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2016 PRELIM CHEMISTRY

8.2 The Chemical Earth


1.2.3 - Identify that the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere contain examples of
mixtures of elements and compounds
Spheres
Biosphere
Lithosphere

Includes:
All living things
Rocks, and crust of Earth

Atmosphere

All gases

Mixtures
Blood
Rock
Ore
Air

Hydrosphere

All bodies of liquids on Earth

Sea water

Sphere
Biosphere
Lithosphere
Atmosphere
Hydrosphere

States of water
Liquid
Liquid | Solid
Liquid | Solid | Gas
Liquid | Solid

Compounds
Sugars
Minerals

Elements

Water
Vapour
Water

Nitrogen
Oxygen

Oxygen

Abundance (%)
70
10
15
97

1.2.4 identify and describe procedures that can be used to separate naturally occurring mixtures of:
- Solids of different sizes
- Solids and liquids
- Dissolved solids in liquids
- Liquids
- Gases
1.2.5 assess separation techniques for their suitability in separating examples of earth materials,
identifying the differences in properties which enable these separations
Mixture separated
Solids of different sizes
Solids and Liquids

Method of separation
Sieving
Filtration

Dissolved solids in liquids


Liquids

Crystallisation
Fractional Distillation
Decantation
Fractional Distillation

Gases

Property in separation
Different sized particles
Particle size of solid gets
filtered
Liquid BP lower than solid BP
Difference in boiling points
Immiscible points
Difference in boiling points

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From Left to right, Sieving, Filtration, Crystallization, Distillation, Fractional Distillation, Separating
Funnel, Decantation
Sieving
-

Separates particles based on particle size

Filtration
-

Separates insoluble solids within liquids


Insoluble solid is called filtrate

Crystallization
-

Separates solution which also contains a dissolved solid


Liquid is boiled off to leave solid

Distillation
-

Separates solution of two or more miscible liquids


Uses boiling point to evaporate one liquid
Liquid is then recondensed
Separated liquid is called distillate
Repeated multiple times for more than two liquids

Fractional Distillation
-

Separates a solution of two or more liquids


Able to separate liquids with close boiling points
Repeated evaporations and condensations up a column
Liquid with lowest boiling point will be at top
Liquids at top are very volatile

Separating Funnel
-

Separates two immiscible liquids

Decantation
-

Separation of undissolved solid and liquid


Solid is allowed to settle, then liquid is poured out carefully

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1.2.1 construct word and balanced formulae equations of chemical reactions as they are
encountered
3.2.11 construct formulae for compounds formed from ions and atoms sharing electrons
5.2.6 explain why the formula for an ionic compound is an empirical formula
4.2.5 distinguish between empirical formulae and molecular formulae [8.3 Metals]
Word Formulae:
Sodium Chloride + Silver Nitrate Silver Chloride + Sodium Nitrate
Balanced / Molecular Equation:
NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) NaNO3(aq) + AgCl(s)
Complete Ionic Equation:
Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq) Na+(aq) + NO3-(aq) + AgCl(s)
Net Ionic Equation:
Cl-(aq) + Ag+(aq) AgCl(s)
Empirical Formula
-

Lowest ratio of the compound


Used in ionic compounds as size of lattice may differ and therefore a ratio is used

CH2O (Glucose)
H2O (Water)
HO (Hydrogen Peroxide)
Molecular Formula
-

Amount of each element/compound in a single molecule of the substance

C6H12O6 (Glucose)
H2O (Water)
H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide)

1.2.2 identify the difference between elements, compounds and mixtures in terms of particle theory
3.2.1 identify that matter is made of particles that are continuously moving and interacting
Particle Theory explains the properties of the different states of matter
Shape
Volume
Can be compressed
Arrangement
Pattern
Movement
Intermolecular force

Solids
Fixed
Fixed
No
Tightly Packed
Regular pattern
Vibration on the spot
Strong

Liquids
Takes shape of
container
Fixed
No
Less tightly packed
Random
Move around each
other
Fairly Strong

Gases
Not Fixed
Not Fixed
Yes
Free
Random
Quick movement in all
directions
Weak

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An element is a pure substance which cannot be broken down into simpler substances
A compound is a collection of elements bound together in a known ratio which can be split into
simpler substances
A mixture is a collection of elements bound together not in a fixed ratio. Can be either homogeneous
(uniform in composition) or heterogeneous (non-uniform in composition)
1.2.6 describe situations in which gravimetric analysis supplies useful data for chemists and other
scientists

Composition =

Mass of Component
Total Mass of Mixture

Gravimetric analysis is the process of separating the substances and then determining their percent
composition by accurately weighing each individual substance and taking it as a ratio to the mass of
the mixture. Can be used to determine:
-

Percentage by weight of ingredients in food


Composition of an alloy
Composition of nutrients in food
Extent of pollution
Determine whether source of mineral deposit is economically viable to mine

2.2.1 explain the relationship between the reactivity of an element and the likelihood of its existing
as an uncombined element
As the reactivity of an element increases, the likelihood of its existence as an uncombined element
decreases. The reactivity of an element is dependent on the amount of electrons on the outer shell of
the element. As such, Group I alkali metals are the most reactive whilst Group VIII noble gases are
the least reactive.
2.2.2 classify elements as metals, non-metals and semi-metals according to their physical
properties
Property
Lustre
Malleability
Electrical conductivity
Thermal conductivity
Ductility
Hardness
State at STP
MP and BP

Metals
Lustrous
Malleable
High
High
Ductile
Hard
Solid (ex. Mercury)
High

Metalloids
Varies
Non-Malleable
Varies
Varies
Varies
Varies
Mostly Solid
Varies

Non-metals
Dull
Non-Malleable
Low
Low
Non-ductile
Soft
Gaseous
Low

2.2.3 account for the uses of metals and non-metals in terms of their physical properties
Metals

Non-Metals

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Construction
Infrastructure
Thermometers
Transport
Domestic appliances
Wiring

Medical
For lighting
Carbon used for mining in diamond
form and writing in graphite form

