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Core Knowledge Sequence UK: All Subjects, All Years

Last updated: 24 February 2014

The Core Knowledge Sequence UK


The Core Knowledge Sequence UK is a year-by-year outline of the specific and shared content and
skills to be taught in Years 1 to 6. This springboard for learning provides the foundation for a sound,
well-rounded education in the arts, humanities and sciences.
Current events and technology are constantly changing, but there remains a significant body of enduring
knowledge and skills that form the foundation of a strong curriculum.
All children should be able to unlock the library of the world's literature; to comprehend the world around
them; to understand where they stand (literally) on the globe, and to realise the heritage that the history of
their country has bestowed on them. In order to achieve this, it is important for every child to learn the
fundamentals of mathematics; basic principles of science; theories and structures of government; significant
events and themes from history; masterpieces of art, music and literature from around the world; and stories
and poems that have been passed down through the generations.
By explicitly identifying what children should learn in each academic year, it is possible to ensure a coherent
approach to developing cumulative knowledge across all school years, making the most efficient and
effective use of teaching time.
Over the past 20 years, the Core Knowledge Foundation has developed and refined the Core Knowledge
Sequence in partnership with schools implementing the curriculum. Our own edition of the anglicised
Sequence UK reflects these practical insights gained by real teachers and real pupils in real classrooms.

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The Core Knowledge Sequence UK


English Language and Literature: Year 1
Building non-fiction background knowledge in a coherent and sequenced way within and across years can
be accomplished most effectively by integrating the topics from history, geography, science and the arts in
the Core Knowledge Sequence UK into English Language and Literature. In the Sequence UK there are
many cross-curricular connections between Language and Literature (e.g. poems, stories and sayings) and
topics in history, science, visual arts and music, which are advantageously integrated.

I. LISTENING AND SPEAKING


Teachers: Shortly after a baby is born, an amazingly complex, interactive communication process begins
between the infant and others in his/her environment. Whilst it may seem like an obvious statement, it is
nonetheless worth making the point that listening and speaking are the primary means of communication
throughout the early years of a young childs development. Furthermore, reading and writing competencies
are intricately connected with competencies in listening and speaking. Traditional literacy teaching has
typically accorded little, if any, attention to the ongoing development of childrens listening and speaking
abilities and, instead, focus on reading and writing skills. However, it is important to work deliberately to
develop and extend childrens listening and speaking skills while simultaneously beginning to introduce
reading, and then writing. Children who are fortunate enough to participate in literacy teaching that
recognises the importance of continuing to build listening and speaking competencies while also beginning
reading and writing instruction will, in the end, be far more literate adults.
A. CLASSROOM DISCUSSION
Participate in age-appropriate activities for Year 1 involving listening and speaking.
Speak clearly with volume appropriate to the setting.
Use agreed-upon rules for group discussions. For example: look at and listen to the speaker, raise
hand to speak, take turns, say excuse me or please, etc.
Ask questions to clarify conversations, directions, exercises and/or classroom routines.
Carry on and participate in a conversation over four to five turns, staying on topic, initiating
comments or responding to a partners comments, with either an adult or another Year 1 child.
Identify and express physical sensations, mental states and emotions of self and others.
Understand and use language to express spatial and temporal relationships. For example: up, down,
first, last, before, after, etc.
Understand and use narrative language to describe people, places, things, locations, events and
actions.
Understand and use common sayings and phrases such as Better safe than sorry and Look before
you leap.
B. PRESENTATION OF IDEAS AND INFORMATION
Follow multi-step, oral directions.
Give simple directions.
Provide simple explanations.
Recite a nursery rhyme, poem or song independently.
C. COMPREHENSION AND DISCUSSION OF TEXTS
Teachers: Written text makes use of richer vocabulary and more complex syntax than conversational
language. It is important for young children to be exposed not only to the language of everyday conversation
but also to the richer and more formal language of books. This can be done through frequent reading aloud.
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Helping children develop the ability to listen to and understand written texts read aloud is an integral part of
building literacy skills.
In Year 1, a childs ability to understand what s/he hears far outpaces her or his independent ability to read
and understand written text. By listening to stories or non-fiction selections read aloud, children can
experience the complexities of written language without expending cognitive energy on decoding; they can
likewise access deeper and more complex content knowledge than they are presently able to read
independently.
Careful consideration has been given to the poetry, fiction and nonfiction selections below to ensure that the
vocabulary and syntax presented is rich and complex. Levelled texts (texts for beginner readers) will not
provide the rich language experience that is desired during read-alouds and should only be used here as a
starting point for reading aloud with pupils for whom English is a second language. Non-fiction read-alouds
have been selected on the basis of the history, science, music and visual arts topics identified in the
Sequence UK for Year 1 children, with an emphasis on history and science read-alouds. It is strongly
recommended that daily read-alouds focus on a single topic over a sustained period of timeabout two
weeksrather than intermingling read-alouds on a variety of subjects. Careful consideration should be given
to the order in which non-fiction read-alouds are presented to ensure that knowledge about a topic builds in a
progressive and coherent way.
Prior to a read-aloud, teachers should identify what pupils know and have learned that may be related to the
specific story or topic to be read aloud. Use pictures accompanying the read-aloud to check and support
childrens understanding of the read-aloud.
Following any read-aloud, children should participate in rich, structured conversations with an adult in
response to the written text that has been read aloud. In this way, they can begin to practise orally
comparing, analysing, and forming ideas in written text in much the same way as they will be expected to do
as independent readers in the later years.

Listen to and understand a variety of texts read aloud, including fictional stories, fairy tales, fables,
historical narratives, drama, informational text and poems.
Grasp specific details and key ideas.
o Describe illustrations.
o Sequence four to six pictures illustrating events in a read-aloud.
o Answer questions requiring literal recall and understanding the details and/or facts of a readaloud, i.e. who, what, when, where, why.
o Retell key details.
o Ask questions to clarify information in a read-aloud.
Observe craft and structure.
o Understand and use words and phrases heard in read-alouds.
o Compare and contrast similarities and differences within a single read-aloud or between two
or more read-alouds.
o Make personal connections to events or experiences in a read-aloud and/or make
connections among several read-alouds.
Integrate information and evaluation evidence.
o Make predictions prior to and during a read-aloud, based on the title, pictures and/or text
heard thus far and then compare predictions to the actual outcomes.
o Answer questions that require making interpretations, forming judgments, or giving opinions
about what is heard in a read-aloud, including answering why questions that require
recognising cause/effect relationships.
o Identify who is telling a story or providing information in a text.

D. COMPREHENSION AND DISCUSSION OF READ-ALOUDSFICTION, DRAMA AND POETRY


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Retell or dramatise a story, using narrative language to describe characters; setting(s); and a
beginning, a middle and an end to events of the story in proper sequence.
Change some story events and provide a different story ending.
Create and tell an original story, using narrative language to describe characters; setting(s); and a
beginning, a middle and an end to events of the story in proper sequence.
Distinguish fantasy from realistic text in a story.
Demonstrate understanding of literary language and use some of these terms in retelling stories or
creating own stories, including: author, illustrator, characters, setting, plot and dialogue.

E. COMPREHENSION AND DISCUSSION OF READ-ALOUDSNON-FICTION AND INFORMATIONAL


TEXT
Teachers: Select non-fiction read-aloud topics from the Year 1 history, science, music and visual arts topics,
placing an emphasis on history and science.
Retell important facts and information from a non-fiction read-aloud.
With assistance, categorise and organise facts and information within a given topic.
With assistance, create and interpret timelines and lifelines related to read-alouds.
Distinguish read-alouds that describe events that happened long ago from those that describe
contemporary or current events.

II. READING
A. PRINT AWARENESS
Demonstrate a sense of understanding that what is said can be written and that the writing system is
a way of writing down sounds.
Understand that reading consists of a specific sense of directionality: reading left to right, return
sweep after finishing reading a line, reading top to bottom, reading a book from front to back.
Identify the parts of a book and the function of each part: front cover, back cover, title page and table
of contents.
Distinguish between letters, words, sentences and stories.
Demonstrate an understanding of basic print conventions by tracking and following print word for
word when listening to text read aloud.
Demonstrate an understanding that the sequence of letters in a written word represents the
sequence of sounds in the spoken word.
Recognise and name the 26 letters of the alphabet in both their upper-case and lower-case forms.
Learn the difference between consonants and vowels.
B. PHONOLOGICAL AND PHONEMIC AWARENESS
Identify whether pairs of environmental sounds (keys jingling, scissors cutting, clapping) are the
same or different.
Count the number of environmental sounds heard, e.g., clapping, rhythm band instruments.
Orally segment sentences into discrete words.
Demonstrate an understanding that words are made up of sequences of sounds.
Given a pair of spoken words, select the one that is longer (i.e. contains more phonemes).
In riddle games, supply words that begin with a target phoneme.
Indicate whether a target phoneme is or is not present in the initial, medial or final position of a
spoken word. For example: hear /m/ at the beginning of mat and /g/ at the end of bag.
Listen to one-syllable words and tell the beginning or ending sounds. For example: given dog,
identify /d/ or final /g/.
Recognise the same phoneme in different spoken words. For example: recognise /b/ in ball, bug and
big.
Identify whether pairs of phonemes are the same or different, including pairs that differ only in voice.
For example: examine /b/ and /p/.
Orally blend two to three sounds to form a word. For example: given the sounds /m/ /a/ /t/, blend
to make mat.
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Segment a spoken word into phonemes. For example: given bat, produce the segments /b/ /a/ /t/.
Given a spoken word, produce another word that rhymes. For example: given hit, supply bit or mitt.
Identify the number of syllables in a spoken word.

C. PHONICS: DECODING AND ENCODING


Teachers: Learning to read requires understanding and mastering the written English code through explicit
and systematic phonics instruction. Research suggests that phonics instruction is most effective when
specific letter-sound relationships are taught and reinforced by having children both read and write the lettersound correspondence being studied. Research has also shown that children who are taught to read using
approaches based on synthetic phonics make the most rapid progress. Reading and writingdecoding and
encodingare complementary processes that ensure mastery of the written code. Teachers and schools
should choose a phonics programme that works best for them. Some popular published programmes are:
The Butterfly Book by Irina Tyk (Civitas), Jolly Phonics (Jolly Learning), Read-Write Inc. (Ruth Miskin
Literacy) and Step by Step Reading by Mona McNee (Galore Park).
Demonstrate a sense of understanding that a systematic, predictable relationship exists between
written letters (graphemes) and spoken sounds (phonemes).
Blend individual phonemes to pronounce printed words.
Read and write any CVC word. For example: sit or cat.
D. ORAL READING AND FLUENCY
Read decodable stories that incorporate the specific code knowledge that has been taught.
Use phonics skills in conjunction with context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and
understanding, rereading as necessary.
Demonstrate an understanding of and use commas and end punctuation while reading orally.
Read aloud, alone or with a partner for at least 15 minutes each day.
E. READING COMPREHENSION: ALL TEXTS
Teachers: It is important to recognise that Year 1 children are taught only some of the many letter-sound
correspondences a reader needs to know to read a wide range of printed material. As a result, many Year 1
children will be able to read independently only simple written texts. At this level, mental energy will be
directed primarily to the act of reading, i.e. decoding. A focus on the mechanics of decoding is appropriate
and desirable at this early stage in the reading process. Attention to reading comprehension should be
directed to ensuring a fundamental understanding of what has been read. In Year 1, it will generally be more
effective and efficient to devote time to higher level thinking and comprehension skills at the listening and
speaking level in response to written texts that are read aloud.
Demonstrate an understanding of simple, decodable text after reading independently.
Grasp specific details and key ideas.
o Answer questions requiring literal recall and understanding details and/or facts (i.e., who,
what, where, when) about a text that has been read independently.
o Retell or dramatise a story, using narrative language to describe characters; setting(s); and
a beginning, a middle and an end to events of the story in proper sequence.
o Use narrative language to describe people, places, things, locations, events, actions, a
scene or facts from a text that has been read independently.
Observe craft and structure.
o Understand and use words and phrases from a text that has been read independently.
Integrate information and evaluate evidence (Note: prior to reading, teachers should identify what
pupils know and have learned that may be related to the specific story or topic to be read. Use
pictures accompanying the written text to check and support understanding.)
o Make predictions prior to and while reading, based on the title, pictures and/or text read thus
far and then compare the actual outcomes to predictions.
o Identify who is telling a story or providing information in a text.

III. WRITING

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Teachers: It is important to recognise that of all the communication skillslistening, speaking, reading and
writingwriting is the most demanding and challenging, especially for Year 1 children who are just learning
not only the code, but also the fine motor skills and letter strokes necessary to put something down on paper.
At some point during Year 1, however, most children will feel comfortable enough with the basic skills to
begin making a transition to writing more independently. Young childrens desire to express themselves in
writing should be heartily encouraged. To this end, it is important that teachers have age-appropriate
expectations about what Year 1 pupils writing should resemble. It is therefore premature to expect that
words in their independent writing will be spelled correctly. It is reasonable to expect pupils to use the lettersound correspondences they have learned to set down plausible spellings for the sounds in the word. For
example, a pupil who writes bote for boat, dun for done, or hed for head has set down a plausible spelling for
each sound in the word. Dictionary-correct spelling will be a realistic goal when pupils have learned more
spellings and learned how to use a dictionary to check spelling.
In addition, pupils can also participate in shared writing exercises modelled by an adult. The focus in shared
writing should be on encouraging the pupils to express themselves verbally in a coherent manner and in
complete sentences, as the teacher serves as a scribe.
Write to reflect audience, purpose and task.
o Draw pictures to represent a text that has been heard or read independently.
o Draw pictures to represent a preference or opinion.
o Write narratives, informative and explanatory texts, and offer an opinion through shared
writing exercises.
o With assistance, add details to writing.
o Create a title or caption to accompany a picture and/or shared writing.

IV. LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS


A. HANDWRITING AND SPELLING
Hold a pencil with a pincer grasp and make marks on paper.
Trace, copy and print from memory the 26 letters of the alphabet in both their upper-case and lowercase forms.
Write from left to right, leaving spaces between words, and using return sweep from top to bottom.
Children may write phonetically plausible spellings for words by applying their current level of phonic
knowledge.
Write words, phrases and sentences from dictation, applying phonics knowledge.
Apply basic spelling conventions.
B. PARTS OF SPEECH AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE
Form letters, words, phrases and sentences to communicate thoughts and ideas.
Use and understand question words such as: what, where, when, who, how.
Form regular plural nouns by adding s or es. For example: dog, dogs; wish, wishes.
Demonstrate an understanding of frequently occurring prepositions. For example: to/from, in/out,
on/off.
Produce and expand complete sentences orally and in shared writing exercises.
C. CAPITALISATION AND PUNCTUATION
Use basic capitalisation and punctuation in sentences to convey meaning.
o Capitalise the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.
o Identify and use end punctuation, including: full stops, question marks and exclamation
marks.

V. POETRY
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Teachers: Children should be introduced to a varied selection of poetry with strong rhyme and rhythm.
Children should hear these rhymes read aloud, and should say some of them aloud. Some rhymes may also
be sung to familiar melodies. The poems listed here represent some of the most popular and widely
anthologised titles; children may certainly be introduced to more Mother Goose rhymes beyond the selection
below. Although children are not expected to memorise the following rhymes, they will delight in knowing
their favourites by heart, and will experience a sense of achievement and satisfaction in being able to recite
some of the rhymes. [Note regarding Reception: some of the poems and stories specified here are
appropriate for Reception children. Indeed, one would hope that most Reception children would enter Year 1
having heard, for example, some Mother Goose rhymes or the story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears.
This is a selected core of poetry for Year 1 that children should become familiar with. You are encouraged to
expose children to more poetry, old and new. To bring children into the spirit of poetry, read it aloud and
encourage them to speak it aloud so they can experience the music in the words.
A. TRADITIONAL POEMS
Baa, Baa, Black Sheep
Diddle, Diddle, Dumpling
Early to Bed
Georgie Porgie
Hey, Diddle, Diddle
Hickory, Dickory, Dock
Hot Cross Buns!
Humpty Dumpty
Its Raining, Its Pouring
Jack and Jill
Jack Be Nimble
Jack Sprat
Ladybird, Ladybird
Little Bo Peep
Little Boy Blue
Little Jack Horner
Little Miss Muffet
Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary
Old King Cole
Old Mother Hubbard
One, Two, Buckle My Shoe
Rain, Rain, Go Away
Roses Are Red
Seesaw, Margery Daw
Simple Simon
Sing a Song of Sixpence
Star Light, Star Bright
There Was a Little Girl
There Was an Old Woman Who Lived in a Shoe
Three Blind Mice
B. OTHER POEMS, OLD AND NEW
Boat (Michael Rosen)
Happy Thought (Robert Louis Stevenson)
I Do Not Mind You, Winter Wind (Jack Prelutsky) [See Year 1 Science]
Mary Had a Little Lamb (Sarah Josepha Hale)
Rain (Robert Louis Stevenson) [See Year 1 Science]
The More It Snows (A. A. Milne) [Cross-curricular connection with Year 1 Science]
The Wind (Christina Rossetti) [Cross-curricular connection with Year 1 Science]
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Three Little Kittens (Eliza Lee Follen)


Time to Rise (Robert Louis Stevenson)

VI. FICTION
Teachers: The following works make up a strong core of literature, including stories, fables and poems that
provide an excellent foundation for children. This selection also develops childrens operational knowledge of
how written symbols represent sounds, and how those sounds and symbols convey meaning. The stories
specified below are meant to complement, not to replace, materials designed to help children practise
decoding and encoding skills (see above, section II. Reading and section III. Writing).
The following works constitute a core of stories for Year 1, which are meant to be read-aloud texts. Expose
children to many more stories, including classic picture books and other read-aloud books. (In schools,
teachers across years should communicate their choices in order to avoid undue repetition.) Children should
also be exposed to non-fiction prose: biographies, books on science and history, books on art and music,
etc. Children should also be given opportunities to tell and write their own stories.
A. STORIES
The Bremen Town Musicians (Brothers Grimm)
Chicken Little (also known as Henny-Penny)
Cinderella (Charles Perrault)
Goldilocks and the Three Bears (traditional)
King Midas and the Golden Touch (traditional)
The Little Red Hen (traditional)
Little Red Riding Hood (traditional)
Snow White (Brothers Grimm)
The Three Billy Goats Gruff (traditional)
The Three Little Pigs (traditional)
The King with Horses Ears (Irish folktale)
Tug-of-War (African folktale)
The Tiger, the Brahmin and the Jackal (Indian folktale)
The Ugly Duckling (Hans Christian Andersen)
Selections from Winnie-the-Pooh (A. A. Milne)
The Wolf and the Seven Little Kids (Brothers Grimm)
The Velveteen Rabbit (Margery Williams)
B. AESOPS FABLES
The Lion and the Mouse
The Grasshopper and the Ants
The Dog and His Reflection
The Hare and the Tortoise
C. FOLK HEROES AND TALL TALES
St. George and the Dragon [Cross-curricular connection with Year 1 Visual Arts]
King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table [Cross-curricular connection with Year 1 Visual Arts]
o The Sword in the Stone

D. LITERARY TERMS
Teachers: As children become familiar with stories, discuss the following terms (first introduced in section I.
D.).
Author
Illustrator

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VII. SAYINGS AND PHRASES


Teachers: Every culture has phrases and proverbs that make no sense when carried over literally into
another culture. The sayings have been one of the categories most appreciated by teachers who work with
children from different cultural backgrounds. For some children, this section may not be needed; they will
have picked up these sayings by hearing them at home and among friends.
A dog is a mans best friend.
April showers bring May flowers.
Better safe than sorry.
Do as you would be done by. (Also known as 'the golden rule').
The early bird gets the worm.
Great oaks from little acorns grow.
Look before you leap.
A place for everything and everything in its place.
Practice makes perfect.
Its raining cats and dogs.
Where theres a will theres a way.

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History and Geography: Year 1


Teachers: In Year 1, children often study aspects of the world around them: the family, the school, the
community, etc. The following guidelines are meant to broaden and complement that focus. The goal of
studying selected topics in world history in Year 1 is to foster curiosity and the beginnings of understanding
about the larger world outside the childs locality, and to introduce them to varied civilisations and ways of
life. This can be done through a variety of means: story, drama, art, music, discussion and more.
The study of geography embraces many topics throughout the Core Knowledge Sequence UK, including
topics in history and science. Geographic knowledge includes a spatial sense of the world, an awareness of
the physical processes that shape life, a sense of the interactions between humans and their environment,
an understanding of the relations between places and cultures and an awareness of the characteristics of
specific regions and cultures.
Geography begins with the question where? In order to understand physical and human phenomena, we
need to know where they are located. Then we can begin to examine what is around them and how they are
related to surrounding phenomena. We need to understand the processes that shape the physical and
human worlds, how they interact and why things are located where they are, as well as how spatial
arrangements and places change with time. Finally, geographers seek to understand humans in their
environment. Geographys foundational concepts include:
Location: where things are
Place: conditions at a given place which give it meaning
Links: connections between locations
Region: a territory sharing some homogenous geographical characteristics.
The aim of the geography section of the Sequence UK is to introduce children to the geography of the UK
and the world, as well as teach the skills needed to use maps and globes and think spatially. Regional
geography and spatial sense can be taught alongside or combined with human and physical geography. The
sequence of UK regions should be taught in an order that makes sense relative to the location of the school
or home. Therefore, it would be wise to teach the local region first.

WORLD HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY


I. SPATIAL SENSE (WORKING WITH MAPS, GLOBES AND OTHER GEOGRAPHICAL
TOOLS)
Teachers: Foster childrens geographical awareness through regular work with maps and globes. Have
students regularly locate themselves on maps and globes in relation to the places they are studying.
Children should make and use a simple map of a locality (such as classroom, home, school grounds or
treasure hunt).
A. THE CLASSROOM/SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT
Understand the concept of an aerial perspective. For example, draw objects from the side and above
and discuss the differences. Draw plans (aerial views) of objects arranged on a desk or the
classroom floor, beginning with looking down on the objects from above.
Use a plan of the classroom, constructed with a basic key, to locate and retrieve objects (pupils
could design this plan together with their teacher). Use the plan to describe where things are located
in the classroom in relation to other objects using terms like next to, far from, behind, under, etc.
Give directions (left, right, forwards, backwards) including distance (number of steps) to find objects
located in the classroom and different parts of the school.

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Understand the spatial layout of the school: buildings, playground, field, entrance, etc.
o Be able to read a simplified map of the school.
o Discuss where things are in relation to each other and how to navigate around the school
grounds using the points of the compass: north, south, east and west.

II. AN OVERVIEW OF THE SEVEN CONTINENTS


Teachers: Help children to gain the beginnings of a geographic vocabulary and a basic sense of how we
organise and talk about the world by giving names to some of the biggest pieces of land. Introduce children
to the seven continents through a variety of methods and media (tracing, colouring, relief maps, etc.), and
associate the continents with familiar wildlife, landmarks, etc. For example, there are penguins in Antarctica
and the Eiffel Tower is in France on the European continent. Throughout the school year, reinforce names
and locations of continents when potential connections arise in other disciplines as suggested below and
whenever other opportunities arise.
A. GLOBE/WORLD MAP
Teachers: In later years, children will continue to learn about each of the continents as well as specific
countries and peoples.
Terms: island, continent, ocean, country, map, globe, north, east, south, west.
Differentiate between land and sea using a globe.
Locate the seven continents, the North and South Poles, the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
Understand direction: north, south, east and west.
Identify the seven continents and describe unique geographical attributes of each continent including
animals, plants, cities, landscape features, famous people and famous buildings:
o Asia [Cross-curricular connection with Year 1 Language and Literature: The Tiger, the
Brahmin and the Jackal]
o Europe [Cross-curricular connection with Year 1 Language and Literature: Grimms fairy
tales]
o Africa [Cross-curricular connection with Year 1 Science: Jane Goodall]
o North America [Cross-curricular connection with Year 1 Science: the Wright brothers]
o South America
o Antarctica
o Australia
Locate the British Isles and explain what makes an island.

BRITISH HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY


Teachers: The Sequence UK covers British history as a chronological narrative, from pre-history until the
twentieth century. Certain important events will be covered more than once, as children acquire the skills and
maturity to appreciate their significance at a deeper level in later years. The term British is used to describe
people and places in the United Kingdom, i.e. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, although
Northern Ireland is not part of Great Britain. The term British Isles refers to Britain and Ireland, including the
Republic of Ireland.

I. GEOGRAPHY

Use a map of the UK.


o Name and locate the continent, country and county in which you live.
o Name and locate England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Understand important features of the UK.


o Identify and describe some geographical differences between England, Scotland, Wales and
Northern Ireland.
o Identify the Union flag and the component parts.

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II. FROM PRE-HISTORY TO HISTORY


Teachers: This account of the pre-history of the British Isles is necessarily brief and simple. It draws on the
disciplines of history and geography to explore important themes in Britains pre-history, such as the effects
of being separated from the continental landmass. This will be developed further in later years.
A. ISLANDS
Understand an island as a body of land surrounded by water.
Use examples to understand that islands can be very big or very small. For example: Ireland is a
large island, whereas the Isle of Wight is a smaller island.
B. ICE AGE, STONE AGE, BRONZE AGE AND IRON AGE
Teachers: The descriptions of the Ice Age, Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age exemplify how long periods
of human development are often described by reference to single, defining characteristics. The arrival of the
Romans in Britain allowed the development of written history, because the Romans brought with them the
skill of literacy.
Identify the defining characteristics and broad chronology of the periods of the Ice Age, Stone Age,
Bronze Age and Iron Age.
Understand the importance of reading and writing for communicating ideas and information. Imagine
what life would be like if it was not possible to read or write.
Understand the difference between pre-history and written history.

III. KINGS AND QUEENS


Teachers: The monarchy is one of the most famous institutions in Britain. The Queen is the head of state
and still maintains a constitutional role. For hundreds of years, however, the monarch was largely
responsible for the entire management of the countrys affairs. Kings and queens took decisions about
waging war, about promoting or persecuting religious beliefs, about government policies and expenditures.
Understanding the transition from the autocratic and unlimited power of early monarchs to the limited
constitutional role of contemporary British monarchs is integral to understanding modern society and politics.
The changing balance of power between the crown, parliament and the people will be explored throughout
the Sequence UK.
Understand the significance of kings and queens in British history.
Understand the following historic events:
o The barons of England forced King John to sign the Magna Carta on 15 June, 1215. This
limited the power of the monarch.
o King John was succeeded by his son Henry III, who also alienated the barons. They rose in
revolt and the most powerful of them, Simon de Montfort, called a parliament that included
not only the barons but representatives of towns and counties for the first time.
o Charles I believed in the Divine Right of Kings (that God had given him the authority to do as
he wished) and was unwilling to be constrained by parliament. This led to a civil war and his
execution.
o The Commonwealth (1649-1660) was the period when Britain had no monarch, and was
ruled by Parliament and Oliver Cromwell.
o The Restoration of the monarchy took place in 1660. Charles II then ruled with a parliament.
o The Glorious Revolution of 1688 took place when James II was forced to flee after his failed
attempt to overrule parliament.
o William III and Mary II became joint monarchs and signed the Declaration of Rights, officially
limiting the power of the monarch and establishing in principle the constitutional monarchy
that we still have today.
Understand the role of Kings and Queens today and name the current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II.

IV. PRIME MINISTERS


Teachers: Introduce children to the importance of the Prime Minister in a parliamentary democracy.
Understand how the office of Prime Minister developed historically.
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Robert Walpole achieved influence with George II and with the House of Commons. He
became the most important minister in the Cabinet: the first Prime Minister.
o As the power of the monarchy decreased, the influence of the Parliament and the Prime
Minister grew.
Understand the role of the Prime Minister today.
o Today the Prime Minister is in charge of government.
o The Prime Minister has regular meetings with the Queen to tell her about the discussions of
the Cabinet.
o The Prime Minister lives at 10 Downing Street in London.

V. SYMBOLS AND FIGURES

Understand important British symbols and figures, including:


o The Union Jack
o Buckingham Palace
o 10 Downing Street
o The Houses of Parliament

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Visual Arts: Year 1


Teachers: In schools, lessons on the visual arts should illustrate important elements of making and
appreciating art, and emphasise important artists, works of art, and artistic concepts. It is often appropriate
for works in the visual arts to be linked with subject matter in other disciplines; particularly in history and
geography, but also with language and literature, and some of these links are suggested. While the following
guidelines specify a variety of artworks in different media and from various times and places, they are not
intended to be comprehensive. Teachers are encouraged to build upon the core content and expose children
to a wide range of art and artists, andwhenever possibleto take children to see the works of art they
have studied. For this reason, many of the works suggested for consideration can be found in Britain, or
British collections.

