment

it

yet," said

Harry;

make myself

to

right or wrong.

in the

have

it falls,

experiment about the

try the

that the feather

ground

rings,

said Lucy.

'

over again,

noise

and

why it
or why

when

cannot explain

air,

clearly understand

a noise

should not,
"

bottom, and

noise."

make

should
it

touches the outer

do not

at the

am certain

and guinea come

same

sure

to the

time, for that experi-

and

tried often,

it

always suc-

ceeded."
"

Show

it

to

me now,"

" No, not now.


this,

said Lucy.

But you

shall see all

and a great deal more

in time," said

how

could you say

Harry.

'^

But, Lucy,

that the air

you know

pump

is

of no use

more about

it,

you

When

will see

how much you were mistaken. You will


find, that all we know about the specific
gravities,

the different weights of bodies,

and a great many curious


sound, and

cannot

tell

facts

about

you how many

137

and

experiments

delightful

about the

air that

discoveries

comes out of vegetables,

and about the growing of seeds and of

and other experiments about

plants,

dif-

ferent kinds of gases, as they are called


I say,

my

my

dear Lucy, as

father told

me, none of these could have been known


without the air pump.
gases
to

Oh,

my

And then

dear,

as to the

cannot explain

you yet of what amazing consequence

the erases are."

Lucy opened her

eyes,

and stood look-

ing, as if she

thought she could never ad-

mire enough.

After a reverend pause, she

simply repeated the word

"

My

dear,

You

yet.

Gases

I"

do not ask me about them

are a great, great

But

way

you are good

yet from
I will

put

into boiling water to-night at tea,

and

the gases.

you

''

if

get you on to steam and the steam en-

gme.
"

Thank you,"

said Lucy, without

know-

ing clearly what w^as to happen to her.


" Now^ let us finish the new^ road to

garden,"

said Harry.

" But,

before

my
we

138
go, I hope

you

will

acknowledge the

pump, besides being very ingenious,


useful as the water

pump

Mrs. Lucy, you look

is

as

Hey,

at least.

you were not

if

"as

air

convinced yet."
"

must wait

can understand

till

have seen and

till I

these things, before

all

can decide," said Lucy.

"Very provokingly prudent and slow


all at

once," muttered Harry, striking the

new road with

stones of the

Why

his pounder,

how can I possibly say


more, when you tell me I am so far from
and I am sure I did not underthe gases
"

brother,

stand a word you said about specific gravities

feather

with

and the guinea,

my

all

heart;

like the others

all

and

long to see

dare say

I shall

and seeds,

particularly.

But these

curious experiments for grand phi-

losophers, with your air-pump

be useful
but what
is

that,

about sound,

and vegetables,
are

experiment about the

the

as to

more

to
I

your

say

is,

useful to

men

they

may

of science, brother

common pump
common people, every

that the

139

And

day.

do

say, that I like those

ma-

chines best, which are most useful."


All the rest Harry heard patiently or
passively,

road
"

And

but
I

he went on pounding his

as

when

she came to the last words,

do say, that

I like

those machines

best which are most useful," he threw

"You

his pounder, exclaiming,

ungrateful,

Lucy

!"

are very

and he wiped

head, for he was very hot

down

his fore-

but, checking

himself,

he added, " Ungrateful to the

pump,

mean."

"

My

dear, I did not

grateful to the air

"

did not

to

be un-

pump," said Lucy,

prised that he could


it.

mean

air

sur-

grow so warm about

mean

to affront the air

pump, or you I am sure I did not know


you cared which I preferred. What can
:

make you care so much about


"

the

do not know," said Harry.

pumps ?
" But

was vexed because you would not do justice to the air

pump, and you gave your

opinion against

it,

without knowing

all.

thought that you were like that foolish

woman, who

said

to the great chemist,

140
*

Of what

use

is all

your chemistry,

cannot teach you to

hope you

now

hope

my gown?'

Lucy,

foolish."

must say

not," said Harry.


for the air

"What

can

it

in

it

sweet-meats

with

Do you mean

make ice."
"Oh! Harry,

ice

he,

"

"Very good

mamma

said Lucy.

" the air

cannot believe

can that possibly be done

"

and

me, not bad even of water."

" Yes," said

my

common

make some-

of pine apple, and pleasant of tea;

"

is

be?" said Lucy.

creams," continued Harry.

"

But

exceedingly agreeable."

" Particularly

told

"

pump, there

every day, in hot weather, to


is

ever shall."

a use that may be made of


thing that

"and

hope," said Lucy;

hope you do not think


" No,

to take

be so

will never

"Never,

me how

tell

the iron-moulds out of

if it

Go

to

pump can
that.

How

Conversations on Chemistry,

dear,

and you

Very

well,

will

will

be answered."

go

to

on Chemistry," said Lucy

Conversations
" but not

till

141

have dug

up

my

all

in

my

garden, and tied

carnations, and fed

and finished drawing the

rabbit,

of my head of

phurs

bed

this

white

last

snake

Medusa, and put by the

the cabinet,

in

my

and practised

sul-

The

'

rising of the lark.'"

"Very

little

chance indeed, through

all

that jumble of thing^s, of your rememberino-

Conversations on Chemistry and the

pump,"

air

said Harry.

"You

shall see," said

always a good

memory

Lucy;

"'

what

for

I
I

have
wish

to do."

"Harry,
would:

all

that

have duo^ the bed

den, tied up
rabbit,

have done

my

finished

in

carnations, fed

my

said

mv earmy white

Medusa's snakes, put

the sulphurs into their cabinet, practised

my

rising of the lark, and read

stood

all

that

and under-

vou marked forme

in

'Con-

versations on Chemistry*.'"

* Eighth Edition, vol.

i,

from page 151 to 160.

142
" Really

Harry

said
I

You have done a great deal,"


" much more than I expected.

thought the white rabbit would have

made you

And

forget every thing else.

do you quite understand

you have

all

read?"

"

As

clear.

" for

Lucy,

do," said

was reading,

very

is

it

thought

saw

every thing that was described; and after


I

had

finished,

it

show me.

to

now, before

my

and while
"
I

was more anxious than

you pro-

to see the experiment

before,

mised

forget

head

show

will

Will you

can," said Harry,

you

see

understand,

as

is i?i it,

to

it

what

me

let

you say ?

as soon as ever

my

" with

father's

assistance.

He

says that

tempt to try

this

experiment by ourselves,

sulphuric

because

used in
with.
clothes,

it,

If
it

is

acid,

must not

at-

which must be

very dangerous to meddle

we dropped any
would burn holes

of

them and
on ourselves,

in

if

we were

it

would hurt us exceedingly.

to let a drop fall

care, Lucy, not to

on our

it

meddle with

So take

it."

143
"

I will

take great care," said Lucy. "

will look, but not touch."

While Harry went out of the room

who was preparing

his father,

experiment,

Lucy talked

to

for their

to her

mother

about the entertaining account, which she

had

been reading, of the method of

just

making

ice in India,

even in the hottest

nights.
''

How

glad they must be,

said Lucy, "

see the

when

mamma,"

morning they

in the

the shallow pans, which

ice in

they leave out of doors during the night

Mamma,"

"

continued she,

think that

the Emily and Caroline in this book must

have been very happy, seeing

all

the nice

experiments mentioned here, and talking


to their

mother about them, and learning

from her.

This Mrs. B. seems to be a

very good, kind mother.

know
Is

her,

if

there such

she

is

Yes, there

should like to

really a live person.

a real person as Mrs. B.,

mamma?"
^'

is,

Lucy."

144

"There

And are you acquainted

"

mamma " Lucy asked eagerly.


I am, my dear."

"

You

with

her,

are

And what

like her very

sort of person is

Oh

her ?

by your look before

see

"

Do you like

she ?
I

is

mamma,
you speak. You

do, indeed, Lucy."

I
I

some

yes,

much."

am glad she is an
I hope
yours, mamma.
"

acquaintance of
I

shall

see her

time."

" She

more than an acquaintance of


mine, she is my friend and if you deserve
is

my

it,

dear daughter,

hope that she

will

some time be yours."

"Oh, brother! What do you think mam-

ma
to

has just told me," cried Lucy, running

meet Harry, who

the

door,

at this instant

and came

in,

followed by his

father."

"Oh!

papa, do you

But observing
were
intent

full,

opened

know

that her father's hands

and that he and Harry were

upon bringing

in

the air

pump,

145
she wisely ceased her exclamations, and

stopped short in what she was going to say.


" Right to be silent,

my

dear,' said her

father, as

she stood by without uttering a

wordj

the time they were preparing to

all

" It

show her the experiment.

very

is

troublesome and disagreeable to have


or

girls,

little

bodies, talking

any bodies,
all

little

any

or great

we

the time

are

busy

preparing experiments."

Busy and anxious too,


papa for some experiments

you know,

^'

are danger-

ous," said Harry.

Lucy had learned from what she had


just

read,

that

sudden evaporation pro-

duces cold sufficient to freeze in a va-

cuum, even when the outer


above the freezing point.
ter

was near the

looked at

it,

She saw

that

as

air

air is

much

thermome-

pump, and Lucy

Harry desired she would.


the

mercury stood

degrees, and she felt that the

at

65

room was

warm.

Her

father placed

under the receiver a

large shallow saucer, filled with sulphuric

VOL.

I.

146

and

acid,

in

raised

on a

ter in

it,

it

little

cup of water,

small

thermome-

stand, with a

as described in Conversations

on

Chemistry.

He

asked Lucy

if

she

knew

for

what

purpose the sulphuric acid was put there.

She

said that the

book had told

her, that

the use of the sulphuric acid was to attract

and absorb what was evaporated from

the water, before

it is

frozen.

*'And why should

it

be

absorbed?"

said her father.

" Because

we want

to freeze the water,"

said Lucy.

" True

me,

but you have not explained to

why we

desire that the sulphuric acid

should absorb this vapour."


" Because, papa, that vapour
part of the vacuum, and

it

fills

must be taken

away, and the sulphuric acid does


it

absorbs
*'

we may go on

keep

water."

this as

it."

She understands it,"

pens

up

said Harry. "

look, Lucy, at

your eyes

fixed

Now

what hap-

upon the

147

She did

and she. soon saw

so,

bubbles appearing on
" It

is

little

surface.

its

beginning to do something," said

she; "but

more

looks

it

as if

it

were going

to boil than to freeze."

"

You know,"

water can freeze

it

" that

he,

said

must appear

before

to boil."

why you
That was explained to me in

"Yes, appear;
say appear.

understand

the book."

"

Now

begins to freeze," said Harry,

it

" look at the

Lucy saw
curious

much

but

spikes of ice."

little

this,

and said

was

ver}^

she did not look quite so

still

surprised and pleased as Harry had

expected, because,

she said,

els

only such tiny spikes of


gined,

it

that all

the

ice.

she saw

She had ima-

remaining water

in

the cup would have been turned at once


into a solid

lump.

Harry had talked


apple

ice,

to

about pine

and various other kinds of

which were so pleasant


ther,

her

to eat in hot

wea-

and which he boasted that the

pump was

ice,

air

so useful in assisting people to

H 2

148

make; but from the


seen,

had

tiny spikes she

she could scarcely conceive that a

sufficient quantity

made

could be

Harry asked

good purpose.

for this

his mother, if

she would give them some cream and some

make sweet ice-cream; he


wished exceedingly to show Lucy, that it
could really be done in the air pump.
sweetmeat, to

Their kind mother provided them with


that

all

Harry desired; but she doubted that

they would be able to succeed, as


difficult

even to freeze water.

determined to

pump

was

Harry was

he had heard that

try, for

was a common practice


use of an air

it

in

in

it

London, to make

making ice-cream.

His father warned him that he w^as mistaken, but that he mighttry,

would then

find out

what

and that he

his mistake

had

been.

Harry put the cream


cup, and

Lucy mixed with

berry

jelly.

larger

cup

They put
filled

placed on a
saucer,

into a small tea

little

filled

it

their rasp-

the tea cup into a

with water, and this they


stand,

which rested on a

with sulphuric acid, within

149
the glass bell of the air

pened,

as

hap-

It

young

often happens to

too

it

pump.

experimenters, and to old ones also, that

They

their experiment did not succeed.

could not freeze the cream.

They

tried to console themselves

by

eat-

This was,

ing the cream and sweetmeat.

however, but an imperfect consolation to

The honour

Harry.
his

own, were

of the air

pump, and

and he recurred

at stake,

to

the subject immediately.

"

my

suppose

mistake

was

in

put-

ting the cream and sweetmeat into the air

pump. I was only told that the air pump


was useful in making ice. How they make

the ice cream with

it,

cannot guess,' said

Harry.

"I can

tell

you

that," said

Lucy, "for

once saw the housekeeper make raspberry


ice-cream."
"

Have you?"

said Harry;

"and how

did she do it?"


" She put some cream and sweetmeat
into a tin cylinder

pewter.

And

this

tin I believe

it

was, or

she surrounded

with

150

pounded

deal of

a great

and

ice

salt.

Then she kept turning and turning the


cylinder round, with the cream in

was

last it

Oh

"

how

it

^*

oh

The

it is

be a year,
little

then

''

pump

air

now

I see

produces ice

That must be

useful."

But how can

produce

it

it

would be necessary?

quantities as

said Harry,

"

to freeze the cream.

way

at

all frozen."

is.

enough
the

it, till

at the rate I

saw

it

such

in
It

would

going on, with

cupful of water," said Lucy.

Harry acknowledged

this,

and they ap-

for

this purpose,

pealed to their father.

He

them,

told

that,

pumps than they had

much

larger air

seen

would be necessary.

quently a greater

ever

That conse-

vacuum was produced,

and more water frozen.


"

Then

pump

make

does

cream, and

London.

is true,

it

it

Is

is

not

Lucy, you

see, the air

the ice that makes the ice

used
it,

for this

papa

purpose in

''Not in London," answered their father;


"

it

is

too expensive a process to be of

151

much advantage
lieve

in this country

but

be-

has been found useful in India."

it

''In India! There, Lucy,


useful

it

and how

is,

you see how

far its

fame

goes,''

said Harry.

" Did they really send an

made

England

in

pump

air

pur-

to India for this

pose:

"Yes," said her

we go

London,

to

"And when

father.
I

will

show you Mr.

Carey's apparatus for making ice."

"Oh! thank
really see

it

you,

father;

made, not

in quantities," said

for

common

but

will

acknowledge,"

pump

is

useful

purposes."

"

And you

in little spikes,

"that the air

"

will

shall

Lucy.

"Now, Lucy, you


said Harry,

and

do," said Lucy.

have

will

much more

to

by and by,"

acknowledge on

this subject

said her father

" you will see other pur-

poses for

common

life,

to

which

it

is

ap-

plied."

"

Oh

" That

what, father?" cried Harry.


I will

not

tell

you now, Harry."

152
In the evening, before tea time, Harry

and Lucy played

and

at spillikens,

after-,

wards a game of chess, in which Harry was


beaten

because he was thinking of some*

thing he was going to

tell

Lucy about the

steam engine, and he missed seeing a rogue


of a knight that had got so

close to his

king, that he could not stir without being

check-mated.
"

Now

promised

steam engine, which you

for the

to explain to

me," said Lucy.

Harry was afraid that he could

But

first

tiy

and

him

to explain

his father desired that

he would

turning to his father, asked


it.

not,

what he could do.

" This will be of service to you, Harry,


for

you

will

comprehend

be then certain whether you


it

are never sure they understand

perfectly
other.

till

If

is

puzzled

Harry said he would


with these words
first

it

to an-

will help

you

may

be."

out of your difficulty, whatever

" In the

any thing

they have explained

Lucy

People

yourself or not.

try,

it

and began

place, a steam engine

is

Iv53

machine

There he stopped, and began

"'

aofain with,

Lucy, you must know,

^'In the first place,

that the

machine called a steam engine was

invented

He

"

stopped short again, and

a third time he attempted

father,

he

said,

you, father.

odd.

but he hesi-

and blushed, and turning again to

tated,

know

it,

am

I
;

think

but
I

"I cannot explain

am

so anxious.

it

his

before

very

It is

not the least afraid of you, you

ashamed and anxious.

so

I feel

should do

a great deal better

it

if

you were not by,"


" Very

well,"' said

" then either you or

room

it

his father,
I

laughing

must go out of the

Luckily for you,

seems.

going into the next room.

Ls

am just

that

far

enouo-h
o off? thouo^h
o the foldinoo doors are
open, I assure you I shall not hear you."

" That will do perfectly," said Harry.


*'

But what

will

you do about

make

She must stay

to

" Look, here

the urn comino'

is

mamma

tea," said
in.

Lucy.

Had

not you better come out into the hall with

me, Harry

H 5

154
**

No, no/' said Harry, "

mamma; and now

do not mind

think of

it,

want

Lucy, look at the steam coming

the urn.

from the top of that urn


a great while ago,

my

do you

father's

recollect,

holding a

cold plate over the steam coming from the

urn?"
" Yes,"

Lucy

though

well,

it

She remembered,

it

was a great while ago.


that the cold of the plate

had turned the steam


densed

she remembered

said,

into water again, con-

She recollected the drops on

it.

the plate, which afterwards ran into each


other,

and down

when

was sloped.

the plate
*'

into little streams,

" you have

Yes," interrupted Harry,

enough of that

recollected

you are

clear

then that cold can condense steam, that

can turn

back again

it

into water."