2.3.3 process information from secondary sources and use a Periodic Table to present information
about the classification of elements as:
metals, non-metals and semi-metals solids, liquids and gases at 25C and normal atmospheric
pressure

3.2.2 describe qualitatively the energy levels of electrons in atoms


-

Electrons exist in discrete energy levels


Energy level of electrons increases as levels increase
Electrons can only have certain amounts of energy which correspond to the energy levels

3.2.3 describe atoms in terms of mass number and atomic number


-

Atomic number is amount of protons in an atom


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Mass number is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the atom
Electrons have very little mass

3.2.4 describe the formation of ions in terms of atoms gaining or losing electrons
3.2.5 apply the Periodic Table to predict the ions formed by atoms of metals and non-metals
-

Forms when atoms gain or lose an electron


Cations are positive ions which have less electrons than it has protons
Anions are negative ions which have excess electrons
Cations tend to form in Group I, II, III atoms
Anions generally form within Group V, VI, VII atoms
Transition metals lose electrons to form cations

3.2.6 apply Lewis electron dot structures to:


- the formation of ions
- the electron sharing in some simple molecules
3.2.7 describe the formation of ionic compounds in terms of the attraction of ions of opposite
charge

3.2.8 describe molecules as particles which can move independently of each other
-

Intramolecular forces hold atoms in the molecules together


Molecules are able to move free of other similar molecules
Intermolecular forces bind these molecules together
o Weak Force
o If extremely weak, molecules will be able to move independently
o Can be strong enough to hold molecules in a set pattern

3.2.9 distinguish between molecules containing one atom (the noble gases) and molecules with more
than one atom
-

Noble gases have full electron shells


o Does not need to share electrons, hence can exist individually
Other molecules have incomplete outer electron shells
o Need to bond with other atoms to become stable
Monatomic Molecules include all noble gases
Diatomic Molecules include all non-metals except noble gases

3.2.10 describe the formation of covalent molecules in terms of sharing of electrons


-

Formed when non-metals share electrons in its outer shell to complete outer shell
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Oxygen has 6 valence electrons and shares 2 with another oxygen atom, hence forming O 2
with a complete outer shell.
o Double bond formed

4.2.1 identify the differences between physical and chemical change in terms of rearrangement of
particles
Substance
Arrangement of particles
Reversal
Energy change

Physical Change
No new substance
No rearrangement
Easily reversed
Small

Chemical Change
New substance formed
New rearrangement of particles
Difficult to reverse
Large

Chemical Change
-

Endothermic(absorbs energy) or exothermic(releases energy)

4.2.2 summarise the differences between the boiling and electrolysis of water as an example of the
difference between physical and chemical change
Boiling
- Physical change
- No rearrangement of atoms
- Intermolecular forces broken
- Molecules able to move independently
of each other
- Requires less energy when compared to
electrolysis

Electrolysis
- Chemical change
- Intramolecular bonds broken
- H2 and O2 formed
- Requires greater amounts of electricity
- Difficult to reverse
-

Electrolysis
-

Two electrodes, anode and cathode


Electrons removed at anode
o Oxygen formed
o 2H2O O2 + 4H+ + 4eElectrons attracted to cathode
o Reduction reaction occurs
o 2H2O + 2e- 2H2 + 2OH

4.2.3 identify light, heat and electricity as the common forms of energy that may be released or
absorbed during the decomposition or synthesis of substances and identify examples of these changes
occurring in everyday life
Synthesis
-

Formation of a compound from its elements or simpler compounds


Light used in photosynthesis
o 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) (light) C6H12O6(s) + 6O2(g)
Heat and light created from burning Magnesium and a candle
o 2Mg(s) + O2(g) 2MgO(s) + Heat + Light

Decomposition
-

Breakdown of substance into simpler compounds or elements


Decomposition of silver salts uses light
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o 2AgCl(s) (sunlight) 2Ag(s) + Cl2(g)


Electrolysis of water using electricity
o 2H2O (electric current) 2H2(g) + O2(g)
Electrolysis of aluminium oxide using liquefied solution
o 2Al2O3(l) (electric current) 4Al(l) + 3O2(g)

4.2.4 explain that the amount of energy needed to separate atoms in a compound is an indication of
the strength of the attraction, or bond, between them
-

Decomposition of compound requires large amounts of energy to overcome bonds


o Endothermic reaction
Stronger the intramolecular force, the more energy required to split a compound
Stronger the intermolecular force, the more energy required to change states
The more energy released in formation of atoms, stronger the intramolecular force

5.2.1 identify differences between physical and chemical properties of elements, compounds and
mixtures
5.2.2 describe the physical properties used to classify compounds as ionic or covalent molecular or
covalent network
5.2.3 distinguish between metallic, ionic and covalent bonds
-

Melting / Boiling Point Dependant on the strength of the intermolecular force between
molecules
Malleability Dependent on delocalised electrons ability to allow atoms to move over each
other when stress is applied
Electrical conductivity - Dependent on number and availability of delocalised electrons
within a lattice
Density Dependent on how strong intermolecular forces hold molecules together

MP / BP
Malleability
Hardness
Electrical
conductivity

Metallic

Ionic

Covalent network

High
Malleable
Varies
Good

High
Not Malleable
Hard
Solid: No
Aqueous: Yes

Very High
Not Malleable
Hard
No

Covalent
molecular
Low
Not Malleable
Soft
No

Covalent Network
-

Large molecular lattice structures


Strong covalent bonds
3D bonding structure
Extremely high melting points

Covalent Molecular
-

Discrete group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonding


Bonds into a small molecule

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5.2.4 describe metals as three-dimensional lattices of ions in a sea of electrons

Metal atoms in metallic lattices discard excess electrons to form complete outer shell
Metals become positive, leaving delocalised electrons free to move within lattice

5.2.5 describe ionic compounds in terms of repeating three-dimensional lattices of ions


-

3D crystalline lattices
Alternating cations and anions in fixed ratio
A result of electrostatic attraction between positive and negative charges
o Electrostatic attraction is when a negatively charged atom/molecule is attracted to a
positively charged atom/molecule