I. ELEMENTS OF ART: COLOUR AND LINE


Teachers: The generally recognised elements of art include line, shape, form, space, light, texture, and
colour. In Year 1, introduce children to line and colour. Engage students in recognising and using different
kinds of lines and colours, and point out lines and colours you see around you, in everything from the built
environment to the natural world.
A. COLOUR

Observe how colours can create different feelings and how certain colours can seem warm (red,
orange, yellow) or cool (blue, green, grey).
Identify and describe the use of colourthinking about how it sets the scene, creates an atmosphere
or feelingin:
o Pieter Bruegel, The Hunters in the Snow, 1565 (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna)
o David Hockney, A Bigger Splash, 1967 (Tate Modern, London)
o Henri Rousseau, Surprised! A Tiger in a Tropical Storm,1891 (National Gallery, London)
o Vincent van Gogh, Sunflowers,1888 (National Gallery, London)

B. LINE

Identify and use different lines: straight, zigzag, curved, wavy, thick, thin.
Observe and describe different kinds of lines in:
o Rembrandt van Rijn, Saskia in a Straw Hat, 1633 (Kupferstichkabinett, Berlin)
o Pierre Bonnard, The Luncheon (Le Djeuner), 1923 (National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin)
o Joan Mir, Painting (Peinture), 1925 (National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh)

II. TYPES OF ART: SCULPTURE


Teachers: We introduce children to sculpture, or three-dimensional, 'all-around' art. We introduce various
types and styles of sculpture, and encourage children to make their own sculptures. [Cross-curricular links
with British History and Geography]
Hubert Le Sueur, King Charles the First, 1633 (Trafalgar Square, London)

Hamo Thornycroft, Oliver Cromwell, 1899 (Palace of Westminster, London)


E. H. Baily, Lord Horatio Nelson, 1840-43 (Trafalgar Square, London)
Henry Moore, Family Group, 1944 (Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge)
Edgar Degas, Little Dancer Aged Fourteen, 1880-81 (Tate, Liverpool)
Barbara Hepworth, Infant, 1929 (Tate, St Ives)
Antony Gormley, Angel of the North, 1998 (Gateshead)

III: LOOKING AT AND TALKING ABOUT WORKS OF ART


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Teachers: After children have been introduced to some elements of art and a range of artworks and artists,
and had opportunities for making art, engage them in looking at pictures and talking about them in greater
depth. Encourage the children to use the new words they have been learning as they talk, to expand their
word banks and enhance their oracy at the same time. Begin by asking questions about the lines and
colours, move on to describing or identifying any details which have caught the childrens attention,
progressing to thoughts the children have about why the artist/s worked in a particular way or style, and
what they might have been trying to say or communicate to us.
A. THE LANGUAGE OF ART
Teachers: This section includes a selection of useful and specialist words for talking about works of art. You
will find that you can use many of these terms in other areas of your teaching, particularly language and
literacy (where it is also customary to consider character, narrative, style etc.). Aim to enable the children to
understand these terms; at this stage very few will be use these terms in their speech, but building
recognition and re-call is an important step towards this.
Style: the way a work of art looks (in literature, the way something has been written or sounds)
Narrative: the word we use for a story in a work of art
Character: a word to refer to the main or important figures in a work of art or literature; but also a
term to describe a type of figure or person, such as hero
B. TALKING ABOUT PAINTINGS OF CHILDREN
Teachers: Use detailed looking and talking about the following paintings to embed what the children have
learned on the elements of art. Also help the children to verbalise they can observe about the depicted
children, such as their status or relationship, how old they are, what are they doing, where they are and how
might they be feeling (always referring back to things that can be seen).
William Hogarth, The Graham Children, 1742 (National Gallery, London)
Pieter Bruegel, Childrens Games, 1560 (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna)
John Singer Sargent, Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose, 1885-6 (Tate Britain, London)
Gabriel Metsu, The Sick Child, 1660 (Rijskmuseum, Amsterdam)
C. TALKING ABOUT NARRATIVE PAINTINGS: SAINT GEORGE AND THE DRAGON
Teachers: Observe and talk about two paintings showing George and the Dragon [Cross-curricular link with
Language and Literature]. Use the version of the legend you have used in literature to help you read what
you can see in the paintings. Among artists, the version by Jacobus de Voragine in The Golden Legend
was a popular source. Start by identifying the characters (what can you see that tells you the girl is a
princess, for example). Compare the different moments in the narrative (story) these artists have shown.
Look at and talk about how the artists painted George, the princess, and dragon as very different characters,
showing different reactions, and in very different settings.
Paolo Uccello, Saint George and the Dragon, 1470 (National Gallery, London)

Jacopo Tintoretto, Saint George and the Dragon, 1555 (National Gallery, London)

ADDITIONAL UNIT: TYPES OF ART: ARCHITECTURE (OF THE STATE)


Teachers: This is an additional unit for you to explore. Children can focus on the art of buildings and building
design. Children can learn about architecture of the 'state', meaning buildings for the rulers of our country the government and royals. We also look for the lines in buildings. [Cross-curricular links with British History
and Geography]
The Palace of Westminster, focus on the parts by Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin, constructed
1840-1870 (Westminster, London)

Westminster Abbey, present building begun under King Henry III in 1245 (Westminster, London)
The Banqueting House (part of the former Whitehall Palace), by Inigo Jones, 1622, with ceiling
paintings by Rubens added in 1636 (Whitehall, London)

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Music: Year 1
Teachers: In schools, lessons on music should feature activities and works that illustrate important musical
concepts and terms, and should introduce important composers and works. When appropriate, topics in
music may be linked to topics in other disciplines. The following guidelines focus on content, not
performance skills, though many concepts are best learned through active practice such as singing, clapping
rhythms, playing instruments, etc.

I. ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

Through participation, become familiar with some basic elements of music rhythm, melody, harmony,
form, timbre, etc.).
o Recognise a steady beat; begin to play a steady beat.
o Recognise that some beats have accents (stress).
o Move responsively to music (marching, walking, hopping, swaying, etc.).
o Recognise short and long sounds.
o Discriminate between fast and slow.
o Discriminate between obvious differences in pitch: high and low.
o Discriminate between loud and soft.
o Recognise that some phrases are the same, some different.
o Sing unaccompanied, accompanied and in unison.

II. LISTENING AND UNDERSTANDING


Teachers: To encourage listening skills and the beginnings of understanding, play various kinds of music
often and repeatedly. In the Year 1 classroom, music can be played for enjoyment, to accompany activities,
to inspire creative movement, etc. Expose children to a wide range of music, including childrens music,
popular instrumental music and music from various cultures.
A. INSTRUMENTS
Recognise the following instruments by sight and sound:
o Guitar
o Piano
o Trumpet
o Flute
o Violin
o Drum
B. WORKS OF MUSIC
Become familiar with the following works:
o Edvard Grieg, Morning Mood and In the Hall of the Mountain King from Peer Gynt. This is
a good work to illustrate dynamics (loud and quiet), as well as tempo (slow and fast).
o Pyotr Tchaikovsky, The Nutcracker
o Victor Herbert, March of the Toys from Babes in Toyland
o Richard Rodgers, March of the Siamese Children from The King and I
o Camille Saint-Sans, Carnival of the Animals

III. SONGS
Teachers: Children should become familiar with many of the works below. See also Year 1 Language and
Literatures Mother Goose poems, since a number of these poems may be sung to familiar melodies.
A. WORKS OF MUSIC
The Bear Went Over the Mountain
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The Farmer in His Den


Head, Shoulders, Knees and Toes
Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush
The Hokey Cokey
Hush, Little Baby
If Youre Happy and You Know It
Jingle Bells
Kumbaya (also Kum Ba Ya)
London Bridge is Falling Down
The Muffin Man
My Bonnie Lies over the Ocean
Pop! Goes the Weasel
Old MacDonald Had A Farm
One Man Went to Mow
Row, Row, Row Your Boat
This Old Man
Twinkle Twinkle Little Star
The Wheels on the Bus

B. ADDITIONAL WORKS OF MUSIC


Teachers: You may wish to supplement the songs listed above with other songs, such as those below.
Eensy, Weensy Spider
Five Little Ducks That I Once Knew
Happy Birthday to You
How Much is that Doggie in the Window?
I Had a Little Nut Tree
Im a Little Teapot
Kookaburra
Lavenders Blue
Oh Where, Oh Where, Has My Little Dog Gone?
One Potato, Two Potato
Polly Put the Kettle On
Ring-a-Ring Of Roses
Teddy Bears Picnic
There Was an Old Woman Who Swallowed a Fly
You Are My Sunshine

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Mathematics: Year 1
I. NUMBERS AND THE NUMBER SYSTEM
A. WHOLE NUMBERS
Read and write numbers to at least 30 in figures.
Count reliably at least 30 objects.
Count on or back in ones, twos, fives or tens.
Recognise the place value of each digit in a number to at least 30.
Compare and order numbers to at least 30, using the related vocabulary and the equals (=) sign.
Use knowledge of place value to position numbers to at least 30 on a number line.
Identify ordinal numbers, first (1st) to tenth (10th).
Within the range 0 30, identify the number that is 1 more or 1 less than a given number.
Estimate a number of objects up to about 30 objects.
B. FRACTIONS
1
Identify 2 as one of two equal parts of a region or object.
1
Find 2 of a set of objects.

II. NUMBER OPERATIONS AND CALCULATIONS


A.

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION


Understand addition as counting on and combining two groups of objects, using appropriate vocabulary.
Understand subtraction as take away and difference, using appropriate vocabulary.
Use the +, and = signs to record calculations.
Recall pairs of numbers with a total of 10.
Recall all addition and subtraction facts for each number to at least 5.
Begin to recall all addition and subtraction facts for each number to at least 10.
Use known number facts and place value to add or subtract mentally a pair of one-digit numbers, e.g.
5 + 7, 9 4.
Use informal written methods to add or subtract.
o Add or subtract a one-digit number to or from a two-digit number, e.g. 14 + 7, 18 6.
o Add a multiple of 10 to a one-digit or two-digit number, e.g. 60 + 4, 60 + 24.
o Subtract a multiple of 10 from a two-digit number, e.g. 58 30.
B. MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
Combine groups of the same size, using practical activities.
Arrange objects into equal groups, using practical activities.
Begin to use the vocabulary of multiplication and division.
Identify doubles of all numbers to at least 10.

III. MEASUREMENT
A. LENGTH, MASS, CAPACITY AND TEMPERATURE
Identify familiar instruments of measurement, such as a ruler, scale and thermometer, and be able to
describe their uses.
Compare lengths, masses, capacities and temperatures using appropriate vocabulary.

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Estimate, then measure, while choosing and using suitable, uniform non-standard or standard units
and measuring equipment, e.g. straws, interlocking cubes, marbles, yoghurt pots, metre stick, litre
jug.
Begin to use a ruler to measure lengths in centimetres.

B. TIME
Use vocabulary related to time.
Sequence familiar events in time.
Compare duration of events.
Know the days of the week and the months of the year.
Read the time to the hour and half hour on an analogue clock.
C. MONEY
Identify and use the pound () and pence (p) signs and the 1p, 2p, 5p, 10p, 20p, 50p, 1 and 2
coins.
Find totals and give change.
Write simple money amounts, e.g. 30p, 4.

IV. GEOMETRY
A. 2-D AND 3-D SHAPES
Visualise and name common 2-D shapes, including a circle, triangle, square and rectangle.
Visualise and name common 3-D solids, including a sphere, cylinder, cone, square-based pyramid,
cube and cuboid.
Use everyday language to describe features of common 2-D shapes, including the number of sides
and corners.
Use everyday language to describe features of common 3-D solids, including the shapes of faces
and number of faces and corners.
Recognise common shapes and solids in the environment.
Use shapes and solids to make patterns, designs, pictures and models.
B. POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT
Use everyday language to describe position, direction and movement.

V. DATA

Establish concepts of likeness and difference by sorting and classifying objects according to various
criteria: size, shape, colour, amount, function, etc.
Define a set by the common property of its elements.
In a collection of objects that includes a given set and an item that does not belong, indicate which
item does not belong.
Interpret and construct simple pictograms.

VI. PROBLEM SOLVING AND REASONING

Recognise and continue simple patterns involving numbers or shapes.


Describe simple relationships involving numbers or shapes.
Solve simple mathematical problems and puzzles involving numbers or shapes.
Solve practical problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication or division in the context of
numbers or measurements, including money.

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Science: Year 1
Teachers: Effective instruction in science requires hands-on experience and observation. In the words of the
Association for Science Education: A good primary science education:
Acknowledges that children come to science education with ideas, observations and questions about
the world around them and use these as the foundations for their learning.
Nurtures childrens curiosity and inspires them, in a rich learning environment, to discover more and
to develop positive attitudes and an appreciation of the nature of science.
Challenges children to develop and use scientific skills; acquire and apply scientific knowledge,
understanding and language; investigate through playing, exploring and experimenting;
communicate and collaborate effectively with others; challenge scientific evidence.
Enables children to make connections between scientific ideas and to see how they are developed
and applied in other disciplines and beyond the classroom.
While experience counts for much, learning from books is also important, for it helps bring coherence and
order to a childs scientific knowledge. Only when topics are presented systematically and clearly can
children make steady and secure progress in their scientific learning. The childs development of scientific
knowledge and understanding is in some ways a very disorderly and complex process, different for each
child. However, a systematic approach to the exploration of science, one that combines experience with
book learning, can help provide essential building blocks for deeper understanding at a later time.

I. PLANTS AND PLANT GROWTH


Teachers: Reading aloud, observation and activities such as growing plants from seed in varying conditions
are useful ways to explore the following topics with children.
Understand what plants need to grow: sufficient warmth, light and water.
Recognise basic parts of plants: seeds, roots, stems, branches and leaves.
Understand that plants make their own food.
Recognise the importance of flowers and seeds. For example, seeds such as rice, nuts, wheat and
corn are food for plants and animals.
Know that there are two kinds of plants: deciduous and evergreen.
Become aware of key aspects of farming.
o How some food comes from farms as crops
o How famers must take special care to protect their crops from weeds and pests
o How crops are harvested, kept fresh, packaged and transported for people to buy and
consume

II. ANIMALS AND THEIR NEEDS


Teachers: Through reading aloud, observation and activities, explore with children the common
characteristics and needs of animals.
Make the connection that animals, like plants, need food, water and space to live and grow.
Recognise that plants make their own food, but animals obtain food from eating plants or other living
things.
Understand that offspring are very much (but not exactly) like their parents.
Understand that most animal babies need to be fed and cared for by their parents; human babies are
especially in need of care when young.
Recognise that pets have special needs and must be cared for by their owners.

III. THE HUMAN BODY: THE FIVE SENSES

Identify the five senses and associated body parts:


o Sight: eyes
o Hearing: ears

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o Smell: nose
o Taste: tongue
o Touch: skin
Review the importance of taking care of your body: exercise, cleanliness, healthy foods and rest.

IV. INTRODUCTION TO MAGNETISM


Teachers: Through reading aloud, observation and experiments with magnets, introduce children to the idea
that there are forces we cannot see that act upon objects. [Cross-curricular connections with Year 3 Science]
Identify familiar, everyday uses of magnets. For example: in toys, in cabinet locks, in refrigerator
magnets, etc.
Classify materials according to whether they are or are not attracted by a magnet.

V. SEASONS AND WEATHER


Teachers: The emphasis in Year 1 should be on observation and description; technical explanations of
meteorological phenomena should be taken up in later years.
Identify the four seasons.
Be able to describe characteristic local weather patterns during the different seasons.
Recognise the importance of the sun as a source of light and warmth.
Understand daily weather changes.
o Temperature: thermometers are used to measure temperature
o Clouds: rainfall comes from clouds
o Rainfall: how the condition of the ground varies with rainfall; rainbows
o Thunderstorms: lightning, thunder, hail, safety during thunderstorms
o Snow: snowflakes, blizzards

VI. TAKING CARE OF THE EARTH

Identify the importance of conservation: some natural resources are limited, so people must be
careful not to use too much of them. For example: logging and subsequent reforestation.
Recognise practical measures for conserving energy and resources. For example: turn off
unnecessary lights, tightly turn off taps, etc.
Understand that some materials can be recycled. For example: aluminium, glass and paper.
Become aware that pollution be harmful but, if people are careful, they can help reduce pollution. For
example, littering, smog, water pollution.

VII. MATERIALS
Teachers: Children should use correct vocabulary to describe different materials and their properties. Sort
materials into groups based on their properties. For example: soft, hard, bendy, ability to float, magnetic or
non-magnetic.
Recognise and name a variety of widely used materials. For example: wood, plastic, rock, paper,
metal.
Explain why materials are chosen for specific tasks based on their properties. For example wool for
clothing, glass for windows, wood for tables, metal for bridges.
Become aware that some materials are natural and some are man-made.

VIII. SCIENCE BIOGRAPHIES

Joseph Banks (botanist)


Jane Goodall (studied chimpanzees)
Wilburn and Orville Wright (made first aeroplane)

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The Core Knowledge Sequence UK


English Language and Literature: Year 2
I. LISTENING AND SPEAKING
Teachers: Traditional English language instruction has typically accorded little, if any, attention to the
ongoing development of childrens listening and speaking abilities. However, it is important to focus on
childrens development of oral language because literacy, the ability to read and write written language, is
highly correlated with pupils oral language proficiency. The ability to understand a text read aloud is a
prerequisite for making sense of the same text in printed form. Therefore, it is essential that children build
listening and speaking competency while also developing reading and writing skills.
A. CLASSROOM DISCUSSION
Participate in age-appropriate activities for Year 2 involving listening and speaking.
Speak clearly with volume appropriate to the setting.
Use agreed-upon rules for group discussions. For example: look at and listen to the speaker, raise
hand to speak, take turns, say excuse me or please, etc.
Ask closed and open questions to clarify conversations, directions, exercises and/or classroom
routines.
Carry on and participate in a conversation over at least six turns, staying on topic, initiating
comments or responding to a partners comments, with either an adult or another Year 2 child.
Identify and express physical sensations, mental states and emotions of self and others.
Understand and use language to express spatial and temporal relationships. For example: up, down,
first, last, before, after, etc.
Understand and use narrative language to describe people, places, things, locations, events and
actions.
Understand and use common sayings and phrases. For example: Hit the nail on the head and
Many hands make light work. (Also see section VII. Sayings and Phrases.)
Recognise and discuss body language; read the signs.
B. PRESENTATION OF IDEAS AND INFORMATION
Follow multi-step, oral directions.
Give simple directions.
Provide simple explanations.
Recite a nursery rhyme, poem or song independently, using appropriate eye contact, volume and
clear enunciation.
Give oral presentations about personal experiences, topics of interest and/or stories, using
appropriate eye contact, volume and clear enunciation.
C. COMPREHENSION AND DISCUSSION OF READ-ALOUDSALL TEXTS
Teachers: In Year 2, a childs ability to understand what s/he hears continues to outpace her or his ability to
read independently and understand written text. By listening to stories or non-fiction selections read aloud,
children can experience the complexities of written language without expending cognitive energy on
decoding; they can likewise access deeper and more complex content knowledge than they are presently
able to read independently.
Careful consideration has been given to the poetry, fiction and nonfiction selections below to ensure that the
vocabulary and syntax presented is rich and complex. Levelled texts (texts for beginner readers) will not
provide the rich language experience that is desired during read-alouds and should only be used here as a
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starting point for reading aloud with pupils for whom English is a second language. Non-fiction read-alouds
have been selected on the basis of the history, science, music and visual arts topics identified in the
Sequence UK, with emphasis on history and science read-alouds. It is strongly recommended that daily
read-alouds focus on a single topic over a sustained period of timeabout two weeksrather than
intermingling read-alouds on a variety of subjects. Careful consideration should be given to the order in
which non-fiction read-alouds are presented to ensure that knowledge about a topic builds in a progressive
and coherent way.
Prior to a read-aloud, teachers should identify what pupils know and have learned that may be related to the
specific story or topic to be read aloud. Use pictures accompanying the read-aloud to check and support
childrens understanding of the read-aloud.
Following any read-aloud, children should participate in rich, structured conversations with an adult in
response to the written text that has been read aloud. In this way, they can begin to practise orally
comparing, analysing, and forming ideas in written text in much the same way as they will be expected to do
as independent readers in the later years.

Listen to and understand a variety of texts read aloud, including fictional stories, fairy tales, fables,
historical narratives, drama, informational text and poems.
Distinguish the following genres of literature: fiction, non-fiction and drama.
Grasp specific details and key ideas.
o Describe illustrations.
o Sequence four to six pictures illustrating events in a read-aloud.
o Answer questions requiring literal recall and understanding the details and/or facts of a readaloud, i.e. who, what, when, where, why.
o Retell key details.
o Ask questions to clarify information in a read-aloud.
o Use narrative language to describe people, places, things, locations, events, actions, a
scene or facts in a read-aloud.
Observe craft and structure.
o Understand and use words and phrases heard in read-alouds.
o Compare and contrast similarities and differences within a single read-aloud or between two
or more read-alouds.
o Make personal connections to events or experiences in a read-aloud and/or make
connections among several read-alouds.
Integrate information and evaluate evidence.
o Make predictions prior to and during a read-aloud, based on the title, pictures and/or text
heard thus far and then compare the actual outcomes to predictions.
o Answer questions that require making interpretations, forming judgements or giving opinions
about what is heard in a read-aloud, including answering why questions that require
recognising cause/effect relationships.
o Interpret information that is presented orally and then ask additional questions to clarify
information or the topic in the read-aloud.
o Identify who is telling a story or providing information in a text.

D. COMPREHENSION AND DISCUSSION OF READ-ALOUDSFICTION, DRAMA AND POETRY


Retell or dramatise a story, using narrative language to describe characters; setting(s); and a
beginning, a middle and an end to events of the story in proper sequence.
Compare and contrast characters from different stories.
Change some story events and provide a different ending to the story.
Create and tell an original story, using narrative language to describe characters; setting(s); and a
beginning, a middle and an end to events of the story in proper sequence.
Distinguish fantasy from realistic text in a story.
Identify the moral or lesson of a fable, folktale or myth.
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Demonstrate understanding of literary language and use some of these terms in retelling stories or
creating own stories, including: author, illustrator, characters, setting, plot, dialogue, personification,
simile and metaphor.
Identify sensory language and how it is used to describe people, objects, places and events.

E. COMPREHENSION AND DISCUSSION OF READ-ALOUDSNON-FICTION / INFORMATIONAL TEXT


Teachers: Select non-fiction topics to read aloud from the Year 2 history, science, music and visual arts
subjects in the Sequence UK, with an emphasis on history and science.
Generate questions and seek information from multiple sources to answer questions.
Answer questions about the details of a non-fiction text, indicating which part of the text provides the
information needed to answer specific questions.
With assistance, categorise and organise facts and information within a given topic.
With assistance, create and interpret timelines and lifelines in relation to read-alouds.
Distinguish read-alouds that describe events that happened long ago from those that describe
contemporary or current events.

II. READING
A. PRINT AWARENESS
Understand that reading consists of a specific sense of directionality: reading left to right, return
sweep after finishing a line, reading top to bottom, reading a book from front to back.
Identify the parts of a book and the function of each part: front cover, back cover, title page, table of
contents and index.
Demonstrate correct book orientation by holding a book correctly and turning pages.
Recognise that sentences in print are made up of separate words.
Understand that words are separated by spaces.
Distinguish between letters, words, sentences and stories.
Demonstrate an understanding of basic print conventions by tracking and following print word for
word when listening to text read aloud.
Demonstrate an understanding that the sequence of letters in a written word represents the
sequence of sounds in the spoken word.
Recognise and name the 26 letters of the alphabet in both their upper-case and lower-case forms.
Say the letters of the alphabet in order, either in song or recitation.
B. ORAL READING AND FLUENCY
Read aloud, alone or with a partner at least 15 minutes each day.
Read decodable stories (levelled beginner readers) that incorporate the specific code knowledge
that has been taught.
Demonstrate increased accuracy, fluency and expression on successive reading of a decodable text.
Use phonics skills in conjunction with context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and
understanding, rereading as necessary.
Demonstrate understanding of and use commas and end punctuation while reading orally.
Recognise apostrophes and speech marks.
C. READING COMPREHENSIONALL TEXTS
Teachers: During the beginning of Year 2, most pupils will still need to devote considerable energy when
reading to decipher the written text. Over the course of this year, they will learn even more elements of the
code, meaning that the decodable text that they can read independently will increasingly resemble real
stories and reading books. With practice and repeated readings of the same text, pupils will develop
increasing automaticity, allowing them to focus more intently on the meaning of what they are reading. Both
the pupils increasing fluency and the use of more authentic textwhich is now decodable because of the
childs increasing code knowledgemean that attention to reading comprehension can move to a higher
level than just the rudimentary understanding of text that was expected at the Year 1 level. This expectation
is reflected in the increased number of objectives below that have been added to the Year 2 objectives.
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However, it is important to remember that childrens listening comprehension still far exceeds their reading
comprehension, and that their ability to talk about what they have heard and/or read will exceed their ability
to demonstrate that understanding in writing.
Demonstrate an understanding of completely decodable text after reading independently.
Grasp specific details and key ideas.
o Sequence four to six pictures illustrating events from a text that has been read
independently.
o Answer questions requiring literal recall and an understanding of the details and/or facts (i.e.
who, what, where, when) about a text that has been read independently.
o Retell key details from a text that has been read independently.
o Ask questions to clarify information about a text that has been read independently.
o Use narrative language to describe people, places, things, locations, events, actions, a
scene or facts from a text that has been read independently.
Observe craft and structure.
o Identify basic text features and what they mean, including the title, author, table of contents
and chapters.
o Understand and use words and phrases from a text that has been read independently.
o Compare and contrast similarities and differences within a single text or between multiple
texts read independently.
o Make personal connections to events or experiences in a text that has been read
independently and/or make connections among several texts that have been read
independently.
Integrate information and evaluate evidence. (Note: prior to reading, teachers should identify what
pupils know and have learned that may be related to the specific story or topic to be read. Use
pictures accompanying the written text to check and support understanding.)
o Make predictions prior to and while reading, based on the title, pictures and/or text read thus
far and then compare the actual outcomes to predictions.
o Answer questions that require making interpretations, judgements or giving opinions about
what is read independently, including answering why questions that require recognising
cause/effect relationships.
o Identify who is telling a story or providing information in a text.
o Identify temporal words that link and sequence events, i.e., first, next then, etc.
o Identify words that link ideas, i.e., for example, also, in addition.
D. READING COMPREHENSIONFICTION, DRAMA AND POETRY
Retell or dramatise a story, using narrative language to describe characters; setting(s); and a
beginning, a middle and an end to events of the story in proper sequence.
Compare and contrast characters from different stories.
Change some story events and provide a different story ending.
Distinguish fantasy from realistic text in a story.
Identify the moral or lesson of a fable, folktale, or myth.
Demonstrate understanding of literary language and use some of these terms in retelling stories or
creating own stories: author, illustrator, characters, setting, plot, dialogue, personification, simile and
metaphor.
Identify sensory language and how it is used to describe people, objects, places and events.
E. READING COMPREHENSIONNON-FICTION AND INFORMATIONAL TEXTS
Teachers: Select non-fiction topics from the Year 2 history, science, music and visual arts topics listed, with
an emphasis on history and science.
With assistance, create and interpret timelines and lifelines related to text read independently.
Distinguish text that describes events that happened long ago from text that describes contemporary
or current events.

III. WRITING
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Teachers: It is important to recognise that of all communication skillslistening, speaking, reading and
writingwriting is the most demanding and challenging. During the beginning of Year 2, children still need to
devote much of their focus and cognitive energy to the code itself, as well as the fine motor act of writing.
During this period, teachers should continue to support written expression through shared writing
experiences that are modelled by an adult and that increase in difficulty over time.
At some point during Year 2, however, most children will feel comfortable enough with their basic skills to
begin making a transition to writing more independently. Childrens desire to express themselves in writing
should be heartily encouraged. To this end, it is important that teachers have age-appropriate expectations
about what Year 2 pupils writing should resemble. Pupils have not been taught all of the spellings they will
need to achieve dictionary-correct spelling. It is therefore premature to expect that words in their
independent writing will be spelled correctly. It is reasonable to expect pupils to use the letter-sound
correspondences they have learned to set down plausible spellings for the sounds in the word. For example,
a pupil who writes bote for boat, dun for done, or hed for head has set down a plausible spelling for each
sound in the word. Dictionary-correct spelling will be a realistic goal when pupils have learned more spellings
and learned how to use a dictionary to check spelling.
Furthermore, while teachers can begin to model the use of a writing process, such as Plan-Draft-Edit, it is
equally important not to dampen a pupils enthusiasm by rigidly insisting that all of a pupils writing be edited
over and over again to bring the text to the publication stage. In Year 2, teachers should achieve a sensible
balance that encourages children to use their current skill knowledge when writing, without stifling creative
expression.
A. WRITING TO REFLECT AUDIENCE, PURPOSE AND TASK
Add details to writing.
Begin to use tools, including technology, to plan, draft and edit writing.
B. CONDUCTING RESEARCH
Gather information from experiences or provided text sources.
C. NARRATIVE WRITING
Write or retell a story that includes characters; setting(s); and a beginning, a middle and an
appropriate end to events of the story in proper sequence.
Write a descriptive paragraph using sensory language.
Create a title that is relevant to the narrative.
D. INFORMATIVE/EXPLANATORY WRITING
Write about a topic, including beginning and ending sentences, facts and examples relevant to the
topics and specific steps (if writing explanatory text).
E. PERSUASIVE WRITING (OPINION)
Express an opinion or point of view in writing, providing reasons and supporting details for
preference or opinion using the linking word because.
Create a title that is relevant to the topic or subject of the text.
If writing about a specific book or read-aloud, refer to the content of the text.

IV. LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS


A. HANDWRITING AND SPELLING
Print from memory the 26 letters of the alphabet accurately in both their upper-case and lower-case
forms.
Form words, phrases and sentences to communicate thoughts and ideas.
Apply basic spelling conventions.
Use basic capitalisation and punctuation in sentences to convey meaning.
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Write on primary lined paper from left to right, staying within the lines and leaving spaces between
words, and write from top to bottom, using a return sweep.
Write phonemically plausible spellings for words that cannot be spelled correctly with current code
knowledge, e.g., write ate for eight, boi for boy, and fone for phone.
Write words, phrases and sentences from dictation, applying phonics knowledge.
Identify and use synonyms and antonyms.