'*

Perfectly clear," said Lucy.

"

Now

Harry
steam,

recollect

is,

another thing," said

" which took

when

it

up most room, the


was steam, or when it was

turned into water


" It took

up much the most room when

155

was steam," said Lucy. " I am


that cloud of steam which you see
it

sure,

rising

from the tea urn, and which takes up so

much room

in the air, might, if

cold plate over

this minute,

be condensed

a few drops, which would not half

into
fill

it

you held a

a tea spoon."
" Very true," said Harry

think any more about that

our talking,

collect

about the tea


called;

that

if

"

a great while ago,

kettle's boiling over,

my

as

it is

saying,

of the tea kettle was

top

screwed down

not

but do you re-

and do you remember


the

now do

tight,

and

if

the spout was

stopped, so that no steam could get out,


that I thought the tea kettle

"

papa

remember

it

said

all,"

you were veiy

said,

remember afterwards the


plosion of my chesnuts

would burst?"
Lucy; "and
and

right;

burstino;

and ex-

and the story papa

told us of his pouring the hot lead into the

damp
fact*

elder,
I

to

make a

pencil; and the

read about the burstino^ of a

Scientific Dialogues.

little

156
hollow brass ball, in which there was water,
that turned to steam, and which

caused

an explosion, that blew a whole foundery


to pieces."

Then you have some idea of the power


steam when it expands," said Harry.

^'

of

"To
know

be sure

killing people,

frightened

great,

terribly

is

it

have," said Lucy

bursting and

and tearing away

should have been,

"I

How
had

if I

been papa, when he was a little boy, when


the lead

bounced up

ceiling.

am

sure I

when my own
"

But

it

is

cleverly

shall see, the

most

and the most useful things

it

high as the house, and

could raise the weight of this

it

all

that

is

top of the highest

Oh, brother

" It

you

and

from the bottom of the deepest

room, and

''

great power," said

carefully used,

raise water

higher,

mine

horse chesnuts bounced."

will do, as

surprising,

would

was frightened enough

if this terribly

Harry, "
used,

to the top of the

is

quite

in

tree,

it,

it

high as the

and higher."

brother

tme

as

!"

said Lucy.

can do more in an

157
hour, than two hundred horses, and four-

teen hundred

men.

waggons

of coal, such as you have

full

It

can drag loaded

seen going step by step, the horses pulling

hard

easily as

"
it

!"

"

can pull these waggons up as

it

My

can pull your

dear brother,

little cart."

how

can

believe

said Lucy.
It

can drive across the

sea, against the

power of the wind and the


ship, with all the people in

it,

and carriages, and

horses

a great

tide,

and

all

all their

that they

have in the world."


" Is

"

really possible?" said Lucy.

it

have heard people talking of steam boats,

and of the workinor of steam

eno^ines

and

remember papa's asking a gentleman, who


was here the other day, whether his steam

engine was an hundred horse power.


I

never

knew how

this

was, nor could

conceive that steam could do


itself.

Only steam

fixing her eyes

came from the


" Yes,

But

all this

like that?" said

upon the steam

that

by

she,
still

tea urn.

only steam like that," repeated

158
" Think

Harry.
it

do

what we men can make

at our bidding."

" Really and truly, Harry," said Lucy,


^*

does more at men's bidding than any

it

of the genii in the Arabian Tales, more

than any of the slaves of Aladdin's lamp,


for the hardest

be made

working of them could only

to carry

one house."

" Very true, indeed," said Harry,


for

and

once he was pleased with an allusion.

" But," continued Lucy,


very

much

afraid of

its

"

should be

doing some great

mischief some day, like the African ma-

Do you remember ?"

gician.

But,

my

dear,"

do not

tell

me any

*'

*'

Harry,

interrupted

thing more about

the African magician/'


" Only this one thing, Harry,

would

let

me

get

it

out of

my

if

you

head,

should attend so much better."


" No, my dear Lucy.
Is it not very

hard upon me, that you are to say every


thing that comes into your head, and that
puts out of mine

all

that

want

to

re'"

member about

the steam engine for

you

159
"
will

beg your pardon," said Lucy, " I


not say a word more of the African

Go

magician.

on.'

But poor Harry could not go on im" Where was I?" said he to
mediately.

"What was

himself.

As he spoke he rubbed
and then ran

going to say?"

his forehead

his fingers through his hair

from the roots upwards,

pushed up, and stood

upon the
"

fretful

Now

Ah

is

but

now

But

at

do what

to

when

first,

Look

not steam enough

enough

might have seen


till

lid

and lay

it is

it

*'

too late
is

it

there

not strong

wanted you

to see.

at top,

pushing up the

it

you

lid of

then the

more steam was


up again. I wish

still till
it

going up and down."

have often seen

watched

to

the water was boiling,

formed, and pushed


it

all

at the tea urn,

the steam got out,

the urn,

you had seen

was

was going

and the steam rushing out

fell,

it

" like quills

erect,

what
"

say," cried Harry.

Lucy.

till

porcupine."

recollect

first,

moving

it,"

said Lucy,

"and

because sometimes

160
afraid the top

was

up, and

"

blown

And

so

it

would be quite

lifted

oflf."

would," said Harry, "

were not for these


throuo-h which the

little

if it

holes, look here,

and

steam escapes,

which were made on purpose to let it


escape, without blowing off the top, or
doing any mischief."
" That is very prudent

am

glad the

holes are there," said Lucy.


^'

said
it

But suppose they were not there,"


Harry, *' and the top left loose as
now.

is

people say,

If the water boiled


if

well,

a great deal of steam

as

came

rushing up, and pushing out through this


place where the top goes on, you
the top would be lifted up.
I

And

know

suppose

lay on the top this weight," continued

he taking up from the table a small weight,


which was used for keeping down papers
;

and suppose I put a lamp under the urn,


so as to keep the water boiling, and send'*

ing up fresh steam, what do you think

would happen then


"

am

?"

not sure," said Lucy. "

It

would

161
either burst the urn, or

upon

that weight
sure,

that

lift

up the top with

It

it.

would,

am

up the top and weight, because


would be the easiest way for the steam
lift

to get out."

"

To be

sure.

It

would require much


" to

Harry,

less force," said

this little

lift

The exyou know I told

weight than to burst the urn.


pansive force of steam,
you, would

lift

of that urn, with a

that, instead

under

it,

Now

the house.

there

was a great

as a kitchen fire

and

little

lamp

as large

fire,

larger,

suppose

and a great

iron boiler, as large as the boiler

you have

seen in the kitchen and larger, with water


boiling in

it

boiler suppose

and over the mouth of that

we put

body of a pump,

a cylinder like the

as large as that in the

yard, and closed well round at the place

where

it is

put

in,

so that the steam of the

boiling water can get out no

way but up

the cylinder."
" Then," said Lucy,

"

how

the steam

would rush up through the valve

in

the

162
piston

What a cloud

out at the top

come

was going

have

!"

" Stay, stay, Lucy


told you,

of steam would

that in this piston there

no valve,

it is

to

suppose, before

to
is

be a tight stopper.
the steam

I let

have the piston down

at the

in,

to

be

Now
that

bottom of the

pump."
*'

Why

then, before

you

you must put a great weight


piston down, or

it

the steam

let in

keep the

to

would be thrown up

to

the ceiling, as the lead in papa's pencil


case was."

"

And

great

believe," said

Harry,

" your

weight would be throvni through

the ceiling, and would break


Consider,

my

dear,

if

it

to pieces.

the small quantity

of water, that was in papa's elder pencil

when turned into steam, force


up to the ceiling, and if the

case, could,

the

lead

small quantity of water that was

the

little

brass ball could burst,

left in

and blow

up a whole foundery, such a quantity of


steam as

this

would be able

to

lift

up

163

and blow up
in

room, and

this

all

that

is

it.

" But

if

that

is

your only way of

lifting

weights, and of lifting the house,

gi'eat

do not see how


" Patience,

can be useful."

it

Lucy.

Suppose that we

know beforehand the weight of whatever


we wish to lift, we can calculate and
lessen the
it is

to

fire,

and lessen the steam,

just enough,

and no more than enough,

the weight gently up, to whatever

lift

we

please

top of the

pump.

height

chief,

you

suppose

to

the

see."

calculate exactly,
is

now

Then you do no mis-

" Very well," said Lucy,

That

till

" if you can

and make no mistake.

very nice."

"But now

suppose you want to do this

more than once

to

lift

several weights,

could you do

it?

You

have the piston and the weight up

at the

one after another

top,

and the steam

in the cylinder of the

pump."
"

do not know," said Lucy

" for

164
dare not take the weight off the piston.

dare not touch

"

it."

would not advise you

to

touch

it

indeed," said Harry.

"

Then what can

do ?" said Lucy.

" Think," said Harry.


" But the idea of the steam going on,

coming up through the pump,


me.
I

will

you what

tell

would put out the

water upon

fire

" but then there


I

could,

'^

is

steam

of,"

throw

all

Harry,

said

in the boiler."

into that if I

cannot get at

throw cold water


that

directly,

would throw water


but

would do

it."

" Very well thought

"

frightens

it.

would

over the outside, and

would cool the steam."

But

still

there

would be the steam

in

the body of the pump," said Harry.


''

And

cannot throw water into

cause of the stopper," said Lucy.


I

will

throw cold water over

it,

it

be-

" Well,
all

down

the sides, and over the piston at top, and


cool

it,

and make

it

as cold as the plate

165

papa held over the


it

and colder

urn,

then

would condense the steam within, and

turn

it

"

into a very small quantity of water."

Then

what

would

happen?" said

Harry.
"

The

piston

would

would be nothing
steam would be

all

to

there be

there

up.

The

there be, or

would

hold

it

gone."

And what would

"

down

fall

any thing

in the place

of the

steam?" asked Harry.


" There would be nothing but a

water

there

would be a vacuum,

little

but

all

those drops of water," said Lucy.


"

Very well, indeed,"

you have the piston down, how


raise

it

again

"

Now

will

you

said Harry.

want

have another

to

weight brought up."


" Then, you know,

and

must

light the

fire,

boil the water again," said Lucy.

" Aye,

heated too

and wait
;

for,

till

till

that

the
is

cylinder

heated,

it

is

will

condense the steam," said Harry.


" Certainly," said Lucy, " you must wait
till it is

hot."

166
''

But

would be very

it

inconvenient,''

said Harry, " to wait while

and

fire,

boil the water,

not you find any better

you

and

way

light the

Can-

so on.

of condensing

without putting out the

the steam,

fire

every time

Lucy thought

for

a few moments, and

answered, " Perhaps, without putting out


the
let

fire, it

would do

as well if I could but

cold water into the boiler, and into the

pump."

cylinder of the

" But why into the boiler," said Harry.


" Because the fresh steam would come

up continually

if

did not prevent

it,"

said Lucy.

" But suppose," said Harry, " you have

condensed the steam in the cylinder, and

you only want the vacuum

for

or two, just to let the piston

fall

pose that for that

little

an instant
;

and sup-

time the steam

from the boiler could be prevented from

coming
it

in

need not

tell

you how, but

can.

"

but

Then
I

need not put out the

may condense

the steam

in

fire,

the

167
said

cylinder,"

much

more

Lucy

'^

that

because

convenient,

be

will

after-

wards the steam will be ready to be

under the bottom of the piston,

in again,
if

you want another weight

But

still

to

be sent up.

do not know how

to get the

cold water into the body of the

mean

let

into the cylinder,

pump,

condense the

to

steam."
"

The

into a separate vessel,

called,

This vessel

a condenser.

is

as soon as

And

it

comes

is

this all

is

from

let off
its

use,

surrounded by

cold water, so that the steam

^'

"

steam," said Harry,

is

condensed,

into it."

the steam engine?"

said Lucy.

my

" No,
general
to you,

dear Lucy,

principle.
I

it

is

only the

cannot explain

should only puzzle you.

all

There

are different sorts of steam enmnes.

In

that invented

by Mr. Watt, the expansive

force of the

steam

is

used in different

degrees, to raise the piston, and to force


it

down."

168
"

know

did not

that the steam

was

ever let in above the piston," said Lucy.

"Yes,
first,

not

And

tell

there

did not

you that

tell

should puzzle you, and

lest I

now

is.

it

is

you exactly how

is

it

at

I will

done.

a great deal more to be ex-

about the ways of making the

plained,

steam engine raise weights, or water, or

work machinery,

directions.

different

in

Ours was but an awkward way of raising


weights,
piston.

by putting them on the top of the


Suppose I want to raise water

from a pond, you must put a beam out


from the top of the piston,

beam, and with


piston of a

pump

like a scale

you might work the

this

fastened at the other end

of this beam."

" Very convenient

"

said Lucy,

" and

very simple."
" There are a great
trivances,"

making

it

said

Harry,

many

other con-

" and

ways

of

turn wheels, and pull and push

any direction

sideways,

or

in

you want

to

have work done, or force

in

which

169 '
applied
to

death

but

and puzzle you

tire

you

to tell

all

at once.

me

several days to explain to

and the

motion,

parallel

the

should

were

if I

Papa took

wheel,

fly

and the sun and planet motion, and the


excentric."

" Oh,

my

stopping her

dear brother

cried

"

Lucy,

" this would puzzle

ears,

me

to death indeed."

" Therefore,
not

say

my

one word

things to-day, but


quite clear, as
principle, as

comes with
"

you,

I will

about any of

these

dear,

will leave

hope

papa

tell

in the general

it is,

calls

your head

And

it.

here he

his letter in his hand."

Mamma is

beginning

to

pour out

tea,

said Lucy, " let us go to her."

" Stay one minute, Lucy," said Harry.


*^

Now,

pray,

when you

to explain to papa,

are called

be quite steady.

upon

Do

not be a coward, and fancy that you do

not

know what you

too quick neither.

do.

Above

And

do not be

all

do not go

the least beyond what you really know.

Do

'

not put in any of your

VOL.

I.

'

It^s like this

170
or

more
"

When

that,'

like

It's

you have no

to say, stop."

"

said Lucy.

I will,"

one word more than

is

necessary, nor

one allusion or quotation.


your own dear Menelaus
than just the thing

"

Now,

plain

table,

of

steam

the

said

engine,"

with a composed countenance.

her about

Harry

Harry,"

said

his

"

to read this letter


to say to

it."

sat

down with
tea,

without

was

a resigned look,

and

hearing

going

one

till

father turned to Lucy,

and

am

steam engine."

and

bread

eat

on,

dear,

father,

have a great deal

and swallowed

my

say no more

walking up with her to the tea

me, and

what

like

knows of the

she

must ask your mother

butter,

I'll

be

ought."

what

you

to

" First,

for

I will

make

papa, will you ask Lucy to ex-

principle

Harry,

will not say

word

at
said,

last
*'

of
his

Now,

ready for you and the

171
Lucy,

who had been

declared she

letter,

listening

was

to

the

afraid that the

whole of the steam engine had gone out


of her head.

astonishment Harry stared at her,

In

and, in a tone of indignation, exclaimed,


" Is
*'

Lucy

possible,

it

?"

Stay, do not frighten me," said Lucy,

" and perhaps

She

did,

had said

get

it

back again."

and she recollected

to her

more than
father

may

all

Harry

she distinctly said " no

just the thing she ought."

Her

was doubly pleased by the clearness

with which she

made

her explanation, be-

showed that Harry had understood


well what had been taught him.

cause

"

it

promise you both," said he, "


time

have an opportunity,

the

first

will

show you a steam engine."

that,

Harry was delighted with

this

promise,

and Lucy clapped her hands, and added,


"

know, Harry, that the opportunity

come

soon."

Harry was going

knew

will

this,

but his

to

ask her

attention
I

how

she

was taken

172

by

off

his father's observing to him, that

he had done well


scribing to

his

sister

from de-

refrain

to

any of the lesser

parts of the machinery.

Lucy
to

"

said,

me, papa,

was not

It

at all difficult

me up

he brought

for

steam engine by degrees, and


surprised

not

when

found

was

plate,

and the condensing the water


plainly

afterwards,

where

was.

leading

me

and taking

and the tea

what

saw

found

out

but

just like his

way

of

blindfold on the gravel walk,

me

leading me,
eyes,

when

was

It

to this place

do not know where

"

did

it.

and the expansive force of the steam,

urn,

my

at

was quite

know what he was about when he

began with your cold

to the

till

then

and that

and

am, or where he

he takes the bandage


I

am

quite surprised

is

off

at

see before me."

Ha ha
!

Lucy,

thought you could

not get through without an allusion," said

Harry.

with

by

But he was well enough pleased

this.

this

His

spirits

were so much raised

commendation, and by the promise

173
of seeing a steam engine, and a steam

and by Lucy's success and

boat,

his own,

that he could not refrain from saying a

more than just the thing he ought.


He would now go on to tell her the names
of the first, second, third, and fourth invenlittle

and improvers of the steam engine.

tors

But he was fortunately stopped by


ther's getting

up

his fa-

look for a book, in

to

which, he said, he could find a poetic de-

wonders performed by the

scription of the

expansive force of steam.


" Oh,

"

know

that book," said

the same, Harry,

it is

are the lines on

in

Lucy

which there

the barometer and

air

pump.'*

" The description of the steam engine,"


said their father, " begins

due
'

to

And sunk

Who
"
the

who

him,

Bade with

was

The

by doing honour

cold streams the quick expansion stop.

the

immense

that,

Lucy

inventor

man who

first

of vapour to a drop.'
?

of the

steam engine,

thought of throwing

174
cold water upon

it

condense the steam,"

to

said Lucy.