5.2.7 identify common elements that exist as molecules or as covalent lattices


Molecular Substances
- Water
- Carbon Dioxide
- Oxygen Gas
- Hydrogen monoxide

Covalent Network Lattice


- Silicon dioxide
- Diamond (Carbon allotrope)
- Graphite (Carbon allotrope)

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5.2.8 explain the relationship between the properties of conductivity and hardness and the structure
of ionic, covalent molecular and covalent network structures
Metallic
High MP / BP
Good
Conductors of
electricity and
heat
Malleable

Lattice structure held together by strong electrostatic forces


Large amounts of energy required to break bonds
Delocalised electrons
Electrons free to flow
Free electrons able to transfer heat energy throughout lattice quickly

Delocalised electrons allow metal atoms to distort and reform


Able to maintain electrostatic forces and lattice structure

Strong electrostatic forces between neighbouring ions


Large amounts of energy required to break bonds
In solid, all ions fixed and are unable to move within lattice
When molten or in aqueous solution, ions are not in lattice and can
carry charges
Lack of delocalised electrons prevent deformation of lattice
Will cause ions to dislocate from lattice structure
Dislocated ions cause electrostatic repulsion between neighbouring
ions

Ionic
High MP / BP
Good electrical
conductor
Not Malleable

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-

Will cause crystalline structure to shatter

Covalent Molecular
Low MP / BP
Poor electrical
conductor
Not Malleable

Held together by weak intermolecular forces


Does not require large amounts of energy to break
No delocalised electrons or charge carriers within molecular
structure
Weak intermolecular forces easily broken
Cannot hold molecules if deformed
Brittle

Covalent Lattice

Poor electrical
conductor

Not Malleable /
Hard

Very high MP / BP

Extremely strong covalent intermolecular forces within lattice


Requires extreme amounts of energy to break
No free charge carriers
Graphite is exception; has only 3 covalent bonds, allowing
remaining electron to delocalise
Rigid structure
Covalent intermolecular forces force atoms to maintain a certain
distance and angle from each other
Cannot hold structure if deformed
Brittle

8.3 Metals
1.2.1 outline and examine some uses of different metals through history, including contemporary
uses, as uncombined metals or as alloys
Copper Age
-

3200BC to 2300BC
Copper was first metal to be extracted from its ore
Mineral extracted from gangue through smelting or beneficiation
Was melted and reshaped to make ornaments and utensils

Bronze Age
-

2300BC to 700BC
Tin was extracted easily with heat
Alloy was discovered by combining copper and tin
Bronze allowed creation of stronger weaponry and armoury

Iron Age
-

700BC to 1AD
Required higher temperature to melt
Hematite was mixed with charcoal
Air was passed through furnace to reach sufficient temperature
Heat extracted iron from gangue
Iron was harder, stronger and more durable than bronze
Cast iron later derived which was stronger

Modern Age

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1AD to Present
Major advancement in technology
Ability to extract aluminium through electrolysis
o Use of heat to extract aluminium was too inefficient
Other metals also extracted with electrolysis
Metals were mixed with other metals to form stronger metals
Aluminium alloyed becomes more durable, corrosion resistant, good tensile strength and has
low density
o Used for aircraft and various household appliances
Plastics have been used to substitute some metals

Metal
Gold

Historical Uses
- Jewellery
- Tools
- Cooking
- Weapons and Armour
- Tools
- Cooking and ornaments
- Weapons and Armour
- Tools

Contemporary Uses
- Jewellery
- Electrical circuits
Copper
- Electrical wiring
- Piping
- Tools
Bronze
- Tools
- Construction
- Instruments
- Gears
Iron
- Tools
- Construction
- Weapons
- Motor Vehicles
- Ornaments
- Steel alloy mainly used
- Household appliances
Lead
- Piping
- Alloyed to create solder
- Fishing sinkers
- Medical
Aluminium
- Aviation
- Cooking
- Household appliances
Titanium
- Aviation
- Mining
1.2.2 describe the use of common alloys including steel, brass and solder and explain how these
relate to their properties

Alloys
Brass (50 60%
copper)

Bronze (80 90%


copper)

Solder (30 60% tin w/


lead)

Composition
50 70% copper
30 50% zinc

92% copper
6% tin
2% zinc

50 60% tin
40 50% lead

Properties
- Ductile
- Hard
- Easily
machined
- Lustrous
- Corrosion
resistant
- Hard
- Easily
machined
- Easily cast
- Low melting
point
- Adheres to
other metals
when molten

Uses
-

Plumbing
Musical
instruments
Decorations
Gears
Marine
equipment

Plumbing
Electronics

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Mild Steel
Structural Steel

High Carbon Steel

Stainless Steel

< 0.2% carbon

Soft
Malleable

0.32 0.6% carbon

0.6 1.5% carbon

76% iron
18% chromium
5% nickel
0.5% silicon
0.5% manganese

Hard
Strong
High tensile
strength
Extremely hard
Extremely
strong
Hard
Corrosion
resistant
Lustrous

Cars
Pipes
Machinery
Railways
Foundations

Drills heads
Tools
Structural
Tools
Weaponry
Medical
Marine
Household
appliances

1.2.3 explain why energy input is necessary to extract a metal from its ore
-

Energy in form of heat and electricity required to extract metal from its ores
Minerals with economically viable metals are ores, which contain a compound or mixture of
compound of metals
Break chemical bonds in decomposition reaction
o Endothermic reaction; heat is absorbed in reaction
Metal ores held by ionic bonds, which have very strong electrostatic forces holding it together
Large energy input required to overcome strong electrostatic force

1.2.4 identify why there are more metals available for people to use now than there were 200 years
ago
-

Advancement in technology
More reactive metals require larger amounts of energy
o Energy required to extract extremely reactive metals could not be synthesised in the
past
Modern ability to use electricity to extract metals from their ores
o Lower cost of generating electricity
Ability to find scarce ores increased with technological advancements