B. PARTS OF SPEECH AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE


Recognise, identify and use subject, object and possessive pronouns, orally, in written text and in
own writing. For example: I, me, mine, you, yours, they, them.
Recognise, identify and use possessive pronouns that function as adjectives, orally, in written text
and in own writing. For example: my, your, her, his.
Recognise, identify and use common and proper nouns, orally, in written text and in own writing.
Recognise, identify and use regular verbs to convey a sense of past, present and future tense,
orally, in written text and in own writing.
Recognise, identify and use subjects and predicates, orally, in written text and in own writing.
o Every complete sentence consists of two parts: the subject and the predicate.
o Subject: what/whom the sentence is about, in bold in the example: Anna scored a goal.
o Predicate: explains something about the subject, in bold in the example: Anna scored a
goal.
Produce and expand complete sentences orally and in shared writing exercises.
C. CAPITALISATION AND PUNCTUATION
Capitalise the first word in a sentence, the pronoun I, proper nouns (e.g. names and places),
months and days of the week.
Identify and use end punctuation, including full stops, question marks and exclamation marks.
Use commas appropriately in greetings and closings of letters, dates and items in a series.
Write a simple, friendly letter.
Use apostrophes to create contractions and indicate possession, i.e., dogs paw.
Use speech marks appropriately to designate direct speech.

V. POETRY
Teachers: The poems listed here constitute a selected core of poetry for this year group. You are
encouraged to expose children to more poetry, old and new, and to have children write their own poems. To
bring children into the spirit of poetry, read it aloud and encourage them to speak it aloud so they can
experience the music in the words. Although children are not expected to memorise the following rhymes,
they will delight in knowing their favourites by heart, and will experience a sense of achievement and
satisfaction in being able to recite some of the rhymes.
Become familiar with the following works:
o Cats Sleep Anywhere (Eleanor Farjeon)
o The Frog (Hilaire Belloc)
o A Good Play (Robert Louis Stevenson)
o Hope (Langston Hughes)
o If Wishes Were Horses (traditional)
o I Know All the Sounds the Animals Make (Jack Prelutsky)
o Jumbo Jet (Spike Milligan)
o My Shadow (Robert Louis Stevenson)
o The Owl and the Pussycat (Edward Lear)
o The Pasture (Robert Frost)
o The Purple Cow (Gelett Burgess)
o Pussycat, Pussycat (traditional)
o The Queen of Hearts (traditional)
o Ring a Ring of Roses (traditional)
o Rope Rhyme (Eloise Greenfield)
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o Scissors (Allan Ahlberg)


o Solomon Grundy (traditional)
o The Swing (Robert Louis Stevenson)
o Table Manners [also known as The Goops] (Gelett Burgess)
o Thirty Days Hath September (traditional)
o Three Wise Men of Gotham (traditional)
Become familiar with riddle rhymes.
Become familiar with tongue twisters.

VI. FICTION
Teachers: While the following works make up a strong core of literature, the content of language arts
includes not only stories, fables and poems, but also knowledge of how written symbols represent sounds
and how those sounds and symbols convey meaning. Thus, the stories specified below are meant to
complement, not to replace, materials designed to help children practise decoding and encoding skills (see
above, section II. Reading and section III. Writing).
The titles here constitute a core of stories for this year group. They are available in a variety of editions,
some designed for novice readers, and others best for reading aloud to children. In Year 2, most of the
following titles should be read to the children. It is recommended that you provide a mixture of texts,
including some beginning readers, with their necessarily limited vocabulary and syntax, for these can give
children the important sense of accomplishment that comes from being able to read it all by myself.
Expose children to many more stories, including classic picture books and books best read aloud. (In
schools, teachers across year groups should communicate their choices in order to avoid undue repetition.)
Children should also be exposed to non-fiction prosebiographies, books on science and history, books on
art and musicand they should be given opportunities to tell and write their own stories.
A. STORIES
All Stories Are Anansis (folktale from West Africa)
The Boy at the Dike (folktale from Holland)
Brer Rabbit and the Tar Baby (traditional)
The Frog Prince (Brothers Grimm)
Hansel and Gretel (traditional)
Selections from The House at Pooh Corner (A. A. Milne)
It Could Always Be Worse (Yiddish folktale)
Jack and the Beanstalk (traditional)
King of the Nogs from The Sagas of Noggin the Nog (Smallfilms)
Medio Pollito (Hispanic Folktale)
The Pied Piper of Hamelin (traditional)
Pinocchio (traditional)
The Princess and the Pea (traditional)
Puss-in-Boots (traditional)
Rapunzel (traditional)
Rumpelstiltskin (traditional)
Sleeping Beauty (traditional)
The Tale of Peter Rabbit (Beatrix Potter)

B. AESOPS FABLES
The Boy Who Cried Wolf
The Dog in the Manger
The Fox and the Grapes
The Goose that Laid the Golden Eggs
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The Maid and the Milk Pail


The Wolf in Sheeps Clothing

C. DIFFERENT LANDS, SIMILAR STORIES


Teachers: To give pupils a sense that people all around the world tell certain stories that, while they differ in
details, have much in common, introduce pupils to similar folktales from different lands, such as the
following:
Issun Boshi / One-Inch Boy (Japan); The Knee-High Man (African-American folktale)
You may also want to read ofther variations of these stories including; Tom Thumb (England);
Thumbelina by Hans Christian Andersen (Denmark); Little Finger of the Watermelon Patch
(Vietnam)
You may also want to read one of the many variations on the Cinderella story (from Europe, Africa,
China, Vietnam, Egypt, Korea, etc.)
D. LITERARY TERMS
Understand the names for characters, including heroines and heroes.
Recognise terms in drama, including actor, actress, script, costume, scenery, props, theatre, stage,
audience and applause.

VII. SAYINGS AND PHRASES


Teachers: Every culture has phrases and proverbs that make no sense when carried over literally into
another culture. For many children, this section may not be needed since they will have picked up these
sayings by hearing them at home and amongst friends. However, this section has been one of the categories
most appreciated by teachers who work with children from home cultures that differ from British culture. All
children should become familiar with the sayings and phrases below.
An apple a day keeps the doctor away. [Connection to Year 2 Science]
Dont count your chickens before they hatch. [Connection to Aesops fables]
Dont judge a book by its cover. [Connection to The Frog Prince]
Hit the nail on the head.
If at first you dont succeed, try, try again.
Land of Nod
Let the cat out of the bag.
Many hands make light work. [Connection to The Boy at the Dike]
The more the merrier.
Never leave until tomorrow what you can do today.
Sour grapes [Connection to Aesops fables]
Theres no place like home.
Wolf in sheeps clothing [Connection to Aesops fables]

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History and Geography: Year 2


WORLD GEOGRAPHY
Teachers: In Year 2, children continue their study of the world around them and then broaden and
complement that focus. The goal of studying selected topics in World History in Year 2 is to foster childrens
curiosity and the beginnings of their understanding about the larger world outside their locality, and about
varied civilisations and ways of life. This can be done through a variety of means: story, drama, art, music,
discussion, and more.
In Year 2, the study of geography expands on the concepts of spatial sense, maps of the school setting, and
the globe. Pupils also learn about Northern Europe, including Scandinavia. The geography of the British Isles
expands on the regional differences between England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

I. SPATIAL SENSE
Teachers: Foster childrens geographical awareness through regular work with maps and globes and other
geographical tools.
Locate yourself on maps and globes in relation to the different places you are studying.

II. THE SCHOOL SETTING


Teachers: Pupils should learn about the spatial layout of the school in greater detail: its site (what is there)
and situation (what surrounds the school).
Identify buildings, playgrounds, fields, entrances, boundaries, vegetation and neighbouring land use.
Examine aerial photographs of the school grounds and surrounding area. Use these photos to:
o Identify buildings and points of interest.
o Discuss how to navigate around the school grounds, what buildings and land are near the
school, what route pupils take to get to school and what they pass along the way.
o Use the compass points: north, south, east and west.
Develop spatial awareness by drawing basic maps of confined areas, for example a classroom, the
playground, their bedroom, etc. Use symbols, a key to represent objects on the map and a colourcode for different areas.

III. GLOBE/WORLD MAP


Terms: Peninsula, boundary, equator, hemisphere, climate.

Identify the major oceans and the seven continents.


Find the equator, the northern hemisphere, the southern hemisphere and the North/South Poles on a
globe.
Identify the UK as one of many countries in Europe, with neighbours such as France, Spain,
Germany, Italy, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Iceland and
Ireland.
Identify the spatial distribution of the Roman Empire (Cross-curricular connection with Roman
History).

IV. NORTHERN EUROPE


Teachers: Introduce pupils to a part of Europe that is different from the UK and illustrate the ways in which
Northern Europe is similar and different from the UK. The geography of Northern Europe should be taught
alongside the history of the Vikings.
Climate (average weather conditions over an extended period of time)

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Climate of Northern Europe: mild in the south; cold and snowy further north. Northern
Europe is covered in snow and ice for much of the winter.
Vegetation: coniferous forest adapts to the cold and snowy climate.
Landscape: mixture of lowlands, mountains and lakes.
Countries: Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland.
Languages spoken: Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Finish, and Icelandic.
Settlement: the capital cities are Oslo, Stockholm, Copenhagen, Helsinki and Reykjavik.
o Discuss what it is like to live in a cold and snowy climate. How do people keep warm? How
do they travel around? How do they clear snow?

GEOGRAPHY OF THE BRITISH ISLES


I. REGIONS OF THE UK

Name the continent, country and county in which you live.


Identify regional differences between England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. For example:
identify the flags, major mountain ranges, major rivers, lakes, capital cities and other distinguishing
characteristics.
England: identify cultural symbols, famous people and cultural differences. For example: St.
Georges Day, the Tower of London, Windsor Castle, Anglo-Saxons, football, Stratford-upon-Avon,
Shakespeare, Chaucer
Scotland: identify cultural symbols, famous people and cultural differences. For example: Loch Ness,
Ben Nevis, Scottish Gaelic, tartan, kilts, haggis, highland games, Robert Burns, Scottish dancing
[cross-curricular connection with Music Year 2]
Wales: identify cultural symbols, famous people and cultural differences. For example: Welsh
language, rugby, Dylan Thomas, St. Davids Day, Eisteddfod festival of literature and music, Welsh
folk songs
Ireland: identify cultural symbols, famous people and cultural differences. For example: Irish Gaelic,
St. Patricks Day, shamrock, leprechaun, James Joyce, Gaelic football

II. CLIMATES

Understand the difference between weather and climate


o Weather is day to day atmospheric conditions
o Climate is the average weather conditions measured over years
How does the weather vary from day to day and why?
o Keep a daily record of temperature, wind direction, wind speed and precipitation
o Discuss how the weather changes and why, for example with wind direction
Show how the climate varies across the UK
o Changes in temperature, precipitation, wind, seasons
o Discuss latitude as a reason for this variation

WORLD HISTORY
Teachers: Encourage children to examine the nature of a civilisation, what defines a settled culture as
opposed to a nomadic lifestyle. Settlements, agriculture, laws and customs and communications all form
important parts of civilisation, and children should see what modern culture and society owes to these
ancient civilisations.

I. ANCIENT EGYPT
Terms: archaeology, archaeologist, fertile

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A. GEOGRAPHY
Identify the African continent on a map or globe.
Understand the climate in Africa and its influence on vegetation, particularly in the Sahara Desert
[Cross-curricular connection with Science Year 2]
Understand the importance of the Nile River, floods and farming
Identify key pharaohs
o Rameses II
o Tutankhamun [Cross-curricular connection with Visual Arts Year 2]
o Hatshepsut, woman pharaoh
o Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti [Cross-curricular connection with Visual Arts Year 2]
Identify key features in the Ancient Egyptian culture and religion
o Pyramids
o Mummies
o Great Sphinx
o Animal gods
o Hieroglyphic writing

II. MESOPOTAMIA: THE CRADLE OF CIVILISATION

Understand the importance of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Mesopotamia


Identify key features in the Ancient Mesopotamian culture and religion
o Cuneiform writing: understand why writing is important to the development of civilization
o Ziggurat temples
o Babylon city
o The Gate of Ishtar
Become familiar with the Code of Hammurabi (early code of laws)
o Understand why rules and laws are important to the development of civilisation

HISTORY OF WORLD RELIGIONS


Teachers: Since religion is a shaping force in the story of civilisation, the Core Knowledge Sequence UK
introduces children in the early years to major world religions, beginning with a focus on geography and
major symbols and figures. The purpose is not to explore matters of theology but to provide a basic
vocabulary for understanding many events and ideas in history. The goal is to familiarise, not proselytise; to
be descriptive, not prescriptive. The tone should be one of respect and balance: no religion should be
disparaged by implying that it is a thing of the past. To the question, Which one is true? an appropriate
response is: People of different faiths believe different things to be true. The best people to guide you on this
right now are your parents or carers.

I. JUDAISM

Belief in one God


Followers are called the Jewish people or Jews
Become familiar with the Story of the Exodus
o Moses leads the Hebrews out of Egypt
Understand important places, holidays, symbols and features:
o Israel, Hanukkah (sometimes spelled Chanukah), Torah, synagogue, symbol of the Star of
David

II. CHRISTIANITY

Belief in one God


Followers are called Christians
Christianity grew out of Judaism
Understand important places, holidays, symbols and features:

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Jesus, meaning of messiah, Christmas, Easter, symbol of the cross

III. ISLAM

Belief in one God


Followers are called Muslims
Originated in Arabia, spread worldwide
Understand important places, holidays, symbols and features:
o Allah, Muhammad, Makkah, Quran, mosque, symbol of the crescent and star (found on the
flags of many mainly Islamic nations)

BRITISH HISTORY
I. ROMANS IN BRITAIN
Teachers: Emphasise the vast extent of Roman influence from the Middle East and North Africa to Northern
Europe. It is important that pupils understand how the Romans exported ideas, innovations and language all
over Europe, and led to the development of the idea of Christendom. In Britain, the Romans brought literacy
and extended trade and contact with continental Europe, as well as vast technological developments.
A. THE ROMANS INVADE 43AD
Invasion under Emperor Claudius
o Boudicca, Rebellion of the Iceni, in 60AD.
o Destroyed Roman settlements at Colchester, London and St Albans; Romans considered
leaving.
Romans fail to conquer Scotland (Caledonia)
o Hadrians Wall
o Ireland (Hibernia) not invaded
Large Roman Settlements
o Londinium
o Eboracum
Technological advances
o Road networks
o Sewage and water supply systems
o Literacy and written records
Roman archaeology
o Roman villa at Fishbourne near Chichester
o Roman baths at Bath
B. ROMANS LEAVE, 410
Economic decline
o Roman integration and intermarriage; Romans left cultural influence
o Romano-British culture; Romanisation of the language, e.g. centenary, mega, video

II. POST-ROMAN BRITAIN


Teachers: After the departure of the Romans, the British Isles were subject to successive waves of
invasions from Northern Europe and Scandinavia. The Anglo-Saxon immigrations and invasions mixed with
the Romano-British to modify native culture. Encourage children to think about the significance of waves of
immigrations in forming cultures in the British Isles. Use maps to ensure children can understand where early
Kingdoms existed in Britain.
A. ANGLES AND THE SAXONS, INVASIONS FROM 490
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Native Anglo-Saxon culture


o Legend of King Arthur

B. MULTIPLE KINGDOMS ACROSS BRITAIN


England and Wales included:
o Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex, Kent, East Anglia, Sussex, Essex
Scotland included:
o Pictland and Dl Riata
Struggles for power
o The rise of Wessex, Alfred the Great

III. CHRISTIANITY IN BRITAIN


Teachers: Ensure the historical, rather than theological, importance of Christianity in Britain is emphasised.
Early Christianity helped form identity and social organisation. Pupils should be introduced to the idea that
Christian institutions and beliefs were of great importance to peoples lives and shaped their world.
A. CHRISTIANITY
Christianity was the official religion of the Roman Empire before the Romans left Britain
Roman Emperor Constantine and his conversion to Christianity in 312
B. SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY
Missionaries travelled throughout the Roman Empire to convert Anglo-Saxon pagans to Christianity
o St Augustine (of Canterbury), first Archbishop of Canterbury; King Aethelbert of Kent
o St. Patrick, Christian missionary to Ireland; Irelands patron saint
o St. Columba, Celtic Christianity to Scotland; monastery of Iona
o St. Aidan, Christianity in Northumbria; monastery at Lindisfarne
C. MONASTICISM IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE
Monasticism was the centre of cultural and scholastic life
o Monks studied grammar, logic, mathematics, canon law and medicine; some monasteries
become universities.
o The Venerable Bede wrote a historical account of England The Ecclesiastical History of the
English People
Illuminated manuscripts
o The Book of Kells and the Lindisfarne Gospels [Cross-curricular link with Visual Arts Year 2]

IV. THE VIKINGS


Teachers: Encourage pupils to compare the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons with the influence of the Vikings.
Children should understand the different ways in which Viking attack, invasion, settlement and interaction
influenced Britain, as well as the extent of Viking exploration and its importance in Viking culture.
A. THE VIKINGS, SCANDINAVIAN EXPLORERS AND INVADERS
Viking culture, known for invasion and violence
o Culture of exploration and seafaring; extensive trading routes; migration and settlement
o Danegeld payments to the Vikings to convince them not to attack
Viking invasions of Britain
o Viking settlements of Jorvik (York) and Dublinia (Dublin)
The Danelaw: dominated Northumbria, East Anglia and parts of Mercia
o Kingdom of Wessex under Alfred the Great was the only native English Kingdom
o Alfred victorious over the Vikings

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V. NORMAN BRITAIN
Teachers: The Norman Conquest marks the final successful hostile invasion of Britain. Explain how it
ensured the continued existence of the fragile and newly unified England by the enforcement of a strong and
informed system of government and taxation.
A. NORMAN INVASION, 1066
Succession dispute, Harold Godwinson (Earl of Wessex), Harald III of Norway and William of
Normandy
o Battle of Stamford Bridge
Battle of Hastings, October 1066
o William of Normandy defeats Harold Godwinson
o Submission of the Anglo-Saxon ruling elites; crowned King of England
o The Bayeux Tapestry
B. DOMESDAY BOOK, 1086
Lists all settlements and lands in England and Wales
Important for governance and taxation

FEATURED GREAT EXPLORER


A. ROALD AMUNDSEN [builds on Year 2 History and Geography: Northern Europe]

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Visual Arts: Year 2


Teachers: In schools, lessons on the visual arts should illustrate important elements of making and
appreciating art, and emphasise important artists, works of art, and artistic concepts. When appropriate,
topics in the visual arts may be linked to topics in other disciplines. While the following guidelines specify a
variety of artworks in different media and from various cultures, they are not intended to be comprehensive.
Teachers are encouraged to build upon the core content and expose children to a wide range of art and
artists, particularly incorporating those that either you or the childrens carers can take them to see.

I. ART OF ANCIENT EGYPT


[Some of these pieces can be found with World History: Ancient Egypt]
Look at and discuss:
o The Great Sphinx (Giza, outside Cairo)
o A bust of Queen Nefertiti (head and shoulder portrait sculpture): examples in New York
(Metropolitan Museum) and London (British Museum)
o Mummy cases: Sarcophagus of King Tutankhamun, circa 1323 BC (National Museum of
Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo) or Nesperennubs (British Museum, London)
o Animal gods in Egyptian art: such as Bronze statuette of a cat (Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford)
Find out about:
o The Rosetta Stone, Ptolemaic Period, 196 BC (Essential for the deciphering of
hieroglyphics, British Museum, London)

II. EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MEDIEVAL ART IN ENGLAND AND NORTHERN EUROPE
[Cross curricular links with Year 2 British History and with Language and Literature: Aesops Fables. These
fables are illustrated in the borders of the Bayeux Tapestry, probably to reveal character traits of those
depicted in the main panels above them.]
Observe and describe the Celtic (also called Insular) style of illumination (manuscript decoration) as
seen in:
o The Lindisfarne Gospels, c. 715 (British Library, London)
o The Book of Kells c. 800 (Trinity College Library, Dublin)
Discover the variety of art treasures of Englands early medieval rulers (range of materials, foreign
influences, styles etc.) by observing:
o Sutton Hoo Ship Burial (burial treasure of an Anglo-Saxon King, 7th century, Sutton Hoo,
Suffolk). An example of an item to study is the Shoulder Clasp (British Museum, London)
o Bayeux Tapestry (embroidery showing events leading up to the Norman Conquest, probably
commissioned by Odo, Earl of Kent, for William the Conqueror, after 1067 or after, Muse de
la Tapisserie de Bayeux, Bayeux). [Located in History and Geography]

III. ELEMENTS OF ART: COLOUR, SHAPE AND TEXTURE


Teachers: The generally recognised elements of art include line, shape, form, space, light, texture, and
colour. In Year 1 the children should have studied Colour and Line. In Year 2 build on these by examining
the following:
A. COLOUR
Teachers: Review, if necessary, warm and cool colours from Year 1.

Primary colours:
o Know that red, yellow and blue are commonly referred to as the primary colours, meaning
they are colours that cannot be made from mixing other colours together
Mixing primary coloursknow that:
o Blue + yellow = green

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o Blue + red = purple


o Red + yellow = orange

Secondary colours:
o Know that green, purple and orange (colours made from mixing primary colours) are
commonly referred to as the secondary colours
Observe and discuss the use of colour in:
o Claude Monet, The Beach at Trouville, 1870 (The National Gallery, London)
o James A. McNeill Whistler, Arrangement in Grey and Black No. 1 (also called Portrait of the
Artists Mother), 1871 (Muse dOrsay, Paris)

B. SHAPE

Recognise basic geometric shapessquare, rectangle, triangle, circle, ovalin nature, man-made
objects, and artworks including:
o in the work of Pablo Picasso, such as his images of Sylvette David from 1954 (various)
and additionally:
o old masters such as Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man of 1492 (Gallerie dellAccademia,
Venice)
o in the work of Alexander Calder, such as Standing Mobile of 1937 (Tate Modern, London)

Look at and discuss the use of shape in:


o David Hockney, The Road to York Through Sledmere, 1997 (artists collection, on view
Royal Academy of Arts, London, 2012)

C. TEXTURE
Teachers: Provide opportunities for children to experience both tactile and visual texture by having them
describe qualities of texture in extant or real objects, which they can actually touch (tactile texture), and as
depicted or suggested in works of art (visual texture). You may find it helpful to introduce this by reviewing
art works from Year 1 with obvious textural differences, such as Degas Little Dancer.

Describe qualities of texture (as, for example, rough, smooth, ridged, etc.) in:
o The Kings Gold Belt Buckle (early 7th century from Sutton Hoo burial, now British Museum,
London)
o Albrecht Drer, Young Hare, 1502 (Albertina, Vienna)
o Johannes Vermeer, The Music Lesson, 1662-65 (The Royal Collection, London)

IV. KINDS OF PICTURES: PORTRAITS AND SELF-PORTRAITS


Teachers: Help the children become familiar with the terms we use to describe different kinds of paintings
by focusing on portraits and self-portraits (in Year 1 children looked at narrative paintings, and in Year 3
children will look at still lives and landscapes). Discuss examples, provide opportunities for children to create
their own works in the different genres. When you look at the specified works, ask the children about their
impressionswhat they notice first, who they think the pictures are of and how old the subject is , what
those painted are doing, wearing, feeling, and so on. Encourage the children to practice using the language
they have already learned about (line, shape, colour, texture, detail/s) to help them express what they can
see and share their ideas on why the artist chose to depict things in a certain way.
A. RECOGNISE AS A PORTRAIT (an artwork depicting a real person):
Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa (Portrait of Lisa Gherardini), 1503-06 (Louvre, Paris)
Hans Holbein the Younger, Edward VI as a Child, 1538 (National Gallery of Art, Washington DC)
Additional works:
Sir Anthony van Dyck, Equestrian Portrait of Charles I, 1637-38 (National Gallery, London)
B. RECOGNISE AS A SELF-PORTRAIT (an artwork made by an artist of him/herself):
Rembrandt van Rijn, Self-portrait in a Flat Cap, 1642 (Royal Collection, London)
William Hogarth, Self-Portrait at an Easel, 1757 (National Portrait Gallery, London)
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Vincent van Gogh, Self-portrait, 1889 (Muse dOrsay, Paris)

V. TYPES OF ART: MURAL


Teachers: Remind the children of the cave painting studied in Year 1, helping them to understand that cave
painting is a form of mural.
A. RECOGNISE AS A MURAL (a painting on a wall):

Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, 1495-98 (Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan)
Paula Rego, Crivellis Garden, 1990 (Sainsbury wing restaurant, National Gallery, London)
Additionally:
William Hogarth, The Pool of Bethesda (1736) and The Good Samaritan (1737), Staircase hallway,
St Bartholomews Hospital, London

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Music: Year 2
Teachers: In schools, lessons on music should feature activities and works that illustrate important musical
concepts and terms, and should introduce important composers and works. When appropriate, topics in
music may be linked to topics in other disciplines.
The following guidelines focus on content, not performance skills, though many concepts are best learned
through active practice (singing, clapping rhythms, playing instruments, etc.).

I. ELEMENTS OF MUSIC
A. ELEMENTS
Through participation become familiar with basic elements of music (rhythm, melody, harmony, form,
timbre, etc.).
o Recognise a steady beat, move to a beat, play a steady beat, recognise accents.
o Move responsively to music (marching, walking, hopping, swaying, etc.).
o Recognise short and long sounds.
o Discriminate between fast and slow.
o Discriminate between obvious differences in pitch: high and low.
o Discriminate between loud and soft.
o Understand that melody can move up and down.
o Hum the melody while listening to music.
o Echo short rhythms and melodic patterns.
o Play simple rhythms and melodies.
o Recognise like and unlike phrases.
o Recognise that music has timbre or tone colour.
o Sing unaccompanied, accompanied and in unison.
A. NOTATION
Understand that music is written down in a special way and become familiar with the following
notation:

Crotchet: one single beat

Minim: the length of two crotchet beats

Semi-breve: a long note, as long as four crotchet beats or two minims

II. LISTENING AND UNDERSTANDING


Teachers: Expose children to a wide range of music, including childrens music, popular instrumental music,
and music from various cultures.
A. MUSICAL TERMS AND CONCEPTS
Composers
o Know that a composer is someone who writes music.
o Become familiar with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart as a composer who wrote what is known
as classical music, and listen to the Allegro (first movement) from A Little Night Music (Eine
kleine Nachtmusik).

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Orchestra
o Become familiar with the families of instruments in the orchestra: strings, brass, woodwinds,
percussion [Children will review families of instruments and specific instruments in later
years].
o Know that the leader of the orchestra is called the conductor.
o Listen to Sergei Prokofiev, Peter and the Wolf.

B. MUSIC CAN TELL A STORY


Opera
o Understand that opera combines music, singing and acting.
o Listening to selections from Humperdincks Hansel and Gretel: Brother, Come Dance with
Me, I am the Little Sandman and Childrens Prayer.
Instrumental Music
o Listen to Paul Dukas, The Sorcerers Apprentice.
Ballet
o Understand that ballet combines music and movement, often to tell a story.
o Listen to Tchaikovskys Nutcracker Suite.
[If resources are available, read aloud to students the story behind Tchaikovskys Nutcracker, and either
attend a performance or show scenes from the ballet, which is available on DVD. You may also wish to
introduce children to the Suite from Tchaikovskys Sleeping Beauty, in relation to the story in English
Language and Literature, Sleeping Beauty.]
C. MUSICAL TRADITIONS
Jazz
o Understand that jazz is a kind of music that developed in America, with African and African
American roots, and that jazz musicians improvise.
o Recognise Louis Armstrong as a great early jazz musician.

III. SONGS
Teachers: You may also wish to teach children the song Brother, Come Dance with me in connection with
their introduction to the opera Hansel and Gretel:
Billy Boy
La Cucaracha
Drunken Sailor (Sea Shanty, also known as What Should We Do with A Drunken Sailor?)
Dry Bones
For Hes a Jolly Good Fellow
Frre Jacques/Brother John
I had a little Nut Tree
The Grand Old Duke of York
Lavenders Blue
Michael Finnigan
Michael, Row the Boat Ashore
Oh, John the Rabbit
On Top of Old Smoky
Polly put the Kettle on
Run Rabbit Run
Shell Be Comin Round the Mountain
Skip to My Lou
Ten Green Bottles
Theres a Hole in My Bucket
When the Saints Go Marching In
Yankee Doodle

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Mathematics: Year 2
I. NUMBERS AND THE NUMBER SYSTEM
A. WHOLE NUMBERS
Read and write numbers to at least 100 in figures and words.
Count reliably at least 100 objects by grouping them, e.g. in tens, fives or twos.
Count on or back in ones, twos, fives or tens from any given number.
Recognise odd and even numbers to at least 100.
Recognise the place value of each digit in any two-digit number, and partition two-digit numbers into
multiples of 10 and 1.
Compare numbers to at least 100 using the <, >, and = signs.
Order a set of numbers to at least 100 and position numbers on a number line or grid.
Identify ordinal numbers, first (1st) to hundredth (100th).
Within the range 0 100, identify the number that is 1 or 10 more or less than a given number.
Estimate a number of objects, e.g. up to about 100 objects.
Round two-digit numbers to the nearest 10.
B. FRACTIONS
Find , and of shapes and sets of objects.