" Savary, or the Marquis of Worcester,


I

do not know which," said Harry.

know,

father,

there have been

"

You

many

dis-

putes for the honour of this great invention."

" Yes, but

Harry,"

sent,
is

let

these rest for the pre-

said his father.

" Savary

the person alluded to in these lines."

"

Do

go on reading, papa," said Lucy.

" I like those lines so

Her

much."

father continued

" Pressed by the ponderous


Resistless sliding through

air,

its

the piston

iron walls,

Quick moves the balanc'd beam, of giant


Wields

earth

The

large limbs,

its

falls,

birth.

and, nodding, shakes the

giant power, from earth's remotest caves,

Lifts with strong

arm her dark, reluctant waves.

Each cavern'd rock and hidden depth explores,


Drags her dark
'^

Yes,

coals,

and digs her shining ores."

understand," said Lucy

" that

describes the steam engine, bringing

up

water from the bottom of mines, and drag-

175
ging the coal waggons, as Harry told
could."

Her
**

went on reading

father

Next

in close cells of ribbed

Gale after gale he crowds the

me

it

oak confined,

strug-gling-

wind,

Th' imprisoned storms through brazen nostrils roar,

Fan the white flame, and fuse the sparkling


^'

The

deries,

ore."'

great bellows in forges and foun-

which

are

gine," said Harry.

moved by
"

the steam en-

never should have

thought they could have roared so well in


poetry.

Pray go on, papa."

" Here high

To

in air the rising steam

clay-built cisterns,

he pours

and to lead-lin'd towers

Fresh through a thousand pipes the waves

distils.

And

thirsty cities drink th' exuberant rills

These the vast millstone, with inebriate whirl,

On

trembling floors his forceful fingers twirl.

Whose

flinty

teeth the golden harvests grind.

Feast without blood, and nourish human-kind."

Do you understand, Lucy?" said Harry.


" I forget, my dear, whether I told you,
that the steam engine keeps com mills
"

and

all sorts

of mills going."

Lucy nodded.
rupt papa

"

Do

will tell

not

when

let
I

us inter-

do not un-

176
derstand," said Lucy,

" but I understand

he has gone."

all as far

as

"

hard hands on Mona's rifted

Now

his

Bosomed
With

ci'est,

in rock, her azure ores arrest

iron lips the rapid rollers seize

The lengthening

bars, iu their expansion squeeze

Descending screws, with ponderous fly-wheels wound

The tawny plates, the new medallions round.


Hard dies of steel the cupreous circles cramp,
And with quick fall his massy hammers stamp
The Harp,

the Lily, and the Lion join,

And George and


*'

Lucy,

Britain guard the sterling coin."

am

sure you cannot under-

stand this," said Harry.


" No, I
I

was

waited only

But

know

Her

just going to say so,

papa came

till

that

to a full stop.

Mona means

father said that she

Harry

Anglesea."

was right

tliat

the azure ores allude to copper mines in the


Isle

of Anglesea,

or

Mona, which

worked by the steam engine.

means of

copper^

machinery

Cupreous

and the ores of copper

being blueish, the poet


azure ores."

are

calls

them " Mona's

The succeeding

lines describe

for coining copper,

first

rolling

out thick bars of it into plates, thin as half-

177
pence, then cutting those plates into circu-

and stamping them with the arms

lar forms,

of Ireland, France, and England, the harp,


the

lily,

and the

All which

lion.

is

done

by machinery, without the hands of men,


and that machinery is kept at work by the
motion and power of a steam engine.

Harry looked triumphant while

his father

spoke of these wonders performed by steam

Lucy could not conceive how


Her

all this.

it

could do

father repeated his promise,

that whenever he

had an opportunity he

would show her how


whispered again

it is

done

and Lucy

to Harry, ''Very soon, too,

perhaps."
*'

Is

there no more,

nothing about the

father

Is

steam boat

there

asked

"

Hany.
^'

is

There

curious,

is,"

said

his

father

that these lines were

several years before

brought into use

scarcely believed

" and

it

written

steam boats had been

and

at a

time

when

it

was

by any but a few coura-

geously ingenious persons, that the steam

engine could ever be successfully or safely


I

178
employed

in driving forward vessels

This prophecy, at the time

water.

on the
it

was

made, most people thought merely poetical

and instead of expecting that


soon accomplished,

would never be
*

Soon

Drag
"

shall

effected

thy arm, unconquer'd steam

afar

slow barge

now

come

and

goes as fast as
"

The

rapid car

dare say that will be ac-

complished soon, papa, do not you think


will

it

the slow barge, or drive the rapid car.'

The

to

would be

was thought that

it

you please," said Harry.


is

it

And

oh, father, read this

here

it

is

something about a flying chariot, which we


did not hear

Or on mde-waving winds expanded bear


The flying chariot through the fields of air.' "
'

His father had purposely omitted to read


these,

and prudently declined giving

his

opinion.

Harry became

silent

and thoughtful

for

some minutes, but occupied himself with


burning a lump of sugar, whose amber
drops, as fast as they

fell

put into Lucy's mouth.

and cooled, he

And when

the

179
sugar bason was taken from him, he found

new

recreation for his fingers

in his mother's

and thoughts

tambour needle, which he

pushed and pulled up and down, through


silk

and through paper,

till

she took that

from his hand, and then he had no resource


but to lean with both his elbows on her
frame, and to watch her plying the needle.

Lucy whispered from time


" Will not you

with

vellers'

But

at

'

Tra-

me ? "
his

elbow,

it

fixed.

My mother's work is

Harry

time

come and play

in vain she twitched

remained
"

to

''
;

like a chain," said

link within link

loop

within

loop."

" Yes,'* said Lucy,

"

it

is

called chain

stitch."

He watched

the

lengthening

chain,

which, with the quick noise of successful pricks,

advanced towards him, forming

a line from one end of the frame to the


other,

nutes,

which was accomplished


counted by the watch.

in

two mi-

Then

lops and leaves, pointed and round,

scal-

grew

180
under her hand.

Nothing too

difficult for

the dexterous hooked needle.

"

It

goes on so easily," said Harry, "

seems to do
''

itself."

And do you

Harry, as

Harry had
succeed,

if

think you could do

mamma

Mm have

let

of

it

does?

Mamma,

it,

pray

the needle and try."


little

doubt that he should

he might be allowed

to try, be-

cause he had most carefully observed


his

mother did

said,

quick motion, she hung

little

the cotton or

all

he had watched her hand

under the frame, and had seen, as he

how, by a

it

silk,

whichever

it

was, over

the hook of the needle, and then pulled

both up together through the muslin, exactly through the middle of the last link,

and then dragged on a new loop, with a


little

twitch

and twist; and down again

with the needle.

"Well observed, and accurately described,


I grant," said his

mother; "you are perfect

in the theoiy, but

now

for the practice.*'

She put the tambour needle

into

his

hand, the feeling of which he liked par-

181
because

ticularly,

ivory handle

its

large as a pencil case,

man

for a

"

was

as

and something

fit

to hold.

Now we

how

shall see

man

the

" Aye,

work tambour work/' said Lucy.

down goes

the needle, pop through the

muslin, easily enough

and the

again,

will

silk

now

but

with

if

it,

get

it

up

you please

and can."

Harry turned the ivoiy handle


side

and

to that,

and leaned

to this

this

it

way

and that way, and twisted and doubletwisted the silk on the hook beneath

and

twitched, and plucked, and pulled in vain,

and came
^^

Do

if

you look
"

^'

to

Pooh

!"

and

*'

not look at me, pray.

Nor

if

Pshaw
I

!"

and

cannot do

it

at me."

we do

not look at you," said

Lucy.
"

have done

it !"

up
and making a

said he, dragging

the needle by main force,

hole

in

hauled
''

"

the

muslin

which he

it.

Oh, Harry
I

through

what a hole

do not know how

it

Harry, " but the needle

!"

happened," said
is

up

at

any

rate,

182

and the loop with

it

and

have one link

of the chain, what you call one stitch, and

now

which you see

for the next,

I will

do

better."

He

made

tried again, but the hole

possible

he pulled out his

and

stitch,

first,

it

im-

his only

tried again in a fresh corner.

Nothing ever did

try his patience,

he thought, nothing ever did

try

or,

as

human

patience so much. But, by taking thought,

he did get the needle and the loop safe


through

this

muslin.

He

without

time

tearing

the

persevered, and in a quarter

of

an hour had really worked a quar-

ter

of

an inch

dragged

out,

rious

sizes.

called

it,

but

had done

chain,

crooked,

all

short

and long

Sad

chain-stitch,

still

it.

of

links of va-

Lucy

as

she could not deny that he

His fingers were so hot that

he spread them out

to cool,

and took breath, as

his father said a

porter

might do,

after

and groaned,

setting

down

coal

the

heaviest load.

His father next took the needle

in

hand,

with a theory as perfect, with somewhat

more

diffidence,

but with

little

better sue-

183
There was a knack in

cess.

it,

be learned only by practice.

which could
But the gen-

tlemen talked very learnedly to each other

about

and agreed that

it,

their perfect theory

had helped, would help, or should have

them very much.

helped,

" But

how

ther does

mamma,

my mo-

wonderfully quickly
"

said Harry.

it,"'

How

pray.

Do

again,

it

can you go on so

quickly with the work ?


"

You

think

mother, " but

go on quickly," said

all

that

his

could do in a dav

could be done by a machine, Harry, in an

And by what

hour.

By your
for

'^

dear steam engine

Is it

possible?" cried Harry.

Can

these

delicate work,

be

This

is

a use

of which you never thought."

it
'"''

machine, do you think

all

ms and

and

outs^

and these pointed

all

this

leaves,

done by a steam engine?" said Lucy.

*'

"

Mamma, how

huge steam engine


I

!"

said Harry.

should like to see

it

at

work, doing the tambour work," said Lucy.


" Perhaps

you,

my

shall

be able

to

dear," said their father.

show

it

to

184
*'

And

Lucy

soon/' whispered

to

her

?" said Harry.

" I

brother.

*'What can you mean

heard you say, aiul soon,

over and over

again."

"

and

My

dear, did not

all

papa and

you hear the

mamma

letter,

were saying

about it?" said Lucy.


" Not I," said Harry.
'*

You were

sitting at the tea-table

all

the time, beside me," said Lucy.


"

Very

likely," said

Harry

"

did not

hear a word that was said."


" What could you be thinking of?" said

Lucy.
" I do not know," answered Harry. "

bell crank, I believe.

ma

When

Of
saw mam-

pull the bell cord, I thought I

would

show you the bell crank in the passage tomorrow, and explain by that the crank
motion in the steam engine."
"

How

full

your head must be of

this

steam engine," said Lucy.


*'

And

of you, Lucy,

my

dear;

thinking of something to show to you."

was

185
*'

now

you," said Lucy; " then

Thank

you

tell

all

The

not hear.

that

I will

heard, that you did

was papa's answer

letter

to

Something Somebody, the man, the

Sir

gentleman, husband to the lady wdio told

when she

of the shipwreck,

morning- that

"But never mind

my

" get on,

my gown

spotted

pump and

from the

dirty water

dear,

called here the

wdth the

pond."

that now,'' said Harry;


I

want

to hear w^hat is

to come."

" Papa's letter was to thank that gentle-

man
for

he has taken

for the touble

a house somewhere, a great

in looking-

way

off,

by

the sea-shore."

"

And why

did

papa thank him

for

that?" said Harry.

"

My

dear Hany, you are so slow in

understanding,"
is

to

be

for

said Lucy.

The house

papa and mamma; and

is

but room enough in

to

go with them."
"

"

You do

not say so

!"

it

for us

if tliere

we

are

cried Harry, start-

ing upright with joy.


" I do say

so.

heard

it

with these

ears,

186

and veiy good ears they


" and papa told

me

may be two

there

rooms

little

and Lucy, their mother and

them with
"

kind

any
"

Harry.

a nutshell

Oh

little

any

"

Oh

!"

my

little

dens would do," said

in

Could not you, Lucy?"

my

"

But

for us,

if

they

we

are

uncle."

cried Harry, uttering something

"

like a groan,

with

of

could sleep in a drawer

with

left

Harry

for

sort

To be sure," said Lucy.


cannot in any way find room
be

hope

wish to have

"

to

'

us.'"

How

rooms

it,

His

might hear.

towards the end of

letter said,

Lucy

are," said

uncle,

hope we

though

be with him very

shall not

be

left

in general I like to

much

but

never went

a journey, a long journey, and with papa

and
it

mamma

would be

up them with
"
"

And

to

Lucy, think

delightful

to see mountains,

my

and go

portable barometer."

be by the sea side," said Lucy.

never saw the sea, and

shells

how

by the sea shore

I shall

pick up

beautiful shells,

and seaweed, and sea urchins; and we

187

livins: in

Oh

cottao-e.

shall see a

steam boat, and a

steam engine," cried Harry


derstand

certain yet that

not think of

disappointed at

'^

Joy

now
it

are to go, Lucy.


lest

un-

is

not

I will

we should be

last."

joy! joy! for you, Harry; joy for

botVof us
trunk,

we

any more,

it

"

But remember,

all.

it

think of

57

a cottao^e

And we

"

in

live

shall

and the

great black

black trunk, and the

little

the garret to

Packing up

room.

The

and the carpet bag, are coming

seat-boxes,

down from

"

cried Lucy.

"

mamma s dressingbeginning, and

is

we

are to go."

"

We

But

are

you

certain,

do you know," said Harry;


like to

be disappointed,

"Who
danger,
to

room

dear Harry;

letter,

for us.

and

it

How

should not

dear."

would?" said Lucy.

my

papa s

my

''

Lucy?

"But no

heard the answer

says that there

is

Only, that one of us must be

188
put in a very

which can just

little closet,

hold a bed and a chair."


" I do not care how small

but be crammed into


"

Nor do

on a

sofa,

it,"

is,

if I

can

cried Harry.

Lucy; "

said

I,"

it

can sleep

or anywhere, so that

we may

both go."
'^

If

we do

not both go, there will be no

joy," said Harry.

"But

ma

I tell

you we

says she can

Mam-

shall both go.

manage

They

it.

are to

set out the day after

to-morrow, at six o'clock

in the morning.

And

continued Lucy, "if

might pack up your

things and mine to-day, in the

She says

trunk.
is

afraid I cannot

think

can.

may,

do

Bring

the dressing room,


to take with you,

it

and

if I

little

can

black

only she

well enough

me

all

mamma,"

asked

but

directly, Hariy, to

the things you want

I will

get

all

mine

in

a minute."
Presently two great heaps appeared on
the dressing-room floor.

"There are

all

my

pointing to one heap.

goods," said Harry,

"All these must go."

189

"And
go

all

the

here are mine;

in," said

hope they

will

Lucy, looking doubtfully at

black trunk, which stood between

little

them.
Harry, pressing his hand
observed,

heap,

down on

" they

that

things in any way," said he,

go

so that they

could

be

Cram my
"I do not

squeezed almost to nothing.

care how,

Lucy's

only

make

haste

sons,

and be back by the time you are

will

go and

finish

my

Latin les-

Ram my

ready to lock the trunk.

any way,

my

things

dear," repeated he, as he left

the room.

"

Mamma

when

packed,
" and

to

is

is

it

must do

see

it

how

the trunk

is

finished," said Lucy,

well."

She packed, and packed, and squeezed,


and crammed, and rammed, but

in vain;

she could not get in above half of these


things.

Then
had put
began
into

to

two

she took out of the trunk


in,

all

she

and by her mother's advice

sort

own
and umw-

her brother's and her

classes,

of ?iecessaries,

190

By

cessaries.

this operatioiij her brother's

heap was diminished above two-thirds, and

own

her

When Harry returned,

nearly half.

he was not

at all contented

rangement; and, to

satisfy

several of her books,

Harry

the

exactly

to

tion

left

with her ar-

him, she gave up

and reduced her por-

same

as

size

his.

her to pack the tiTink ; and this

time, having listened to her mother's advice,


to lay

each thing, as she put

possible,

she

and

to leave

it in,

no holes or hollows,

succeeded in putting in

necessary.

much

was a pasteboard
shells.

desired to carry.

tray, that

might

fill

it

all

it,

its

new

To

her

from the sea shore.

at the top, in the

for

with a

great satisfaction, there appeared just


for

It

was made

She emptied out

contents, that she

collection

things

all

There was one luxury of her

own, wTiich she

holding

as flat as

arched

room

lid

of the

how

easily

trunk.

Her mother was


it

called to see

locked, and she examined the packing,

and pronounced, that


as

could be

it

was

as well

done

expected from so young a

191

She ran

packer.

Harry, and to

to report her success

summon him

how

see

to

to

nicely her shell tray lay at the top of all the


things, fitting

She met him coming up

trunk.

a huge

arm

under the arched roof of the

book, as

with

she thought, under his

he asked eagerly

stairs

if

she had finished

packing the trunk.


''

Quite finished," said she

look at

it,

and you

shall lock

"

it

come and

yourself."

Harry looked disappointed, and

said, that

he was very sorry the trunk was quite

full,

because he had found something else to put


in,

which he wished particularly

to carry

with him, and his father had just told him


that

it

must not go loose

"What
it is
it

it?" said

is

in the carriage.