2.2.1 describe observable changes when metals react with dilute acid, water and oxygen
Metals + Acid Salt + Hydrogen Gas
Metal Carbonate + Acid Salt + Hydrogen Gas + Carbon Dioxide
Base + Acid Salt + Water
Metal + Water Metal Hydroxide + Hydrogen Gas
Metal + Oxygen Metal Oxide
2.2.2 describe and justify the criteria used to place metals into an order of activity based on their
ease of reaction with oxygen, water and dilute acids

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K Na Li
More reactive
-

Ca

Mg

Al

Cr

Zn

Fe

Co

Ni

Sn

Pb

Cu

Hg

Ag Pt Au
Less reactive

Reactivity series based on reactivity of metals with oxygen, water and dilute acids
The more vigorous the reaction, the more reactive the metal is
The more reactive the metal, the more willing it will lose its electrons to be oxidised

2.2.3 identify the reaction of metals with acids as requiring the transfer of electrons
As atomic size increases
-

Atomic radii increases


Electrostatic force decreases
Electro positivity increases
Ionisation energy decreases

2.2.4 outline examples of the selection of metals for different purposes based on their reactivity, with
a particular emphasis on current developments in the use of metals
Zinc
-

Reactive in nature
Used to produce galvanized iron
Reacts with air to form oxide layer
Prevents oxygen reaching iron protecting it from corrosion

Magnesium
-

Highly reactive
Attached to the bottom of ships and wharves
Protects against corrosion

Calcium
-

High reactive with oxygen


Used in vacuum tubes in electronics
Reacts with traces of oxygen creating a stronger vacuum

Copper
-

Unreactive
Used for plumbing and hot water tanks
Corrosion resistant

2.2.5 outline the relationship between the relative activities of metals and their positions on the
Periodic Table
-

Most reactive metals found in Group I


Moderately reactive metals are transition elements
Decreases from Left to Right
Increases from Top to Bottom
Ionisation energy increases left to right and decrease up down

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2.2.6 identify the importance of first ionisation energy in determining the relative reactivity of
metals
Ionisation energy is minimum energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom
-

First ionisation energy is amount of energy to remove the first electron from a gaseous atom
Lower the first ionisation energy, higher the reactivity
Increases as you move left to right, decreases as you move top down
Electrostatic force decreases down the group and increases across the periods

3.2.1 identify an appropriate model that has been developed to describe atomic structure
Bohrs Model

Nucleus represented by a single ball


Electrons are represented in circular orbits around nucleus

3.2.2 outline the history of the development of the Periodic Table including its origins, the original
data used to construct it and the predictions made after its construction
Time
1800s

1829
1864
1869

Description
- 30 naturally occring elements known
- John Dalton published element theory which revolutionised chemistry
- Calculation of atomic weights began
- Antoine Lavoiser classified elements into metals and non-metals based on
physical properties
- German chemist Johann Dobereiner recognised several groups of three
elements called triads
- Englishman John Newlands proposed law of octaves
- Elements organised according to atomic weight
- Paper never published because he suffered ridicule from scientists
- Russian Dmitri Ivanovich Mendelov pioneered modern periodic table
- Proposed law where properties of elements varied with atomic weight
- Arranged elements with increasing atomic weight
- Grouped them with elements with similar properties
- Left spaces for undiscovered elements
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-

Predicted in detail 3 undiscovered elements

explain the relationship between the position of elements in the Periodic Table, and:
- electrical conductivity
- ionisation energy
- atomic radius
- melting point
- boiling point
- combining power (valency)
- electronegativity
- reactivity

Electrical conductivity decreases from left to right, top to bottom


Distance between electrons and nucleus decreases across periodic table and increases down
the groups
Electronegativity increases across a period and decreases down a group
Ionization energy increases across a period and decreases down a group
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-

Atomic radius decreases across a period and increases down a group


Melting and boiling points vary depending on bonds
o Metals generally have a high melting point
o Non-metals generally have a low melting point
o Carbon has highest boiling point of all known elements

5.2.1 define the terms mineral and ore with reference to economic and non-economic deposits of
natural resources
-

Minerals are naturally occurring substances, made of a mixture of compounds with a definite
crystal structure
Ores are naturally occurring deposits of minerals which contain a metal which can be
economically extracted
All ores are essentially minerals but all minerals are not ores

5.2.2 describe the relationship between the commercial prices of common metals, their actual
abundances and relative costs of production
-

Metal prices increase as mineral deposits of metals decrease


Metal prices increase the more remote an ore deposit is
Metal prices increase as cost of extraction increases

5.2.3 explain why ores are non-renewable resources


-

A non-renewable resource is a resource that cannot be easily replaced once used


Takes greater than 1000 years to replenish
Ores are non-renewable
Limited amount on earth

5.2.4 describe the separation processes, chemical reactions and energy considerations involved in
the extraction of copper from one of its ores
-

Copper is mined, crushed and ground to liberal mineral crystals


Placed in froth flotation where 30% copper is obtained
Copper is roasted in air to extract 98% pure copper with copper and sulfur dioxide mixture
Electrolytic refining used to extract 99.9% pure copper

5.2.5 recount the steps taken to recycle aluminium


-

Aluminium materials separated through magnetic fields


Separated aluminium materials are shredded
Aluminium melted in a furnace and cast into ingots in large moulds
Aluminium ingots reshaped to desired shape and reused

4.2.1 define the mole as the number of atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12 (Avogadros number)
-

A mole is defined as the number of molecules or atoms as there are in exactly 12 grams of
Carbon-12, which is 6.022x1023
Mole is SI unit of matter
One mole of any chemical has the mass equal to its molecular weight in grams

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4.2.2 compare mass changes in samples of metals when they combine with oxygen
4.2.3 describe the contribution of Gay-Lussac to the understanding of gaseous reactions and apply
this to an understanding of the mole concept
-

When gases react, the volumes in which they react and the volumes of gaseous products
formed are in the ratio of simple integers
All volumes measured at the same temperature and pressures
Every mole of gas will occupy the same volume