II. NUMBER OPERATIONS AND CALCULATIONS


A. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
Recognise that addition can be done in any order.
Understand and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction.
Understand that more than two numbers can be added.
Recall pairs of numbers that total 20.
Recall all addition and subtraction facts for each number to at least 10.
Begin to recall all addition and subtraction facts for each number to 20.
Know addition and subtraction fact families to 10, e.g. 2 + 3 = 5, 3 + 2 = 5, 5 3 = 2, 5 2 = 3.
Use known number facts and place value to mentally:
o add or subtract a one-digit number to or from a two-digit number, e.g. 14 + 7, 18 6;
o add a multiple of 10 to a one-digit or two-digit number, e.g. 60 + 4, 60 + 24;
o subtract a multiple of 10 from a two-digit number, e.g. 58 30.
Use informal written methods to add or subtract pairs of two-digit numbers, e.g. 35 + 68, 74 46.
B. MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
Understand multiplication as repeated addition and arrays, using appropriate vocabulary.
Understand division as sharing and grouping (repeated subtraction), using appropriate vocabulary.
Recall multiplication facts for the 2, 5 and 10 times-tables, and the corresponding division facts.
Recognise multiples of 2, 5 and 10.
Understand and use the inverse relationship between doubling and halving, and multiplication and
division.
C. MIXED OPERATIONS
Use the +, , x, and = signs to record calculations, including symbols such as , or to stand
for an unknown number, e.g. 5 + = 7, x 2 = 12.

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Use knowledge of number facts, operations and inverse relationships to estimate and check
calculations.

III. MEASUREMENT
A. LENGTH, MASS, CAPACITY AND TEMPERATURE
Choose and use appropriate instruments to measure lengths, masses, capacities and temperatures.
Estimate, compare and measure lengths, masses, capacities and temperatures using standard units
(metre, centimetre, kilogram, litre, degrees Celsius).
Read relevant scales to the nearest numbered division and interpret the divisions between them.
Use a ruler to measure and draw lengths to the nearest centimetre.
B. TIME
Use units of time and know the relationship between them, e.g. second, minute, hour, day, week,
month, year.
Compare duration of events, including those that cross the hour.
Read the time to the quarter hour on an analogue clock and 12-hour digital clock and understand the
notation 5:45.
C. MONEY
Identify all coins and notes and begin to use .p notation.
Find totals, give change and work out which coins to use.
Combine coins and notes to make a given value and show different combinations of coins and notes
that equal the same value.

IV. GEOMETRY
A. 2-D AND 3-D SHAPES
Visualise and name common 2-D shapes, including circle, triangle, square, rectangle, pentagon,
hexagon and octagon.
Visualise and name common 3-D solids, including cube, cuboid, sphere, cylinder, cone, squarebased pyramid and tetrahedron.
Use everyday language to describe features of common 2-D shapes, including the number of sides,
number of right angles and symmetry.
Use everyday language to describe features of common 3-D solids, including the shapes of faces,
number of faces, edges and vertices.
Compare and sort common shapes and solids, including those in different orientations and in the
environment.
Use shapes and solids to make patterns, pictures and models, including congruent shapes and
designs.
B. POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT
Use appropriate mathematical language to describe position, direction and movement.
Recognise and make whole, half and quarter turns to the left or right and clockwise or anti-clockwise.
Know that a right angle is a measure of a quarter turn and recognise right angles in rectangles.
C. SYMMETRY
Begin to recognise reflective symmetry.

V. DATA

Collect, process, represent, interpret and discuss data in simple ways, such as in a list, table,
diagram, pictogram or block graph.

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VI. PROBLEM SOLVING AND REASONING

Recognise and continue patterns involving numbers or shapes.


Describe relationships involving numbers or shapes.
Solve mathematical problems and puzzles involving numbers or shapes.
Solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication or division in the context of numbers or
measurements, including money.

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Science: Year 2
I. LIVING THINGS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTS
Teachers: Introduce the idea of interdependence between living things and their environment.
A. HABITATS
Living things live in environments to which they are particularly suited.
Specific habitats and what lives there, for example:
o Forest (for example: oak trees, squirrels, foxes, badgers, snails, mice)
o Meadow and plains (for example: wildflowers, grasses, prairie dogs)
o Underground (for example: fungi, moles, worms)
o Desert (for example: cacti, lizards, scorpions)
o Water (for example: fish, oysters, starfish)
The food chain: a way of picturing the relationships between living things
o Animals: big animals eat little ones, big animals die and are eaten by little ones.
o Plants: nutrients, water, soil, air, sunlight
B. OCEANS AND UNDERSEA LIFE
Most of the Earth is covered with water.
Locate oceans: Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic
Oceans are salt water (unlike fresh water rivers and lakes)
Coast, shore, waves, tides (high and low)
Currents, the Gulf Stream
Landscape of the ocean floor: mountain peaks and deep valleys (trenches)
Diversity of ocean life: from organisms too small for the eye to see (plankton), to giant whales
Dangers to ocean life (for example, overfishing, pollution, oil spills)
C. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE AND HABITAT DESTRUCTION
Environments are constantly changing, and this can sometimes pose dangers to specific habitats, for
example:
o Effects of population and development
o Rainforest clearing, pollution, litter
D. SPECIAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF ANIMALS
Herbivores: plant-eaters (for example, elephants, cows, deer)
Carnivores: flesh-eaters (for example, lions, tigers)
Omnivores: plant and animal eaters (for example, bears)
Extinct animals (for example: dinosaurs)

II. THE HUMAN BODY: SYSTEMS AND PREVENTING ILLNESS


A. BODY SYSTEMS
Teachers: Introduce the idea of body systems, and have children identify basic parts of the following body
systems:
Skeletal system: skeleton, bones, skull
Muscular system: muscles
Digestive system: mouth, stomach
Circulatory system: heart and blood
Nervous system: brain and nerves
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B. GERMS, DISEASES, AND PREVENTING ILLNESS


Taking care of your body: exercise, cleanliness, healthy foods, rest
Vaccinations

III. MATTER
Teachers: Introduce children to the idea that everything is made of matter, and that all matter is made up of
parts too small to see.
Basic concept of atoms
Names and common examples of three states of matter:
o Solid (for example, wood, rocks)
o Liquid (for example, water)
o Gas (for example, steam)
Water as an example of changing states of matter of a single substance

IV. PROPERTIES OF MATTER: MEASUREMENT


Teachers: Have children describe and classify objects according to what they are made of, and according to
their physical properties (colour, shape, size, weight, texture, etc.)
Units of measurement:
o Length: centimetre, metre
o Volume: millilitre, litre
Temperature: degrees Celsius

V. INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY
Teachers: Through reading aloud, observation and experiment, explore with children the basic principles of
electricity and safety rules.
Static electricity
Basic parts of simple electric circuits (for example, batteries, wire, bulb or buzzer, switch)
Conductive and nonconductive materials
Safety rules for electricity (for example, never put your finger or anything metallic in an electrical
outlet, never touch a switch or electrical appliance when your hands are wet or when youre in the
bathtub, never put your finger in a lamp socket, etc.)

VI. INTRODUCTION TO ASTRONOMY

Sun: source of energy, light, heat


Moon: phases of the moon (full, half, crescent, new)
The eight planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune)
o Note that, in 2006, Pluto was classified as a dwarf planet.
Stars
o Constellations: the Plough
o The sun is a star.
Earth and its place in the solar system
o The Earth moves around the Sun; the sun does not move
o The Earth revolves (spins); one revolution takes one day (24 hours)
o Sunrise and sunset
o When it is day where you are, it is night for people on the opposite side of the Earth

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VII. THE EARTH


A. GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES OF THE EARTHS SURFACE
The shape of the Earth, the horizon
Oceans and continents
North Pole and South Pole, Equator
B. WHATS INSIDE THE EARTH
Inside the Earth
o Layers: crust, mantle, core
o High temperatures
Volcanoes and geysers
Rocks and minerals
o Formation and characteristics of different kinds of rocks: metamorphic, igneous, sedimentary
o Important minerals in the Earth (such as quartz, gold, sulphur, coal, diamond, iron ore)

VIII. SCIENCE BIOGRAPHIES

Rosalind Franklin (often-overlooked woman scientist, discovered double-helix structure of DNA)


Thomas Edison (invented an electric light bulb)
Edward Jenner (found a way to stop smallpox)
Louis Pasteur (made milk safe to drink)

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The Core Knowledge Sequence UK


English Language and Literature: Year 3
I. LISTENING AND SPEAKING
Teachers: Traditional English language instruction has typically accorded little, if any, attention to the
ongoing development of childrens listening and speaking ability. This failure to focus on the development of
oral language in English Language instruction has been a serious oversight. Literacy, the ability to read and
write written language, is highly correlated with pupils oral language proficiency, and the ability to
understand a text read aloud is a prerequisite for making sense of the same text in printed form. It is
therefore essential that children build listening and speaking competency while also developing reading and
writing skills.
A. CLASSROOM DISCUSSION
Maintain attention and actively participate in age-appropriate discussions about a variety of topics,
ideas and texts, in both small and large group settings.
Speak clearly with volume appropriate to the setting.
Use agreed-upon rules for group discussions.
o For example: look at and listen to the speaker, raise hand to speak, take turns, say excuse
me or please, etc.
Ask closed and open questions to clarify conversations, directions, exercises and/or classroom
routines.
Carry on and participate in a conversation over at least six turns, staying on a topic, initiating
comments or responding to a partners comments, with either an adult or another child of the same
age.
Participate in a conversation or group discussion by making reference to, or building upon, a
comment made by the other person.
Identify and express physical sensations, mental states and emotions of self and others.
Understand and use language to express spatial and temporal relationships.
o For example: up, down, first, last, before, after, etc.
Understand and use narrative language to describe people, places, things, locations, events,
actions.
Understand and use common sayings and phrases such as Dont judge a book by its cover and
Better late than never.
Recognise and discuss body language; read the signs.
B. PRESENTATION OF IDEAS AND INFORMATION
Follow multi-step, oral directions.
Give simple directions.
Provide simple explanations.
Recite a nursery rhyme, poem or song independently, using appropriate eye contact, volume and
clear enunciation.
Give oral presentations about personal experiences, topics of interest, stories and summaries of
factual information that have been presented orally, visually or through multimedia, using appropriate
eye contact, volume and clear enunciation.

C. COMPREHENSION AND DISCUSSION OF READ-ALOUDS: ALL TEXTS


Teachers: Written text makes use of richer vocabulary and more complex syntax than conversational
language. It is important that young children be exposed not only to the language of everyday conversation
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but also to the richer and more formal language of books. This can be done by frequently reading aloud.
Helping young children develop the ability to listen to and understand written texts read aloud must be an
integral part of any initiative designed to build literacy.
In Year 3, pupils are becoming increasingly skilled as independent readers. Nevertheless, research indicates
that pupils reading comprehension ability does not catch up to listening comprehension until they are in Key
Stage 3. It is therefore still important to provide for children in Year 3 extensive reading experiences of both
fiction and non-fiction texts.
Careful consideration should be given to the selection of books read aloud to ensure that the vocabulary and
syntax presented is rich and complex, yet always accessible. Levelled texts will not provide the rich language
experience desired during read-alouds and should only be used as a starting point with pupils for whom
English is a second language.
Age-appropriate read-aloud selections for poetry and fiction are included below. Non-fiction read-alouds
should be selected on the basis of the history, science, music and visual art topics identified for Year 3 pupils
in the Core Knowledge Sequence UK, with emphasis on history and science selections. It is strongly
recommended that daily read-alouds focus on a single topic over a sustained period of timeabout two
weeksrather than intermingling read-alouds on a variety of subjects. Careful consideration should be given
to the order in which non-fiction read-alouds are presented, to ensure that knowledge about a topic builds in
a progressive and coherent way.
Following any reading, children should participate in rich, structured conversations with an adult in response
to the written text that has been read aloud. In this way, they can begin to practise orally comparing,
analysing and synthesising ideas in written text in much the same way as they will be expected to do as
independent readers in later years.
Listen to and understand a variety of texts read aloud, including fictional stories, fairy tales, fables,
historical narratives, drama, informational text and poems.
Distinguish the following genres of literature:
o Fiction
o Non-fiction
o Reportage
o Drama.
Grasp specific details and key ideas
o Describe illustrations.
o Sequence four to six pictures illustrating events in a read-aloud.
o Answer questions requiring literal recall and understanding of the details and/or facts of a
read-aloud, i.e., who, what, where, when, why, etc.
o Retell key details.
o Summarise in ones own words selected parts of a read-aloud.
o Ask questions to clarify information in a read-aloud.
o Use narrative language to describe people, places, things, locations, events, actions, a
scene or facts in read-aloud.
Observe craft and structure
o Understand and use words and phrases heard in read-alouds.
o Compare and contrast similarities and differences within a single read-aloud or between two
or more read-alouds.
o Make personal connections to events or experiences in a read-aloud and/or make
connections among several read-alouds.

Integrate information and evaluate evidence. (Note: prior to listening to a read-aloud, teachers
should identify what pupils know and have learned that may be related to the specific story or topic
to be read aloud. Use pictures accompanying the read-aloud to check and support understanding of
the read-aloud.)

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o
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Make predictions prior to and during a read-aloud, based on the title, pictures, and/or text
heard thus far and then compare the actual outcomes to the predictions.
Answer questions that require making interpretations, forming judgements or giving opinions
about what is heard in a read-aloud, including answering why questions that require
recognising cause/effect relationships.
Interpret information that is presented orally and then ask additional questions to clarify
information or the topic in the read-aloud.
Identify who is telling a story or providing information in a text.

C. COMPREHENSION AND DISCUSSION OF READ-ALOUDS: FICTION, DRAMA, AND POETRY


Retell a story, using narrative language to describe characters, setting(s) and the plot of the story in
proper sequence.
Compare and contrast characters from different stories.
Describe characters in increasing depth by referring to dialogue and/or their actions in the story.
Change some story events and provide a different story ending.
Create and tell an original story, using narrative language to describe characters, setting(s) and the
plot of the story in a proper sequence.
Distinguish fantasy from realistic text in a story.
Identify the moral or lesson of a fable, folktale or myth.
Demonstrate understanding of literary language and use some of these terms in retelling stories or
creating own stories:
o Author
o Illustrator
o Characters
o Setting
o Plot
o Dialogue
o Personification
o Simile
o Metaphor
Identify repetitions in phrases, refrains or sounds in poems or songs.
Identify sensory language and how it is used to describe people, objects, places and events.
Describe the use of rhyme, rhythm and sensory images used in poetry.
Identify direct speech.
D. COMPREHENSION AND DISCUSSION OF READ-ALOUDS: NON-FICTION AND INFORMATIONAL
TEXT
Teachers: Select non-fiction read-aloud topics from the Year 3 history, science, music, and visual arts
topics, with emphasis on history and science.
Generate questions and seek information from multiple sources to answer questions.
Answer questions about the details of a non-fiction text, indicating which part of the text provided the
information needed to answer specific questions.
With assistance, categorise and organise facts and information within a given topic.
With assistance, create and interpret timelines and lifelines related to read-alouds.
Interpret information presented in diagrams, charts, graphs, etc.
Distinguish read-alouds that describe events that happened long ago from those that describe
contemporary or current events.

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II. READING
A. READING COMPREHENSION: ALL TEXTS
Teachers: At the start of Year 3, pupils should be demonstrating ever-increasing code knowledge and
fluency in their independent reading, allowing them to focus more intently on the meaning of what they are
reading. This increased focus on reading comprehension is reflected in the number and complexity of the
objectives below, as compared to earlier years. However, it is important to remember that listening
comprehension still far exceeds reading comprehension and that childrens ability to talk about what they
have heard and/or read will exceed their ability to demonstrate that understanding in writing.
Demonstrate understanding of textthe majority of which is decodableafter independent reading.
Grasp specific details and key ideas
o Sequence four to six pictures illustrating events from a text that has been read
independently.
o Answer questions requiring literal recall and understanding of the details and/or facts (i.e.,
who, what, where, when, why etc.) about a text that has been read independently.
o Retell key details from a text that has been read independently.
o Summarise in ones own words selected parts of the text.
o Ask questions to clarify information about a text that has been read independently.
o Use narrative language to describe people, places, things, locations, events, actions, a
scene or facts from a text that has been read independently.
Observe craft and structure
o Identify basic features and what they mean, including title, author, table of contents, chapter
headings and captions.
o Understand and use words and phrases from a text that has been read independently.
o Compare and contrast similarities and differences within a single text or between multiple
texts read independently.
o Make personal connections to events or experiences in a text that has been read
independently and /or make connections among several texts that have been read
independently.
Integrate information and evaluate evidence. (Note: prior to reading, teachers should identify what
pupils know and have learned that may be related to the specific story or topic to be read. Use
pictures accompanying the written text to check and support understanding of the text.)
o Make predictions prior to and while reading, based on the title, pictures and/or text heard
thus far and then compare the actual outcomes to the predictions.
o Answer questions that require making interpretations, forming judgements or giving opinions
about what is heard in a read aloud, including answering why questions that require
recognising cause/effect relationships.
o Interpret information that is read independently and then ask additional questions to clarify
this information.
o Identify who is telling a story or providing information in a text.
o Identify temporal words that link and sequence events, i.e., first, next, then, etc.
o Identify words that link ideas, i.e., for example, also, in addition.
o Identify words that contrast ideas, i.e., however, but.
B. READING COMPREHENSION: FICTION, DRAMA AND POETRY
Retell or dramatise a story, using narrative language to describe characters, setting(s) and the plot of
the story in proper sequence.
Compare and contrast characters from different stories.
Describe characters in increasing depth by referring to or using dialogue and/or their actions in the
story.
Change some story events and provide a different story ending.
Distinguish fantasy from realistic text in a story.
Identify the moral or lesson of a fable, folktale or myth.

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Demonstrate understanding of literary language and use some of these terms in retelling stories or
creating own stories:
o Author
o Illustrator
o Characters
o Setting
o Plot
o Dialogue
o Personification
o Simile
o Metaphor
Identify repetitions in phrases, refrains or sounds in poems or songs.
Identify sensory language and how it is used to describe people, objects, places and events
Describe the use of rhyme, rhythm and sensory images used in poetry.

C. READING COMPREHENSION: NON-FICTION AND INFORMATIONAL TEXT


Generate questions and seek information from multiple sources to answer questions.
Answer questions about the details of a non-fiction text, indicating which part of the text provided the
information needed to answer specific questions.
With assistance, categorise and organise facts and information within a given topic.
With assistance, create and interpret timelines and lifelines related to text read independently.
Interpret information presented in diagrams, charts, graphs, etc.
Distinguish text that describes events that happened long ago from those that describe
contemporary or current events.

III. WRITING
Teachers: Pupils develop ever-increasing code knowledge and fluency in reading during Year 3 and, as a
result, most will also become increasingly comfortable and competent in expressing their thoughts and ideas
in writing.
Teachers should, however, have age-appropriate expectations about what Year 3 pupil writing should
resemble. Pupils spelling skills will often lag behind the code knowledge they demonstrate in reading. It is
reasonable to expect that the pupils will use the letter-sound correspondences they have learned thus far to
set down plausible spellings for the sounds in the word.
For example, a pupil who writes coller for collar, wate for wait or weight has set down a plausible spelling for
each sound in the word, using the code knowledge taught in this year. This should be seen as acceptable
spelling for this stage of literacy acquisition. With continued writing practice, pupils should begin to include
more dictionary-correct spellings for words that they read and write frequently. Dictionary correct spelling as
the rule will be a realistic goal when pupils have learned more spellings, have had repeated writing practice
opportunities and have learned how to use a dictionary to check spelling.
For Year 3 children, teachers should continue to model the use of a writing process, such as Plan-DraftEdit, as pupils learn to write in various genres. It is important, though, not to dampen pupil enthusiasm for
writing by rigidly insisting that all of a pupils writing be edited over and over again to bring the text to
publication stage. In Year 3, teachers should achieve a sensible balance that encourages children to use
their current level of skills when writing, as well as a simple editing rubric for review, without stifling creative
expression.
A. WRITING TO REFLECT AUDIENCE, PURPOSE AND TASK
Add details to writing.
Begin to use tools, including technology, to plan, draft and edit writing.

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B. CONDUCTING RESEARCH
Gather information from experiences or provided text sources
C. NARRATIVE WRITING
Write a familiar story that includes setting(s), character(s), dialogue and, if appropriate, several
events, using temporal words and phrases to indicate the chronology of events.
Write a personal narrative.
Create a title and an ending that are relevant to the narrative.
D. INFORMATIVE/EXPLANATORY WRITING
Write about a topic, including beginning and concluding sentences, facts and examples relevant to
the topic and specific steps (if writing explanatory text).
Group similar information into paragraphs.
Use linking words such as also, another, and, etc. to connect ideas within a paragraph.
E. PERSUASIVE WRITING (OPINION)
Express an opinion or point of view in writing, providing reasons and supporting details for
preference or opinion.
Use words to link opinions with reasons or supporting details, such as because, also, another.
Create a title that is relevant to the topic or subject of the text.
If writing about a specific book or read-aloud, refer to the content of the text.

IV. LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS


A. SPELLING
Apply basic spelling conventions.
Use basic capitalisation and punctuation in sentences to convey meaning.
Write phonemically plausible spellings for words using current knowledge, e.g. write coller for collar.
Write words, phrases, and sentences from dictation, applying phonics knowledge.
Alphabetise words to the second letter.
Use a childrens dictionary, with assistance, to check spelling and verify the meaning of words.
Identify and use synonyms, antonyms, homophones and compound words.
B. PARTS OF SPEECH AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE
Form sentences and paragraphs to communicate thoughts and ideas.
Recognise, identify and use correct noun-pronoun agreement orally, in written text and in own
writing.
Recognise, identify and use common and proper nouns, orally, in written text and in own writing.
Recognise, identify and use the articles a and an appropriately orally, in written text and in own
writing.
Recognise, identify and use selected regular and irregular plural nouns orally, in written text and in
own writing.
Recognise, identify and use selected regular and irregular past, present and future tense verbs
orally, in written text and in own writing.
Recognise, identify and use subject, object and possessive pronouns, orally, in written text and in
own writing.
o For example: I, me, mine, you, yours, he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them,
theirs
Recognise, identify and use adjectives orally, in written text, and in own writing.
Recognise, identify and use possessive pronouns that function as adjectives, orally, in written text
and in own writing.
o For example: my, your, his, her, its, their
Recognise, identify and use adverbs orally, in written text and in own writing.

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Recognise, identify and use subjects and predicates, orally, in written text and in own writing.
o For example (subject is in bold and predicate is in italics): Anna scored a goal.
Recognise, identify and use statements, questions, and exclamations orally, in written text and in
own writing.
Recognise, identify and use complete simple and compound sentences.

C. CAPITALISATION AND PUNCTUATION


Capitalise the first word in a sentence, the pronoun I, and proper nouns (e.g. names and places),
months, days of the week, titles of people and addresses.
Recognise, identify and use abbreviations with correct punctuation for the months, days of the week,
titles of people and addresses.
Identify and use end punctuation, including full stops, question marks and exclamation marks.
Use commas appropriately in greetings and closings of letters, dates, items in a series and
addresses.
Write a simple friendly letter.
Use apostrophes to create contractions and indicate possession, i.e., dogs paw.
Use speech marks appropriately to designate direct speech.

V. POETRY

Become familiar with the following works:


o Bee! Im Expecting You (Emily Dickinson)
o Caterpillars (Aileen Fisher)
o Conch Shell (Federico Garcia Lorca)
o Discovery (Harry Behn)
o Five Friendly Farmers (Anon)
o How To Find My House (Roger Stevens)
o Hurt No Living Thing (Christina Rossetti)
o The Answer (Allan Ahlberg)
o The Night Before Christmas (Clement Clarke Moore)
o On the Ning Nang Nong (Spike Milligan)
o Rickety Train Ride (Tony Mitton)
o Sing a Song of Sixpence (traditional)
o Something Told the Wild Geese (Rachel Field)
o There Is a Young Lady, Whose Nose (Edward Lear)
o There Was an Old Man with a Beard (Edward Lear)

VI. FICTION
Teachers: The titles listed below are available in a variety of editions, including both adaptations for novice
readers and others that lend themselves to reading aloud to childrenfor example, Charlottes Web or How
the Camel Got His Hump. It is recommended that you provide a mixture of texts. Editions designed for
beginning readers can help children practise decoding skills. Texts, which children may not be capable or
reading on their own, can be understood when the words are read aloud and talked about with a helpful
adult. Such active listening to vocabulary and syntax that goes beyond the limits of age-appropriate reading
texts is an important part of developing an increasingly sophisticated verbal sense.
The titles below constitute a core of stories for Year 3. Expose children to as many more stories as possible,
including classic picture books, books to be read aloud, etc. (In schools, teachers across the year groups
should communicate their choices in order to avoid undue repetition.) Children should also be exposed to
non-fiction prosebiographies, books on science and history and books on art and musicand they should be
given opportunities to tell and write their own stories. We will also explore Ancient Greek myths and British
tall tales.

A. STORIES
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Become familiar with the following works:


o Beauty and the Beast (traditional)
o A Christmas Carol (Charles Dickens)
o The Emperors New Clothes (Hans Christian Andersen)
o The Fisherman and His Wife (Brothers Grimm)
o How the Camel Got His Hump (a Just So story by Rudyard Kipling)
o The Magic Paintbrush (a Chinese folktale)
o Please Look After this Bear (Michael Bond)
o Selections from Peter Pan (James M. Barrie)
o The Story of the Seventh Daughter (a folktale from Bengal)
o Talk (a West African folktale)
o The Tongue-Cut Sparrow (a folktale from Japan)

B. MYTHOLOGY OF ANCIENT GREECE


[Builds on World History and Geography from Year 2: The Ancient Greek Civilisation.]
Become familiar with the following Gods of Ancient Greece (and Rome):
o Zeus (Jupiter)
o Hera (Juno)
o Apollo (Apollo)
o Artemis (Diana)
o Poseidon (Neptune)
o Aphrodite (Venus)
o Demeter (Ceres)
o Ares (Mars)
o Hermes (Mercury)
o Athena (Minerva)
o Hephaestus (Vulcan)
o Dionysus (Bacchus)
o Hades (Pluto)
Become familiar with Mount Olympus, the home of the gods.
Become familiar with mythological creatures and characters:
o Centaurs
o Cerberus
o Pegasus
o Pan
Become familiar with Greek Myths
o Prometheus (how he brought fire from the gods to men)
o Pandoras Box
o Oedipus and the Sphinx
o Theseus and the Minotaur
o Daedelus and Icarus
o Arachne the weaver
o Swift-footed Atalanta
o Demeter and Persephone
o Hercules (Heracles) and the Labours of Hercules

C. BRITISH FOLK HEROES AND TALL TALES


[Builds on St George and King Arthur, which were introduced in Year 1.]
Become familiar with the following folk heroes and tall tales
o Albion and Brutus
o Dick Whittington, Lord Mayor of London
o King Arthur
The Sword Excalibur
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Guinevere
Merlin and the Lady of the Lake
Sir Lancelot
Robin Hood

D. LITERARY TERMS
Become familiar with the following terms:
o Limerick
o Myth
o Tall tale

VII. SAYINGS AND PHRASES


Teachers: Every culture has phrases and proverbs that make no sense when carried over literally into
another culture. For many children, this section may not be needed; they will have picked up these saying by
hearing them at home and among friends. However, this section on sayings has been one of the categories
most appreciated by teachers who work with children from home cultures that differ from British culture.
Become familiar with the following sayings and phrases:
o Back to the drawing board
o Better late than never
o Cold feet
o Dont cry over spilt milk
o Easier said than done
o Eaten out of house and home
o Get a taste of your own medicine
o Get out of the wrong side of the bed
o In hot water
o Keep your fingers crossed
o Practise what you preach
o Turn over a new leaf
o Two heads are better than one
o Where theres a will theres a way
o You cant teach an old dog new tricks

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History and Geography: Year 3


GEOGRAPHY
I. THE LOCAL AREA/COMMUNITY
Teachers: Pupils should learn to distinguish between the built and the natural environment. They should
learn to distinguish between different types of services available in the community and the functions of
different buildings and land. They should learn to identify different features of the landscape (which may lie
outside of larger urban areas).
Terms: region, community

Observe aerial/satellite photographs of the local area.


o Use these to identify settlements, physical features and points of interest.
o Discuss why things are located where they are, for example local buildings and services
(bank, post office, shops, garage)
o Discuss land-use types: parks, housing, industry, roads, farms.
Draw a map of the school grounds using basic symbols and a key.
o Use the map and the eight points of the compass to navigate around the school: north,
south, east, west, northeast, southeast, northwest and southwest [Cross-curricular
connection with Mathematics Year 4].
Use a simple coordinate grid to describe the location of objects and places on a map, using the eight
points of the compass.
Introduce scale: for example, fifty paces = 5 cm on a map.
Identify different types of residence
o Apartments, terraced housing, detached houses
Understand features of the natural environment
o Rivers, hills, coastline, vegetation, animals
Discuss ways in which the natural environment is managed and changed by people (e.g. park,
farming, reservoir, urban drainage).

II. WESTERN EUROPE


Terms: temperate climate, alpine climate, agriculture, industry, Romance language, Germanic language
A. FRANCE, GERMANY, THE NETHERLANDS (HOLLAND), BELGIUM, AUSTRIA,
SWITZERLANDClimate and ecosystem
o Humid temperate/broadleaf forest and alpine climate/ecosystem
Landscape
o Alps, central highlands, lowlands, Rivers (Rhone, Rhine, Seine, Danube), Dutch floodplains
People and culture
o Germanic and Romance
o Protestant/Catholic Churches
o Classical music
Mozart [Cross-curricular links with Music, Years 2, 3, 4 and 5]
Vivaldi [Cross-curricular link with Music, Year 3]
Beethoven [Cross-curricular links with Music, Years 3 and 6]
o Famous artists
Vincent van Gogh [Cross-curricular links with Visual Arts, Years 1 and 2]
Claude Monet [Cross-curricular links with Visual Arts, Year 2]

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The European Union


o Origins, members, trade, migration
o European Parliament in Brussels
Settlements
o Paris, Lyon, Berlin, Munich, Vienna, Zurich, Amsterdam, Brussels
Economic activity
o Agriculture (cheese, wine, fruit and vegetables)
o Industry (cars)
o Services (tourism, restaurants, hotels)

III. SETTLEMENTS AND POPULATIONS


Terms: urban, rural, conurbation, hamlet

Identify different types of settlement: hamlets, villages, towns, cities and conurbations.
Distinguish between rural, urban and suburban areas.
Know that green belts are used to control urban growth.
Use a local map to identify the site and situation of local settlements.
o Where are settlements found? In valleys, along coasts and at river crossings.
o Why did people choose these locations? Access to water, farmland, wood or for defence.
Examine population density
o Distinguish between areas where people are dispersed (rural) and crowded (towns and
cities).