Lucy: "fetch

not very large, perhaps

it;

if

can squeeze

m.
Harry, half ashamed to ask the ques-

tion, said,

"

here under

my arm

" This

Could you get

in

what

have

immense quarto book,


!

Lucy.

Impossible

" cried

as half the

whole trunk."

" It

is

Harr}^!
as large

192
"

my

only a false book,

It is

dear," said

Harry.

" False or true, that does not


less," said

opens," said Harry, " and has

it

an almost empty
quantity.

own

inside,

will

It

it

take

will

up

hold a great

scarcely any

in the trunk, only the thickness of


sides,

its

and they are of very thin wood


Do,

covered with paper.

you can get

try if

it

Lucy.

''But, as

room

make

obscura, which

my

it

in.

my

dear Lucy,

a camera

It is

uncle has just given to

me.
''

Indeed

will try

said Lucy.

!"

my

"Well,

my

dear,

very best."

But, on opening the false book, she observed that

it

was not nearly empty,

that

was some apparatus withinside of it,


which took up a gi-eat deal of room. She

there

saw

especially

afraid

a glass,

would be broken,

thing withinside.
to try.

If

it

if

she put any

urged her, however,

were packed with

such as her frocks,

we can

He

which she was

all

would be

soft things,
safe.

''

If

but carry the camera obscura with

193
^'

us," said he,

when we get

country, and to the cottage

we
it,

shall see

to

any pretty

by the sea

side,

such beautiful landscapes in

and the boats and ships

Oh

sailing.

do

Lucy, contrive to carry it."


" I will give up my shell tray," cried

Lucy, '^and then

can make room

for

it

perhaps."
" There

She

is

a dear good

and he followed her

ran,

He saw how

trunk.

away

it

he heard a

ting

"

it

fitted,

and put

out,

it

sigh as she

little

locked the closet door upon

the

to

nicely the tray

and he saw her take


quite

Harry.

girl," said

it,

after put-

out of sight.

My

dear Lucy," said he,

'^

cannot

bear that you should give up your tray;

dare say you wish to carry that and your

much

shells, as

as I wish for

my

camera

obscura."

" Never mind," said Lucy.


" But

you do

do mind, and the more because

not," said Harry.

" But

I will tell

you why you need not

care so much, Harry," said Lucy; "

VOL.

I.

can

194

make another tray of pasteboard easily,


when we get to our journey's end, and that
be time enough

will

my

for

shells at the

sea shore; but you, Harry, could not

make

a camera obscura."

^^Very true," said Harry; " thank you.

But you have

all

to unpack,

which you

had packed so neatly."


" Never mind," repeated Lucy, "
can but get

in."

it

"You need not unpack


stop my dear," said Harry.
obscura

is

if I

to the

bottom:

"The camera

only about one-third of the depth

of the trunk."

In

it

at its

went, and there was a


ends, and

beyond

its

little

space

breadth, into

which things could be crammed, and should


be crammed, as Harry observed, to keep it

The

tight.

tience,

of Lucy's pa-

greatest trial

was his standing by

was repacking, advising

all

all

the time she

the while, and

saying, as she put in each thing, " That


will not

go there," or

better," &c.

her

skill,

" This

would

fit

After she had, to the best of

repacked the trunk, there

re-

195

mained on the

floor

trowsers of Harry's.

covered

front

in

new jacket and


The jacket, too, was
a

with innumerable hard

sugar-loaved shaped buttons, which took

up a

and which

terrible quantity of room,

Harry would

could not be compressed.

have found an easy remedy, by leaving

and

jacket and trowsers

He

behind.

all

thought he could do perfectly well without

So did not

them.

his

mother; upon ap-

peal to her, she decided

What was to be

go.
'

it

that they

must

done? Harry, though

would give Lucy a great deal of trouble,

thouo^ht he

saw how

it

could be manaofed.

"

do not mind the trouble," said Lucy,

" if

can succeed

really

at last

but

downright impossible

to

think
get

it is

more

into that trunk, without breaking the hinges


in squeezing

it

down."

Harry suggested, that

unpack

the

Lucy would

if

whole trunk, and

camera obscura

at the bottom,

put

the

perhaps she

could get in more, because his jacket, with


its

hard buttons, might then

as her tray

had

lain,

lie at

the top,

under the curve of the

k2

196

by having the

top of the trunk:

box

flat

uppermost, some of that space he thought

was

lost.

Lucy was not


right

quite clear that he

but, however, she, in a

was

most oblig-

ing manner, began to unpack the trunk


again,

and said she would

All of any age,


of their

who have

own powers

try

it

his way.

a good opinion

of packing; and

who

has not? will give Lucy more credit for


this

than

own

opinion,

and repacked upon her bro-

ther's suggestion,

alacrity as if

own.

She gave up her

for all the rest.

We

it

are

with as

much

zeal

and

had been an idea of her

happy

that this

to state,

time she succeeded in putting in what was


required, camera obscura, jacket, trowsers,

and

all,

to Harry's joy

Her mother was


^'

My

dear

and admiration.

pleased.

little girl,"

said she, " I

am

glad to see, not only that you are goodnatured to your brother, of that

doubt; but

am

is

did not

glad to perceive, that

you are good-humoured


per

too.

Good tem-

necessary, even to the most good-

197
natured people.

have often seen good-

make

natured people more ready to


sacrifices

than

but the

little

wanted,

especially

ones for their friends

little

ones are most

frequently

women, almost

from

every day of their

make

great

And

lives.

if

they

these in a good humoured, oblig-

did just now,

ing manner, as you, Lucy,

they will be beloved, and, as far as they

make

can, will

happy."
" Yes,

the friends they live with

mamma,"

You came

into

said Lucy, " as

my

packing the trunk

head when

for Harry.

you

do.

was un-

recollected

your unpacking the great trunk one night


at Coventry,

you were

when

the maid was out, and

tired to death ;

and aunt Pierre-

point wanted something, which she said

was

at the

bottom of the tmnk

not there after

all.

Mamma,

and
I

it

was

recollect

when you gave up


going to Warwick Castle, which I know you
wished very much to see. Well, mamma,
on this journey, which we are going to take,
another thing: one day,

you

shall

see, that

if I

have any

trials, I

198
will

be as good

mean

in proportion,"

said Lucy.

Harry

room with
ter,

moment

at this

in his

thought

it

returned

their hygrometer,

and

to the

its

regis-

hand; he told Lucy, that he

would be

them

useless for

to

keep the register while they were travelling, as

they should change every day to

different parts of

was required.
found out that
it

them

keep

bility,

it

Lucy was glad he had


would be useless she was
:

it,

felt relieved

with their uncle,

from a great responsi-

till

further observed, that

it

would

also

it

Lucy
be im-

she feared, to go on regularly

which she was

the pleasures

ledged,

to leave

their return.

with Harry in his course of


sons, for

for

while on their journey

when Harry determined

possible,

was a

would have been impossible

sure that

and she

it

of the weather in one place that

register

to

England, and

really sorry,

of travelling,

might make

scientific les-

up

though

she acknow-

for

this

inter-

ruption.

"Yes," said Harry,

''that

is

true;

we

199

must give up our regular lessons till we


come back; but, as papa has just been
telling

me,

will

it

of good, and

me

do us both a great deal


in particular, to see

new

things."

"and thank

"Delightful!" said Lucy;


you,

and thank you, mamma,

papa,

thinking of such a pleasant

way

for

of doing

us good."

At

six o'clock in the

Lucy were

morning, Harry and

seated opposite to their father

and mother,

in

an open carriage

books, parcels, nicely packed


ry's

in,

bags,

and Har-

portable barometer snug beside him.

" Drive on."

The young

travellers stood

holding by

somethmg no doubt, according

to the ever

repeated and never-to-be- too-often-repeated


counsel.

They looked from

as they passed,

well

side to side

bidding good-bye to each

known object,

half sorry to leave home,

yet glad to go on to something new.

It

200
was a

fine

air fresh,

morning, the sun shining, the

and

tt

Herb,

and flower,

tree, fruit,

Glistering with dew."

Their

way

led through a lane, the hedges

on each side

full

of honey-suckles, with

white and pink bind- weed straggling above,

The ground under

about, and underneath.

the hedo;es

of

many

was covered with wild flowers


abundance of that most

colours;

delicate weed, if

weed

it

should be called,

which paints the banks with

known

to all the

blue,

well

world by one name or

other; to the unlearned as speedwell, to the

learned as vei^onica chamcedrys ; there was


also

abundance of that erect

plant, with its

spire of crimson bells, spotted or plain,

peasants fox-glove^ by
called, valued

by

botanists digitalis

by the old

as a cure for the

dropsy, and loved by the young, for the

loud pop

pop

pop

hands can be made by


asked Lucy
is

if

she

which
its

flowers.

knew why

called digitalis.

"No,"

said Lucy,

in

"why?"

skilful

Harry

the fox-glove

201
" Because digit ale
fino'er

"

is

the

Latin for a

of a glove," said Harry.

And

the shape of these bells

like the finger of

a glove," said Lucy

very

is
;

" but

why/b^^-glove? foxes do not wear gloves."

Their father said, that perhaps

it

have been called so from growing

might
in the

haunts of foxes.

When

they came to the end of the lane,

and the road opened to the view of freshly


mown meadows, and extensive com fields,

Lucy exclaimed,

"Look!

look! Harry, at the gossamer

glittering in the sun, all over that field, as

we can see. Do you see it weaving


up and down with every breath of wind.
Pray, mamma, look at this immense cobweb

far as

net,

spangled with dew.

all

beautiful,

uttered in a cold tone,

it

not

was ayes

which did not

Yet he looked

earnestly.

it

most beautiful, Harry?"

Harry answered, ''Yes;" but


Lucy.

Is

at

the

satisfy

gossamer

But he was always more cu-

rious about the causes of whatever he saw,

than pleased by their appearance.

While

202

Lucy had been admiring the glittering,


floating, waving net, Harry had been considering how, or by what this net was
Lucy said, that in her favourite
made.
book of

insects ^,

and

in other books,

He

had read something about gossamer.

begged she would


of

it

tell

all

she

knew

directly.

And

as fast as she could she told him,

that all these shining

by a very small
who,

him

she

threads are

insect, the

like other spiders,

made

garden spider,

can throw out from

their bodies a sort of glutinous substance,

which hardens

in the air.

Some

say, that

the spider leaves the threads behind him,


as

he darts throuo^h the

food.

air in

search of

Others say, that he has the power

of throwing

it

out before him, and that

it

catches upon the blades of grass, or on the

-rough edges of leaves and bushes, and then

being pulled tight by the animal, forms as


it

were a bridge, or road

him

to pass

in the air,

for

He

has

from place to place.

been called by

some people the

* Dialogues on Entomology,

flying

Rees' Cyclopedia.

203
spider,

threads,

and the threads are


and sometimes

floating o.ver head,

these

are

Harry asked

Lucy ever saw the spider throw out


behind him these air threads?
She had not seen

herself,

it

remembered, that one man


wrote

seen

of the dew, and

then caught on the bushes.

who

if

or leave

but she

particular,

in

about the flying spider,

clared that he

air

and sometimes they are

down by the weight

borne

called

de-

one day saw him throw

out from his body this substance, and saw

him

afterwards

upon

it.

mount and

Exact Harry was preparing


whether the flying spider
rode,

away

ride

to question

flew, or crept, or

walked or darted upon the gossamer,

moved of his own free will,


was blown, or borne away by the wind.

or whether he

or

But Lucy,

too

hastened to

tell

quick for his questions,

him something more,

that

she had read of another insect, called the


silk spider,

as fine,

who

spins silk,

some say

silk- worm.

A pair

finer,

which

is

almost

than that of the

of stockings were actu-

204

made

ally

They were

of the spider-silk.

presented, as

Lucy assured him,

the

to

French Academy of Sciences, and were

much

admired.

more

respectful,

Academy
"

became

when he heard

of the

of Sciences.

was thinking," said

use might be
it

Harry's attention

made

of

all

he,

" that great

that gossamer, if

could be spun and woven."


" That has been thought of often," said

Lucy

" people, at the time the stockings

were made, hoped that the spider would


do as well as the silk-worm

and they

made

the spiders at work in paper cases

on purpose, but

many months
their

after

set

they had been kept

spinning in their paper

work was measured,

and

cells,,

was

it

found, that nearly three hundred pf the

hardest working spiders cannot produce


as

much

silk in

the same time as one good

active silk- worm."


Still

Harry contended,

that,

since there

many spiders, the great numbers


might make up for the little they do and
as we have them always ready, how much

are so

205
better

it

would be

than

work,

cobwebs

to

away,

them properly to
brush them and their
to set

or

to

crush

them

to

death.

To

this

Lucy

who

house spider,

brushed away,

common

replied, that the


is,

ought to be,

or

not the silk spinner

is

that

common as
" Besides, many faults,"
are found with their way

the silk spinners were not as

Harry imagined.
continued she,
of working
spin

*'

they break their threads, or

them only

their silk cannot

spun,

in

short pieces,

be wound,

it

and the reeling takes

so that

can only be

off its lustre.

This want of lustre was complained of in


the famous pair of spider-silk stockings,

On

presented to the French Academy.

the contrary, the silk- worm spins her silk

without breaking

she winds

it

round and

round into cocoons, which can be easily

unwound

by a careful

length, Harry, do

person.

you think the

What

silk-

worm

can spin without breaking ?

Harry was no judge of spinning; but


since

he must guess, he would say about

206
as long as the field over

samer spread

perhaps

which the gosabout a quarter

of a mile.

He
it

did not think

on purpose

ingly beyond

worm
"

possible, but

he said

something provok-

to guess

what he supposed any

silk-

could do.

A quarter

" that

it

is

of a mile

!"

repeated Lucy,

a good large guess

but you must

know, that a silk-worm can spin without


breaking as

much

miles long

and,

this

nine

in

when unwound

as

she

if

days

And what

true.

not lazy, can do

Believe

Harry, as you please


is

is

is six

but

spider

or

it

not,

assure you

ever

did

it

as

much?"
Harry looked as
something more

in

if

he wished

to

urge

favour of the spiders,

but had nothing else to say, except that

he did not doubt that some way

still

would be invented of making them


"

Oh

forget

useful.

my dear," exclaimed Lucy, " I


my very best argument; spiders
!

can never work together, like good

worms, because they quarrel and

silk-

fight.

207

My

and eat up one another.


of

that,

says,

do not know how many,

above forty or

book

insect

were shut up

that

fifty,

together in one room, with plenty of

and pith of
they

quills,

and

end of some days, found


of

the delicacies

all

only two of them were, at the

like,

know

alive

would be impossible

it

flies

them a separate house

and you
each

to give

so there

an

is

end of the matter."

"An
Harry

end of the matter indeed!" said

"I should never have thought

having any thing to do with them,

had

told

me

at first that they eat

Well,

ther.

" thanks to

we have had

Lucy,"

if

you

one ano-

continued

you and your

of

Harry,

insect

books,

a great deal of diversion out

of that field of gossamer."

"
at

much more

feel

things,"

said

pleasure in looking

Lucy,

''

when

something about them, even


so

if it

know

I
is

ever

little."

"

And

then there

grand thing

that

we

is

the hope of tJw

are to see

by and by,"

208
" Papa,

said Harry.

we

We

are

many

are

chinery

now

my

dear," said his father.

in Lancashire,

where there

manufactories, in which the

is

shall

we

day!

this

are to

be able to show you

the grand thing, as you call

"To

ma-

worked by steam engines.

hope, that in the town in which


breakfast,

think

steam engine ?

shall see a

" Very soon,


"

when do you

it,

morning!"

Harry."

exclaimed

Lucy.
Harry, in grave delight, rose from his
seat to return his very best thanks
in

and,

an uncommonly emphatic tone, began

with
"

am

very

much

obliged to you in-

deed^ father."

But while he was pronouncing


his sober manner, a

branch of a tree under

which they were going caught


and can'ied

it

off.

this in

little

make Lucy laugh before


she was weak and hungry

his hat,

thing could

breakfast,
;

and long

when
after

the hat had been regained and replaced.

209
and

after the accident

their father

was forgotten by

and mother, who were quietly

Lucy shook with unextinguishlaughter, even till they came in sight

reading,

able

of the town where they were to breakfast.

After breakfast they walked with their

and mother through the town,

father

to

the place where they were to see a steam

A variety of objects

engine.

attention as they
streets

caught Lucy's

walked through the busy

but Harry was so

what he expected

intent

to see at the

upon

end of his

walk, that he did not look either to the


right or the left as he passed.

Much
raised,

as

his

expectations

had been

he was not disappointed when he

The ease and silence


with which the hug^e beam of the steam
engine moved up and down, struck him
came

to the reality.

with admiration, and he stood for some

time

with watching^

satisfied

motion.

Next,

its

uniform

he enjoyed the pleasure

of recognizing each part of the great ma-

chinery that he had seen in the engrav-

210
ings which he

had

and of which

studied,

he had understood the descriptions.

Lucy could not immediately comprehend what she saw she could not extend
;

from the small scale of the

her ideas

engravings to the great size of the ma-

which she now beheld.

chine,

difficulty

occurred

view take

in

know where
cylinder,
'pipes

she could

the parts

all

Another

nojt at

she did not

to look for the boiler

and

the

all

and the

innumerable small

However, with her

puzzled her.

father's assistance,

one

made

she by degrees

out the principal parts, as they were seen


in different stages of the building, for all

could not be seen at once.