4.2.4 recount Avogadros law and describe its importance in developing the mole concept
Equal volumes of all gases, at the same temperature and pressure, have the same number of moles

8.4 Water
Types of intermolecular forces
Dispersion force / Van Der Vaals force
-

Weakest
Exists between every molecule
A result of rare and temporary electrostatic instabilities within molecules

Dipole-Dipole
-

Exists between polar molecules with a net charge


Negative ends attract positive ends
A result of imbalanced electrostatic attraction between atoms of molecule
o More reactive molecule is more electronegative (-)
o Less reactive molecule is more electropositive(+)

Hydrogen Bonding
-

Strongest intermolecular force


Only occurs between Hydrogen and Fluorine, oxygen and nitrogen
o A result of high electronegativity difference
o Chlorine does not form hydrogen bonds because electron density is too low and
atom is too large

1.2.1 define the terms solute, solvent and solution


1.2.2 identify the importance of water as a solvent
-

Solute is a substance dissolved in a solvent


Solvent is a substance which other substances are dissolved in
Solution is a homogeneous mixture of a solvent and solute
An aqueous solution has water as the solvent

1.2.3 compare the state, percentage and distribution of water in the biosphere, lithosphere,
hydrosphere and atmosphere
Sphere
Biosphere
Lithosphere
Atmosphere
Hydrosphere

States of water
Liquid
Liquid | Solid
Liquid | Solid | Gas
Liquid | Solid

Abundance (%)
60 - 90
10
15
97

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1.2.4 outline the significance of the different states of water on Earth in terms of water as:
a constituent of cells and its role as both a solvent and a raw material in metabolism
a habitat in which temperature extremes are less than nearby terrestrial habitats
an agent of weathering of rocks both as liquid and solid
a natural resource for humans and other organisms
-

Raw material that is used in chemical reactions


Used as a transport medium
o Transports nutrients and waste away from cells
o Transports carbohydrates and proteins in blood
o Also transports
Required for photosynthesis
Thermal regulator
o Can absorb large amounts of heat
o Beneficial to aquatic life
Agent of weathering
o Physical weathering of rocks
o Minerals dissolved by groundwater

2.2.1 construct Lewis electron dot structures of water, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide to identify the
distribution of electrons
2.2.2 compare the molecular structure of water, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, the differences in
their molecular shapes and in their melting and boiling points

Water

Ammonia

Hydrogen Sulfide

Bent
0 / 100

Triagonal Pyramidal
-77.73 / -33.34

Bent
-82 / -60

Structure

Lewis Electron Dot


Structure
Shape
MP / BP (Degrees
Celsius)

2.2.3 describe hydrogen bonding between molecules


-

Hydrogen bonding is the electrostatic attraction between two polar groups


Occurs between Hydrogen and either oxygen, chlorine, or fluorine

2.2.4 identify the water molecule as a polar molecule


3.2.2 analyse the relationship between the solubility of substances in water and the polar nature of
the water molecule

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Bent molecule
o Has 2 lone pairs
Hydrogen atoms unbalanced in bent shape
Able to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules
Polar substances dissolve in polar substances but not non-polar substances
Non-polar substances dissolve in non-polar substances but not polar substances

2.2.5 describe the attractive forces between polar molecules as dipole-dipole forces
- Dipole-dipole is attraction between two polar molecules
- Formed from imbalance between charged particles
- Polar molecules have electrostatic attraction at ends of molecules
o Bent shape of water makes it polar
o Slight positive charge at hydrogen end attracts to negative end of oxygen
2.2.6 explain the following properties of water in terms of its intermolecular forces:
- surface tension
- viscosity
- boiling and melting points
Surface Tension
-

Physical property
Amount of force per unit area required to expand surface of liquid
Molecule within liquid experiences intermolecular forces all around it
Molecule at surface of liquid experiences intermolecular forces from only next to it and under
it
o Unbalanced force creates inwards force on surface molecules
Surface tension increases as intermolecular force strength increases
Water has hydrogen bonds therefore has high surface tension

Viscosity
-

Resistance of a liquid to flow


Requires molecules moving over each other
Has two main factors
o Size and complexity of molecules
The longer and more complex, the higher the viscosity
o Strength of intermolecular force
Stronger the force, the more resistance it is to flow
Water has comparatively high viscosity when compared to pure liquids
o Extremely strong hydrogen bonding
o Negates small size

Boiling and melting points


-

Dependent on strength of intermolecular force


o Greater the attraction, higher the BP and MP
Water has high BP and MP because of its hydrogen bonds

3.2.1 explain changes, if any, to particles and account for those changes when the following types of
chemicals interact with water:
a soluble ionic compound such as sodium chloride
a soluble molecular compound such as sucrose

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a soluble or partially soluble molecular element or compound such as iodine, oxygen or


hydrogen chloride
a covalent network structure substance such as silicon dioxide
a substance with large molecules, such as cellulose or polyethylene

Soluble Ionic Compound


-

Dissociates (breaks up into positive and negative ions)


Ions form ion-dipole interactions between positive hydrogen atoms and negative oxygen atom

Soluble Molecular Compound


-

Breakup of crystalline structure


Molecules disperse throughout water
Breaks down on molecular level

Soluble or Partially Soluble Molecular Element or Compound


-

Weak dispersion forces between solvent and solute


Low solubilities of such compounds

Covalent Network Structure Substance


-

Water not strong enough to break covalent bonds

Large Molecular Substance


-

Water not strong enough to break covalent bonds


Some molecules which contain F, O or N atoms can form hydrogen bonds with water, making
them soluble

4.2.1 identify some combinations of solutions which will produce precipitates, using solubility data
Soluble Ionic
Compounds
All Group I
Ammonium
Nitrates
Sulfates