IV. RIVERS AND BASINS


Terms: river source, tributary, river mouth, floodplain, irrigation, watershed, drainage basin, estuary
A. UNDERSTAND THE WATER CYCLE
Evaporation from the sea/lakes, condensation, precipitation, run-off and groundwater
Discuss the different paths that water takes.
Discuss how urban areas modify the drainage of water.
B. RIVER BASINS
Understand that a river basin is an area of land drained by a river and its tributaries.
Identify features of a river basin: springs, mountain streams, channel, valley, floodplain, lakes,
estuary, coastline
Follow the course of a river from source to mouth while using a map.
o Discuss differences between mountain streams and lowland meandering rivers.
C. IDENTIFY MAJOR RIVERS AND THEIR BASINS
UK major rivers: Thames, Trent, Severn, Tyne, Ouse, Great Ouse, Wye, Tweed, Exe
Europe: Volga, Danube, Rhine
Asia: Ob, Yellow (Huang He), Yangtze (Chang Jiang), Ganges, Indus, Tigris, Euphrates
Africa: Nile, Niger, Congo
South America: Amazon, Parana, Orinoco
North America: Mississippi, Missouri, Colorado, Rio Grande, Yukon, Mackenzie, Churchill
Australia: Murray-Darling

V. GEOGRAPHY OF ASIA AND EARLY ASIAN CIVILISATIONS


Teachers: Pupils are introduced to Asia through the countries of India, China and Japan. They should learn
where these countries are located and study their physical setting and culture.

Learn that Asia is the largest continent, with the most populous countries in the world

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Himalayan mountain range includes some of the tallest mountains in the world. The tallest mountain
is Mt. Everest.
Locate the following countries:
o China
o India
o Japan

WORLD HISTORY
I. INDIA
Teachers: Use the famous rivers in India to emphasise the importance of rivers for settlement and
civilisation. Since religion is a shaping force in the story of civilisation, the Core Knowledge Sequence UK
also introduces children to major world religions, beginning with a focus on geography and major symbols
and figures. The purpose is not to explore matters of theology but to provide a basic vocabulary for
understanding many events and ideas in history. The goal is to familiarise, not proselytise; to be descriptive,
not prescriptive. The tone should be one of respect and balance: no religion should be disparaged by
implying that it is a thing of the past.
A. INDUS RIVER AND GANGES RIVER
Settlements occur especially along these rivers.
B. HINDUISM
Belief in many gods.
Followers are called Hindus.
Become familiar with Hindu gods
o Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva
Become familiar with sacred Hindu books
o Rig Veda
o Ramayana, telling the story of Rama and Sita
C. BUDDHISM
Become familiar with how Prince Siddhartha becomes Buddha, the Enlightened One.
Understand how Buddhism evolved from Hinduism in India and then spread through many countries
in Asia.
Become familiar with King Asoka (also spelled Ashoka).

II. CHINA
Teachers: Introduce children to Chinese geography and culture. Chinese civilisation has produced many
important inventions and discoveries.
Terms: merchant
A. GEOGRAPHY
Recognise the importance of the Yellow (Huang He) and Yangtze (Chang Jiang) Rivers.
Revisit the topic of the Great Wall of China and understand its historic significance [Cross-curricular
connection with World History and Geography: Year 1]
B. TEACHINGS OF CONFUCIUS
Become familiar with the teachings of Confucius, for example: honour your ancestors.
C. CHINESE INVENTIONS
Invention of paper
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Importance of silk

D. CHINESE HOLIDAYS
Chinese New Year

III. JAPAN
Teachers: Familiarise children with Japanese geography and modern culture, as well as the operation of
Japanese society under feudalism, while emphasising the importance of the regional family dynasties.
Terms: earthquake, monsoon, typhoon, tsunami, daimyo, shogun, samurai, bushido, chopsticks, origami,
kimono
A. GEOGRAPHY
Locate Japan relative to continental Asia.
o Understand why Japan is sometimes called the land of the rising sun.
Understand that Japan is made up of four main islands: Hokkaido, Honshu (largest), Shikoku,
Kyushu
Identify important features
Pacific Ocean, Sea of Japan, Mt. Fuji, Tokyo, The Pacific Rim
Typhoons, earthquakes
B. CULTURE
Recognise the Japanese flag
Understand the significance of big, modern cities that are centers of industry and business.
Become familiar with traditional Japanese culture
o Traditional craft: origami
o Traditional costume: kimono
C. FEUDAL JAPANESE HISTORY AND CULTURE
Emperor as nominal leader, but real power in the hands of shoguns
Samurai, code of Bushido
Rigid class system in feudal Japanese society
Japan closed to outsiders
Religion
o Buddhism: the four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path, Nirvana
o Shintoism: reverence for ancestors, reverence for nature, kami

IV. ANCIENT GREECE


Teachers: This ancient civilisation forms an important foundation of Western culture. Encourage children to
see how the politics, philosophies and myths of this civilisation have had a huge impact, even today. Explain
how the city-states of Ancient Greece provided the earliest examples of the ideas of citizenship and
democracy. [Cross-curricular connections with Language and Literature: Year 3]
Terms: democracy, tyrant, philosopher, Olympic Games, Paralympic Games, Spartan

Recognise important features in Ancient Greek geography


o Mediterranean Sea, Aegean Sea, Crete
Become familiar with Sparta and its warrior culture
Understand the importance of Athens as a city-state
o Athenian democracy
Become familiar with the Persian Wars
o Marathon and Thermopylae

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Recognise the origin of the Olympic Games in Ancient Greece.


Become familiar with Ancient Greek religion
o Worship of many gods and goddesses
o Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Athena, Hara, Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, Ares, Hermes,
Hephaestus
Identify great thinkers from Ancient Greece
o Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Become familiar with Alexander the Great
o Growth of Hellenistic influence
o Gordian Knot

BRITISH HISTORY
I. THE RULE OF LAW AND MURDER IN THE CATHEDRAL
Teachers: Connect the reign of Henry II with earlier events covered in earlier stages of British History,
particularly the period of Norman Britain [Cross-curricular connection with British History: Year 2]. Encourage
children to see the importance of the legal developments in this period, and how it helped to form the modern
legal system. Make connections between conflicts between the church and the government in this period,
and later developments in this relationship.
A. HENRY II
First of the Plantagenet Kings
Henry IIs legal and judicial reforms
o Royal Magistrate Courts; Royal circuit judges; extension of Royal influence in local, civil
cases
o Trial by jury; precedent for modern legal systems
o Henrys conflict with the church over Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, who
challenged the Kings authority
o Murder of the Archbishop at Canterbury Cathedral

II. THE CRUSADES


Teachers: Use the period of the Crusades to demonstrate the importance of religion to people in Britain,
Europe and the Middle East in this period, and how these violent conflicts were motivated by religious and by
political considerations.
A. THE CRUSADES, RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS IN THE HOLY LAND
th
th
Many Crusades from the 11 to 13 centuries
The purpose of the Crusades was to gain control of the Holy Land those sites in the Middle East
associated with the narrative of the New Testament from Muslims
Third Crusade (1187-1192)
o Richard I of England, known as Richard the Lionheart, left his brother John in charge of
England while he went to the Holy Land. John is an unpopular ruler.

III. RESTRAINTS ON ROYAL POWER (1215-1265)


Teachers: The Magna Carta and de Montforts parliament can be taught together as the first restrictions on
the power of the monarch. Explain to students how the legacies of these events helped to shape and define
the changing relationship between the people and the king, and how the influence of these events can be
seen in later events in British history. [Builds on History and Geography: Year 1]
Terms: democracy, elected
A. MAGNA CARTA
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Richard I dies (1199)


King John reigns
o Dissatisfaction with King John because of unsuccessful foreign wars and his treatment of
nobles
Magna Carta was created by discontented barons, to be in effect in perpetuity
o The right not to be imprisoned without lawful judgement of peers
o Limits on the kings power to collect money
o Initially ineffective and limited but has had long-term significance
o Provides precedent to question royal prerogative
King accepts the Magna Carta at the meeting at Runnymede on 15 June, 1215
o King rejected the Charter immediately afterwards

B. DE MONTFORTS PARLIAMENT: THE FIRST ELECTED PARLIAMENT IN EUROPE


Simon de Montfort
o Simon de Montfort led the barons in rebellion (1263)
o King captured at the Battle of Lewes (1264); de Montfort constructs new system of
government
Each borough sent two elected representatives to parliament
o First time to have elected representatives in parliament
o Many barons felt de Montfort had gone too far and abandoned them
o Battle of Evesham (1265): de Montfort ambushed and killed and his system of government
was disbanded
Long term significance
o Precedent for inclusion of non-royals in politics
o De Montforts parliament was an antecedent of modern representative parliamentary
democracy

IV. WARS OF THE ROSES AND HENRY VII


Teachers: The Wars of the Roses was a series of dynastic struggles that resulted in the stable Tudor
dynasty, and Henry VIIs governmental reforms. Use the story of the Princes in the Tower to help children
see how historians try to understand what happened in the past, and how there are many things that are
uncertain or unknown.
A. WARS OF THE ROSES
Houses of Lancaster and York
o Discontinuous conflict over succession (1455 and 1485)
Battle of St Albans (1455)
o Yorkist victory
Yorkist Edward IV dies (1483)
o Richard III seizes throne
The Princes in the Tower
o The Princes (Edward V and his brother Richard) have unknown fates; Richard III was one of
the main suspects
o Richard III was crowned king
Battle of Bosworth Field (1485)
o Henry Tudor (Lancastrian descendent) defeats Richard III
o Married Elizabeth of York; united the two houses

V. THE REFORMATION
Teachers: Explain the Reformation as both a religious and a political development. Encourage children to
think about the impacts of the reformation, and how it caused religious conflicts across Europe during
subsequent centuries.

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A. REFORMATION
Martin Luther was professor of theology at Wittenberg
o Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses to church door (1517)
Protestantism
o Personal relationship with God; bible reading; opposed papacy
Legacy of the reformation
o Increased literacy
B. THE ENGLISH REFORMATION
William Tyndales Bible (1525)
Henry VIII (1509)
o Fear of not producing a male heir
Catherine of Aragon
o Birth of Mary
o Attempts at annulment
Anne Boleyn
o Birth of Elizabeth
o Beheading
Separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church
Legislation against the clergy
o Henry VIII becomes head of the Church in England
C. DISSOLUTION OF THE MONASTERIES

VI. RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS (1547-1558)


Teachers: Encourage children to see how the intolerance and persecution of both Catholics and Protestants
under successive monarchs entrenched religious views and identities, increased hostilities and politicised
th
religious beliefs. These issues would be crucial in the 17 Century.
A. RELIGIOUS INSTABILITY AFTER DEATH OF HENRY VIII
Edward VI (1547)
o Christian symbols and art removed from churches
o Thomas Cranmers Book of Common Prayer (1549)
B. MARY I (1553): REVERSES THE MEASURES TO SPLIT FROM ROME
Catholic Restoration
o Repealed Edwards religious laws; returned papal jurisdiction
Married Philip II of Spain
o Failed to produce an heir; crown passed to sister Elizabeth
Marian Persecutions; Bloody Mary
o Heresy Acts prosecute Protestants
o Protestants burnt at the stake

VII. THE ELIZABETHAN ERA (1558-1603)


Teachers: The Elizabethan Era was one of apparent relative stability due to the Elizabethan Religious
Settlement, ending the previous conflicts but confirming the states religion as opposed to Catholicism. Focus
on the social and cultural significance of this period, especially how developments in exploration led to a
growth in trade and eventually colonisation, as well as the cultural significance of William Shakespeare.
Terms: privateering / privateer, circumnavigate (the globe), colony, tragedy, history (in theatre), comedy
A. ELIZABETH I (1558): FINAL TUDOR MONARCH
Elizabethan Religious Settlement; uniting under moderate Protestant theology
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o The Act of Supremacy (1559)


o Act of Uniformity (1558); new Book of Common Prayer.
o End of reformation; confirmation of Anglicanism as church of the state
Scottish Presbyterianism- a stricter form of protestantism
o Scottish parliament reject Catholicism (1560); John Knox

B. EARLY BRITISH NAVAL DOMINANCE


Henry VIII created Royal Navy
Strong Elizabethan Navy and privateers
Spanish Armada
o Philip II of Spain wanted to use the Spanish Armada to overthrow Elizabeth I.
o English fireships attack the Spanish Armada, which was pursued around the British Isles.
o Many ships from the Spanish Armada wrecked near Ireland due to storms.
Sir Francis Drake
o Circumnavigated the globe
o Atlantic privateering
Sir Walter Raleigh
o Colony at Roanoke Island
C. CULTURE IN THE ELIZABETHAN ERA
Christopher Marlowe, dramatist and poet who influenced William Shakespeare
Shakespeare
o Birthplace in Stratford-upon-Avon
o The Globe Theatre in London
o Publication of Shakespeares plays

FEATURED GREAT EXPLORER


A. MARCO POLO

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Visual Arts: Year 3


Teachers: In schools, lessons on the visual arts should illustrate important elements of making and
appreciating art, and emphasize important artists, works of art, and artistic concepts. When appropriate,
topics in the visual arts may be linked to topics in other disciplines. While the following guidelines specify a
variety of artworks in different media and from various cultures, they are not intended to be comprehensive.
Teachers are encouraged to build upon the core content and expose children to a wide range of art and
artists, particularly those that you can either take the children to see, or they can access with their carers.

I. ELEMENTS OF ART: LINE, SYMMETRY AND FORM


Teachers: The generally recognised elements of art include line, shape, form, space, light, texture, and
colour. In Year 3, continue to discuss qualities of line, shape, colour, and texture that children learned about
in Years 1 and 2. Develop childrens knowledge and understanding by considering line orientation, and begin
to explain how to recognise and describe the more theoretical elements of symmetry and form.
A. LINE

Recognise lines as horizontal, vertical, or diagonal.


Observe the use of line in:
o Paul Klee, Was Fehlt ihm? (What's wrong with him?), 1930 (Fondation Beyeler, Switzerland)
o Pablo Picasso, Mother and Child, 1922 (Baltimore Museum of Art)
o Katsushika Hokusai, The Great Wave off Kanagawa, 1829-33 (British Museum, London)

B. FORM

Explain that form, in the discussion of art, is a term useful for describing complex shapes, often
organic rather than geometric, as well as three-dimensional as opposed to flat shapes: the form of a
human figure, for example, or the form of a tree.
Help the children consider form in the works they have considered for their use of line (such as
Picasso's Mother and Child), and help them find ways to describe form in these additional works:
o George Stubbs, Whistlejacket, 1762 (National Gallery, London)
o Vincent van Gogh, Wheatfield with Cypress Trees, 1889 (National Gallery, London)

C. SYMMETRY

Recognise common objects and shapes (squares, faces, trees) as symmetrical (where a part of an
image or object is reflected or balanced in another side), or not symmetrical.
Observe the use of symmetry in:
o Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, 1495-98 (Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan)
Additionally in:
o Meindert Hobbema, The Avenue at Middelharnis, 1689 (National Gallery, London)

II. KINDS OF PICTURES: LANDSCAPE AND STILL LIFE


Teachers: When presenting the following works, ask the children to look before talking; then ask the children
what they can see, what details they notice that help them read what they are looking at, what the picture
makes them think of or feel and why. Go on to discuss lines, shapes, colours, textures, symmetry and form
(as appropriate).
A. LANDSCAPE

Recognise and discuss as landscapes (images of nature or the natural environment, from the Dutch
word landschap):
o Jacob Ruisdael, Landscape with Bentheim Castle, 1653 (National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin)
o John Constable, Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows, 1831 (National Gallery, London)
o Henri Rousseau, Surprised! A Tiger in a Tropical Storm, 1891 (National Gallery, London)
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B. STILL LIFE

Recognise and discuss the following as still lives (images of one or more inanimate objects):
o Paul Czanne, studies with fruit such as apples and/or oranges, for instance, Still Life with
Apples, 1877-78 (Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge)
Additionally:
o Anon. (from Herculaneum, Italy), Still Life with Peaches and a Glass, AD 50 (Archaeological
Museum, Naples) [Teachers: point out that we know that still life has been a popular art form
since ancient times because works like this one have survived due to being long-lasting
fresco murals.]

III. KINDS OF PICTURES: MYTHOLOGICAL PAINTINGS


[Cross-curricular links with Year 3 Language and Literature: Mythology of Ancient Greece]
Understand that a mythological work of art depicts characters or a narrative from mythology. In
western European painting these are generally from classical mythology.
Recognise as images from classical mythology and identify the characters/setting/narrative
according to

The childrens knowledge of the depicted myths from their language and literature studies:
o Antonio del Pollaiuolo, Apollo and Daphne, c.1432-1498 (National Art Gallery, London)
Additionally:
o Frederic (Lord) Leighton, The Return of Persephone to Demeter, 1891 (Leeds City Art
Gallery, Leeds)
o Pablo Picasso, Minotaur and his Wife, 1937 (British Museum, London)

IV. TYPES OF ART: ARCHITECTURE


[Cross-curricular links with World History]
Understand architecture as the art of designing buildings.

Understand symmetry and a line of symmetry as it applies to buildings; observe symmetry in the
design of some buildings which are familiar to you and/or the children (you could look at your school,
local houses, or focus on the Cathedrals studied previously).
Noting line, shape, and special features (such as columns and domes), look at and consider the
following structures in relation to World History:
o The Parthenon (including the Parthenon Frieze or so-called Elgin Marbles, now at the
British Museum, London) 440 BC (Acroplis, Athens, Greece)
o Great Stupa, begun 3rd Century BC (Buddhist temple in Sanchi, Raien district, Madhya
Pradesh, India).
o Sir Christopher Wren, St Paul's Cathedral, 1675 (London)
Additionally:
o Inigo Jones, The Banqueting House, 1619-22 (Whitehall, London) [include Rubenss painted
ceiling, with its references to James I, the Union of England and Scotland, and the
Gunpowder Plot]
Consider an example of modern architecture, assessing what is traditional and what is innovative,
such as:
o Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Museum, 1997, Bilbao, Spain
o Eric Miralles, Scottish Parliament Building, 2004, Edinburgh, UK

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Music: Year 3
Teachers: In schools, lessons on music should feature activities and works that illustrate important musical
concepts and terms, and should introduce important composers and works. When appropriate, topics in
music may be linked to topics in other disciplines.
The following guidelines focus on content, not performance skills, though many concepts are best learned
through active practice (singing, clapping rhythms, playing instruments, etc.).

I. ELEMENTS OF MUSIC
A. ELEMENTS
Through participation, become familiar with basic elements of music (rhythm, melody, harmony,
form, timbre, etc.).
o Recognise a steady beat, accents, and the downbeat; play a steady beat.
o Move responsively to music (marching, walking, hopping, swaying, etc.).
o Recognise short and long sounds.
o Discriminate between fast and slow; gradually slowing down and getting faster.
o Discriminate between differences in pitch: high and low.
o Discriminate between loud and soft; gradually increasing and decreasing volume.
o Understand that melody can move up and down.
o Hum the melody while listening to music.
o Echo short rhythms and melodic patterns.
o Play simple rhythms and melodies.
o Recognise like and unlike phrases.
o Recognise timbre (tone colour).
o Sing unaccompanied, accompanied, and in unison.
o Recognise verse and refrain.
o Recognise that musical notes have names.
o Recognise a scale as a series of notes.
o Sing the C major scale using do re mi etc.
B. NOTATION
Review the following notation:

Crotchet

Minim

Semi-breve

Understand the following notation:


o Stave

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o

Treble clef and names of lines and spaces in the treble clef

Crotchet rest: silent for one beat

Minim rest: silent for two beats

Semibreve rest: silent for four beats

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II. LISTENING AND UNDERSTANDING


Teachers: Expose children to a wide range of music, including childrens music, popular instrumental music,
and music from various cultures. [In Year 4, students will take a closer look at the brass and woodwind
families.]
A. MANY KINDS OF MUSIC
Patriotic music
Folk Music
Classical Music
B. COMPOSERS AND THEIR MUSIC
Teachers: Provide brief, child-friendly biographical profiles of the following composers, and listen to
representative works:
Antonio Vivaldi, The Four Seasons
Johann Sebastian Bach, Minuet in G major (collected by Bach in the Anna Magdalena Notebook);
Jesu, Joy of Mans Desiring; Toccata and Fugue in D minor
Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony No. 6 (Pastoral): first movement and from final movement,
Thunderstorm to end of symphony
C. THE ORCHESTRA
Review families of instruments: strings, brass, woodwinds, percussion.
Become familiar with instruments in the string familyviolin, viola, cello, double bassand listen to
o Camille Saint-Sans, from Carnival of the Animals: The Swan (cello) and Elephants
(double bass)
o Antonio Vivaldi, The Four Seasons (see below, Composers and Their Music)
Become familiar with instruments in the percussion familyfor example, drums (timpani, snare),
xylophone, wood block, maracas, cymbals, triangle, tambourineand listen to Carlos Chavez,
Toccata for percussion, third movement.
[If you have recordings or other resources, also introduce African drumming and Latin American music
with percussion.]
D. KEYBOARD INSTRUMENTS
Recognise that the piano and organ are keyboard instruments, and listen to a variety of keyboard
music, including:
o Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Rondo Alla Turca from Piano Sonata K. 331
o Ludwig van Beethoven, Fr Elise
o Felix Mendelssohn, Spring Song from Songs without Words
[See also below, Composers and Their Music, Bach, Toccata and Fugue in D minor (organ).]
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III. SONGS

Bobby Shaftoe
Clementine
Do-Re-Mi (Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, for the musical The Sound of Music)
The Happy Wanderer (words by Florenz Siegesmund, English translation by Antonia Ridge, music
by Friedrich Wilhelm Mller)
The Hippopotamus Song (also known for its chorus: Mud, Mud, Glorious Mud) (Michael Flanders
and Donald Swann)
Oranges and Lemons
Who Killed Cock Robin?

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Mathematics: Year 3
I. NUMBERS AND THE NUMBER SYSTEM
A. WHOLE NUMBERS
Read and write numbers to at least 1000 in figures and words.
Count on or back in single-digit steps or multiples of 10 from any given number.
Count on or back in steps of 10, 50 or 100 from any given number.
Recognise the place value of each digit in any three-digit number, and partition three-digit numbers
into multiples of 100, 10 and 1.
Compare numbers to at least 1000 using the <, >, and = signs.
Order a set of numbers to at least 1000.
Round two-digit or three-digit numbers to the nearest 10 or 100.
B. FRACTIONS
1
1
1
1
1
1
Recognise unit fractions such as /2, /3, /4, /5, /6 and /10.
Use diagrams to compare fractions and establish equivalents.
2
3
7
Begin to recognise simple fractions that are several parts of a whole, e.g. /3, /4 or /10, interpreting
the denominator as the parts of a whole and the numerator as the number of parts.
Identify pairs of fractions that total 1.
1
Find unit fractions of shapes, numbers or quantities, e.g. /5 of 20.

II. NUMBER OPERATIONS AND CALCULATIONS


A. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
Recall sums and differences of multiples of 10.
Recall all addition and subtraction facts for each number to 20.
Know addition and subtraction fact families to 20, e.g. 8 + 6 = 14, 6 + 8 = 14, 14 8 = 6, 14 6 = 8.
Use known number facts and place value to mentally:
o add or subtract a one-digit number to or from a two-digit number, e.g. 63 + 7, 47 6;
o add a multiple of 10 or 100 to a one-, two- or three-digit number, e.g. 50 + 6, 400 + 347;
o subtract a multiple of 10 from a two-digit or three-digit number, e.g. 428 80;
o subtract a multiple of 100 from a three-digit number, e.g. 639 500;
o add or subtract pairs of two-digit numbers, e.g. 35 + 68, 74 46.
Use written methods to:
o add or subtract a two-digit number to or from a three-digit number, e.g. 647 + 36, 354 78;
o add or subtract pairs of three-digit numbers, e.g. 273 + 436, 364 189.
B. MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
Understand and use the principles (but not the names) of the commutative, associative and
distributive laws as they apply to multiplication:
o example of commutative law: 6 15 = 15 6
o example of associative law: 6 15 = 6 (5 3) = (6 5) 3 = 30 3 = 90
o example of distributive law: 8 x 17 = 8 x (10 + 7) = (8 x 10) + (8 7) = 80 + 56 = 136
Recall multiplication facts for the 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 10 times-tables, and the corresponding division
facts.
Recognise multiples of 2, 5 or 10 up to 1000.
Multiply one-digit and two-digit numbers by 0, 1, 10 or 100, and understand the effect.

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Solve simple division calculations involving remainders, rounding up or down depending on the
context.
Use informal written methods to multiply or divide a two-digit number by a one-digit number, e.g. 24
x 3, 37 5.

C. MIXED OPERATIONS
Use the +, , x, and = signs to record calculations, including symbols such as , or to stand
for an unknown number, e.g. 15 + = 47, 28 = 7.
Use knowledge of number operations and inverse relationships to estimate and check calculations.

III. MEASUREMENT
A. LENGTH, MASS, CAPACITY AND TEMPERATURE
Recognise and use abbreviations for metric units of measure: km, m, cm, kg, g, l, ml, C.
Estimate, measure and record lengths, masses, capacities and temperatures using standard units
(km, m, cm, kg, g, l, ml, C).
Know the relationship between kilometres and metres, metres and centimetres, kilograms and
grams, litres and millilitres.
Read, to the nearest division and half-division, scales that are numbered or partially numbered.
B. TIME
Use a calendar to identify and record the date, day of the week, month and year.
Compare duration of events and calculate time intervals.
Read the time to 5 minutes on an analogue clock and 12-hour digital clock and understand the
notation 8:25.
Understand noon and midnight and distinguish time as am or pm.
C. MONEY
Recognise relative values of all coins and notes.
Begin to add and subtract amounts of money to find totals and give change, using .p notation
where appropriate.

IV. GEOMETRY
A. 2-D AND 3-D SHAPES
Identify, visualise, describe, classify, draw and make 2-D shapes and 3-D solids.
B. POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT
Read and write the vocabulary of position, direction and movement.
Identify lines as horizontal, vertical, diagonal, perpendicular and parallel.
Describe and find the position of a square on a grid of squares with the rows and columns labelled.
Recognise and use the four compass directions. [Cross-curricular connection with Year 1
Geography]
Identify right angles in 2-D shapes and the environment.
Recognise whether an angle is greater or smaller than a right angle.
Recognise that a straight line is equivalent to two right angles.
Use a set-square to draw right angles.
C. SYMMETRY
Identify and draw lines of symmetry in simple shapes.
Recognise shapes with no lines of symmetry.
Draw the reflection of a shape or pattern in a mirror line along one side.

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V. DATA

Collect, process, represent, interpret and discuss data in a tally chart, frequency table, pictogram or
bar chart.
Read, interpret and represent data:
o where symbols represent more than one unit, e.g. 2 or 5;
o where scales have intervals of differing step size, e.g. axis labelled in 2s or 5s.
Use Venn and Carroll diagrams to sort objects and data.

VI. PROBLEM SOLVING AND REASONING

Identify and describe numerical and symbolic patterns and relationships.


Solve mathematical problems and puzzles involving numbers or shapes.
Solve one-step and two-step problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division in
the context of numbers or measurements, including money.

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Science: Year 3
I. CYCLES IN NATURE
A. SEASONAL CYCLES
The four seasons and Earths orbit around the Sun [Review from Year 1]
Seasons and life processes
o Spring: sprouting, sap flow in plants, mating and hatching
o Summer: growth
o Fall: ripening, migration
o Winter: plant dormancy, animal hibernation
B. LIFE CYCLES
The life cycle: birth, growth, reproduction, death
Reproduction in plants and animals
o From seed to seed with a plant
o From egg to egg with a chicken
o From frog to frog
o From butterfly to butterfly: metamorphosis (see below: insects)
C. THE WATER CYCLE
Most of the Earths surface is covered by water
The water cycle
o Evaporation and condensation
o Water vapour in the air, humidity
o Clouds: cirrus, cumulus, stratus
o Precipitation, groundwater

II. INSECTS
[Cross-curricular links with Year 3 Language and Literature: Poetry]
Insects can be helpful and harmful to people.
o Helpful: pollination; products like honey, beeswax, and silk; eat harmful insects
o Harmful: destroy crops, trees, wooden buildings, clothes; carry disease; bite or sting
Distinguishing characteristics
o Exoskeleton, chitin
o Six legs and three body parts: head, thorax and abdomen
o Most but not all insects have wings
Life cycles: metamorphosis
o Some insects look like miniature adults when born from eggs, and they moult to grow (for
example: grasshopper, cricket)
o Some insects go through distinct stages of egg, larva, pupa, adult (for example: butterflies,
ants)
Social Insects
o Most insects live solitary lives, but some are social (for example: ants, honeybees, termites,
wasps)
o Ants: colonies
o Honeybees: workers, drones, queen

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III. THE HUMAN BODY: CELLS, SYSTEMS AND HEALTH


A. CELLS
All living things are made up of cells, too small to be seen without a microscope.
o Cells make up tissues.
o Tissues make up organs.
o Organs work in systems.
B. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Teachers: Explore with children what happens to the food we eat by studying body parts and functions
involved in taking in food and getting rid of waste. Children should become familiar with the following:
Salivary glands, taste buds
Teeth: incisors, canines, premolars and molars
Oesophagus, stomach, liver, small intestine, large intestine
C. TAKING CARE OF YOUR BODY: A HEALTHY DIET
The food pyramid
Vitamins and minerals

IV. MAGNETISM
Teachers: Magnetism was introduced in Year 1. Review and introduce new topics in Year 3, with greater
emphasis on experimentation.
Magnetism demonstrates that there are forces we cannot see that act upon objects.
Most magnets contain iron
Lodestones: naturally occurring magnets
Magnetic poles: north-seeking and south-seeking poles
Magnetic field (strongest at the poles)
Law of magnetic attraction: unlike poles attract, like poles repel.
The Earth behaves as if it were a huge magnet: north and south magnetic poles (near, but not the
same as, geographic North Pole and South Pole).
Orienteering: use of a magnetised needle in a compass, which will always point to the north

V. SIMPLE MACHINES
Teachers: Examine with children how specific tools are made to perform specific jobs- for example,
hammers, screwdrivers, pliers, etc. Through observation and experimentation, examine with children how
simple machines help make work easier, and how they are applied and combined in familiar tools and
machines.
A. SIMPLE MACHINES
Lever
Pulley
Wheel and axle
o Gears: wheels with teeth and notches
o How gears work and familiar uses (for example, in bicycles)
Inclined plane
Wedge
Screw
B. FRICTION, AND WAYS TO REDUCE FRICTION (LUBRICANTS, ROLLERS, ETC.)