Good-natured Harry delayed


his

own

curiosity

till

in every thing she

Lucy was

wished

to

to gratify

quite clear

understand

then he began to question his father.

wanted

to

know what work

engine was doing.


like

to

see

He

steam-

this

He heard some sounds,

the working of machinery,

wished

what

and he

was doing.

The

211

who

guide,

had

now

admitted them,

threw open a door, and they saw a


large

apartment,

full

very-

of whirling, whir-

ring machinery, rows of spindles


cotton, like the spindles

full

of

of a spinning-

wheel, standing upright in frames, which

reached nearly across

Each

room.

the

spindle being supplied by a long line of

untwisted cotton, from spools, or bobbins,

Between each row stood a woman, or child, watching the work, and
above.

keeping the machinery clean.


" This is one of Arkwright's cotton
said

mills,"

chinery

engine

is

kept

and

at

work

two other

cotton-frames, which
please,

*'

the guide.

All

by

ma-

steam

this

rooms

you may

above and below

this

full

see,

if

of

you

stairs."

Lucy uttered an exclamation of surHarry was silent with admiration.


prise.
Turnino; back towards the steam eng-ine,

where and how

he looked about

to find

the motion was

communicated from the

engine to the spinning machinery.

His

212

who guessed what he was

father,

showed him where the

for,

shaft

looking

was

car-

ried through the wall.

Harry had once seen a cotton manufactory,

long ago

but he had only a

confused remembrance of whirling spools,

and

and

noise,

was scarcely any

served, there

but

little

Here, as he ob-

dust.

noise.

and anxious

He was

eaQ:er to

to understand

but while he was

quick motion of

dust,

all

and

examine

he saw;

watching them, the


the

spinning spindles

Suddenly ceased, and, looking back to


the steam engine, he saw the huge

descending,

with a

soft,

beam

seemingly ex-

piring motion.

"

What

is

the matter ? " cried Harry.

" Nothing, master," answered the guide,

smiling at his alarm.


it

We

our dinner time.

is

gine,

and

all

set the engine

And

is

stop the en-

the machines leave off work-

ing for an hour,

"

" Nothing, but that

it

till

we come back and

going again."
possible,

that the

steam-

213
engine, and

these machines, can be

all

stopped so soon and so

easily?"

cried

Harry.

The man, pleased by

the great interest

which he saw that Harry

how

him

was

the whole

showed

felt,

closing the valves of the cylinder,

how

the steam was let

by

stopped,

off,

and

after the en-

gine had been stopped.

The women and

were now

children

clearing out of the large room, to go to

and

their dinners,

few minutes the

in a

apartment was emptied of human creatures,

and

all

was

rest

and

looked blank.

He was

should not

hear, or learn

see,

Harry

silence.

afraid

he

that

any thing

more; and he told Lucy, he thought

it

very unlucky that they had

come

workmen's hour of dinner.

But, on the

contrary,

stance

this

for

quiet hour

made

proved a happy circum-

their

father

permission

tained

in

the

to

asked

stay

and ob-

during

cotton mill,

use of this time to explain

to give

at the

this

and he
it,

and

them some account of the begin-

214
ning and progress of the invention, and of

improvement.

its

" Probably
originally

and

all

spinning," said he, " was

done as

some of the

in

now

is

it

southern

Europe, by holding in the


thing like a

distaff,

in the

left

East,

parts

of

hand some-

with the material to

With

the right

hand the spinner draws out the

fibres of

be spun wrapped round

whatever

this material,

the

as in

distaff,

it.

may

it

common

be,

spinning.

from
It is

twisted by a spool or spindle, hanging at


the end

of

the thread,

the spool being

previously twirled by the finger and thumb.

When

the motion ceases or diminishes, so

as not to be sufficient to twist the thread,

what

is

spun

the twirling

but tedious
it

is

is

wound upon

This

renewed.

mode

the spool, and

of spinning.

is

a simple

By degrees

was improved, and that ingenious con-

trivance, the spinning-wheel,

such as that

with which you are well acquainted, Lucy,

was brought
ning

flax.

into use in

England

for spin-

For spinning wool, you know, a

different sort of

machine

is

used."

215
" Yes," said Lacy, "

recollect the large

high wheel, with which

saw a woman

spinning wool."
'^

Now

let

us go on to the spinning of

cotton," said her father, "

and the machi-

To understand and

nery for that purpose.

follow the history of any invention, the

thing necessary

what

is

to

difficulties that are to

it

is

it is

is

wise

brought from the In-

To

prepare

it

for carding,

beaten with sticks to loosen


it

When

generally in hard lumps, some-

times stringy.
it

be conquered.

taken out of the bale, or large

is

parcel in which
dies,

have a clear idea of

required to be done, and of the

is

cotton

first

would break or

of the cards.
object of

It is

which

is

spoil

it,

other-

the teeth

then carded, the sole

to separate all the fibres

from each other cards, something


:

you have seen used

in carding

like those

common
The

wool, are employed for this purpose.


cotton

is

taken from the card in the form

of a roll or

tail,

of about a foot long.

merly, in the old

way of

For-

spinning, the next

operation was to attach the end of this

roll

216

wooden

to a

spindle, placed horizontally,

which could be turned round by a large


The spinner gave the wheel a
wheel.

and immediately carrying back her


hand, in which she held the other end of
the roll, the cotton was lengthened, suptwirl,

pose from one foot to

five

and

at the

same time it was twisted the direction in


which the hand moved had always a cer;

tain inclination to the spindle, so that the

thread might slip


at

spindle,

means
'*

every

revolution.

By

this

twisted."

it is

Yes," said Lucy,

have seen

it

*'

understand this

in spinning

" Very well, this


spinning,'^

over the end of the

off,

is

common

wool."

called long-wheel

continued her father.

occurred to a poor weaver, of the

"But
name

it

of

Hargrave, that he could improve this method.


in

As but little strength was employed

drawing out the cotton thread, or

turning the spindle which twisted


perceived, that

if

one

woman had

at

he

ten pair

of hands and ten spindles, and could

them

it,

in

move

once in the proper direction

in

217
drawing out the cotton thread, she could
spin ten times as much in the same
time."
'*

Papa," interrupted Lucy, " If the wo-

man had had

a hundred spindles, and a

hundred hands,

like Briareus, she

might

have spun a hundred times as much."


*^

Not unless she had known how

her hundred hands," said her father;

without head would do

hands

But now,

little.

without talking of Briareus,

''

to use

how do you

think one head contrived to supply

the

many hands ? Hargrave's difficulty


hold fast and draw out many threads

place of

was

to

at once,

keeping them separate, and pull-

ing them evenly, while the spindles were

To accomplish

twisting them.

pose he took two


their

slips

this pur-

of wood, and cut

edges so that they could

lie

close to-

gether."

" Like

tlie

edges of a parallel ruler,"

said Lucy.
''

Yes," said her father. "

And between

the edges of these he held fast the ends of


the

several rolls of cotton

VOL.

I.

wool,
li

which

218
were

be drawn out and twisted:

to

other ends of the

rolls,

the

of course, you know,

were fastened on the spindles, one on each

and

after they

had been drawn out and

twisted, the motion of the spindles continu-

was wound round upon

the thread

ing,

Now

them.

set in motion,

suppose the spindles to be

and that while they are turn-

ing he draws his ruler back, then you see

each

of cotton would be drawn out

roll

and twisted

at once, as if

each were spun

by a separate hand,"
"

I see,"

Lucy

said

" at least I under-

stand."
''

There are some contrivances neces-

sary in doing this, of

describe to you

all

which

I will

not

the particulars, lest

should puzzle you," added her father.


*'
Thank you, papa," said Lucy. " But

how

did the

You

tion.

man

said,

but you did not


"

He

set the spindles in

mo-

suppose they were turning,


tell

us how."

placed the spindles perpendicu-

larly,

side

think,

he

by

side,

tried at first

row

and he

set

in a
;

eight, I

them

in

219
motion by means of the large wheel, or
wheel, as they call

lo7ig

used
all

which

his wife

spinning wool, so that they should

in

move

which

it,

at once.

The wheel had a handle,

w^as turned

by

his wife, whilst the

which held the cotton rovings, was

ruler,

drawn back, and they were,

he had ex-

as

pected, pulled out and twisted at the same


time."
*'

How

Harrv,

'*

happy he must have

when he

first

saw

been,'' cried

it

he saw the eight threads drawn


the spindles spinning

How

them

When

do!

all

out,
at

and

once

should like to have been him at that


!

instant
*^

should have liked

to

have been

in

his wife's place at that instant," said Lucy.

"

How happy

she must have been, and his

children, if they

were standing by looking

So it succeeded perfectly?"
*^
Not so fast, Lucy, my dear
ceeded for so much, but far from

at

it.

it

ly," said her father. "

His

first

very rude machine, and he had


culty in bringing

it

to a state

L 2

fit

suc-

perfect-

was but

much
for

diffi-

work-

220

Then he advanced from

ing.

eight to ten,

twenty, eighty spindles, and he improved


his

machine so that

common

it

brought into

w^as

and he called

use,

it

a Spinning

Jenny."

"A

Spinning

Very right!"

Jenny!

cried Lucy, " I suppose his

was Jenny.

vs^ife's

name

hope he made a great deal

of money, poor man, to support his family."


^'

wonder how he came

first

to think

of this invention," said Harry.


" It
I

am

is

said,"

answered his

not sure that

idea of

it

it is

to

Hargrave by

a number of young people

were one day assembled

at his house, at

the hour usually allotted for dinner.

were

at play,

"but

true, that the first

was suggested

an accident

father,

They

and they by chance over-

turned the wheel at which Hargrave's wife

was spinning wool. The thread remained


in her hand, and the spindle was then perpendicular, and the wheel horizontal.

The

wheel being prevented, by the frame work,

from touching the ground,

it

continued to

turn round with the motion which had been

221
given to

it,

and kept the spindle

in motion.

Hargrave's attention was fixed upon


it

and

said that he uttered exclamations of

is

and again and again

delight,
in

it,

motion while

wheel

lay on the floor, and

it

stood looking at

set the

it

a long time, the by-

standers thinking that he did so only from


idleness."
''

Aye, but he was not

idle," said

Harry

" he was at work, inventing, at that mo-

ment

but

how

did the overturning of the

wheel help him ?"


"

Of

clear,"

that

am

that part of the story I

answered Harry's father. "

It is said,

Hargrave had made attempts

with two spindles, with the


for spinning wool,

use his

left

hand

not

to spin

common wheel

and that he had

tried to

as well as his right, in

drawing out the thread, but that he had


always found

this

attempt ineffectual, on

account of the horizontal position of the


spindles

but

when he observed them

standing perpendicularly in the overturned


wheel, he saw this difficulty obviated, and

he thought of so placing his spindles."


" So then," cried Lucy, " his invention

222
was made by accident, by the lucky

acci-

dent of the overturning that spinning wheel.

How

how many

often and

inventions are

made by accident?"
" No," said her father; " inventions are

made by

never

To

accident.

invent

is

to

combine, or put things together for a parpurpose.

ticular

which requires

This,

thought, cannot be done by mere chance

though accident may, and often does, suggest the

first

hint of an invention to

an

observing mind, or to a mind intent upon

accomplishing a particular purpose,


discovers the
as

in

means

instance

this

that

used

was the case with

How many

Hargrave.

may be

and

people have seen

spinning wheels overturned, without ever


inventing a

spinning jenny.

me go on

let

to

tell

But now

you the next im-

provement that was made

in cotton spin-

ning."
''

do

What

it all
'^

did not the spinning jennies

perfectly

"

said Lucy.

No, no, Lucy," said her father

must not be

come

in

" you

we cannot
The spinning

such a hurry,

to perfection so soon.

223
jennies did only part of what

The

cotton-thread spun

found

to

by

was wanted.

the jenny was

be rough, spongy, and weak.

It

could be used only for the woof in weaving cotton, the warp could not be

The warp was then made

it

threads,

made

of

of linen-

which were strong and smooth.''

''From what did

this defect in the cotton

spun by the spinning jenny arise?"


"

From

the fibres of the cotton not be-

ing laid smooth and parallel to each other,

while

it

was drawn out and

twisting.

In

spinning by hand, Lucy, you recollect seeing the spinner not only draw the thread
out, but press

between

and move

her

smoothed the

finger
fibres

it

at the

same

and thumb.

This

of the cotton,

and

kept them parallel with each other.


this

was wanting

The motion of
the thread

or

clasps,

in the

the

hand

in

which, holding
the

Now

spinning jenny.
drawing^ out

was well imitated by the

drawn back, answered

time,

it

fast

rulers

when

same purpose

but the motion of the spinner's finger and

224
thumb, and the
to

effect

produced by

was

it,

be supplied."

''How did Hargrave do

that?"

said

Harry.
"

He

did not do

father; "

it,"

answered Harry s

was accomplished by another


person, Mr. Arkwright, who, like Harit

was

grave,

man, but

and

originally a poor

who had

illiterate

the habit of observation

and the power of invention."


" Well!

how

did Arkwright do

it,"

said

Harry, eagerly.

By

passing the cotton between rollers,*^


" By passing it successaid his father.
''

sively

between three pair of

near each other


pair

is

The

first

pressed

cotton

is

rollers,

placed

the upper roller of each

down with

different weights.

pair of rollers, through

which the

pressed and passed, turns slowly


third

more

quickly, each with a steady motion.

Now

the second

faster,

and the

suppose, Harry, that the last pair of rollers

moved

eight times as fast as the

then, eight times

first

pair,

more length of cotton

225
would pass between that pair of rollers,
than what had passed between the first
pair,

consequently the same quantity would

be drawn out

to eight

times the length and

eight times the fineness."


"

der

Very ingenious," said Harry.

how Arkwright came

*'

won-

to think of pass-

ing the cotton between rollers."


" It

is said,

Harry," replied his father,

" that Arkwright had had frequent opportunities of seeing, in iron works, iron bars

drawn
lers,

out,

by being passed between

and he afterwards applied

rol-

this idea to

the drawing out of cotton."

"
said

am

surprised he ever thought of

Harry

it,"

" because the fine fibres of

cotton wool, and iron bars, are so diflferent."


" Still there is some likeness," said

Lucy, " in the motion of drawing out the


thread thinner and thinner, and smoother

and smoother.
is

So you

good sometimes

"What
father,

"

may

have

Harry, there

in observing likenesses."

said," continued

give you

effect of the action

see,

their

some idea of

of the rollers

l5

the

should

226
further

tell

you, that in the undermost of

each pair of rollers were cut

fine little

grooves, or furrows, along the whole of


surface, to

roughen

its

so as to prevent the

it

The upper rollers


were covered with leather. The passing
cotton from slipping.

the cotton i^ovings between these rollers,

pressed together as

have described

moving

you, with different weights, and

with

different

effect

upon the cotton

velocities,

same

had the

as that

to

which

is

pro-

duced by the pressure and motion of the


spinner's finger and thumb, smoothing

down

the loose fibres, laying and keeping

them

parallel with

each other, and at the

same time drawing them out so

as to

make

a finer thread."
" So at last," said Lucy, " Arkwright did

by the use of
at first

rollers

what a woman did


finger

and

but consider

how

by the motion of her

thumb."
" Yes," said

Harry

much more was done

*^
;

in the

one day perhaps, by the

man could do

in her

same

rollers,

whole

life

time, in

than a wospinning.

227

And how difficult, and how very


it

ingenious

was, to imitate by machinery that mo-

tion of the finger

And

and thumb.

this

was Mr. Arkwright's great invention?"


"

It

"

But what became

was," said his father.

said

jennies/'

Harry;

of

" were

when Arkwright made

aside

spinning

the

they laid

im-

these

provements, and erected these mills?"


"

The spinning

jennies are very

much

laid aside, I believe,' said his father,

consequence of the defects which


tioned.

But

they spin

is

jennies are
*'

Since

" in

men-

some purposes the cotton


preferable, and for these the
for

still

used."'

Arkwright's time,

have

great improvements been made,

any

father,"

said Harry.

"No

improvement has been made

the principle of his

many

mode

in the simplicity

of the machinery.

in

of spinning, but

and the perfecting

The use of steam and

steam engines, instead of water and waterwheels, for keeping these mills in motion,
is

in

many

places

of great importance.

228

Of the

various improvements in the detail

of the machinery,
to you,

I will

only mention one

an invention made by a Mr. Samuel

Crompton."
"That's right," said Harry.

papa always remembers and

*^

am

tells

the

glad

name

of the inventors."
"

Mr. Crompton observed and joined

together

much

that

was

essentially useful

in Hargrave's spinning jenny,

and

"wright's rollers, or twistframe;

and he made

a third machine, which combined


the

is

machine

and

preferred for spinning fine cotton,

inferior in spinning coarse.

is

Ark-

many of

advantages of the former two,

which
but

in

is

This

called the mule.''

'4 should like to see the mule," said


Harry.

"But you cannot

see

and understand

every thing at once," said his father.


"

hear the workmen coming from din-

ner," said Lucy.

"

Now we

shall see this cotton-mill of

Arkwright's at work," said Harry.

The guide coming

in at this

moment,

229
words Harry said, and
the name of Arkwright, began to speak of

and hearing the

the

last

immense fortune which

made by

his inventions

" Sir

"

Richard!

Sir

Richard had

and improvements.
HaiTy,

interrupted

"how

did he grow into Sir Richard?"