Insoluble Ionic
Compounds
Carbonates

Exceptions

Sr, Ba, Pb Insoluble


Ca, Ag Slightly Soluble
Ag Insoluble
Pb Slightly Soluble

Phosphates

All Soluble Ionics

Oxides

Bromine

Ag Insoluble
Pb Slightly Soluble

Hydroxides

All Soluble Ionics


Ba Soluble
Ca Slightly Soluble
All Soluble Ionics
Ba Soluble
Ca Slightly Soluble

Iodine

Ag, Pb Insoluble

Chlorides

Exceptions

All Soluble Ionics

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4.2.2 describe a model that traces the movement of ions when solution and precipitation occur

4.2.3 identify the dynamic nature of ion movement in a saturated dissolution


-

Equilibrium exists when ions dissolving and precipitating at the same rate
No overall change in concentration
Rates of reverse (dissolution) and forward (precipitation) reactions at microscopic levels equal
No net change at macroscopic level
Called dynamic equilibrium

4.2.4 describe the molarity of a solution as the number of moles of solute per litre of solution using:
c

n
V

Measure of number of moles of solute present in a litre of solution


Concentration measured as molarity

Molarity (molL-1) = Number of Moles (mol) / Volume of Solution (L)


4.2.5 explain why different measurements of concentration are important
-

Used for different applications


o Percent solution for hospital use generally
o Parts per million/billion used for measure of pollutants
o Molarity is number of moles dissolved per litre
o Mass per litre used in industry and manufacturing

Mass % = Solute Weight / Solution Weight x 100%


Mass-Volume % = Solute Weight / Solution Volume x 100%
Volume-Volume % = Solute Volume / Solution Volume x 100%

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Ppm = Solute Weight (milligrams) / Solution Weight (kg) or Solution Volume (L)
5.2.1 explain what is meant by the specific heat capacity of a substance
-

Amount of energy to increase temperature of 1 unit of substance by 1 Kelvin


Usually Jg-1K-1 or Jkg-1K-1
Higher MP and BP, higher Specific Heat Capacity

5.2.2 compare the specific heat capacity of water with a range of other solvents
-

Water has high heat capacity at 4.18Jg-1K-1 or 4.18 x 103 Jkg-1K-1


Ethanol has a heat capacity of 1.41Jg-1K-1
Benzene has a heat capacity of 1.05Jg-1K-1
Chloroform has a heat capacity of 0.96Jg-1K-1

5.2.3 explain and use the equation

H mCT

H = Change in energy (Joules)


m = Mass of solution (Kg)
C = Specific Heat Energy (Jkg-1K-1)

T = Change in temperature
-

Measures enthalpy change in a system


Enthalpy is the measurement of energy in a thermodynamic system
o Equivalent to the total heat content of the system

5.2.4 explain how waters ability to absorb heat is used to measure energy changes in chemical
reactions
-

Temperature remains fairly constant due to high specific heat capacity


Known specific heat capacity, density at STP
o Simple integer density allows easier calculations
Can be used in calorimeter

Calorimetry
-

Process of using a calorimeter to measure heat changes in reaction


o An insulated container that can hold a liquid with known specific heat capacity

5.2.5 describe dissolutions which release heat as exothermic and give examples
5.2.6 describe dissolutions which absorb heat as endothermic and give examples
4.2.6 describe the energy profile diagram for both endothermic and exothermic reactions
[ENERGY]
Exothermic Reactions
-

Energy is released
H is negative

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-

Surrounding temperature increases


As H -, T
A result of synthesis and combustion
reactions
o Combustion of fuel
o Nuclear fission
Gas Liquid or Liquid Solid

Exothermic Dissolutions:
NaOH Na+ + OH- , H < 0
SrCl2 Sr2+ + 2Cl- , H < 0

Endothermic Reactions
-

Energy is absorbed
H is positive
Surrounding temperature decreases
As H , T -
A result of decomposition or redox chemical reactions
o Photosynthesis
o Thermal/ light decomposition
Solid Liquid or Liquid Gas

Exothermic Dissolutions:
NH4NO3 NH4+ + NO3- , H > 0
NaCl Na+ + Cl- , H < 0

Endothermic Reaction

Exothermic Reaction

H is positive in endothermic reactions

H is negative in exothermic reactions

5.2.7 explain why waters ability to absorb heat is important to aquatic organisms and to life on
earth generally
-

On hot days, water temperature will remain relatively consistent due to high heat capacity
Temperature fluctuates little
Sustain aquatic life with narrow range of temperature conditions
Able to absorb most of heat from sun
Releases heat at night to keep temperatures from being ice cold

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-

Can trap a lot of heat and be released as sweat


o Effective way to cool down
o Can transpire to cool

5.2.8 explain what is meant by thermal pollution and discuss the implications for life if a body of
water is affected by thermal pollution
-

Thermal pollution is unnatural change in natural water bodies caused by artificial heating of
said bodies
Solubility of gases decreases as temperature of water increases
Increase in 3 5 degrees Celsius will lower dissolved oxygen concentration
o Less oxygen for aquatic oxygen dependent life to use
o May suffocate and die
o Deaths can affect food chain
Also decrease in concentration of dissolved CO2
o Affects aquatic plants which photosynthesis
o Death will affect food chain
Affects organic metabolic rates
o Increase in metabolic and respiration rates
o Increased rate of consumption of dissolved oxygen
Affects organic breeding cycles, migration and spawning cycles
o Less oxygen means less physical ability to travel
o Less likely to reproduce
Can kill organisms from thermal shock

8.5 Energy
1.2.1 outline the role of photosynthesis in transforming light energy to chemical energy and recall
the raw materials for this process
-

Uses solar energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates
o Oxygen is by-product
Complex multi-step reaction
Chlorophyll used as catalyst and site for reaction to occur
6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) + sunlight (chlorophyll) C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g)
o H = 2803kJ/mol (endothermic reaction)

1.2.2 outline the role of the production of high energy carbohydrates from carbon dioxide as the
important step in the stabilisation of the suns energy in a form that can be used by animals as well as
plants
-