VI. SCIENCE BIOGRAPHIES

Archimedes (ancient Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer) [Crosscurricular link with History and Geography]

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Aristotle (Greek philosopher: wrote on physics, biology, logic, poetry, theatre, rhetoric, politics and
ethics)
Anton van Leeuwenhoek (invented the microscope)
The Curie Family including Marie Curie (discovered radiation and two new elements)

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The Core Knowledge Sequence UK


English Language and Literature: Year 4
I. READING AND WRITING
Teachers: Many of the following objectives and outcomes are designed to help children achieve the overall
goal for reading in Year 4: to be able to read (both aloud and silently) with fluency, accuracy and
comprehension any story or other text appropriately written for Year 4.
In Year 4, children should be competent decoders of most one- and two-syllable words, and they should
become increasingly able to use their knowledge of phonemes, syllable boundaries, prefixes and suffixes to
decode multi-syllable words. Systematic attention to decoding skills should be provided as needed for
children who have not achieved the goals specified for Years 1, 2 and 3.
A. READING COMPREHENSION AND RESPONSE
Independently read and comprehend longer works of fiction (chapter books) and non-fiction
appropriately written for Year 4 children or beyond.
Point to specific words or passages that are causing difficulties in comprehension.
Orally summarise main points from fiction and non-fiction read-alouds.
Ask and pose plausible answers to how, why and what-if questions in interpreting texts, both fiction
and non-fiction.
Use a dictionary to answer questions regarding meaning and usage of words with which the child is
unfamiliar.
Know how to use a table of contents and index to locate information.
B. WRITING
Teachers: Children should be given many opportunities for writing, both imaginative and expository, with
teacher guidance that strikes a balance between encouraging creativity and requiring correct use of
conventions. The following guidelines build on the Year 3 guidelines: please refer to these guidelines to
review and reinforce them as necessary to ensure childrens mastery in Year 4.
Produce a variety of types of writingsuch as stories, reports, poems, letters and descriptionsand
make reasonable judgements about what to include in childrens own written work, based on the
purpose and type of composition.
Know how to gather information from basic print sources (such as a childrens encyclopaedia), and
write a short report presenting the information in his or her own words.
Know how to use established conventions when writing a friendly letter: layout, heading, salutation
(greeting), closing and signature.
Produce written work with a beginning, middle and end.
Organise material in paragraphs and understand the following:
o How to use an introductory sentence
o How to develop a paragraph with examples and details
o That each new paragraph is indented
In some writings, proceed with guidance through a process of gathering information, organising
thoughts, composing a draft, revising to clarify and refine the childs meaning and proofreading with
attention to spelling, grammar and presentation of a final draft.

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C. SPELLING, GRAMMAR AND USAGE


Spell most words correctly or with a highly probable spelling, and use a dictionary to check and
correct spellings about which the child is uncertain.
Use capital letters correctly.
Understand what a complete sentence is.
o Identify main clause and subordinate clause in a sentence.
For example (main clause in bold) When I am older I will ride in a hot air balloon.
o Distinguish complete sentences from fragments.
Identify and use different sentence types:
o Declarative (makes a statement)
o Interrogative (asks a question)
o Imperative (gives a command)
o Exclamatory (for example: what a shot!)
Know the following parts of speech and how they are used
o Nouns (common, proper, collective, compound and abstract)
o Pronouns (singular and plural)
o Verbs: action verbs and auxiliary (helping) verbs
o Adjectives (including articles: a before a consonant, an before a vowel, and the)
o Adverbs
Know how to use the following punctuation:
o End punctuation: full stop, question mark or exclamation mark
o Comma: between city and county in an address; in a series; after yes and no)
o Apostrophe: in contractions; in singular and plural possessive nouns
Recognise and avoid the double negative.
D. VOCABULARY
Know what prefixes and suffixes are and how they affect word meaning (see below).
Prefixes:
o re meaning again (as in reuse, refill)
o un meaning not (as in unfriendly, unpleasant)
o dis meaning not (as in dishonest, disobey)
o un meaning opposite of or reversing in action (as in untie, unlock)
o dis meaning opposite of or reversing in action (as is disappear, dismount)
Suffixes:
o er and or (as in singer, painter and actor)
o less (as in careless, hopeless)
o ly, (as in quickly, calmly)
Know what homophones are (for example: by, buy; hole, whole) and correct usage of homophones
that commonly cause problems:
o There, their, theyre
o Your, youre
o Its, its
o Here, hear
o To, two, too
Recognise common abbreviations (for example, St., Rd., Mr., Mrs., Dr., U.K., ft., in., km., kg.) [Crosscurricular link with Year 3 and Year 4 Mathematics]

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II. POETRY
Teachers: The poems listed here constitute a core of poetry for this year group. You are encouraged to
expose children to more poetry, old and new, and to have children write their own poems. To bring children
into the spirit of poetry, read it aloud and encourage them to read it aloud so they can experience the music
in the words. At this age, poetry should be a source of delight; technical analysis should be delayed until
later years.
Become familiar with the following works:
o At the Zoo (William Makepeace Thackeray)
o By Myself (Eloise Greenfield)
o Catch a Little Rhyme (Eve Merriam)
o Colonel Fazackerley (Charles Causley)
o The Crocodile (Lewis Carroll) [In Alice in Wonderland]
o The Dragon on the Playground (Kenn Nesbitt)
o Daddy Fell into the Pond (Alfred Noyes)
o Dream Variations (Langston Hughes)
o Ducks Ditty (Kenneth Grahame) [Cross-curricular connection to 'Wind in the Willows' story]
o Eletelephony (Laura Richards)
o Father William (Lewis Carroll) [In Alice in Wonderland]
o For want of a nail, the shoe was lost (traditional)
o Happiness (A. A. Milne)
o Topsy-Turvy World (William Brighty Rands)
o Trees (Sergeant Joyce Kilmer)

III. FICTION
Teachers: The titles here constitute a selected core of stories for this year group. Expose children to many
more stories, and encourage children to write their own stories. Children should also be exposed to nonfiction prose: biographies, books about science and history, books on art and music, etc. Also, engage
children in dramatic activities, possibly with one of the stories below in the form of a play. Some of the
following works, such as Alice in Wonderland and The Wind in the Willows, lend themselves to reading aloud
to children.
A. STORIES
Become familiar with the following works:
o Alice in Wonderland (Lewis Carroll)
o The Arabian Nights: Ali Baba and Aladdin (traditional)
o The Butterfly Lion (Michael Morpurgo)
o The Hunting of the Great Bear (an Iroquois legend about the origin of the Big Dipper)
o The Legend of Finn MacCool (traditional Irish story)
o The Little Match Girl (Hans Christian Andersen)
o William Tell (traditional)
o Selections from the Wind in the Willows: The River Bank and The Open Road (Kenneth
Grahame)

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B. MYTHS AND MYTHICAL CHARACTERS


Become familiar with the following from Norse Mythology:
o Asgard (home of the gods)
o Valhalla (heaven or afterlife)
o Hel (Underworld)
o Odin
o Thor
o Trolls
o Loki and the Gift from the Gods
o Norse gods and English names for days of the week: Tyr, Odin [Wodin], Thor, Frigg [Freya]
Become familiar with additional myths and legends of Ancient Greece and Rome [Builds on English
Language and Literature from Year 3 and World History and Geography from Year 2: The Ancient
Greek Civilisation.]
o Jason and the Golden Fleece
o Perseus and Medusa
o Orpheus and Eurydice
o The Sword of Damocles
o Damon and Pythias
o Androcles and the Lion
o Horatius at the Bridge
C. LITERARY TERMS
Become familiar with and able to use the following literary terms:
o Biography and autobiography
o Fiction and non-fiction

IV. SAYINGS AND PHRASES


Teachers: Every culture has phrases and proverbs that make no sense when carried over literally into
another culture. For many children, this section may not be needed; they will have picked up these saying by
hearing them at home and among friends. However, this section on sayings has been one of the categories
most appreciated by teachers who work with children from home cultures that differ from British culture.
Become familiar with the following sayings and phrases:
o Actions speak louder than words.
o His bark is worse than his bite.
o Beat around the bush
o Beggars cant be choosers.
o Clean bill of health
o Cold shoulder
o Crossing the Rubicon [found in Year 4 World History: Ancient Rome]
o Et tu, Brute? [found in Year 4 World History: Ancient Rome]
o A feather in your cap
o Last straw
o Let bygones be bygones.
o One rotten apple spoils the whole barrel.
o On its last legs
o Rule the roost
o The show must go on.
o Touch and go
o When in Rome do as the Romans do. [cross-curricular connection with Year 4 World
History: Ancient Rome]
o Rome wasnt built in a day. [cross-curricular connection with Year 4 World History: Ancient
Rome]
o A stitch in time saves nine.
o The writing is on the wall
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Veni vidi vici (I came, I saw, I conquered) [cross-curricular connection with Year 4 World
History: Ancient Rome]

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History and Geography: Year 4


Teachers: The study of geography embraces many topics throughout the Core Knowledge Sequence UK,
including topics in history and science. Geographic knowledge includes a spatial sense of the world, an
awareness of the physical processes that shape life, a sense of the interactions between humans and their
environment, an understanding of the relations between place and culture, and an awareness of the
characteristics of specific regions and cultures.

WORLD HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY


I. SPATIAL SENSE

Draw maps of the local area using symbols and a key. For example, have pupils draw a map of their
route to school.
Use the points of the compass: north, south, east, west.
Review scale and discuss how they will show this on their maps.
Identify changes to a locality over time, sequence of change, and spread or growth. For example,
study aerial photographs of a local place taken in different years.
Use an atlas and online resources to find geographical information.
On a globe, identify the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn and understand their significance.

II. MEDITERRANEAN EUROPE


A. GEOGRAPHY OF MEDITERRANEAN EUROPE (SOUTHERN FRANCE, PORTUGAL, SPAIN, ITALY,
GREECE, MALTA, CYPRUS)
The climate of Europe: A Mediterranean climate.
Food grown in southern Europe
o Grapes, olives, oranges, lemons, dates, other fruits and vegetables
Landscape
o Alpine mountain system (Sierra Nevada, Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines, Balkans)
o Coastline, islands and beaches
Turkey
o Gateway to the Middle East, Istanbul, the Bosphorus.
Settlements
o Lisbon, Madrid, Rome, Milan, Venice, Athens.
B.

III. EASTERN EUROPE


A. ALBANIA, ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, BELARUS, BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA, BULGARIA, CZECH
REPUBLIC, CROATIA, ESTONIA, GEORGIA, HUNGARY, KOSOVO, LATVIA, LITHUANIA, MOLDOVA,
MONTENEGRO, POLAND, ROMANIA, SERBIA, SLOVAKIA, SLOVENIA, UKRAINE
Russia: borders China in the East and Finland in the West, Ural mountains, Ural river, Moscow, St
Peterburg
The Baltic Countries: Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and Poland
The Balkan Countries: Croatia, Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria and Kosovo
Landscape: lowlands and river valleys (Danube, Dniester), Balkan Mountains
Religion and alphabet: Cyrillic alphabet

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UK GEOGRAPHY
Teachers: Pupils should study each region of the UK including: climate, landscape, resources, ecosystems,
population distribution, people, cultural practices, economic activities, political status (Scotland, Wales and
Northern Ireland) and places of interest. The aim is for pupils to develop their knowledge of the geography of
the UK in more detail. The lists of regional geography are by no means extensive or final. They are included
as examples of geographical knowledge that pupils might study. The regions covered in Years 4-6 can be
taught in any order. In Year Four, teachers may like to begin with the region in which the school is located
and then study a different region. The remaining regions should be taught in Years 5 and 6.

I. LONDON AND THE SOUTH EAST

Greater London, Surrey, East Sussex, West Sussex, Kent, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire,
Hertfordshire, Oxfordshire, Isle of Wight
o Transport, River Thames, Houses of Parliament, Tower Bridge, St Pauls Cathedral.
Buckingham Palace, Thames Barrier, Dover, Channel Tunnel, Battle of Hastings, Brighton,
Southampton and Portsmouth, Titanic, hi-tech industry, M4 corridor.

II. SOUTH WEST

Dorset, Wiltshire, Cornwall, Devon, Somerset


o For example: South Downs, Exmoor, Bodmin Moor, Dartmouth National Park, Lands End,
dairy/sheep/arable farming, thatched cottages, Stonehenge, Bristol, Exeter, Plymouth, Bath,
Bournemouth, Great Western Railway, rural, coastline, wave erosion, tides,
limestone/granite/chalk, caves (e.g. Cheddar Gorge), holiday resorts, Durdle Door
o Monuments: Stonehenge, Tintagel Castle, Glastonbury Tor

III. NORTHERN IRELAND

Part of the UK, separate from the Republic of Ireland


Lough Neagh, Lough Erne, Sperrin Hills, Mourne Mountains, limestone (Marble Arch caves), Basalt
(Ring of Gullion), peat bogs, Giants Causeway, Glens, Belfast, Londonderry, Gaelic, ship building,
farmland, dairy

WORLD HISTORY
I. ANCIENT ROME

Background
o Our calendar; a gift from Rome
o Define B.C. / A.D. and B.C.E. / C.E.
o The legend of Romulus and Remus
o Latin as the language of Rome
o Worship of gods and goddesses
Largely based on Greek religion
o The Republic
Senate, Patricians, Plebeians
o Punic Wars
Carthage, Hannibal
The Empire
o Julius Caesar
Defeats Pompey in civil war; becomes dictator
Veni, vidi, vici (I came, I saw, I conquered)
Cleopatra of Egypt
Caesar assassinated in the Senate, Brutus

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o
o

Augustus Caesar
Life in the Roman Empire
The Forum: temples, marketplaces, etc.
The Colosseum: circuses, gladiator combat, chariot races
Roads, bridges, and aqueducts
o Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius
Destruction of Pompeii
o Persecution of Christians
The decline and fall of Rome
o Weak and corrupt emperors
Legend of Nero fiddling as Rome burns
o Civil wars
o City of Rome sacked
The Eastern Roman Empire: Byzantine Civilisation
o The rise of the Eastern Roman Empire, known as the Byzantine Empire
o Constantine
Emperor who made Christianity the official religion of Rome
Constantinople (now called Istanbul) merges diverse influences and cultures.
o Justinian, Justinians Code

BRITISH HISTORY
I. JAMES I AND JAMES VI (1567-1625)
Teachers: Important aspects to emphasise include the origins of the Civil War, the importance of the union
of crowns between England and Scotland, and the growth of trade and global exploration to connect to the
growth of the British Empire in later years
MONARCHS OF THE HOUSE OF STUART
THE UNION OF THE CROWNS
King of Scots as James VI from 1567
King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the English and Scottish crowns on 24
March, 1603
o Belief in the Divine Right of Kings
o Gunpowder Plot, 1605
o Parliament unwilling to grant the King money; dissolved by the King

II. CHARLES I AND THE ORIGINS OF THE CIVIL WAR (1625-1642)


[Builds on Year 1 British History and Geography]
Teachers: Demonstrate how the causes of the Civil War connect religion and politics together. The cost of
financing war was again a significant cause of political conflict and popular unrest.
A. ORIGINS OF CIVIL WAR IN THE REIGN OF CHARLES I
Charles I came to the thrones of England and Scotland in 1625
o Believed in the Divine Right of Kings
o Charles taxed without parliamentary consent
Eleven Years tyranny or Charles Personal Rule; did not call parliament
William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury
o Advocated High Anglicanism and opposed Puritanism

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III. THE CIVIL WAR (1642-1649)


Teachers: Emphasise the social as well as the political and military aspects of the Civil War, how families
were divided and many suffered, with large casualties on both sides during what was a series of bloody
conflicts across England, Scotland and Ireland.
A. LEAD-UP TO THE CIVIL WAR
Charles confronts parliament, 1641
o Charles forcibly enters parliament to arrest five members
o Parliament refuses; Speaker William Lenthall; Charles left powerless
o Charles flees London; Parliament in control of London
B. THE CIVIL WAR
In general, cities and the Royal Navy supported Parliament; rural communities supported the King
o Roundheads (Parliamentarians) and Cavaliers (Royalists)
o Edgehill, 1642; Charles withdraws to Oxford
o Battle of Marston Moor, 1644, victory for Parliamentarians
New Model Army; first permanent national standing army in Britain
o Oliver Cromwell
o The Rump Parliament
C. THE TRIAL AND EXECUTION OF CHARLES I
th
Beheaded on the 30 January, 1649
Charles II proclaimed King in Scotland
Battle of Worcester; Charles escaped to France
D. THE COMMONWEALTH, 1649-1660
An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth was passed
Oliver Cromwells Protectorate, 1653; Rump Parliament dissolved
o Cromwell becomes Lord Protector in December 1653
o Son Richard becomes Lord Protector in 1658

IV. THE RESTORATION: POLITICS


Teachers: Explain how popular attachment to the idea of monarchy is reaffirmed with the Restoration, but
the opposing political ideas are not properly reconciled until the Glorious Revolution.
A. THE RESTORATION
Overthrow of Richard Cromwell
Parliament invites Charles II to return from France
Charles crowned King in London

VI. THE RESTORATION: SCIENCE


Teachers: Emphasise the importance of the peace that followed the restoration in the flourishing of scientific
activity.
A. SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
Francis Bacon (1561-1626); Scientific Method
o Scientific discoveries through empirical observation and inductive reasoning; not relying on
accepted assumptions and ancient authority
Royal Society founded, 1660
o Scientific forum for new discoveries
o Isaac Newton and Gravity

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VII. THE RESTORATION: PLAGUE AND FIRE


A. THE GREAT PLAGUE
Outbreak of plague in London during very hot summer
Nearly 100,000 die before cold weather in October kills it off
B. THE GREAT FIRE OF LONDON
Fire breaks out in Pudding Lane on 2 September 1666
By the time it is extinguished five days later, more than three quarters of the City has been destroyed
Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke in charge of rebuilding. Wren designs many new churches and
St Pauls Cathedral

VIII. THE RESTORATION: RELIGION


Teachers: Demonstrate how connections between religion and politics continue to dominate in Britain,
especially establishment hostility towards Catholics and dissenters. Continued divisions between Catholics
and Protestants led to the following:
JAMES II BECOMES KING IN 1685
Monmouth rebellion defeated
James actions create concern
o James suspended parliament and it was never recalled
o Wanted to repeal the Test Act for Catholics
Declaration of Indulgence, 1687
o Trial of seven opposing Bishops, including the Archbishop of Canterbury
James Catholic son, James Francis Edward Stuart, born in June 1688
o Possibility of a Catholic monarchy becomes real

IX. THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION AND THE BILL OF RIGHTS


[Builds on Year 1 History and Geography]
Teachers: Explain the importance of the real restrictions that were placed on the power of the monarch.
Introduce the idea, supported by some at the time, that political power is based on the consent of the people
A. GLORIOUS REVOLUTION
William of Orange; Protestant opponent of Catholicism
The invitation to invade
o William landed at Torbay and marched to London; welcomed by crowds
o James fled to France
William and Mary crowned joint monarchs
B. BILL OF RIGHTS
The Bill passed in December 1689
o No taxation without parliamentary consent
o No standing army during peacetime
o Free and fair elections
Wider significance
o Officially curtailed royal power; gave parliament financial power
o Still a long way from Constitutional monarchy or democracy
Shaped political landscape and language over the next two centuries

FEATURED GREAT EXPLORER


A. SIR FRANCIS DRAKE [Builds on History and Geography, Year 3]

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Visual Arts: Year 4


Teachers: In schools, lessons on the visual arts should illustrate important elements of making and
appreciating art, and emphasise important artists, works of art, and artistic concepts. When appropriate,
topics in the visual arts may be linked to topics in other disciplines. While the following guidelines specify a
variety of artworks in different media and from various cultures, they are not intended to be comprehensive.
Teachers are encouraged to build upon the core content and expose children to a wide range of art and
artists, particularly those which may be locally accessible to the children and their carers.

I. ELEMENTS OF ART: LIGHT, SPACE AND DESIGN


Teachers: The generally recognised elements of art include line, shape, form, space, light, texture, and
colour. In Year 4, build on what the children have learned in earlier years as you introduce concepts of light,
space and design.
A. LIGHT

Observe how artists use light and shadow (to focus our attention, create mood, etc.) in:
o Caravaggio, Supper at Emmaus, 1601 (National Gallery, London) [Explain that Caravaggio
pioneered a very dramatic lighting contrasting dark shade with bright light, known as
chiaroscuro, combining the Italian words for light and dark.]
o Rembrandt van Rijn, Belshazzars Feast, 1636 (National Gallery, London)
o Johannes Vermeer, The Milkmaid, c. 1658 (Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam)
o Joseph Mallord William Turner, The Fighting Temeraire, 1859 (National Gallery, London)

B. SPACE IN ARTWORKS

Understand the following terms: two-dimensional (height, width), and three-dimensional (height,
width, depth). [Note: perspective will be considered in Year 6.]
Observe the relationship between two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes: square to cube,
triangle to pyramid, circle to sphere and cylinder.
Observe how artists can make what they depict look three-dimensional, despite working in twodimensions, by creating an illusion of depth. Also examine the foreground, middle ground, and
background in paintings, including:
o Pieter Bruegel the Younger, The Peasant Wedding, 1620 (National Gallery of Ireland,
Dublin)
o Jean-Franois Millet, The Gleaners, 1857 (Muse dOrsay, Paris)

C. DESIGN: HOW THE ELEMENTS OF ART WORK TOGETHER

Examine designhow the elements of art work together to create a balanced or coherent wholein:
o Henri Matisse (collage): The Fall of Icarus (from Jazz), 1943 (Tate, London; Metropolitan
Museum of Art, New York)
Additionally in:
o Edvard Munch, The Scream, 1893 (National Gallery, Oslo)
o Anthony van Dyck, Portrait of Charles I, Henrietta Maria and their Children, 1632 (Royal
Collection, Buckingham Palace, London) [Cross-curricular links with Year 4 English History]

II. TYPES OF ART: EMBROIDERY AND NEEDLEWORK


Teachers: Embroidery and needlework are important aspects of art and sewing is also a practical life skill for
children to learn.
Understand the basic principles of sewing techniques. Children can experiment with making their
own cross-stitch design and appreciate the time and effort involved in needlework.
Understand the basic principles of weaving.

Recognise embroidery and tapestry and discuss examples:

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o
o

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Kate Farrer, Icarus, 2012 (Artists Collection, now on display at the Royal School of
Needlework at Hampton Court) [Cross-curricular connections with Icarus by Matisse and
with Year 3 and Year 4 Language and Literature: Ancient Greek and Roman Mythology]
Christs Charge to Peter tapestry commissioned by King Charles I and made in Mortlake
(Forde Abbey, Boughton House, Belvoir Castle and Chatsworth House) and original
cartoons by Raphael (Victoria and Albert Museum, London)
Norman Hartnell, Queen Elizabeth IIs Coronation Robes (Royal Collection)
Royal School of Needlework, Queen Elizabeth IIs Robes of Estate (Royal Collection)
Royal School of Needlework, Kate Middletons Wedding Dress (Royal Collection)

III. MONUMENTS OF ROME AND BYZANTIUM


[Cross-curricular links with Year 4 World History]

Become familiar with the public monuments of ancient Rome such as:
o Trajans Column (113 AD) [Note: there is a cast in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.]
o The Pantheon (126 AD)
o The Arch of Constantine (dedicated in 315 AD)
Become familiar with the public monuments of ancient Byzantium such as:
o Hagia Sofia (537 AD)
o The Great Palace of Constantinople (330 AD)
o The Walls of Constantinople (4th to 5th centuries AD)
Explore how Emperors used and adapted these monuments to display their images, show power
and represent history.
Observe examples of Christian art works of the later Roman Empire (or Byzantium), such as the
mosaics of Ravenna:
o Justinian I and Theodora, mosaic panels in the apse of San Vitale, 548 AD (Ravenna, Italy)

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Music: Year 4
Teachers: In schools, lessons on music should feature activities and works that illustrate important musical
concepts and terms, and should introduce important composers and works. When appropriate, topics in
music may be linked to topics in other disciplines.
The following guidelines focus on content, not performance skills, though many concepts are best learned
through active practice (singing, clapping rhythms, playing instruments, etc.).

I. ELEMENTS OF MUSIC
A. ELEMENTS
Through participation, become familiar with basic elements of music (rhythm, melody, harmony,
form, timbre, etc.).
o Recognise a steady beat, accents, and the downbeat; play a steady beat.
o Move responsively to music.
o Recognise short and long sounds.
o Discriminate between fast and slow; gradually slowing down and getting faster.
o Discriminate between differences in pitch: high and low.
o Discriminate between loud and soft; gradually increasing and decreasing volume.
o Understand that melody can move up and down.
o Hum the melody while listening to music.
o Echo short rhythms and melodic patterns.
o Play simple rhythms and melodies.
o Sing unaccompanied, accompanied, and in unison.
o Recognise harmony; sing rounds.
o Recognise verse and refrain.
o Continue work with timbre and phrasing.
o Review names of musical notes; scale as a series of notes; singing the C major scale using
do re mi etc.
B. NOTATION
Review the following notation

Crotchet

Minim

Semi-breve

Stave

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Treble clef and names of lines and spaces in the treble clef

Crotchet rest

Minim rest

Semibreve rest

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Understand the following notation


o

Bar line, dividing the staff into measures

Quaver: the length of half a crotchet

Time signature: 4 quadruple time, as in four crotchet beats


4

Time signature: 2 duple time, as in two crotchet beats


4

Time signature: 3 triple time, as in three crotchet beats


4

Soft: p

Very soft: pp

Loud:

Very loud:

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II. LISTENING AND UNDERSTANDING


Teachers: Expose children to a wide range of music, including childrens music, popular instrumental music,
and music from various cultures.
[See below, re brass instruments, Composers and Their Music: Aaron Coplands Fanfare for the Common
Man, and Edward Elgar, Pomp and Circumstance March No. 4. See also English Language and Literature 4:
William Tell.]
A. THE ORCHESTRA
Review families of instruments: strings, brass, woodwinds, percussion.
Become familiar with brass instrumentstrumpet, French horn, trombone, tubaand listen to:
o Gioacchino Rossini, William Tell Overture, finale (trumpet)
o Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, selections from the Horn Concertos (French horn)
Become familiar with woodwind instrumentsflute and piccolo (no reeds), clarinet, oboe, bassoon
(with reeds)and listen to:
o Claude Debussy, Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun (flute)
o Opening of George Gershwin, Rhapsody in Blue (clarinet)
o Jean Sibelius, The Swan Of Tuonela (cor anglais)
B. COMPOSERS AND THEIR MUSIC
Teachers: Provide brief, child-friendly biographical profiles of the following composers, and listen to
representative works:
Peter Tchaikovsky, Suite from Swan Lake
Edward Elgar, Pomp and Circumstance March No. 4
Gustav Holst, Mars, Jupiter and Neptune from The Planets Suite
C. MUSICAL CONNECTIONS
Teachers: Introduce children to the following in connection with topics in other disciplines:
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, part one: The Sea and Sinbads Ship from Scheherazade,

III. SONGS

Aiken Drum
All Through the Night
Alouette
Annie Laurie
Cockles and Mussels
Londons Burning
On Ilkley Moor Baht At

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Mathematics: Year 4
I. NUMBERS AND THE NUMBER SYSTEM
A. WHOLE NUMBERS
Read and write numbers to at least 10 000 in figures and words.
Recognise and extend number sequences formed by counting on or back from any number in steps
of constant size.
Identify Roman numerals from 1 to 20 (I - XX).
Recognise odd and even numbers to at least 1000.
Recognise the place value of each digit in any four-digit number, and partition four-digit numbers into
multiples of 1000, 100, 10 and 1.
Compare numbers to at least 10 000 using the <, >, and = signs.
Order a set of numbers to at least 10 000.
Round numbers to at least 10 000 to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000.
Understand what negative numbers are in relation to familiar uses (such as temperatures below
zero).
Position positive and negative numbers on a number line.
B. FRACTIONS
1
Recognise unit fractions to /10 and fractions whose denominator is 10 or 100.
Compare fractions with like denominators, using the signs <, >, and =.
Interpret mixed numbers, e.g. 2.
1
3
Recognise the equivalence of simple fractions, e.g. /2 = /6.
1
2
Find fractions of shapes, numbers or quantities, e.g. /3 of 12, /3 of 18.
C. DECIMALS
Understand decimal notation and place value for tenths and hundredths, and use it in context.
Compare and order decimals, and position decimals on a number line.
Recognise the equivalence between the decimal and fraction forms of one half, quarters, tenths and
hundredths.