"

conferred upon

The king

him the ho-

nour of knighthood," answered the work-

man, and he went on speaking of the

fine

houses and estates Sir Richard Arkwright

and

his descendants

have purchased.

" Did you ever hear,

sir,"

said he, " of

the birth-day present which Sir Richard's

son

made

to

found on his

each of his six sons.


table,

Each

on the morning of

his

birth-day, twenty thousand pounds."

"

Twenty thousand pounds Six times


" that is one hundred
twenty," said Lucy
!

and twenty thousand pounds!

sum
"

What

And

all

the consequence of one man's

invention," said Harry.

"

And

industry and perseverance," said

his father.

"Arkwright had great

diffi-

culties to struggle with, not only in per-

230
fecting his contrivance, but in reducing
to practice,

and

it

in establishing his right to

the invention."

The workmen were by this time pouring


into the room, men, women, and children,
and the machinery was
a minute or two, and

a-going again in

set

all

Even

were busy.

Lucy, as well as Harry, had some idea of

They knew

what was doing.

the use of

the spindles and of the cylinders.

With-

out being perplexed by the smaller parts

of the

machinery, they had a complete

view of each

wool undergoes,
pod,

till it

is

process
after

that

it is

the

cotton-

taken out of

manufactured into the

its

finest

cotton.

As they were
the guide

leaving one of the rooms,

showed them a heap of hanks

skeins of cotton yarn,

all

or

which, as he told

them, had been spun by the mule from a


single

pound of

"There
fifty

are

fine cotton.

here

hanks," said

three

he,

hundred and

" and

each hank

would measure eight hundred and


yards; and the whole,

if

stretched

forty
out,

231

would make a thread one hundred and


sixty-seven miles in length."
^'

One hundred and

sixty seven miles!"

repeated Lucy, " what would your flying


spiders say to this,
"

Or your

Harry

^'
;

Harry?"

silk-worms, Lucy

think your

good

"

said

active best of

silk-worms, never spun more than a silk


the length of six miles."

^'At any

women

rate," said

Lucy, **men and

beat spiders and silk-worms both

in spinning."

Her

observed, that the proper

father

object of com.parison between rival

ners

is,

not the length of the thread, but

"And

the fineness.
he,

'^

that either

thread,

wool

spin-

is

as

fine

and the

apprehend," said

a silk-worm or spiders'
as

finest

be composed of

one

fibre of cotton

thread of cotton must

many

fibres."

So

that,

notwithstanding Lucy's exultation in the


superiority of

over

men and women

worms and

spiders,

spinners

Harry was com

pelled to give judgment in favour of the

animals.

232
But

'*

instinct,

their superiority

and ours

is

owing only

to ingenuity

and reason,

you know, Harry," said Lucy.


merit of theirs, that they have
rials

to

"

It is

their

no

mate-

we

prepared for them better than

have."

Here the debate about the spiders and


silk-worms was interrupted by the

who was

trance of a gentleman,

en-

the prin-

cipal proprietor of the cotton manufactory,

and the conversation turned upon the prodigious sale of cotton goods and muslins
in different parts of the world, especially
in

England.

'^You are aware,

madam,"

said

he,

turning to Lucy's mother, " that muslins

were formerly
it

made

in India;

and

that

only thirty or forty years since

is

first

all

we

attempted to make them in England,

and not

till

within these few years that

have brought them

we

to their present perfec-

tion."

Lucy's mother was well aware of this

when she was a


some of the first muslin made

she said she remembered,


child, seeing

233
in

was coarse and


and wore ill and

England, and that

rough, and looked

it

ill,

no one then thought English could

that

But now

ever equal Indian muslins.


difficult for

it is

the nicest eye to detect the dif-

ference in the appearance and in the wear-

ing

they are as good,

if

not better.

Harry's father turned to him, and whispered,

'^

If

you put me

in

mind,

I will tell

you some other time by what ingenious and


bold contrivance that roughness
first

in

the

English muslin, of which your mother

complained, was afterwards prevented."

The gentleman continued speaking, and


when Harry heard his voice again he was
telling of the immense quantity and value
of the muslins now made in England and
Scotland.

" All this

we owe,"

said he, " to our

using ingenious machinery, in these countries,

instead of doing

all

of men's hands, as in India.

by the labour
Perhaps you

are not yet aware, sir," said he, turning


to Harry's

the

cotton

father,

*'

of the magnitude of

manufacture.

Ita

machinery

234
earns for England one thousand pounds

working hour.

every

Forty thousand

pounds weight of cotton wool

is

spun, and

minutes the length of the thread

in three

spun would more than circumscribe the

whole earth."

As

was

this

they were passing

said,

through an apartment, where Lucy saw a

machine

for

of cotton

she wished

Oh

*'

winding the pretty

papa,

But her

may

balls

to stay to look at

" No,

my

dear,

you have seen and heard enough

quite

enough

if

you were

you would confuse what


clear in

your heads.

it.

not look at this?"

answered,

father

little

to see

hope

Come

is

more

now

away."

In the evening Lucy acknowledged that


she was rather tired, and was glad to

and

to stay with her mother,

wish to go out again.

who

rest,

did not

But Harry, boast-

ing that he was as fresh as ever, was proud


to

be allowed

was going

to

to

accompany his

walk out

to

father,

who

see the town.

235
After

through

passing

several

streets,

they came to a broad public walk, on a

high terrace,

whence,

shaded with

from

trees,

looking back, they had a fine

view of the town by the red light of the


setting sun,

several

which beautifully illuminated

windows, especially those of a

Gothic church.

through the

As Harry was

streets,

returning

he regretted that Lucy

had not been with them, and he asked


father whether they
this

town early

were to go

avv^ay

morning, or

in the

would stay another day

from
if

his father,

his

he

who,

perhaps, was thinking of something else,

answered, in an absent manner,

know,

my

^'

do not

dear; that will depend upon

circumstances."

Harry was considering, as he trudged


on,

what could be meant by "

depend upon circumstances,"


turning the corner of the

were stopped, and

lasted

when,

street, his

gas

in

lights.

silence

on

thoughts

his eyes struck,

sudden blaze of lights


admiration

that will

the

with a
Harry's

whole

236

when

length of the street;


another,

"

It is

still

more

bright, he exclaimed,

almost as light as day

what kind of lights are


are they

turning into

made

Father,

and of what

these,

His father told him,

they were

that

and that they were made

called gas lights,

of gas obtained from coal.


Harry asked, " How is gas different

from other flame of candle or

His father told him, that


set

on

fire.

or lamp,

common

what you

gas, which,

flame

" In a

when

see,

set

when exposed

Harry asked,

**

on

fire ?"

all

fire,

and
fire,

flame

is

gas

in a candle,

call flame,

is

continues to

to the air."

How

is

gas got out of

coal?"

His father told him,

"

By

the coal

being strongly heated in iron vesels called


retorts,

which have but one opening

for the

gas to escape from into the reservoir where


it is

preserved."

Harry next inquired how the gas gets


from the reservoir to the small pipes, so

237
light

as to

the houses in the street,

all

where he saw gas flaming at the windows.


" Suppose a tumbler to be inverted in a

bason of water," said his father,

know, that as there

is

air withinside

tumbler, that air will prevent

it

" you

of the

from sink-

ing in the water."


" Certainly," said Harry.
"

But you may put weight upon the

tumbler,

till

you compress the

and then the water

inside,

air

will first rise to

supply the place of the compressed

what
"

will

in the

And

air.

happen afterwards, Harry

?"

think nothing would happen, father,

but that the water in the bason would continue pressing


it

up the

air

till

it

had forced

into the smallest space possible."

" Very true,

which
press

it is

it;

to the smallest space

to

possible for the water to com-

but the

air

being compressed,

elasticity continually increases,

till

it

its

not

only resists the pressure of the water, but


drives out the water from the tumbler, and
raises

it

in the

surrounding bason.

Now

238
one end of a small pipe were

suppose

introduced under the edge of the tumbler,

what would happen?"


" The compressed air would be forced
into the pipe to

"And

if

be sure," said Harry.


pipe were

the

open

at

the

other end ?" said his father.

"

The

air

would go out

at

the other

end," said Harry.

"

And what would happen

to

the

tumbler?" said his father.


" The tumbler would continue descending

the air

till all

was driven through the

pipe," answered Harry.

"

It

would

so.

mon

air,

gas,

exactly the

place.

Now,

instead of com-

suppose your tumbler

This

this is the

is

with

same thing would take

called a gas holder, and

manner

tinually forced

filled

in

which the gas

is

con-

from the reservoir through

the pipes."

"
I

understand

said Harry

'*
;

and

some time or other show


experiment to Lucy. It would be

hope you

this

it,"

will

239
very

done

easily

with

glass

and

bason."
"-

You may show

to

it

her yourself,"

said his father.

" Does the gas light immediately of

when it comes into the air?"


No when a person wants to light

itself,

"

he holds a candle

you see

in the

" Suppose

to

open

it

flames as

air."

was

it

and

it,

it

to

rain,

or suppose

wind blew strong," said Harry, " what


would become of these lights? Look at
the

these

without any

flaring,

glass

round

them, in the open window, in this butcher's

shop?

Would

not they be extin-

guished ?
" Not by slight rain or wind," said his
"

father.

lights

is,

One

great

that they are

advantage of gas
not easily extin-

guished by rain or wind."


Harry's admiration increasing, the more

he heard of

their

advantages, and con-

sidered their convenience,


brightness, he

and beautiful

wondered why people had

not thought of using them sooner.

And

240
he asked
to exist

if this

till

now.

His father told him, that


long known as what
of

fire

known

gas had never been

we

it

had been

see in the flame

and candles; but that

till

no one had thought of obtaining


in the

use,

"

it.

manner

could

tell

in

it

in

common
which he now saw

and bringing

quantities,

lately

it

into

you, Harry, two curious

anecdotes, which I heard from a friend."

"

Can you, father?"


to

"

Then

Will you be so good as to

pray do.

them

said Harry.

tell

me now ?

" If you will mind where you are going,

and not run into the

gutter,"

said

his

father.

" About forty years ago, a certain Lord

Dundonald had a patent


is

called coak from coal.

burnt coal,
in

for

forges

burned the

were

making what

Coak

is

half-

such as you have seen used


to obtain
coal,

the

coak he

half-

and the tar and gas which

in the coal were,

by

this process,

se-

The coak being his only object, the


gas was conducted under water many hun^
parated.

241
dred yards, in large tunnels, in order

to

and the gas escaped out


of a high chimney. How it became lighted
my friend said he did not know but once
condense the

tar,

lighted,

continued to burn,

it

and the

flame illuminated the country for twenty


miles round."

"

"

wish

How

looked

had seen

grand and beautiful

wonof making use

of the gas, and of obtaining


"

Harry.

must have

it

But when people saw

der no one thought directly

way

said

it,''

it

this, I

in the

same

for lamps."
It

the

is

father, "

more

because

it

surprising," said

was, in

fact,

his

a gas ap-

paratus, like that at present used, only the

gas was suffered to escape and waste

it-

self."

" But, father," said Harry,


the other anecdote

"

Long

time, there

do not

I.

what was

this

Lord Dundonald

was a chemist, whose name

recollect,

and stored
VOL.

before

"

it

who made

in bladders,

s
I

gas from coal,

and frequently

242

amused

his friends

by pricking a hole

in

the bladder, and then applying a light to

This was 'portable gas, such as people

it.

now beginning

are

to use, only in

differ-

ent case."

" Well, this


said

Harry

der was

in

more extraordinary

such a convenient form for


;

it is

wonderful that neither

any of his friends who saw

thought of making use of

wish

it,

ever

for lamps.

it

had been by when he showed the

bladder,

and pricked

the gas.
I

still/'

" because that gas in the blad-

carrying about
he, nor

is

Father,

it,

even

and

set

to

fire

such a boy as

might have thought of

might not

it,

I?"

You might, Harry," said his father;


but how few men, to say nothing of boys,
^'

"

observe what they see any day, or every


day, or think of what use can be
"

But so

vious a use

striking a thing
!"

said Harry.

"

so easy and natural now, that

" True,

Harry.

made of it 1"
and

so ob-

What seems
it is

done

The thing was

there

243
before their eyes, but useless, because they

did not think of making use of it."


" And for forty years and more

!"

said

Harry.

long silence,

After

Harry stumbled

during which

sundry times,

claimed,

" Father

am

thinking

he

ex-

" Not of where you are going," said


his father.

" But

am thinking, father, that there


are a gi-eat many other little things, which
people have not yet observed, that may
I

lead to great things,

if

people think

of

putting them to use."

" Undoubtedly," said his father: " in


this
*'

you

are very right."

And,

father,

try to observe

think,

that if I

and consider what use

could put things


or invent

do you

to,

I shall

ever discover

any thing new?"

Harry was here interrupted by stumbling over a walking stick, with which
a

man whom

they met was feeling his

way, and which Harry had not observed.


i^i

244
"

wish that

man would

his stick so," said

me

Harry

it

nearly threw

down."

The man begged


was

pardon

his

and was forced

blind,

way with

his stick.

pardon

his

"

not poke out

for

to

said

he

grope his

Harry now begged

running against his

and guided him across

stick,

to the next street,

and the old man wished him a good night,

and

said,

^'

May

you never be blind

whenever you are


help as

And

am.

may you meet

with

have from you."

As soon

as the blind

Harry began
ing

old,

as I

man had left

when he

to recollect
first

them,

what he was say-

met him, and he would

have resumed the conversation, but his


ther told him, that he could not talk to

fa-

him

any more now, and that he must walk fast,


Harry trudged on
for it was getting late.
as quickly as he could.

he must be

tired,

His father thought

and so he was, but he

scorned to complain.
It

was

late

when they reached

Tea had been waiting some

the inn.

time,

and

245
Lucy,

struggling

after

awake, had

fairly

keep herself

given up the point, and

fallen asleep, her

had

to

head resting on her

which were crossed on the

arms,

table.

She was so fast asleep that she could


hardly be wakened sufficiently when Harry

came

in, to

sant walk.

ask whether he had had a pleaAfter swallowing a cup of tea,

with her eyes half shut, she submissively

obeyed the signal of the chambermaid with

bed-chamber candles, and


rest

retired

to that

which she much wanted.

Harry would stay up

to listen to a con-

versation between his father and a postillion,

from which he hoped to discover

what w^ould be done

in the mornino-

and

what was meant by "that will depend


ugon circumstances." But before he had

made

this out

he

fell fast

asleep across the

great black trunk, where he lay unobserved,


till

let

the waiter tumbled over his legs, and


fall

a spoon upon his head.

started up.

that he

He had

Harry

dreamt, as he said,

had been struck by the beam of

steam engine.

His mother exhorted him

246
to

go and dream in bed.

She took up a

candle to light him on his

way

but he

turned, and stood looking at the postillion,

him

astonished to see

and

his father

" Mother

still

still

standing there,

talking to him.

what an immense time this


has been standing talking," said

man

Harry.
*'

Not above

five

my

minutes,

dear/'

replied his mother.

" Five minutes only " cried Harry. "


!

have been

in that

time

many, and back again,

the

all

way

to

Ger-

magni-

at a palace

up with flaming crocuses


asked whose house it was.
Do

ficently lighted

of gas.

not you

know

!'

said the man.

'

It is

friend the great Otto Guerick's.' I

was not

surprised that he was living

still.

would go and see him.


of the palace was like a

But the

your

only said
inside

cotton-mill,

and

was a great steam engine going on


working away. Through all the work-

there

men, and women, and children,


asking for Otto Guerick,

till

went on,

at last

one

me

the

guide-man said he would show

S47
where he was

\^ay to Otto's laboratory,

trying experiments always^ in his silk night-

But

gown.

was
I

man

said the laboratory

at the top of the house,

and asked

could follow him up high ladders.

yes
I

the

I said,

as high as ever

went scrambling on

foot

had

after

Oh,

he pleased.

So

him, and

my

slipped, I should have

down, down,

if

if

gone down,

do not know where

but

reached the top, and a door opened, and


I

heard the

silk

night-gown, and

when
beam

of Otto Guerick's

rustling

that spoon,

was

which

thought was the

of a steam engine,

head.

Oh, mother

fallen.

It

just going in

upon

fell

wish

it

my

had not

at that

was so provoking to be wakened


moment, just when I was going in

to see

Otto Guerick.

dream

it

"

sleep

could

best sleep again, Harry,

said his mother,


in

wish that

over again."

You had

dear,"

your bed.

my

" and this time

Come,"

said

she,

showing him the way through the passage


to his bed-room, where she put into his
hands his night-cap, which Lucy, even in

248
the depth of her

membered
Harry

sleepiness,

had

re-

ready for him.

to leave

slept nine hours without inter-

but he saw

mission,

Guerick,

or

no more of Otto

gas

his

He was

sion.

own

still

illuminated

fast

mother called him.

man-

when

asleep

his

During breakfast

his

and mother talked about the various

father

noises they

had heard

in this inn all night,

and by which they had been so much

dis-

turbed that they could not sleep.

His

mother
set out

said, that a

every half hour, that she had heard

and

bells

coach had arrived or

calls,

and chamber-

hostlers

maids, and waiters running to and fro in


the passages continually,

and people

call-

ing perpetually for their trunks, and port-

manteaus, and parcels, and

bills.

father said, that the partition

Harry's

between their

room and the next was

so thin, that they

could hear every sound

man

in that

room,

and there was a

who seemed

to

be pull-

ing off his boots, and throwing them down,

and throwing wooden legs


night.

after

them

all

249
Harry and Lucy looked at each other
when their father and mother talked of
all

these noises; they were surprised, for

they had slept so soundly, that they had

not heard them.