Carbohydrate produced is glucose molecules


Chlorophyll required for conversion of light energy into chemical energy
Glucose produced provides energy to photosynthetic organism as well as those that consume
them
Glucose and oxygen is used to produce carbon dioxide and water
Plants convert excess glucose into polymers like starch and cellulose
o Cellulose forms cell wall structure
Animals convert excess glucose and store as glycogen
o Stored in muscle
o Broken down into energy when needed
Usually converted into larger high energy carbohydrates
o More efficient energy storage
o Long term fuel storage
Glucose is a type of fuel
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o Chemical energy released can be used to power processes within cells


Humans store glucose as either fat or glycogen
o Both used to store energy
o Can be broken down when energy required
C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g) 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l)
o H = -2803kJ/mol (exothermic reaction)

1.2.3 identify the photosynthetic origins of the chemical energy in coal, petroleum and natural gas
-

Formed from dead organisms


Contain large amounts of chemical energy from dead plants and animals
Energy stored in chemical bonds are derived from solar energy
Only forms when deceased animal is covered in layers of sediment after recent death
o Bacteria unable to decompose if covered in sediment early
Pressure and heat generated by more sediment layers convert carbon compounds in fossil
fuels

Coal
-

Formed from deceased animals and plants


Quickly covered by sediment to preserve
Pressure and heat converted compounds into coal

Petroleum and Natural Gas


-

Remains of unicellular marine organisms


o Plankton
Underwent anaerobic decay
Matter compacted under layers of sediment
Oil is forced out and travels upwards until halted by rock layer
Accumulates over long periods of time
Petroleum and Natural Gas separates within rock layers

2.2.1 identify the position of carbon in the Periodic Table and describe its electron configuration
-

Atomic number of 6
Contains 6 protons, and 6 neutrons in most common isotope
Carbon-12 isotope most common, 99% natural abundance
Electron configuration of 2,4
Has 4 bonding pairs

2.2.2 describe the structure of the diamond and graphite allotropes and account for their physical
properties in terms of bonding
-

Allotropes are different physical forms or structures of the same element


o Have different physical and chemical properties

Diamond
-

Infinite Covalent Network Lattice


Carbon atoms arranged in tetrahedral in 3D lattice

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o Makes it structurally hard


o Shiny (high Refractive Index)
High melting point due to strong covalent bonds
Non-Malleable
Excellent thermal conductor
o Heat energy transfer is extremely high
o Atoms closely compressed
Bad electrical conductor
o No free delocalised electrons

Graphite
-

Layers of Covalent Network lattices


o Weak dispersion forces holding layers together
o Carbon bonded in hexagonal rings
Weak forces between layers
o Not hard; quite brittle
o Not as compressed and quite spaced out
o Susceptible to shearing force
o Dull, opaque
Good thermal conductor
o Similar to diamond
Good electrical conductor
o Each atom only involved in 3 bonds
o One free electron per atom present
Can move around
Electricity can be transferred through different layers

2.2.3 identify that carbon can form single, double or triple covalent bonds with other carbon atoms
Alkanes
Single Bond

Alkenes
Alkynes
Double Bond
Triple Bond
- Instability as a result of
- Most Reactive of three
- Very Volatile
strength difference
between molecules
- Volatile
Saturated
Unsaturated
Unsaturated
CnH2n+2
CnH2n
CnH2n-2
Saturated in organic chemistry is when there are no double / triple bonds
Double and triple bonds can break to form multiple single bonds

2.2.4 explain the relationship between carbons combining power and ability to form a variety of
bonds and the existence of a large number of carbon compounds
-

High combining power


o 4 Valence electrons
Can form single, double and triple bonds

3.2.1 describe the use of fractional distillation to separate the components of petroleum and identify
the uses of each fraction obtained
Fractional Distillation
-

Separation based on boiling points


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Petroleum is heated to extremely high temperature


Vapour moves through column
Certain fractions condense at different parts of columns
Separation roughly in increasing molecular weight, heaviest at bottom
Least volatile at bottom
Most volatile at top

Fraction
Natural Gas
Petroleum Ether
Benzines
Ligroin
Gasoline
Kerosene
Diesel oil
Lubricating Oil
Vaseline greases
Paraffin waxes

Boiling point (oC)


<20

Carbons
14

20 100
70 90
80 120
40 205

57
67
68
5 10

175 325

10 18

>275
Refinery liquid
Refinery solid
Hard solid

13 18
16 20
18 22
20 30

Bitumen Hard solid


*Underlined should know

Uses
Household gas
LPG
Industrial solvents
Dry Cleaning Solvent
Solvent
Motor vehicles
Separated further
Aviation and tractor
fuel
Disel engine fuel
Lubricants
Pharmaceuticals
Candles, cartons and
waxes
Roads

30 40

3.2.2 identify and use the IUPAC nomenclature for describing straight-chained alkanes and alkenes
from C1 to C8
Single bonds: -anes
Double bonds present: -enes
Triple bonds present: -ynes
C1
Meth

C2
Eth

C3
Prop

C4
But

C5
Pent

C6
Hex

C7
Hept

C8
Oct

3.2.3 compare and contrast the properties of alkanes and alkenes C1 to C8 and use the term
homologous series to describe a series with the same functional group
-

Homologous series contains molecules with same functional groups


Alkanes are homologous series; contains only single bonds
Alkenes are homologous series; contains only 1 double bond

Alkanes
- Low density
- C1 C4 are gases
- C5 C8 are liquids
- Insoluble
- Does not conduct
- Stable

Alkenes
- C2 C4 are gases
- C5 C6 are liquids
- Exists in similar states to alkanes
- Reactive
- Volatile
- Insoluble
- Does not conduct

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3.2.4 explain the relationship between the melting point, boiling point and volatility of the above
hydrocarbons, and their non-polar nature and intermolecular forces (dispersion forces)
Volatility
-

How readily a substance vaporises


Lower the molecular weight of hydrocarbon, greater the volatility
Lower the boiling point, greater the volatility
o Weaker dispersion forces between hydrocarbon molecules