II. NUMBER OPERATIONS AND CALCULATIONS


A. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
Understand and use the principles (but not the names) of the commutative and associative laws as
they apply to addition.
Consolidate recall of all addition and subtraction facts for each number to 20.
Add more than two one-digit or two-digit numbers, e.g. 13 + 8 + 22
Use known number facts and place value to mentally:
o derive sums and differences of multiples of 10, 100 and 1000, e.g. 40 + 80, 300 + 500
o add or subtract pairs of two-digit numbers, e.g. 35 + 68, 74 46
Use written methods to:
o add or subtract pairs of three-digit or four-digit numbers, e.g. 1982 + 726, 2846 + 1427, 746
317, 4298 2784
o add more than two numbers, e.g. 376 + 716 + 123
o add or subtract calculations involving money, e.g. 5.58 + 7.84, 9.32 4.77

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B. MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION


Use the principles (but not the names) of the commutative, associative and distributive laws as they
apply to multiplication:
o example of commutative law: 8 24 = 24 8
o example of associative law: 8 24 = 8 (6 4) = (8 6) 4 = 48 4 = 192
o example of distributive law: 9 26 = 9 x (20 + 6) = (9 x 20) + (9 6) = 180 + 54 = 234
Recall multiplication facts up to 10 x 10 and the corresponding division facts.
Recognise multiples of numbers to 10 up to the tenth multiple.
Recall doubles of all two-digit numbers, multiples of 10 and 100, and the corresponding halves.
Multiply and divide whole numbers to 1000 by 0, 1, 10 or 100, and understand the effect.
Use written methods to:
o multiply a two-digit or three-digit number by a one-digit number, e.g. 472 x 6
o divide a two-digit or three-digit number by a one-digit number, including division with remainders,
rounding up or down depending on the context, e.g. 263 8
C. MIXED OPERATIONS
Use knowledge of rounding, number operations and inverse relationships to estimate and check
calculations.

III. MEASUREMENT
A. LENGTH, MASS, CAPACITY AND TEMPERATURE
Estimate, measure and record lengths, masses, capacities and temperatures using standard units
(km, m, cm, mm, kg, g, l, ml, C).
Convert between different units of measure, e.g. km to m, m to cm, cm to mm, kg to g, l to ml or vice
versa.
Begin to use decimal notation to record and convert measurements, e.g. 2.3 kg = 2300 g, or vice
versa.
Read and interpret intervals and divisions on partially numbered scales.
Use a ruler to measure and draw lengths to the nearest millimetre.
B. TIME
Read a simple timetable.
Calculate time intervals from clocks, calendars and simple timetables.
Read the time to the nearest minute on an analogue clock and 12-hour digital clock.
Use am and pm and 12-hour clock notation, e.g. 5:24.
C. MONEY
Add and subtract amounts of money to find totals and give change, using .p notation.
D. PERIMETER AND AREA
Measure and calculate the perimeter of a rectilinear shape.
Measure and calculate the area of rectangles and related compound shapes using counting methods
2
and the standard unit cm .

IV. GEOMETRY
A. 2-D AND 3-D SHAPES

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Draw polygons and classify them using criteria such as the number of right angles, whether or not
they are regular, and their symmetrical properties.
Visualise 3-D solids and objects from 2-D drawings.

B. POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT


Read and plot coordinates in the first quadrant.
Recognise and use the eight compass directions. [Cross-curricular connection with Geography: Year
4]
Know that angles are measured in degrees and that:
o
o one whole turn is 360 (four right angles);
o
o a half turn is 180 (two right angles or a straight line);
o
o a quarter turn is 90 (or one right angle);
o
o half a right angle is 45 .
o
Compare and order angles less than 180 .
C. SYMMETRY
Draw the reflection of a shape or pattern in a mirror line parallel to one side, where all sides of the
shape or pattern are parallel or perpendicular to the mirror line.

V. DATA

Collect, process, represent, interpret and discuss data in a tally chart, frequency table, pictogram or
bar chart.
Read, interpret and represent data:
o where symbols represent more than one unit, e.g. 2, 5, 10 or 20;
o where scales have intervals of differing step size, e.g. axis labelled in 2s, 5s, 10s or 20s.

VI. PROBLEM SOLVING AND REASONING

Identify, describe and use numerical and symbolic patterns and relationships.
Solve mathematical problems and puzzles involving numbers or shapes.
Investigate a general statement involving numbers or shapes.
Solve one-step and two-step problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division in
the context of numbers or measurements, including money and time.

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Science: Year 4
I. INTRODUCTION TO CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS

Scientists classify animals according to the characteristics they share, for example:
o Cold-blooded or warm-blooded
o Vertebrates (have backbones and internal skeletons) or invertebrates (do not have
backbone or internal skeletons)
Different classes of vertebrates

Teachers: Children should become familiar with examples of animals in each class and some basic
characteristics of each class, such as:
Fish: aquatic animals, breath through gills, cold-blooded, most have scales, most develop from eggs
that the female lays outside her body
Amphibians: live part of their life cycle in water and part on land, have gills when young, later
develop lungs, cold-blooded, usually have moist skin
Reptiles: hatch from eggs, cold-blooded, have dry, thick, scaly skin
Birds: warm-blooded, most can fly, have feathers and wings, most build nests, hatch from eggs,
most baby birds must be fed by parents and cared for until they can survive on their own (though
some, like baby chickens and quail, can search for food a few hours after hatching)
Mammals: warm-blooded, have hair on their bodies, parents care for the young, females produce
milk for their babies, breathe through lungs, most are terrestrial (live on land) though some are
aquatic

II. ECOLOGY
Teachers: Some topics here, such as habitats, were introduced in Year One. In this year, these topics will
be covered in more detail and new areas will be studied.
Habitats, interdependence of organisms and their environment
The concept of a balance of nature (constantly changing, not a static condition)
The food chain: producers, consumers, decomposers
Ecosystems: how they can be affected by changes in environment (for example, rainfall, food supply,
etc.) and by man-made changes
Fossils and how they can tell us about the environment long ago
Man-made threats to the environment
o Air pollution: emissions, smog
o Water pollution: industrial waste, run-off from farming
Measures we can take to protect the environment (for example, conservation, recycling)

III. THE HUMAN BODY: SYSTEMS, VISION AND HEARING


A. THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
Muscles
o Involuntary and voluntary muscles
B. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
Skeleton, bones, marrow
Musculo-skeletal connection
o Ligaments
o Tendons, Achilles tendon
o Cartilage
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Skull, cranium
Spinal column, vertebrae
Joints
Ribs, rib cage, sternum
Scapula (shoulder blades), pelvis, tibia, fibula
Broken bones, X-rays

C. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM


Brain: medulla, cerebellum, cerebrum, cerebral cortex
Spinal cord
Nerves
Reflexes
D. VISION: HOW THE EYE WORKS
Parts of the eye: cornea, iris and pupil, lens, retina
Optic nerve
Farsighted and nearsighted
E. HEARING: HOW THE EAR WORKS
Sound as vibration
Outer ear, ear canal
Eardrum
Three tiny bones (hammer, anvil and stirrup) pass vibrations to the cochlea
Auditory nerve

IV. LIGHT AND OPTICS


Teachers: Through experimentation and observation, introduce children to some of the basic physical
phenomena of light, with associated vocabulary.
The speed of light: light travels at an amazingly high speed.
Light travels in straight lines (as can be demonstrated by forming shadows).
Transparent and opaque objects
Reflection
o Mirrors: plane, concave, convex
o Use of mirrors in telescopes and some microscopes
The spectrum: use a prism to demonstrate that white light is made up of a spectrum of colours.
Lenses can be used for magnifying and bending light (as in magnifying glass, microscope, camera,
telescope, binoculars).

V. SOUND
Teachers: Through experimentation and observation, introduce children to some of the basic physical
phenomena of sound, with associated vocabulary.
Sound is caused by an object vibrating rapidly.
Sounds travel through solids, liquids and gases.
Sound waves are much slower than light waves.
Speed of sound: Concorde
Qualities of sound
o Pitch: high or low, faster vibrations = higher pitch, slower vibrations = lower pitch
o Intensity: loudness and quietness
Human voice
o Larynx (voice box)
o Vibrating vocal chords: longer, thicker vocal chords create lower, deeper voices
Sound and how the human ear works
Protecting your hearing
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VI. ASTRONOMY

The Big Bang as one theory


The universe: an extent almost beyond imagining
Galaxies: Milky Way and Andromeda
Our solar system
o Sun: source of energy (heat and light)
o The nine planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
[Note that, in 2006, Pluto was classified as a dwarf planet]
Planetary motion: orbit and rotation
o How day and night on Earth are caused by the Earths rotation
o Sunrise in the east and sunset in the west
o How the seasons are caused by the Earths orbit around the sun, tilt of the Earths axis
Gravity, gravitational pull
o Gravitational pull of the moon (and to a lesser degree, the sun) causes ocean tides on Earth
o Gravitational pull of black holes prevents light from escaping
Asteroids, meteors (shooting stars), comets, Halleys Comet
How an eclipse happens
Stars and constellations
Orienteering (finding your way) by using North Star, Big Dipper
Exploration of space
o Observation through telescopes
o Rockets and satellites: from unmanned flights
o Apollo 11, first landing on the moon: One small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind
o Space shuttle

VII. SCIENCE BIOGRAPHIES

Alexander Graham Bell (invented the telephone)


Copernicus (had new sun-centred idea about the solar system)
Galileo Galilei (Father of modern science, provided scientific support for Copernicuss theory)
Caroline Herschel (German-British astronomer, discovered several comets, worked with brother
William)
Isaac Newton (English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher and alchemist)

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The Core Knowledge Sequence UK


English Language and Literature: Year 5
I. WRITING, GRAMMAR, AND USAGE
Teachers: Children should be given many opportunities for writing, both imaginative and expository, but
place a stronger emphasis than in previous years on expository writing, including, for example, summaries,
book reports and descriptive essays. Provide guidance that strikes a balance between encouraging creativity
and requiring correct use of conventions. Children should be given more responsibility for (and guidance in)
editing for organisation and development of ideas and proofreading to correct errors in spelling, usage and
mechanics. In Year 5, children should be able to spell most words or provide a highly probable spelling, and
know how to use a dictionary to check and correct words that present difficulty. They should receive regular
practice in vocabulary enrichment.
A. WRITING AND RESEARCH
Produce a variety of types of writingincluding stories, reports, summaries, descriptions, poems and
letterswith a coherent structure of storyline.
Know how to gather information from different sources (such as in encyclopaedias, magazines,
interviews, observations, atlases and the Internet), and write short reports presenting the information
in his or her own words.
o Understand the purpose and audience of the writing.
o Define a main idea and stick to it.
o Provide an introduction and a conclusion.
o Organise material in coherent paragraphs.
o Document sources in a rudimentary bibliography.
Organise material in paragraphs and understand the following:
o How to use a topic sentence
o How to develop a paragraph with examples and details
o That each new paragraph is indented
B. GRAMMAR AND USAGE
Understand the components of a complete sentence.
o Identify the subject and predicate in single-clause sentences.
For example (subject is in bold and predicate is in italics): Anna scored a goal.
o Distinguish complete sentences from fragments.
Identify the subject and verb in a sentence and understand that they must agree.
Identify active and passive verbs
Identify and use different sentence types: declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory.
Know the following parts of speech and how they are used: nouns, pronouns, verbs (action verbs
and auxiliary verbs), adjectives (including articles), adverbs, conjunctions (and, but, or), prepositions
and interjections.
Know how to use the following punctuation:
o End punctuation: full stop, question mark or exclamation mark
o Colons and semi colons: causing a break in a sentence, linking ideas together
o Comma: between city and county in an address, in a series, after yes and no, before
conjunctions that combine sentences, inside speech marks in dialogue.
o Apostrophe: in contractions, in singular and plural possessive nouns
o Quotation marks: for titles of poems, songs, short stories and magazine articles.
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o Speech marks for dialogue/direct speech


Understand what synonyms and antonyms are, and provide synonyms and antonyms for given
words.
Know what prefixes and suffixes are and how they affect word meaning (see below).
Prefixes
o im, in (as in impossible, incorrect)
o non (as in non-fiction, non-violent)
o mis (as is misbehave, misspell)
o en (as in enable, endanger)
o pre (as in prehistoric, premature)
Suffixes
o ily, y (as in easily, speedily, tricky)
o ful (as in thoughtful, wonderful)
o able, ible (as in washable, flexible)
o ment (as in agreement, amazement)
Correct usage of problematic homophones [Review from Year 4]
o There, their, theyre
o Your, youre
o Its, its
o Here, hear
o To, too, two

II. POETRY
Teachers: The poems listed here constitute a selected core of poetry for this year group. You are
encouraged to expose children to more poetry, old and new, and to have children write their own poems. To
bring children into the spirit of poetry, read it aloud and encourage children to read it aloud so they can
experience the music in the words. At this age, poetry should be a source of delight; technical analysis
should be delayed until later years.
A. POEMS
Become familiar with the following works:
o Dreams (Langston Hughes)
o Fog (Carl Sandburg)
o The Lady of Shallot (Alfred, Lord Tennyson)
o Mondays Child Is Fair of Face (traditional)
o The Pobble Who Has No Toes (Edward Lear)
o The Rhinoceros (Ogden Nash)
o Sky in the Pie (Roger McGough)
o A Tragic Story (William Makepeace Thackeray)
B. LITERARY TERMS
Become familiar with and able to use the following literary terms:
o Stanza and line
o Rhythm
o Rhyme
o Mood

III. FICTION
Teachers: In Year 5, children should be fluent, competent readers of appropriate materials. Decoding skills
should be automatic, allowing the children to focus on meaning. Regular practice in reading aloud and
independent silent reading should continue. Children should read outside school for at least 20 minutes
daily.

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The titles below constitute a selected core of stories for this year group. Teachers and parents are
encouraged to expose children to many more stories, and to encourage children to write their own stories.
Children should also be exposed to non-fiction prose: biographies, books about science and history, books
on art and music, etc. Also, engage children in dramatic activities, possibly with one of the stories below in
the form of a play. Some of the stories below, such as Gullivers Travels and Robinson Crusoe, are available
in editions adapted for younger readers.
A. STORIES
Become familiar with the following works:
o The Fire on the Mountain (an Ethiopian folktale)
o A voyage to Lilliput from Gullivers Travels (Jonathan Swift)
o The Happy Prince (Oscar Wilde)
o The Wonderful Chuang Brocade (a Chinese folktale)
o Robinson Crusoe (Daniel Defoe)
o Treasure Island (Robert Louis Stephenson)
B. MYTHS AND MYTHICAL CHARACTERS
Become familiar with the following works:
o Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

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V. SAYINGS AND PHRASES


Teachers: Every culture has phrases and proverbs that make no sense when carried over literally into
another culture. For many children, this section may not be needed; they will have picked up these saying by
hearing them at home and among friends. However, this section of sayings has been one of the categories
most appreciated by teachers who work with children from home cultures that differ from British culture.
Become familiar with the following sayings and phrases:
o Prevention is better than cure.
o As the crow flies
o Beauty is only skin deep.
o The bigger they are, the harder they fall.
o Birds of a feather flock together.
o Blow hot and cold
o Break the ice
o Bull in a china shop
o Bury the hatchet
o Cant hold a candle to
o Dont count all your chickens before they hatch.
o Dont put all your eggs in one basket.
o Gone to pot
o Half a loaf is better than none.
o More haste less speed
o Laugh and the world laughs with you.
o Lightning never strikes twice in the same place.
o Live and let live.
o Make ends meet.
o Make hay while the sun shines.
o Money burning a hole in your pocket.
o Once in a blue moon
o One picture is worth a thousand words.
o Run-of-the-mill
o Seeing is believing.
o Shipshape and Bristol fashion
o Through thick and thin
o To go to Timbuktu
o It never rains but it pours
o You can lead a horse to water, but you cant make it drink.

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History and Geography: Year 5


WORLD HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY
Teachers: The study of geography embraces many topics throughout the Core Knowledge Sequence,
including topics in history and science. Geographic knowledge includes a spatial sense of the world, an
awareness of the physical processes that shape life, a sense of the interactions between humans and their
environment, an understanding of the relations between place and culture, and an awareness of the
characteristics of specific regions and cultures. Many geographic topics are listed below in connection with
historical topics.

I. SPATIAL SENSE
Teachers: Review as necessary map-reading skills and concepts, as well as geographic terms, from
previous years
Relief maps: identify elevated areas, depressions and river basins.
Compare aerial photographs and maps. Identify the ways in which maps represent and simplify the
real world.
Read maps and globes using latitude, longitude, coordinates and degrees.
Scale: measure distances using map scales.
0
Identify the Prime Meridian, the 180 line (International Date Line), the Eastern and Western
Hemispheres.

II. MOUNTAINS OF THE WORLD


Teachers: Children should learn the names of some of the worlds mountain ranges. They should also
become familiar with the terms peak meaning the highest point of a mountain and range meaning a
connected group of mountains.
The Alps
The Himalayas
The Andes and The Appalachian Mountains
The Atlas Mountains

III. THE SPREAD OF ISLAM AND THE HOLY WARS


Teachers: Since religion is a shaping force in the story of civilisation, the Core Knowledge Sequence
introduces children in the early years to major world religions, beginning with a focus on geography and
major symbols and figures. In Year 5 the focus is on history, geography, and the development of a
civilisation. The purpose is not to explore matters of theology but to understand the place of religion and
religious ideas in history. The goal is to familiarise, not proselytise; to be descriptive, not prescriptive. The
tone should be one of respect and balance: no religion should be disparaged by implying that it is a thing of
the past. A review of major religions introduced in earlier years in the Core Knowledge Sequence UK is
recommended: Judaism/Christianity/Islam (Year 2) and Hinduism/Buddhism (Year 3).
A. ISLAM
Muhammad: the prophet
Allah, Quran
Sacred city of Makkah, mosques
Five pillars of Islam
o Declaration of faith
o Prayer (five times daily), facing toward Makkah
o Fasting during Ramadan
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o Help the needy


o Pilgrimage to Makkah
Arab peoples unite to spread Islam in Northern Africa, through the eastern Roman Empire, and as
far west as Spain.

B. DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC CIVILISATION


Contributions to science and mathematics: Avicenna (Ibn Sina), Arabic numerals
Thriving cities as centres of Islamic art and learning, such as Cordoba (Spain)
C. WARS BETWEEN MUSLIMS AND CHRISTIANS
The Holy Land, Jerusalem
The Crusades
Saladin and Richard the Lionheart
Growing trade and cultural exchange between east and west

V. AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND AND THE SOUTH PACIFIC


A. GEOGRAPHY
South Pacific Ocean
Major rivers: the Murray and the Darling (Australia)
Contrasting climate in different regions:
o Australia: climate differs regionallydry outback, greener coastal areas
o New Zealand: hot in the North Island (farther from the South Pole and closer to the Equator),
snow in Arthurs Pass on the South Island
o South Pacific islands are very hot
Settlements located along the coasts, especially on the East Coast of Australia and coasts of New
Zealand
B. AUSTRALIA
Large cities: Canberra, Sydney, Adelaide, Melbourne, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Perth, Alice Springs
Important features: Ayers Rock, outback, Great Barrier Reef (worlds largest coral reef), tropical
rainforest, beaches
Aboriginal people: traditional music and dance, strong oral history, importance of ancestors, historic
art including aboriginal rock engravings [cross-curricular connection with Year 4 Visual Arts]
Unique animals: koala, kangaroo, platypus, emu, kookaburra bird
History
o British explorer James Cook was the first European to make contact with Australia (on
eastern coastline)
o Australia used as a penal colony for British prisoners
o Gold rush in the 1850s and subsequent importance of mining
o Australia became an independent country that was a dominion of the British Empire (1907)
o New architecture: Sydney harbour bridge and the Sydney Opera House are well-known
modern architectural pieces
C. NEW ZEALAND
Large cities: Auckland, Christchurch
Important features:
o Geysers in Rotorua on the North Island[cross-curricular connection with Year 2 History and
Geography: geysers in Yellowstone National Park in the US and in Iceland]
o Geographic isolation and unique species of plants and animals (e.g. kiwi fruit and kiwi bird);
some plants and animals were threatened by the arrival of new plants and animals brought
through colonisation (e.g. rabbits and ferrets that threatened the kiwi bird and other animals)
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Mori people and culture: elaborate mythology, traditional dancing (see rugby and the haka below),
History
o British explorer James Cook was the first to circumnavigate New Zealand
o New Zealand as a member of the British Commonwealth
o First country in the world to grant all women the right to vote (1893)
Sports
o Mountaineering: Sir Edmund Hillary (from New Zealand) and Tenzing Norgay (from Nepal)
were the first to climb Mt. Everest (worlds tallest mountain) in 1953 [cross-curricular
connection with Year 3 History and Geography]
o Rugby: All Blacks rugby team, Mori participation in rugby and the national teams
performance of the haka (traditional Mori challenge) before matches

D. SOUTH PACIFIC ISLANDS


James Cook as an explorer and a cartographer who was the first to map South Pacific Islands from
New Zealand to Hawaii
Melanesia: islands include New Guinea, New Caledonia, Fiji, Solomon Islands
Micronesia: islands include Guam, Marshall Islands
Polynesia: islands include New Zealand, the Hawaiian Islands, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu, the Cook
Islands, French Polynesia, Easter Island

UK GEOGRAPHY
I. EAST ENGLAND
A. HERTFORDSHIRE, BEDFORDSHIRE, CAMBRIDGESHIRE, NORFOLK, SUFFOLK, ESSEX
Flat or rolling land, climate, vegetable farming, Norfolk Broads, Cambridge, port of Felixstowe,
Sutton Hoo

II. THE MIDLANDS


A. EAST MIDLANDS: NOTTINGHAMSHIRE, DERBYSHIRE, LEICESTERSHIRE, RUTLAND,
NORTHAMPTONSHIRE AND MOST OF LINCOLNSHIRE
B. WEST MIDLANDS: STAFFORDSHIRE, GLOUCESTERSHIRE, WORCESTERSHIRE, WEST
MIDLANDS, WARWICKSHIRE, HEREFORDSHIRE

Birmingham, Spaghetti Junction, Grand Union Canal, mining industry (much declined), Peak District,
Sherwood Forest, The Trent, Rolls-Royce (engines), car plants, food processing, Leicester,
Nottingham, Derby, Bourneville; home of Cadburys chocolate, Malvern Hills, farming

III. YORKSHIRE AND HUMBERSIDE


A. YORKSHIRE, HUMBERSIDE, PART OF LINCOLNSHIRE
Peak District, N Yorkshire Moors, Yorkshire Dales, River Humber, port of Hull, coal, iron and steel
works, City of York

BRITISH HISTORY
I. 18TH CENTURY BRITAIN
Teachers: The Act of Union in 1707 created Great Britain, a new nation, but it did not yet create Britons.
Encourage students to think about the nature and formation of national identity, and identities in general.
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Explain how this period sees the development of political institutions that are still familiar today, and use the
Jacobite rebellions as a reminder of the continued importance of religion in political and social life.
A. JAMES I AND VI HAD BEEN ATTEMPTING TO FORM A FULL POLITICAL UNION, BUT FAILED
In Scotland, opinion over union was divided
o The Act secured the line of succession through protestants
The Act of Union, 1707
o The Scottish parliament voted itself out of existence
o Robert Burns famous line: bought and sold for English gold
o Scotland managed to retain her legal and university structures; the Church of Scotland
remained Presbyterian
The creation of Great Britain was one of necessity, with mutual hostility and mistrust on both sides
o Great Britain into an international power; global empire
o Scotland developed financially; the loss of power and status helped cause the Scottish
Enlightenment
B. DEVELOPMENT OF PARTY POLITICS; PARLIAMENT MORE IMPORTANT AFTER THE BILL OF
RIGHTS
Anne becomes Queen (1702) after the death of William III
o Spanish War of Succession; the Duke of Marlborough and the Battle of Blenheim
Accession of George I in 1714; House of Hanover
Detached approach to government, visited Hanover frequently
o Decline of monarchical power and influence
Robert Walpole came to the fore in Parliament [Builds on Year 1 History and Geography]
o Appointed First lord of the Treasury by George I in 1721
o Referred to as the Prime Minister
C. JACOBITE REBELLIONS; RETURN OF THE HOUSE OF STUART
1715, first Jacobite Rising (The Latin word for James is Jacobus)
1745, second, larger Jacobite Rising; Jacobite forces to Derby
o Charles Edward Stuart, known as the Young Pretender or Bonnie Prince Charlie
o Support in areas of Scotland and north of England
o Battle of Culloden
o Bonnie Prince Charlie escaped to Skye with Flora MacDonald

II. HOW DID BRITAIN GAIN AN EMPIRE?

Global trade
o Colonies established abroad where Britain had built forts and towns for merchants and
soldiers to live
o British merchants exchanged British-made goods for new exotic luxuries
o British ports including Liverpool, Glasgow and Bristol became rich
The Seven Years War
o 1756 French invaded the British colony of Minorca, off the coast of Spain
o Britain went to war with France, battles were fought in trading colonies around the world
o Canada; The Battle of Quebec, General Wolfe
India
o East India Company
o Mughal Empire crumbling
o Battle of Plassey
Rule Britannia
o 1759 The Year of Miracles and the birth of the British Empire

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The Royal Navy


o Impressment; forcing men to serve in the Royal Navy
o Life of a sailor; diet, scurvy, punishments

III. AMERICAN REVOLUTION


Teachers: Connect the American Revolution to the ideas of liberty and royal power that students looked at
th
when studying Britain during the 17 Century, as well as the political thought from the Enlightenment in the
previous section. The American Revolution can be used to discuss ideas such as representation and
democracy. Explain the wider impact of the Revolution in Britain and across Europe, particularly in France.
Also raise and discuss issues about the nature and formation of national identity.
A. PROVOCATIONS
British taxes, No taxation without representation
o Boston Massacre
o Boston Tea Party
B. THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
Declaration of Independence; adopted July 4, 1776
o The proposition that All men are created equal
o The responsibility of government to protect the unalienable rights of the people
o Natural rights: Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
o The right of the people... to institute new government
C. THE REVOLUTION
Paul Reveres ride
George Washington chosen as commander of the rebel army
The French enter the war in support of the Americans
British surrender at York Town
Creation of the USA with George Washington as President

IV. FRENCH REVOLUTION


Teachers: The French Revolution can be seen as a watershed moment in the history of the western world,
undermining traditional aristocratic and monarchical hierarchies, and children should understand why it has
been seen as so significant. Also discuss its impact in Britain, and across Europe, in spreading radical
ideologies about democracy and republicanism, and inspiring egalitarian ideas and organisations.

Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette at Versailles


Division between rich and poor
o Marie Antoinette Let them eat cake!
o Only the poor working people paid taxes
o Debts from funding the American War of Independence led to a rise in taxes
th
14 July 1789 people of Paris stormed a prison called the Bastille and released its prisoners
Revolution began followed by a reign of terror
King and Queen beheaded and France becomes a republic (a nation ruled without a monarch)

V. NAPOLEON
Teachers: The rise of Napoleon should be treated in connection with events studied in the French
Revolution section. Discuss the nature of Napoleons power in contrast with the ideas of the Revolution, and
encourage students to look at his impact across Europe, especially in connection with the growth of
European nationalisms.

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A. NAPOLEON BONAPARTE AND THE FIRST FRENCH EMPIRE


Napoleon as military genius
In 1804 he made himself Emperor of France
Planned invasion of England
o Horatio Nelson, admiral in the Royal Navy led the attack on Napoleons navy
o Napoleon defeated at the Battle of Trafalgar (off the Spanish Coast at Cape Trafalgar)
o Death of Nelson
Napoleon invades Spain
Battle of Waterloo
Napoleon sent into exile on the island of St Helena in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean where he dies
seven years later

VI. ABOLITION OF THE SLAVE TRADE


Teachers: Explain the efforts to stop slavery in the context of its huge and extensive operation across the
world, particularly in the Americas. Encourage students to think about the personal and psychologically
damaging effects of slavery, as well as the reasons why people opposed abolitionism.
A. ABOLITION OF SLAVERY IN THE BRITISH EMPIRE
Slaves transported from Africa to plantations in the Americas
o Conditions on slave ships
o Ill treatment of slaves on plantations
Beginning of movement for the abolition of slavery
o Thomas Clarkson
o William Wilberforce
o Olandah Equiano
1807 Bill for the Abolition of the Slave Trade
1833 Slavery abolished throughout the British Empire

VII. GEORGIAN BRITAIN


Teachers: The Georgian Era was a period of British history during which successive kings named George
ruled. 1714 to 1837 saw the reign of King George I, King George II, King George III and King George IV.
Following the Georgian Era was the Victorian Era which saw George IVs niece take the throne and reign for
over sixty years.
The class system
o Aristocracy
o Middling Sort
o Poor
The position of women
Crime

FEATURED GREAT EXPLORER


A. JAMES COOK [Builds on UK HistoryThe Age of Reason, History and Geography, Year 5]

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Visual Arts: Year 5


Teachers: In schools, lessons on the visual arts should illustrate important elements of making and
appreciating art, and emphasise important artists, works of art, and artistic concepts. When appropriate,
topics in the visual arts may be linked to topics in other disciplines. While the following guidelines specify a
variety of artworks in different media and from various cultures, they are not intended to be comprehensive.
Teachers are encouraged to build upon the core content and expose children to a wide range of art and
artists, particularly any that they may be able to view first-hand.
In studying the works of art specified below, and in creating their own art, students should review, develop,
and apply concepts introduced in previous years, such as line, shape, form, space, texture, colour, light,
design, symmetry, etc.