During breakfast Harry


it

told Lucy, that

depended upon circumstances whether

they were to go on with their journey

Lucy

day, or to stay in this town.

she was not at


not

know what

all

a letter

circumstances he meant.

ther his

day or

which

by the

receive

friend

said

the wiser, as she did

Their mother told them, that

upon

to-

expected to

his father

post,

to

would

depended

it

him whehome this

tell

retiirn

Harry's only reason for wish-

not.

ing to stay was, that Lucy might see the


pretty walk he
evenincT,

but as

had taken the preceding


it

was now

raining:,

thev

could not walk, and he was glad that they

were not

to

spend the day

where thev had nothinof


"

What

shall

we

on

to somethingr

the

inn,

to do.

see next?"' said Lucy,

as she got into the carriage.


ino^

at

'

new."

I like sfoo

250

'*

If you had your choice, Harry,

would you wish


"

to see next?" said

Lucy.

who was

mountain," said Harry,

faithful to his old

what

wish for a mountain to mea-

While
he had been taken up with the cotton manufactory, and the steam-engine, and the gas
lights, this wish had slept in his mind
but
sure with his portable barometer.

it

was now awakened with fresh eagerness.

As they journeyed on he eyed the outline


But he obof every hill on the horizon.
served a discreet silence upon the subject.

Even when Lucy exclaimed,


mountain coming
plied soberly
is

" So

I see,

not near enough yet


think

At
and

it is

last,

my

I will

"

when they came

re-

dear, but

it

speak when

into Derbyshire,

into the hilly parts of that

Father

he

time."

Harry spoke,
'^

Harry

for you,

Here's a

^'

for

he thought

it

was

county,
time.

here are plenty of mountains

will

you be so good

and

to let

this

one which

me

as to stop the carriage,

get out, that I


is

may measure

almost close to us.

I will

251
not detain you above twenty minutes, mo-

you could be so good as to wait


ten minutes I would run up, in ten mi-

ther, if

in

nutes

would be down again

May

I,

father?"

" No, Harry," said his father, "

not stop for you now.

us

much

eye

you,

Your

judging of

in

and of heights

can-

would detain

longer than you imagine.

deceives

tances,

It

we

which

to

it is

dis-

unac-

customed."
" For your comfort, Harry,"

mother,

"

we

are going

place where you

rounded by

you may
ter's

try

fine

to

added

Matlock,

his

find yourself sur-

will

mountains, upon which

your own and your barome-

measuring powers

shall stay there

" Delightful

at leisure, for

two or three days."


!"

you mother," said


Presently they

thought Harry,

"Thank

he.

entered

narrow but

beautiful valley, a stream ran through

and there were

we

hills

banks were covered

on each
to

side.

it,

Their

a great height with

trees of the softest foliage,

and of various

252
shades of green, tinged here and there with
the

brown and yellow colours of autumn.

Above, high above the young feathery


plantations,

rose

bare,

and the scrubby brushwood,


whitish

Sometimes

rocks.

stretching in perpendicular smooth masses

sometimes broken
mits,

in abrupt

huge fragments from which had

len into the river below.

tranquil and placid

these

craggy sum-

till

fal-

The river flowed


when opposed by

massy fragments,

foamed

it

and

frothed against their immoveable sides


then, separating, the waters whirled round

them

in

different

and joining

currents,

again, the stream ran on

its

course, spark-

The road now

ling in the sun-shine.

ly^

ing beside this river, brought them soon to


the pretty straggling village of Matlock.

The morning
went out
the hotel,

to

after their

At a

walk

arrival,

litde distance

they

from

where they lodged, was a walk

up Masson-hill.

It

through a wood of

was a zigzag path, cut


fir

trees,

reaching to

the summit, called the Heights of Abraham.

They went

part of the

way up

this path,

253
and Harry was eager

go

to

to the very top,

but his mother was not able, she said, to

go quite
and

Heights of Abraham

to the

and Lucy, went

his father,

to see a

but his father told Harry

cave in

this hill

that he

might go on by himself,

it,

she,

if

he liked

top of Masson-hill, and take

to the

its

height with his barometer, and compare


this with the

to

reputed height, which

be about 750

is

said

feet.

Harry, to Lucy's surprise, stood hesitating, with his

barometer in his hand,

in-

stead of going on with the alacrity she expected.


''

What

is

come with
" No;"

the matter

would you rather

us to see the cave


said

Harry,

''

that

"

said Lucy.
is

not the

thing."

"What
want me
but you

then?"

to

Lucy, ''Do you

said

go with you

know mamma

should like

said, that I

it

must not

go running about everywhere with you


here, as

mamma.
yourself,"

do

at

home

But you look

must stav with


afraid to go

added Lucy, laughing.

by

254
" Afraid

my

dear, I

am

go by myself anywhere

afraid to

world," said Harry, proudly

going
I

to

not the least

do any thing wrong

"

in the

am

not

what should

be afraid of?"
"

do not know," said Lucy, " that is


what I want you to tell me. I am sure
I

there

is

why do

something you do not

like, or else

not you set off?"

" There

something

is

said Harry,

do not

that I acknowledge.

*'

like,"
I

do

meet those people who are

not like to

up on the walk."
What harm will they do you, Harry?"

there, farther
''

said his father.

"

No harm,

father

only

do not like

to

meet them, because they are strangers."


"

But since,

as

are not going to

you observed, Harry, you


do any thing wrong, you

need not be ashamed


afi^aid, to

" That
^^I

meet them
is

know

conquer

it

"

will

not say

said his mother.

very true, mother," said Harry,

it
;

is

very foolish;

I will

he, resolutely.

well, I will

go on by myself," added

255
"

Go

on and prosper then," said

his fa-

" I dare say that those people will

ther.

never think about you, unless you do something to attract their attention."

Harry walked
nor stopped

he could

off as fast as

he reached the Heights of

till

Then he took out his baroand noted down the height at which

Abraham.
meter,

the mercury stood, both in the barometer

Then he went down

and thermometer.
the

and, as soon as he had reached

hill,

the

bottom, he

looked

at the

mercury

each,

noting

down

carefully

again,

in

these

heights

nook,

away from

down

work

to

solved not to

them.

On

Finding

also.

retired

the public path, he sat


at

stir

his

his
till

calculations, re-

he had completed

barometer there was en-

graved a table of the heights,

at

which

the mercury stands at different elevations,


calculated

when

freezing point.

the atmosphere

Besides

care to bring with

* "

An

this,

is

at the

he had taken

him a certain

little

book*

expeditious method of determining

alti-

256

An

"

containing

expeditious method of

calculating altitudes;"

had, in his

first

the want of which

attempt to measure the

church, prevented his succeeding to his sa-

Now

understanding and

fol-

lowing the directions contained in

this

tisfaction.

companion

trusty

little

ble barometer,

to his dear porta-

he made his calculations

sufficiently accurate to satisfy his consci-

He

ence.

brought his answer within two

feet of the height,

told

which

his father

had

him had been determined by previous

measurement.

He
It

next went to look for the cave.

was a

farther

large, deep, dark cavern, at the

end of which he perceived light

and as he advanced he saw the forms of

men

of the

guides,

who

held

torches,

and he heard Lucy's voice, and the voices


of his father and mother, and soon distintudes with the

new

portable mountain barometer

with a description of that instrument, by Sir Harry


Englefield, Bart."

A little

tract,

which

is,

every portable barometer.

or ought to be, sold with

257
guished

looking up

They

figures.

their

the

at

were

all

on which

roof,

the

guides, with raised torches, threw a strong

From

light.

crusted

all

the roof,

over with yellow earth, hung

multitudes of what

"

seemed

earthy

like

of the same colour, and of enor-

icicles,

mous

which appeared en-

bulk.

My dear Harry

Lucy,

^'

am

you there ? " cried

glad you are come

you would not come

so afraid

see these

are

Are not they

know what they

are

in time to

beautiful

They

was

Do you

are stalac-

tites."

"And how came

they there?"

Harry, " and what are they

they are

stalactites,

You

but that

tells

said

tell

me

me

no-

thing but their name."


" It

is

a good thing in the

said Lucy, " to

then

we can

know

first

place,"

the name, because

ask people questions,

then they will know what

him

we

and

are talking

about."

She

learned,

from what she had heard the

told

all

guides and her father say

she had just

that these

25S
were

stalactites

by the

formed

water

oozing through the roof of the cavern,

and depositing,

as

it

trickled

calcareous earth, which

soil

down which

along and

had dissolved

it

through the

in its course

She believed

downj some

it

and

had passed.

that these rocks

were

She had

careous, or limestone.

rocks,

cal*

further

heard one of the guides say, that some


stalactites

found in

country became

this

almost as hard as stones, were of various

and had been polished and made


necklaces, and different ornaments.

colours,
into

The

QTiides

had broken

off

from the sides

of the cave some of the stalactites, and

had given pieces of them

to

Lucy

some

of these, which had been newly formed,

were

softish,

and crumbled

easily

when

pressed between the fingers; some were


a

little

harder and

than mouldering

crisp,

cracking rather

when pressed

others

were as hard, Harry observed, as some


petrifactions

which he had seen

uncle's collection.

in

his

His father told him,

that those petrifactions

had been formed

259
same manner in which these staand the guides
lactites were formed
said that they would show him plenty of
in the

petrifactions

and

and beautiful

crystals,

spars of different colours, for


shire

which Derby-

famous.

is

While

all

this

was saying, Lucy's mo-

who did not like standing still long


this
damp cavern, had by gentle

ther,

in

Lucy on by
the hand, and urging Harry forward by
degrees, alternately drawing

the shoulder, kept

moving onwards,

till

they found themselves again at the entrance or the exit of the cave

they were

glad to see the day-light, to feel the fresh

warm

and

air,

to

tread

again

on dry

ground.

and

Several boys
their

way

to

the

girls

hotel,

met them
with

baskets

of crystals, spars, and petrifactions.

one basket Lucy saw

The guides
Matlock
wigs and

told her,

amuse

petrified

that the

themselves

in

In

wig.

people of

by putting

different things in these calca-

reous springs, to have them, as they say.

260
converted
turn

to

into,

Such they seem

stone.

into

no appearance of the

as

original substance

is

except the form.

left

But, as Harry observed,

it

is

not that the

substance turns into stone, but that the


calcareous deposition covers

and the

spars of various colours

and some of amber, of


rainbow
of

hearts,

urns,

over,

is left

but calca-

In another basket Lucy saw

reous stone.

Some

all

original substance in time decay-

ing, nothing afterwards

in

it

stripes,

these

some of purple

different shades,

or cloud-like streaks.

spars

and necklaces,

were

made

into

and boxes, and

and eggs, and various

trinkets.

Lucy's mother told her that she might

choose any one of these things she liked.

Lucy chose a polished ^^^^ of shaded


it seemed transparent, and
purple spar
looked as if you could see into it to a
great depth, but when Lucy tried to open
;

it,

she found that


*'

It

Of what
had a

it

did not open.

use then can

little

it

be ?"

gold ring at the top of

and was intended

to

it,

be used as a netting

261

Lucy had been long making a


she was sure that
purse for her father
weight.

the pleasure of using this pretty weight

would encourage her

to

go on netting

it,

soon as ever they should come to the

as

But how was the


Her father said he

end of their journey.

egg

to

be carried

could not have

it

rolling about the car-

riage; and the pockets were already

Lucy would have been

occupied.

duced

to take

flat

fijlly

re-

heart, instead of her

Harry

good at need"
had not stepped forward, and opening,
wide as he could stretch, the mouth of

beautiful egg, if

'*

his waistcoat pocket, bid her put her

egg

where there

and

^^

there,

in

is

plenty of room," added he,


his

"

shrinking in

show the ample space.


dear Harry, you are very good,"

stomach

My

plenty

to

said Lucy.

"

Not

the

least,"

should be very bad,

said

if I

Harry;

''

did not recollect

how good you were about my camera


obscura,

which

you crammed

into

the

262

Come, drop your egg in here


once, and say no more about it."
She dropped it into the pocket.

trunk.

''

But,

my

dear Harry,

had a great swelling


"

it

looks as

you

if

people will stare."

do not care," said Harry

at

" let

them

stare."

This was indeed, as Lucy knew, a great


proof of Harry's affection

he disliked excessively

and avoided every thing

to

for in general

be stared

at,

that could bring

upon him such a misfortune.


" Besides," added he, patting down the
egg

in his pocket, "

my

ball,

here,

and

now more than


carried

often

noticed

now
it

is

except

it,

have got

does not stick out

it

it

my

which

have

nobody

ever

mother.

into the corner,

not a greater lump than

handkerchief,

on the other
" But

if

which

sticks

Indeed,

you see

my

out as

pocket

much

side, so all's right."

you were

to

tumble down, the

hard egg might hurt you, Harry."


"

might hurt

it,"

said Harry, " for I

263
should break
I

it,

never, that

and now

more

Now

is

have

careful

want

But,

suppose.

my dear,
down
make me

hardly ever, tumble


this egg,

so say

to tell

it

will

no more about

it.

you about the Heights

of Abraham."

He had
of his

been

prudently

of stalactites,

She now listened

and

speak

to

head had

her

while

operations,
full

forborne

spars,

and

him with due


sympathy, and was delighted when he

wigs.

to

informed her, that his barometer measure-

ment came

right within

father congratulated

two

him upon

feet.

His

his success,

with which he was particularly pleased,

because

it

severance.

was the consequence of per-

He was

glad to see that his

son would not be satisfied

he possibly could.

This promised
All the rest

well for his future progress.

was

mere

child's

uncles," said he,

he had

and had been as ex-

rectified his errors,

act as

till

'^

play.

"

Very

few

would have given a

portable barometer to a boy of your age.


I

am

glad you can prove to him that you

264
have been able to use bis present, and
that

it

has

been

of

service

you,

to

Harry."
"
^^

It

that

was lucky
there

me," said

for

was nobody by, on those

Heights of Abraham, when

work

and lucky

the bottom of the


place, out of the
I

made my

hill,

when

too^

was

my

at

came

that I found a

to

snug

way of every body, where

am

calculations, or else I

they would have been


**

Harry,

all

sure

wrong."

That would have been a pity

Lucy, " after all your pains."


" Therefore it would be a

"

said

o;reat

ad-

vantage to you, Harry," said his father,


*'

if

you could learn

and

to calculate,

to

be able to go on with whatever you are

when people are looking at you,


well as when you are by yourself;

doing,
as

because you cannot hope always

when you want

alone

you always hope

to

to think,

find

snug

schoolboy

lesson,

and

is

to cast

forced

be

nor can
solitary

Every com-

places for your calculations.

mon

to

to

learn

his

up sums without being

265
disturbed by strangers.

All this

is

easily

learned by practice."

**Aye, by practice,

dare say," said

Harry.
"

And

will tell

by your own

you what you can da

sense,"

added

father

his

" upon every opportunity try to conquer

your dislike

going among strangers, and

to

then you will get over your bashfulness."


" Father, then, if you please, I will go
with you to day, and dine at the public
table, instead

of staying with

my

mother

and Lucy."
" Right,

When

my

boy, so you shall."

dinner time came, Harry went

along with his father, and, as he walked


the

into

"

am

public

eyes,

said

doing nothing wrong

be ashamed
Still

room,

will

not

himself,

to
I

need not

be bashful."

a mist of confusion came before his

when, seated beside

his father, at a

very long table, he saw opposite to him


a line of strangers, and on

him

strangers

He

I.

sides of

scarcely ventured to

look up at their faces.

VOL.

all

He was
N

seized

266
with one of his

fits

under which he

fulness,

stiffened, blushing,

cramp of bash-

of the

sat suffering

and conscious that he

was blushing, scarcely able


"Yes,"

or,

^'

and

answer

to

No, thank you," when he was

He

asked what he would have.

thought

body must take him for a fool,


made him feel more uneasy and

that every

and

this

awkward.

He

he was doing

knew what
he threw down first one

scarcely saw, or
:

thing, then another; first his fork, then his

bread in reaching for the fork, then the

and

salt cellar,

at

last

into his father's plate.

His father

no worse.
again, sent

about

it.

away his

a glass of water
It

was weH

set the

plate,

it

glass

was

up

and said nothing

Harry wished he was

in his

mother's room, or under the table, or any-

where but where he was.

His blunders

had more and more provoked him with himself, and he thought
he had disgraced himself for ever, and
and

disasters

that people

must think he was a vulgar

creature, or a child not

men

fit

to dine with

or gentlemen, nor used to dine any-

267
where but

by

time

this

scarlet

up

His face was

nursery.

in the

burning with shame, and

all

to the roots of his hair.

While he was

who was

in this condition, the ladv

asked him

sitting beside him,

she should help him to some oysters

happened

if

he

and he an-

to dislike oysters,

swered, " No, thank you," in rather a surly


tone

and then, thinking he had done

wrong

and

out,

answer so

to

gruffly,

"If you

said,

held his plate

please,

ma'am."

" But you have not finished your sweet-

meat;

did

lady.

"

You do

not observe

oysters together,
*

do not

that,''

said the

not like sweetmeats and

do you,

care,

my

dear?"

ma'am, thank

you,'' said

Harry.