Alkanes and alkenes are non-polar


o No dipole-dipole forces
o No electronegative atoms to form hydrogen bonds

Melting and Boiling Point


-

Dependent on size of hydrocarbon


Larger the hydrocarbon, higher the boiling point
o Stronger dispersion forces
Alkane and Alkenes share similar boiling points
o Hydrogen contributes little to dispersion forces
o Exception with shorter chains
Ethane - -89C
Ethene - -103.7C

3.2.5 assess the safety issues associated with the storage of alkanes C1 to C8 in view of their weak
intermolecular forces (dispersion forces)
-

Weak dispersion forces within liquid alkanes results in high volatility


o Easily combusted
Fuels may be carcinogenic and toxic
Dissolves non-polar substances; cannot store in plastic containers
Stored in regularly maintained gas cylinders to prevent leaks
Stored under high pressure to keep liquefied
Keep area well ventilated to prevent respiratory problems and accumulation of any gaseous
fumes
Regularly test gauge taps and fittings to ensure there are no leaks
Store in cool place
Keep away from anything that can cause a spark
Have fire extinguishers nearby and ensure they work regularly
Use common sense

4.2.1 describe the indicators of chemical reactions


-

Observation of reactants for a change in colour within product


Observation for formation of a gas product or formation of precipitate
Detection of heat being released / absorbed
Observation of a change in odour surrounding reaction or an emission of light

4.2.2 identify combustion as an exothermic chemical reaction


-

Releases heat and light


New products formed
Requires a fuel and oxidant (usually oxygen)

4.2.3 outline the changes in molecules during chemical reactions in terms of bond-breaking and
bond-making
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Displacement reactions
Intramolecular bonds are broken
Energy absorbed from surroundings to break bond
Energy released when new substance is formed
New intramolecular bonds formed during reaction

4.2.4 explain that energy is required to break bonds and energy is released when bonds are formed
-

Energy required to overcome intramolecular forces


o Needs to be greater than intramolecular forces
Draws energy from surroundings
o Endothermic reaction
When forming bonds, energy released by bond formation
o Exothermic reaction
o Takes less energy to form bonds than break bonds

4.2.5 describe the energy needed to begin a chemical reaction as activation energy
Activation Energy
-

Energy required to begin a chemical reaction


Need to overcome energy barrier for reaction to start
o Reach a state where molecules are excited and moving quickly
o Increases frequency and likelihood of collisions
Collision theory states particles must collide to react
o Must collide with enough energy
o Be in the correct orientation

4.2.7 explain the relationship between ignition temperature and activation energy
Ignition Temperature
- Minimum temperature before
combustion
- All reactants and products are gaseous

Activation Energy
- Energy required to begin chemical
reaction
- Reactants and products exist in all three
states
- Energy supplied by ignition temperature
begins reaction
If high ignition temperature, high activation energy

4.2.8 identify the sources of pollution which accompany the combustion of organic compounds and
explain how these can be avoided
-

Combustion produces carbon dioxide


o Pollutant which enhances greenhouse effect
Reducing deforestation and planting more trees will reduce CO 2 in atmosphere
Solid carbon called soot and nitrogen dioxide also released into atmosphere
o Will interfere with rain clouds and acidify rain
Incomplete combustion releases carbon monoxide
o Toxic and colourless
o Can be fatal
o Slowly suffocate if inhaled; attaches easier to haemoglobin in blood
o Can be reduced through catalytic converters

4.2.9 describe chemical reactions by using full balanced chemical equations to summarise examples
of complete and incomplete combustion

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Complete Combustion
CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2H2O (l)
Incomplete Combustion
2CH4 (g) + 3O2 (g) 2CO (g) + 4H2O (l)
CH4 (g) + O2 (g) C (s) + 2H2O (l)
5.2.1 describe combustion in terms of slow, spontaneous and explosive reactions and explain the
conditions under which these occur
Slow Combustion
-

Occur over long periods of time


Heat release may not immediately evident if very slow
Metal + Oxygen Metal Oxide is slow combustion
Burning fuel with small surface area is also slow combustion

Spontaneous Combustion
-

Heat build up to ignition temperature


Automatic combustion
Usually due to low activation energy and ignition temperatures
o Can combust spontaneously in air

Explosive Combustion
-

Occurs when flammable gases or vapours combust


A result of rapid gaseous expansion
Sudden increase in surface area
Exponential growth of products and reactants accelerating away from source
o Cause of explosion
Rapid reaction
o Must have an ignition source to begin OR
o Have large amounts of energy

5.2.2 explain the importance of collisions between reacting particles as a criterion for determining
reaction rates
-

Whilst all particles are moving, they do not have sufficient energy to create reactions
Collisions must occur with sufficient energy for reaction to occur
Reaction rate dependent on concentration of reactants
Increase reaction rate by:
o Increasing concentration or surface area of reactants to increase amount of
possible collisions
o Increase kinetic energy of particles by adding energy or increasing temperature
o Using a catalyst to lower activation energy

5.2.3 explain the relationship between temperature and the kinetic energy of particles
-

Temperature or heat supplies activation energy for reaction


o Increase in temperature or heat energy means increase in kinetic energy
Supplied heat energy is converted to kinetic energy within the particle
o Increases speed at which they travel
o Increases likelihood of collision occurring

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5.2.4 describe the role of catalysts in chemical reactions, using a named industrial catalyst as an
example
5.2.5 explain the role of catalysts in changing the activation energy and hence the rate of chemical
reaction
Catalyst
-

Increases rate of reaction


Is not consumed in the reaction
o Does not participate in reaction
o Can be used again and again
Lowers activation energy
Homogenous catalysts exist in same state as reactants
Heterogeneous catalyst are usually solids
o Provides surface for increased rate of reaction

Aluminium Oxide
-

Used in catalytic cracker plants


Large alkanes are broken down
Reactions require high temperature, but catalyst lowers it
Absorbs larger molecules to surface
o Weakens covalent bonds
o Lowers activation energy
Sufficient energy now able to break bonds

Iron (III) Oxide


-

Used in Ammonia Haber plants


Used to combine hydrogen and nitrogen gas to form ammonia

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