"You

not the

are

are you,"

said the

young gentleman,

lady,

"

whom

met

morning, with a barometer in his

this

hand ?
"

do

not

remember

ma am,"

said Harry;

meter in

my

" Really

"but

meeting
I

you,

had a baro-

hand."
I

should not have thought you

n2

268

May

were the same.

ask what you were

doing with that barometer?"


"

cannot explain

it

ma'am,

to you,

now," said Harry.

gentleman luckily asked her

at this

moment to drink a glass of wine, and she


turned away from Harry, and thought no
more about him or her question.

Still his

him

father took no notice of him, but left


to recover himself

by degrees, and

to find

out the truth, that people were thinking of

themselves

much more than

Gra-

of him.

came to the use of his senses and


understanding, so far as to hear and comdually he

prehend something entertaining, which a


gentleman who

As soon

as

sat opposite

was

relating.

Harry became interested

in lis-

tening to what this gentleman was saying,

he unstiffened, looked up, moved forward

on

his

chair, forgot his blushes

blunders, and

all

his fears of

and

having

his
dis-

graced himself; in short, he forgot himself


altogether.

The gentleman was giving an account


of the plundering of a vessel, which had

269
been stranded on the coast of South Wales,
It was a transport
in St. Bride's bay.
laden with ordnance stores from America.

Harry made

out, that

''

ordnance stores"

here meant gunpowder and guns.

Some

of the people on the coast saw the signals

of

distress,

which were made by the per-

sons on board the vessel; but instead of

putting out boats, and going to their assistance, these wicked people thought only of

plundering the vessel, and carrying away


every thing

could for themselves.

they

They assembled on
there

till

the beach, and waited

the ship was driven on shore,

and wrecked.

While

board were trying

the poor people

on

to save their lives, these

plunderers were busy carrying off

could from the wreck.

all

they

They boarded her

as soon as possible, because they knew, that

as soon as ever the o^entlemen of the country should hear that

a vessel had been

wrecked, they would come to


sufferers,

and

to

prevent

The mob made such

the

assist the

plunder.

haste, that they got

possession of their prey, and landed a con-

270

gunpowder from the

siderable quantity of

Many

stranded vessel.

of the plunderers

were loaded with as much as they could


others were

while

carry,

struggling for

their share of the booty, as their confederates

were dragging

on the shore.

it

In this scene of confusion, and in these


struggles, a

of the gunpowder

quantity

was scattered on the shore, and on the

One

rocks.

of the rino-leaders of the

who had

quarrelling with another,


session of a musket,

mob

got pos-

which he wanted

to

and threw

it

have for himself, seized

it

from him with violence.

What happened

none could exactly


quickly

was

it all

flint

a single spark was

set fire to the

after

another

communicated

passed so

musket had

gunpowder which

One

scattered over the rock.

plosion
train

as

but, probably, the

struck against a

enough

see,

was

heard,

to another,

and

ex-

one
in

few seconds the whole strand and rocks

seemed wrapped

in fire

and smoke.

Many

of the plunderers were killed on the spot;


others were dreadfully

maimed, and died

271
lingering deaths.

The man who threw the

musket absconded, and was never heard


of afterwards."

While Harry listened to

this dreadful but

true story, pity for the shipwrecked people

who

perished for want of timely assistance,


against

indignation

wretches

the

thought only of plundering

who

wreck,

the

wretches such as he could hardly believe


to exist, horror at the catastrophe,
ful

an aw-

sense of the justice of the punishment

which

they immediately brought

and

themselves,

satisfaction

gained nothing by their crime


filled his

that

so

reflections

they

altogether

mind; and these successive

ments and

upon

absorbed

sentihin).

that he completely forgot every thing else,

and who was by.

forgot where he was,

and

all

his

own

little

What was become


was

all

gone? gone

foolish

of his bashfulness
off

form of him.

It

with that superflu-

ous anxiety, which he had


opinions the

feelings.

felt

about the

surrounding people might

272

After

they

left

Matlock, the road ap-

peared uninteresting

to

our

travellers.

But they had books in the carriage, and


Lucy's mother began to read at first to
herself,

when

and afterwards to her companions,

she found any thing that she thought

would entertain them.


'^

Here

is

an account," said she, " of the

various stinging insects which infest parts

of South America; where the inhabitants


pass their lives complaining of the insufferable torment of the moschettoes.

" Will you be so good as to read it to


us now? " said Lucy ; " I am so very comfortably settled,

under
*'

my

with your dressing box

feet."

Persons

who have

not navigated the

great rivers of South America, for instance

the

Oroonoko and the Rio Magdelena, can

scarcely conceive how, at every instant of

you may be tormented by insects flying in the air, and how the multitude of

life,

these

little

animals

may

render vast re-

273

They cover

gions almost uninhabitable.

your face and hands, pierce clothes with


their long sucker, in the form of a needle,

get into your mouth and nostrils, and set

you coughing and sneezing whenever you


attempt to speak in the open
villages,

In the

air.

on the banks of the Oroonoko,

which are surrounded by immense


the plague of

flies

affords an inexhaustible

subject of conversation.

When

sons meet in the morning, the

first

they address to each other are,

you

find the zancudoes during

How
At

are

we

New

forests,

two perquestions

^'

How did
night?

the

to-day as to moschettoes*

.''

Barcelona, the wretched inha-

bitants generally stretch themselves on the

ground, and pass the night buried in sand,


three or four inches deep, leaving out their

heads only, which they cover with handkerchiefs.

Farther on, the traveller fares

worse, for he comes to the region of the

who

are

by these

in-

sorrowful people, as they are called,

doomed

to be for ever tortured

* Humboldt.

Personal Narrative, vol

N 5

v.

274

One poor monk, who had

sects.

as

he

twenty years of moschet-

said, his

toes, in that country, desired

his

companions

forests of
ferior

Humboldt and

to tell the people in

Eu-

suffer

the

When

an

in-

what the poor monks

rope,

South America.

monk commits any

exiles

him

spent,

fault, his

to this country,

superior

and they

call it

condemned to the moschettoes.


Lucy said she was glad she was not condemned to the moschettoes, and she asked
her mother if there was any more that was
Her mother read
entertainingr about them.

beino;

to her

an account of the different kinds of

stinging insects,

which mount guard

different hours of the

day and night.

at

Just

when one party are flying


away, and when the next have not fixed,

at the

time,

or, as soldiers

would

say, at the time of

relieving guard, there

pose.

The

that, as

an interval of

different hours of the

night are marked and


bitants

is

by the

known

re-

day and

to the inha-

different stinging flies, so

they say, they could

tell

blindfold

275
by the sting of the
the hum of the coming torment.

what hour

it is,

last,

or

"Horrible creatures!" said Lucy, "I

am

we have none

very glad

of them in our

country."
" Horrible
sent tone

have

to

"

repeated Harry, in an ab-

he seemed to be heartily glad

this history

finished,

and

of the

They

of them.

to get rid

had prevented him from


tion

moschettoes

fixing his atten-

upon something which he wanted

think

to

of.

The moment
announced

his mother's closino; tone

that she

had

finished,

he threw

himself half over his side of the carriao-e,

and beo:an

to

" Is there

watch the hind wheel.

anv

thino; the

matter with the

wheel, brother?" said Lucy.


*'

Nothing,

my

dear,

am

only thinking

of something."
"

"

I
''

Take

care,

Harry," said his mother,

think you will

fall

out."

No thank you, mamma, there

ger of that,
said Harry.

am

is

no dan-

holding by the holders,"

276
There was nothing more

to

be said about

the safety of the position he had chosen

something might, perhaps, have been said


about

unsociability, but his

its

mother went

on reading, and his father and Lucy were


listenino^ to her.

Oh

"
this,

"

cried Lucy, " listen to

here are the termites, the great ants,

you hear about them?"

will not

"

Harry

Thank you,"

said

*^

Harry,

have

heard enough about them."

She

left

him

to his

wheel

for

some

but presently returned again with


'^

Oh

time,

Harry, did you hear that about

the jaguar

that

came bounding

shore to play with the

little girl,

to the

and tore

the skin of her forehead, and she drove

him away with the bough of a


think
'*

me
all

the jaguar

My

my

only

dear Lucy, you jogged

out in

tree

count.

Now

me and put
must begin

over again," said Harry.

She drew back, but


exclaimed again

after

some little time

"Harry! Oh! Harry, hear this

2i

shirt

277
tret

My dear Harry, a

name of a real
shirts ready made grow

tree, fifty feet high,

real

upon them without a seam


" One hundred and fifty-five
1

glad of

One hundred and

it.

am very

fifty-seven,"

said Harry, continuing to count on.

" If the shirt-tree


will,"

and

won't

thought Lucy;

sat

still

nothing

do,

sat

down

then

start-

and she

during many pages

ing up again, she threw her arm round him.

Oh! Harry, Harry;

*'

story

ful

you ever heard.

search of her children,

such

the most beauti-

difficulties,

mother in

who went through

and such

places, as

no per-

son had ever the courage to go through


before

and lived

for four

days on nothing

but black ants, and was stretched upon the


rack at

last,

and

Oh

tortured.

Harry,

'

won't you listen to the end of it?"


"

Two hundred

dear, another time,

and twenty-one

you

will tell

it

to

my
me

two hundred and twenty-two."

Lucy gave
listened

to

it

up, left

him

to himself,

the end of the story

and

sorry,

278
however, that he could not, or would not
enjoy the pleasure with her.
After this story

of the Piedra del la

Madre, or rock of the mother, was finished,


Lucy's mother was tired

reading aloud:

her father took up a book to read to him-

and Lucy, who had the happy power,

self;

either travelling or at
to

amuse

herself,

home, of being able

began

to point out to her

mother every thing or animal she saw on


the road, which she thought would look
pretty in drawing.
*'

Look,

mamma,

at that

woman, who

is

crossing the field with a basket of hay on

her back, and the cow following, without

her perceiving

it,

and eating the hay,

is

it

not like one of the vignettes in Bewick?

Mamma,
ever

as

see

what

Bewick on
you

will

you are not busy now, whenI

think would be a

the road,

tell

will tell you,

me whether you

would be pretty or not."


" Look at this old tired
beside the well, and the

good
and

think

it

soldier stopping

little girl

holding

279

up a

tin

he

stooping to drink, and she

is

can that she has just

sun

setting^

this

is

off her forehead,

back her hair


full

Now

filled.

on her face.

putting

and the

Would

not

be a pretty Bewick?"

who had now finished what


he was reading, and who was always
Her

father,

cheerful and sociable, put

away

his book,

and looked out of the window, joining with

Lucy and her mother

in their diversion.

Presently he saw an old

down

trudging together

man and woman


a lane that led to

a wood, and he began to sing a favourite

song of Lucy's,

in

which she immediately

joined

*'

There was an old man who

As you may

He

((

With
If

wood

plainly see,

said he could

Than

lived in a

do more work in a day

his wife could do in three.

all

you

my

heart, the old

will

me

woman

allow,

You shall stay at home to day,


And I'll go follow the plough."

said.

280
Harry turned about, and looked much

by the

discomfited
said

" Join us Harry, oh

join us,

Lucy

and

singing,

you know

it."

But Harry

and hanging again out of the

ears,

his

carriage

by stopping both

replied only

window

singing in

full

Harry drew

further than before.

glee

was continuing,

in his head,

The
when

and rubbing

his

hands, exclaimed, as he threw himself back


in his corner
'^

have

it

have found

it

out,

papa!

His father did not ask what he had


found

out,

but went on singing.

" Father," said Harry,


plain to
tent, or

me now what

is

'^

will

you ex-

meant by a pa-

by taking out a patent

for

an inven-

tion?"
" I

am

his father.

singing, do not

"

you hear

"

said

Go

on Lucy, go on singing

had

finished the song,

with me."

When they

Harry

asked his question again, about the patent

281
an invention, but his father did not

for

him.

listen to
^^

Papa," cried

Harry,

after

eagerly-

waiting for the moment, when as he thought

he could
tell

fix

you what

" I want to

his attention;
I

have been thinking of

all

this time."

"

do not want

to hear

it,

Harry," said

my mind to what
will go on with my

his father, " I cannot turn

you

are thinking of; I

own

thoughts."

So saying,

his father

put himself into

Harry's late position, hanging over the


side of the carriage.

" Well," said

Harry,

who looked

unpleasant
to

he,

it

is,

at

doleful, "

would be

it

you

of,

you

feel

how

when you wish

how diswe could

feel

to you, if

not turn our thoughts to


thinking

turning to

not to have people ready

sympathize with you

agreeable

last,

what you are


for our atten-

tion."

Harry, looking ashamed, said, " That


true,

papa,

believe

have been

all

is

day

282
very disagreeable

but

mean

did not

it

was thinking of something that I hoped


you would be pleased with, and I did not
I

like to leave off

made

or at least

"

Oh

had quite invented

till I

it

good

as

papa," said Lucy,

You ought

to

all

may I speak ?

the noises

and every interruption.


not so have fixed

my

am

we made,

sure

could

attention."

lou and your brother, my dear Lucy,"

said her father,

and

*'

could."

be pleased with his going on

persevering through

'^

as

it,

*'

have two opposite

wish you both to

faults,

know them,

that

you may take care and use your power


over your

own minds

attention,

Lucy, passes too quickly from

one thing
is

to

You

another.

vulgarly called birdwitted.

endeavour
ing

off

to

Your

to cure them.

are

what

You should

prevent your mind from

from one subject

courage you to

fix

it

to

another

as steadily,

long at a time as you can.

is

You

fly-

en-

and as
are of

such an affectionate, sympathizing temper,


that there

is

no danger that you should

283
not be ready enough to turn your thoughts

and amusements of

to the pursuits

whenever

it

is

necessary

or

others,

agreeable.

You, Harry, have acquired the power and


habit of fixing your attention steadily on

your own pursuits, but you cannot easily


turn your

what

is

mind from your own thoughts to


going on near you, or to what

other people wish you to think

of.

Now

consider, that your sister,

and your mother,

and

like syrnpalliiy, as

I,

and every body,

as you do probably

well

and

if

you ac-

quired this unsociable habit of never joinino;

in

what we

rested in

are

doinor", or

beino^ inte-

what we are saying

or hearing,

you would become a very disagreeable


companion."
"

hope

I shall

not," said Harry, with a

look of serious alarm.


^'

You have perseverance and

ambition enough," continued


''

but the danger for you

confine your attention too


circle of objects,

is,

that

laudable

his father;

you should

much to one small

and not enlarge your mind

by general observation and

knowledge.

284

You

that I speak to you,

perceive,

not

as to a foolish child, but as to a reasona-

ble

creature,

who

On

this

himself.

new

desirous to improve

journey you will have

of curing yourself of this

opportunities

When

fault.

is

you are going through a

country, look about you, observe every

When you

thing.

are with people

are talking on subjects that are

new to you,

Much knowledge

what they say.

listen to

who

and amusement can be gained by the ear


Ears and no ears
as well as by the eye.
'

might make a good

and no
"

Eyes

did listen the other day, papa,"

said Lucy,

'^

and heard what the gentle-

told about the

powder

'

eyes.'

He

man

tale as well as

wreck and the gun-

Harry repeated

it

to

me

after-

wards."
"

As he was

so well rewarded by hear-

ing what was entertaining, and by your

remembering
**

hope he

it

so kindly," said her father,

will continue to attend to con-

versation."
*'

If people did not talk so

much non-

285
company,

in

sense generally,

said

sir,"

Harry, '^ I should listen oftener."


" Pick out the sense
if you try to do
:

you

so,

always

will

some golden

find

grains of sense even in an ocean of non-

And

sense.
will

suppose you should not,

be of use

to

your own mind

it

to inter-

even by nonsense, the course of your

rupt,

The mind becomes

thoughts.

when

stupified,

has thought too long on any one

it

point."

" True," said Harry, " so

when

was thinking about

When

wheel.

stupid, I could not

tell

ed

is

" that there

tired

could not invent what

is

and

want-

to the moschettoes,

hated at the time, did

" Harry

measuring

what was the matter

and listening even

which

my

grew quite

me

found to-day,

had thought and thought

for a great while,

with

me

good."

so candid," said his mother,


really

some pleasure

in find-

ing fault with him."

He was
when they

not like those foolish boys, who,


are told of any fault, think only

286

who is speaking will


have done, that they may get rid of the immediate pain. Nor was he one of those, who
how soon

the person

think only of what excuse they can make.

Nor yet was he one of those (the most foolish) who grow sulky, and sit or stand like
statues, feeling all the time as if the night-

mare prevented them from

stirring.

It is

Harry was acquainted with

true that

this

disagreeable sensation, arising partly from

and partly from pride

shame,

struggled against

it,

and threw

but he
it

off as

soon as possible.
**

this
*'

the

Lucy, what were you doing before

all

began?" asked Harry.

We

were singing the

Wood,'"

said Lucy,

'

Old

Man

and then

she

added, in a whisper, " should you like


sing

it

again ?

if

you would,

will

in

to

begin

it."

"

should," said he, " begin."

She began, Harry followed, and


father

They

immediately joined them.

sung but badly, but they were

their

all

well

287
pleased with each other, and Lucy said she

was now

quite

happy.

" There must be some nonsense mixed

with wisdom

papa?"
grow

now and

then,

must not there,

said she, " or else one

terribly tired."

END OF VOL.

I.

LONDON:
PRINTED BY CHARLES WOOD,
f'oppin's Court, Fleet Street.

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apt to

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