I. LANGUAGE OF ART: STYLE


Teachers: In Years 1 - 4 students have learned a great deal about the elements of art and how to talk about
works of art and architecture. In Year 5 extend this knowledge by helping children also consider and express
styles as they see them in works of art and architecture. They should already be familiar with the term from
Language and Literacy.
Understand the meaning of style as a noun and, in the context of art, as a term to refer to how
something looks.
Practice applying the term style to describe contrasting works of art already known to students,
comparing two works, for example:
o Stubbss Whistlejacket [from Year 3 - Form] (often described as smooth in style since no
brushstrokes are visible and the colours have been carefully blended)
o Munchs The Scream [from Year 4 - Design] (which can be described as rough or broad in
style as the brushstrokes are evident and the paint appears to have been hastily applied and
the colours are unmixed)
Rococo Vs Modernism
o Antoine Watteau, The Pilgrimage to the Isle of Cythera, 1717 (Louvre Museum, Paris,
France)
o Thomas Chippendale, Ribbon-backed Chair, made 1850-1880 from Chippendales design of
1754 (V&A Museum, London, UK)
Modernism and Abstract Art
o Colour theory
o Theo van Doesburg, Contra-Composition of Dissonances XVI (Haags Gemeentemuseum?
The Hague, Netherlands
o Marcel Breuer, Wassily Chairs, 1925-1926 (Bauhaus) Dessau, Germany

II. ISLAMIC ART AND ARCHITECTURE


[Cross-curricular links with Year 5 World History]
Become familiar with examples of Islamic art, including illuminated manuscripts and illumination of
the Quran (Koran).

Note characteristic features of Islamic architecture, such as domes and minarets, in:
o The Dome of the Rock (Mosque of Omar), initial construction completed in AD 691
(Jerusalem)
o The Alhambra Palace, 1527 (Granada, Spain)
o The Taj Mahal, 1632 (Agra, India)

III. THE ART OF AFRICA


[Cross-curricular links with Year 5 World History: Early and Medieval African Kingdoms]
Note the spiritual purposes and significance of many African works of art, such as masks used in
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ceremonies. In addition, recognise cultural changes that are reflected in artwork. For instance, in
parts of West Africa where Portuguese traders arrived in the 16th century, many works of art display
Portuguese influence in the materials and techniques used, as well as in what was depicted in the
art.
Become familiar with examples of art from specific regions and peoples in Africa. The following
suggestions can be found in the British Museum in London:
o Antelope headdresses of Mali
o Ivory carvings from Ife and Benin
o Bronze sculptures and panels from Benin

V. TYPES OF ART: PRINTS AND PRINTMAKING


Teachers: Prints and printmaking provides an excellent opportunity to allow your students to create original
artworks using the media and techniques they are examining. Specialist equipment is not necessary to
experience print-making; mono-printing, for example, requires little other than paint, wooden sticks and
paper, and desks or tablets that can be wiped down!

Understand that printmaking is an indirect art form, where the artist usually creates a design on a
block or plate (or wood, plastic or metal), or even on a screen of silk, and this is transferred to a
supportusually paperafter a pressing with ink. Printmaking can be a positive (relief), negative
(intaglio) or stencil process.
Appreciate that the benefit of printmaking is that it allows the creation of multiple versions of the
same design. Artists like Rubens and Hogarth realised they could use this to spread their images to
a wider audience, not least because paper prints were generally cheap and comparatively quick to
produce.
Find out about some of the various printmaking techniques, ranging from mono-printing, engraving,
etching, screen-printing to lithography and brass rubbing.
Recognise as products of printmaking (prints), and discuss:
o Albrecht Drer, The Rhinoceros (woodcut) 1515 (British Museum, London)
o Paulus Pontius after Rubens, Self-Portrait (of Rubens), 1630 (British Museum, London)
o William Hogarth, Industry and Idleness Plate 1: The Fellow Prentices at their Looms, Plate
12: The Industrious Prentice Lord Mayor of London, 1747 (Tate Britain, London)
o Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Troupe de Mlle glantine, 1896 (colour lithograph), (V&A,
London)

ADDITIONAL UNIT: THE ART OF THE EAST: CHINA


[Cross-curricular links with Year 5 World History: China - Dynasties and Conquerors and Year 3 World
History: China]
A. CHINA

Become familiar with examples of Chinese art, including:


o Silk scrolls
o Calligraphy (the art of brush writing and painting)
o Porcelain (such as Ming ware)
o Jade Carving (for statuary and jewellery)

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Music: Year 5
Teachers: In schools, lessons on music should feature activities and works that illustrate important musical
concepts and terms, and should introduce important composers and works. When appropriate, topics in
music may be linked to topics in other disciplines.
The following guidelines focus on content, not performance skills, though many concepts are best learned
through active practice (singing, clapping rhythms, playing instruments, etc.).

I. ELEMENTS OF MUSIC
A. ELEMENTS
Through participation, become familiar with basic elements of music (rhythm, melody, harmony,
form, timbre, etc.).
o Recognise a steady beat, accents, and the downbeat; play a steady beat and a simple
rhythm pattern.
o Discriminate between fast and slow; gradually slowing down and getting faster.
o Discriminate between differences in pitch: high and low.
o Discriminate between loud and soft; gradually increasing and decreasing volume.
o Understand legato (smoothly flowing progression of notes) and staccato (crisp, distinct
notes).
o Sing unaccompanied, accompanied, and in unison.
o Recognise harmony; sing simple rounds and canons.
o Recognise verse and chorus
o Continue work with timbre and phrasing.
o Recognise theme and variations, and listen to Mozart, Variations on Ah vous dirai-je
Maman (familiarly known as Twinkle Twinkle Little Star).
o Sing or play simple melodies.
A. NOTATION
Review the following notation

Crotchet

Minim

Semi-breve

Stave

Treble clef and names of lines and spaces in the treble clef

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Crotchet rest

Minim rest

Semibreve rest

Bar line

Double bar line, bar, repeat signs

Quaver

Time signature: 4 quadruple time


4

Time signature: 2 duple time


4

Time signature: 3 triple time


4

Soft: p

Very soft: pp

Loud:

Very loud:

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Understand the following notation:


o Moderately soft: mp
o

Moderately loud: mf

Middle C in the treble clef

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Tied notes

Dotted notes

Sharps

Flats

Da Capo (D.C.): meaning from the beginning

Da Capo al fine (D.C. al fine): meaning repeat from beginning to the fine (end) mark

II. LISTENING AND UNDERSTANDING


Teachers: Expose children to a wide range of music, including childrens music, popular instrumental music,
and music from various cultures.
A. THE ORCHESTRA
Review the orchestra, including families of instruments and specific instruments, by listening to
Benjamin Britten, The Young Persons Guide to the Orchestra.
B. VOCAL RANGES
Teachers: Students should learn to recognise and name the different vocal ranges, and apply their
knowledge by beginning part singing.
Recognise vocal ranges of the adult female voice:
o High = soprano
o Middle = mezzo soprano
o Low = alto
Recognise vocal ranges of the male voice:
o High = tenor
o Middle = baritone
o Low = bass
C. COMPOSERS AND THEIR MUSIC
Teachers: Provide brief, child-friendly biographical profiles of the following composers, and listen to
representative works.
George Frederic Handel, Hallelujah Chorus from The Messiah
Franz Joseph Haydn, Symphony No. 94 (Surprise)
Scott Joplin, Maple Leaf Rag
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, The Magic Flute, selections, including:
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o
o
o
o
o
o
o

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Overture
Introduction, Zu Hilfe! Zu Hilfe! (Tamino, Three Ladies)
Aria, Der Vogelfnger bin ich ja (Papageno)
Recitative and Aria, O zittre nicht, mein lieber Sohn! (Queen of the Night)
Area, Ein Mdchen oder Weibchen (Papageno)
Duet, Pa-pa-gena! Pa-pa-geno! (Papageno and Papagena)
Finale, Recitative and Chorus, Die Strahlen der Sonne! (Sarastro and Chorus)

D. MUSICAL CONNECTIONS
Teachers: Introduce children to the following in connection with topics in other disciplines:
Music of the Middle Ages
Gregorian chant

III. SONGS

Auld Lang Syne [Cross-curricular connection with Year 5 British History]


Bear Necessities
British Grenadiers
Heart of Oak [Cross-curricular connection with Year 5 British History]
I Wanna Be Like You
Loch Lomond [Cross-curricular connection with Year 5 British History]
Skye Boat Song [Cross-curricular connection with Year 5 British History]
Waltzing Matilda [Cross-curricular connection with Year 5 Geography - Australia]
With a Little Help From My Friend

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Mathematics: Year 5
I. NUMBERS AND THE NUMBER SYSTEM
A. WHOLE NUMBERS
Read and write numbers to at least 1 000 000 in figures and words.
Recognise and extend number sequences formed by counting on or back from any number in whole
number or decimal steps of constant size, extending beyond zero when counting backwards.
Identify Roman numerals from 1 to 100 (I C).
Recognise the place value of each digit in any number to at least 1 000 000, and partition such
numbers.
Round numbers to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000.
Compare positive and/or negative integers using the <, >, and = signs.
Order a set of positive and/or negative integers and position them on a number line.
B. FRACTIONS
Compare fractions with like or unlike denominators, using the signs <, >, and =.
Order a set of fractions with like or unlike denominators and position them on a number line.
Identify mixed numbers and improper fractions and convert improper fractions to mixed numbers and
vice versa.
2
8
Recognise and find equivalence fractions, e.g. /3 = /12.
3
Express a smaller number as a fraction of a larger number, e.g. 3 out of 4 as /4.
Add or subtract fractions with like denominators, converting totals that exceed 1 to a mixed number.
3
1
Find fractions of numbers or quantities, e.g. /4 of 12, /100 of 8.
C. DECIMALS
Explain what each digit represents in decimals with up to two decimal places, and partition such
numbers.
Compare decimals with up to two decimal places using the signs <, >, and =.
Order a set of decimals with up to two decimal places and position them on a number line.
Round a decimal with one decimal place to the nearest whole number, and a decimal with two
decimal places to the nearest tenth and whole number.
45
Relate fractions to their decimal representations, e.g. 0.45 = /100.
D. PERCENTAGES
Recognise the per cent sign (%) and understand percentages as the number of parts in every 100.
Express one half, one quarter, three quarters, tenths and hundredths as percentages:
3
4
27
o e.g. /4 = 0.75 = 75%, /10 = 0.4 = 40%, /100 = 0.27 = 27%.
Find simple percentages of numbers or quantities, e.g. 10% of 60, 5% of 20.

II. NUMBER OPERATIONS AND CALCULATIONS


A. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
Use the principles (but not the names) of the commutative and associative laws as they apply to
addition.
Use known number facts and place value mentally to:
o find the difference between two near multiples of 100 or 1000, e.g. 809 496, 3006 1993;
o add or subtract a multiple of 100 to or from a three-digit or four-digit number, e.g. 458 + 500,
1357 600;
o add or subtract three-digit multiples of 10, e.g. 470 + 240, 570 390.
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Use efficient written methods to add and subtract whole numbers and decimals with up to two
decimal places.

B. MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION


Use the principles (but not the names) of the commutative, associative and distributive laws as they
apply to multiplication:
o example of commutative law: 15 33 = 33 x 15
o example of associative law: 15 33 = (5 3) 33 or 15 (3 11) = 495
o example of distributive law: 34 98 = 34 x (100 2) = (34 x 100) (34 2) = 3400 68 = 3332
Recall quickly multiplication facts up to 10 x 10 and the corresponding division facts.
2
Recall square numbers and square roots, and recognise the notation for square ( ) and square root
().
Identify multiples, common multiples, factors and common factors.
Know the meanings of prime number, prime factor and composite number.
Use known number facts and place value to multiply pairs of multiples of 10 or 100, e.g. 50 x 30.
Multiply and divide whole numbers and decimals by 0, 1, 10, 100 or 1000, and understand the effect
(including understanding that division by 0 is impossible).
Use efficient written methods to:
o multiply a three-digit or four-digit number by a one-digit number, e.g. 2814 x 7
o multiply a two-digit or three-digit number by a two-digit number, e.g. 57 x 42
o multiply decimals with one or two decimals places by a one-digit number, e.g. 8.3 x 7, 15.6 x 8,
4.23 x 6
Divide a two-digit or three-digit number by a one-digit number, including division with remainders,
rounding up or down depending on the context, e.g. 574 9
C. MIXED OPERATIONS
Use knowledge of rounding, number operations and inverse relationships to estimate and check
calculations.
Begin to use brackets to solve multi-step calculations.

III. MEASUREMENT
A. LENGTH, MASS, CAPACITY, VOLUME AND TEMPERATURE
Estimate, measure and record lengths, masses, capacities and temperatures using standard units
(km, m, cm, mm, kg, g, l, ml, C) to a suitable degree of accuracy.
Convert between different units of measure using decimals to one or two places, e.g. 3.25 litres =
3250 ml, or vice versa.
Interpret a reading that lies between two unnumbered divisions on a scale.
Understand basic equivalencies between metric and common imperial units still in everyday use.
Know abbreviations for common imperial units.
3
Recognise volume in practical contexts, for example using 1cm blocks or interlocking cubes.
B. TIME
Read the time on a 24-hour digital clock and use 24-hour clock notation, e.g. 17:42.
Read a timetable using 24-hour clock notation.
C. MONEY
Use all four operations to solve problems involving money.
D. PERIMETER AND AREA
Measure and calculate the perimeter of regular polygons.
2
2
Calculate the area of rectangles and related compound shapes using standard unit cm or m .
Use the formula for the area of a rectangle.
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IV. GEOMETRY
A. 2-D SHAPES AND 3-D SOLIDS
Identify, visualise and describe properties of triangles, quadrilaterals, regular polygons and 3-D
solids.
Use knowledge of properties to draw 2-D shapes and make nets of common 3-D solids such as a
cube, cuboid, pyramid and triangular prism.
o E.g. The drawing shows how the 3-D solid would look if opened out and unfolded into a flat
shape.
B. POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT
Use coordinates in the first quadrant to read and plot specified points, and to draw sides to complete
2-D shapes.
Draw the position of a shape after a translation.
Identify, estimate and order acute and obtuse angles.
Use a protractor to draw and measure angles.
C. SYMMETRY
Complete symmetrical patterns with up to two lines of symmetry.
Draw the reflection of a shape or pattern in a mirror line parallel to one side, where all sides of the
shape or pattern are not parallel or perpendicular to the mirror line.

V. DATA

Collect, process, represent, interpret and discuss data in a tally chart, frequency table, pictogram,
bar chart or line graph.
Read, interpret and represent data:
o where symbols represent more than one unit, e.g. 2, 5, 10, 20 or 100
o where scales have intervals of differing step size, e.g. axis labelled in 2s, 5s, 10s, 20s or 100s

VI. PROBLEM SOLVING AND REASONING

Identify, describe and use numerical and symbolic patterns and relationships.
Solve mathematical problems and puzzles involving numbers or shapes.
Propose and investigate a general statement involving numbers or shapes.
Solve one-step and two-step problems involving whole numbers and decimals, and all four
operations, in the context of numbers or measurements, including money and time.

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Science: Year 5
Teachers: Effective instruction in science requires hands-on experience and observation. While experience
counts for much, book learning is also important, for it helps bring coherence and order to a childs scientific
knowledge. Only when topics are presented systematically and clearly can children make steady and secure
progress in their scientific learning. The childs development of scientific knowledge and understanding is in
some ways a very disorderly and complex process, different for each child. But a systematic approach to the
exploration of science, one that combines experience with book learning, can help provide essential building
blocks for deeper understanding at a later time.

I. THE HUMAN BODY: CIRCULATORY AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS


A. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
Pioneering work of William Harvey
Heart: four chambers (atrium/atria or atriums [plural] and ventricle/ventricles), aorta
Blood
o Red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, haemoglobin, plasma, antibodies
o Blood vessels: arteries, veins, capillaries
o Blood pressure, pulse
Filtering function of liver and spleen
Fatty deposits can clog blood vessels and cause a heart attack.
Blood types (four basic types: A, B, AB, O) and transfusions
B. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Process of taking in oxygen and getting rid of carbon dioxide
Nose, throat, voice box, trachea (windpipe)
Lungs, bronchi, bronchial tubes, diaphragm, ribs, alveoli (air sacs)
Smoking: damage to lung tissue, lung cancer

II. CHEMISTRY: BASIC TERMS AND CONCEPTS


A. ATOMS
All matter is made up of particles too small for the eye to see, called atoms
Scientists have developed models of atoms; while these models have changed over time as
scientists make new discoveries, the models help us imagine what we cannot see.
Atoms are made up of even tinier particles: protons, neutrons, electrons.
The concept of electrical charge
o Positive charge (+): proton
o Negative charge (-): electron
o Neutral (neither positive or negative): neutron
o Unlike charges attract, like charges repel (relate to magnetic attraction and repulsion).
B. PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Mass: the amount of matter in an object, similar to weight
Volume: the amount of space a thing fills
Density: how much matter is packed into the space an object fills
Vacuum: the absence of matter
C. ELEMENTS
Elements are the basic kinds of matter, of which there are a little more than one hundred.
o There are many different kinds of atoms, but an element has only one kind of atom.

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o
o

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Familiar elements, such as gold, copper, aluminium, oxygen, iron


Most things are made up of a combination of elements.

D. SOLUTIONS
A solution is formed when a substance (the solute) is dissolved in another substance (the solvent),
such as when sugar or salt is dissolved in water; the dissolved substance is present in the solution
even though you cannot see it.
Concentration and saturation (as demonstrated through simple experiments with crystallisation)

III. ELECTRICITY
Teachers: Through reading and observation, and experiment, examine the following:
Electricity as the charge of electrons
Static electricity
Electric current
Electric circuits, and experiments with simple circuits (battery, wire, light bulb, filament, switch, fuse)
o Closed circuit, open circuit, short circuit
Conductors and insulators
Electromagnets: how they work and common uses
Using electricity safely

IV. GEOLOGY
A. THE EARTHS LAYERS
Crust, mantle, core (outer core and inner core)
Movement of tectonic plates
Earthquakes
o Faults, San Andreas fault
o Measuring intensity: seismograph and Richter scale
o Tsunamis
Volcanoes
o Magma
o Lava and lava flow
o Active, dormant and extinct
o Famous volcanoes: Vesuvius, Krakatoa, Mount St. Helens
Hot springs and geysers: Old Faithful (in Yellowstone National Park, US)
Theories of how the continents and oceans were formed: Pangaea and continental drift
B. HOW MOUNTAINS ARE FORMED
Folded mountains, fault-block mountains, dome-shaped mountains
C. ROCKS
Formation and characteristics of metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rock
D. WEATHERING AND EROSION
Physical and chemical weathering
Weathering and erosion by water, wind and glaciers
The formation of soil: topsoil, subsoil, bedrock

V. METEOROLOGY

The water cycle (review from Year 3): evaporation, condensation, precipitation
Clouds: cirrus, stratus, cumulus (review from Year 3)
The atmosphere
o Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere

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o How the Sun and the Earth heat the atmosphere


Air movement: wind direction and speed, prevailing winds, air pressure, low and high pressure, air
masses
Cold and warm fronts: thunderheads, lightning and electric charge, thunder, tornadoes, hurricanes
Forecasting the weather: barometers (relation between changes in atmospheric pressure and
weather), weather maps, weather satellites
Weather and climate: weather refers to daily changes in temperature, rainfall, sunshine, etc., while
climate refers to weather trends that are longer than the cycle of the seasons

VI. EVOLUTION

Animals have offspring that are of the same kind but often offspring have different appearances
Animals and plants have adapted to suit the environment within which they live
Adaptation may lead to evolution: Darwins finches

VI. SCIENCE BIOGRAPHIES

Michael Faraday (chemist and physicist, developed the electric motor and electric generator)
Elizabeth Garrett Anderson (English physician and feminist, first Englishwoman physician and
surgeon)
Florence Nightingale (pioneering woman nurse during the Crimean War who later established the
Nightingale Training School for nurses at St Thomas' Hospital in London)
Charles Drew (American doctor and medical researcher)
Charles Darwin (English naturalist known for his theory of evolution called Natural Selection)

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The Core Knowledge Sequence UK


English Language and Literature: Year 6
I. WRITING, GRAMMAR, AND USAGE
Teachers: Children should be given many opportunities for writing with teacher guidance that strikes a
balance between encouraging creativity and requiring correct use of conventions. The teacher must continue
to develop imaginative writing but place a stronger emphasis than in previous years on expository writing
including, for example, summaries, book reports, essays that explain a process and descriptive essays. In
Year 6, it is appropriate to place a greater emphasis on revision, with the expectation that pupils will revise
and edit to produce (in some cases) a finished product that is thoughtful; well-organised; and reasonably
correct in grammar, mechanics and spelling. In Year 6, pupils should be reasonably competent spellers and
in the habit of using a dictionary to check and correct words that present difficulty. They should regularly
practise vocabulary enrichment.
A. WRITING AND RESEARCH
Produce a variety of types of writingincluding reports, summaries, letters, descriptions, informative
and persuasive writing, stories, poemswith a coherent structure or story line.
Know how to gather information from different sources (such as an encyclopaedia, magazines,
interviews, observations, atlas, and the Internet) and write short reports synthesising information
from at least three different sources, presenting the information in his or her own words.
o Understand the purpose and audience of the writing.
o Define a main idea and stick to it.
o Provide an introduction and a conclusion.
o Organise material in coherent paragraphs.
o Illustrate points with relevant examples.
o Document sources in a rudimentary bibliography.
B. GRAMMAR AND USAGE
Understand the components of a complete sentence.
Identify the subject and verb in a sentence and understand that they must agree.
Know the following parts of speech and how they are used: nouns, verbs (action verbs and auxiliary
verbs), adjectives (including articles), adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions and interjections.
Understand that pronouns must agree with their antecedents in case (nominative, objective and
possessive), number and gender.
Correctly use punctuation studied in earlier years, as well as the colon before a list.
Categories of nouns
Verbs and objects
Interjections
Personal pronouns
o Agreement in case
o Possessive case
o Agreement in gender
o Agreement in number
Punctuation: commas and brackets
Prefixes and suffixes

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C. VOCABULARY
Know what prefixes and suffixes are and how they affect word meaning (see below).
Prefixes:
o anti (as in anti-social, anti-bacterial)
o co (as in co-education, co-worker)
o fore (as in forefather, foresee)
o il, ir (as in illegal, irregular)
o inter (as in interact, interchange)
o mid (as in midnight, midway)
o post (as in postpone, postwar)
o semi (as in semicircle, semi-precious)
Suffixes
o ist (as in artist, pianist)
o ish (as in stylish, foolish)
o ness (as in forgiveness, happiness)
o tion, sion (as in relation, extension)

II. POETRY
Teachers: The poems listed here constitute a selected core of poetry for this year group. Expose children to
more poetry, old and new, and have children write their own poems. To bring children into the spirit of poetry,
read it aloud and encourage them to read it aloud so they can experience the music in the words. At this
age, poetry should be primarily a source of delight. This is also an appropriate age at which to begin looking
at poems in more detail, asking questions about the poets use of language, noting the use of devices such
as simile, metaphor, alliteration, etc.
A. POEMS
Become familiar with the following works:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

A Ballad of London (Richard Le Gallienne)


The Eagle (Alfred Lord Tennyson)
If (Rudyard Kipling)
Into My Heart an Air that Kills (A. E. Housman)
Jabberwocky (Lewis Carroll)
The Listeners (Walter de la Mare)
Little Red Riding Hood and the Wolf (Roald Dahl)
Macavity - The Mystery Cat (T. S. Eliot)
Some Opposites (Richard Wilbur)
The Tiger (William Blake)

B. LITERARY TERMS
Become familiar with the following literary terms:
o Onomatopoeia
o Alliteration

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III. FICTION AND DRAMA


Teachers: In Year 6, pupils should be fluent, competent readers of appropriate materials. Regular
independent silent reading should continue. Pupils should read outside of school for at least 30 minutes
daily. The titles below constitute a selected core of stories for Year 6. Expose children to many more stories,
and encourage children to write their own stories. Children should also be exposed to non-fiction prose:
biographies, books about science and history, books on art and music, etc. Some of the works below, such
as Kidnapped and A Midsummer Nights Dream are available in editions adapted for younger readers. There
are also some versions that are graphic novels.
A. STORIES
Become familiar with the following works:
o Don Quixote (Miguel de Cervantes)
o The Secret Garden (Frances Hodgson Burnett)
o Oliver Twist (Charles Dickens)
o The Death of Arthur (Sir Thomas Malory)
B. DRAMA
Become familiar with the following works:
o A Midsummer Nights Dream (William Shakespeare)
o The Tempest (William Shakespeare)
Become familiar with the following literary terms:
o Tragedy and comedy
o Shakespeares language
C. MYTHS AND LEGENDS
Become familiar with the following:
o The Samurais Daughter (Japanese)
D. LITERARY TERMS
Become familiar with the literary term:
o Pseudonym (pen name)
Become familiar with the following literal and figurative language terms:
o Imagery
o Metaphor and simile
o Symbol
o Personification

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V. SAYINGS AND PHRASES


Teachers: Every culture has phrases and proverbs that make no sense when carried over literally into
another culture. For many children, this section may not be needed; they will have picked up these saying by
hearing them at home and among friends. However, this section of sayings has been one of the categories
most appreciated by teachers who work with children from home cultures that differ from British culture.
Become familiar with the following sayings and phrases:
o Birthday suit
o Bite the hand that feeds you
o Chip on your shoulder
o Count your blessings
o Eleventh hour
o Eureka!
o Every cloud has a silver lining
o Few and far between
o Forty winks
o The grass is always greener
o To kill two birds with one stone
o Lock, stock and barrel
o Make a mountain out of a molehill
o A miss is as good as a mile
o Its never too late to mend
o Out of the frying pan and into the fire
o A penny saved is a penny earned
o Read between the lines
o Sit on the fence
o Steal his/her thunder
o Take the bull by the horns
o Till the cows come home
o Time heals all wounds
o Tom, Dick and Harry
o Vice versa
o A watched pot never boils
o Well begun is half done
o What will be will be

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History and Geography: Year 6


Teachers: The study of geography embraces many topics throughout the Core Knowledge Sequence,
including topics in history and science. Geographic knowledge includes a spatial sense of the world, an
awareness of the physical processes that shape life, a sense of the interactions between humans and their
environment, an understanding of the relations between place and culture, and an awareness of the
characteristics of specific regions and cultures. Many geographic topics are listed below in connection with
historical topics.

WORLD HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY


Teachers: Review as necessary map-reading skills and concepts, as well as geographic terms, from
previous years.

I. SPATIAL SENSE
A. READ MAPS AND GLOBES USING LONGITUDE AND LATITUDE, COORDINATES, DEGREES
Time zones:
o Prime Meridian (O degrees); Greenwich, England; 180 Line (International Date Line)
Arctic Circle (imaginary lines and boundaries) and Antarctic Circle
From a round globe to a flat map
o Mercator projection, Gall-Peters projection, conic and plane projections
Terms: glaciers, industry, agriculture, services, tourism, recreation, tundra, steppe

UK GEOGRAPHY
I. NORTH EAST
A. NORTHUMBERLAND, TYNE AND WEAR, DURHAM
Northumberland National Park, Cheviot Hills, Hadrians Wall, former ship building (Sunderland,
Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Durham

II. NORTH WEST


A. CUMBRIA, LANCASHIRE, GREATER MANCHESTER, MERSEYSIDE
Lancashire Moors, Lake District, Scafell Pike (largest peak in England), William Wordsworth, Beatrix
Potter, Sellafield nuclear power station, textile industry, Liverpool, Manchester

III. SCOTLAND

Border regions, lowlands, uplands (granite, quartzite, schist, sandstone), volcanic islands,
peninsulas, lochs (Loch Lomond, Lock Ness), glens, straths, Great Glen faultline, estuaries (Firth of
Clyde, Firth of Forth), The Trossachs, Gaelic, Cairngorms National Park, bogs, fishing harbours,
Scottish parliament, Robert Burns, clans, coal, iron ore, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Edinburgh festival,
castles (Edinburgh, Balmoral), Stirling, Motherwell, Orkney Islands, Shetland Islands

IV. WALES

Snowdonia, Cambrian Mountains, Black Mountains, Brecon Beacons, Cardigan Bay, Isle of
Anglesey, Welsh valleys, coal, iron and steel works, railways, canals, slate mines, Welsh language,
Wye valley, Rhondda valley, Merthyr Tydfil, Cardiff, docks, Welsh Assembly, Swansea, Dylan

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Thomas, Gower Peninsula, seaside resorts, Pembrokeshire Coast national park, St. Davids
(Britains smallest city), wind farms

WORLD GEOGRAPHY
I. NORTH AMERICA
Teachers: Introduce pupils to the North American continent.
A. USA, CANADA, MEXICO
Climates
o Arid, humid temperate, humid cold, tundra, Mediterranean (California/Southern Florida).
Landscape
o Rocky Mountains, Appalachian Mountains, plains, prairies, Great Lakes (Superior, Huron,
Michigan, Erie, Ontario)
o Important rivers: Mississippi and major tributaries (for example, Missouri River), Mackenzie,
Yukon, Lawrence
People and culture
o Indigenous Native American communities
o European settlers
o Latino settlers
o Asian settlers
o The USA as a nation of immigrants, melting pot of cultures
The United States
o 48 continuous states, plus Alaska and Hawaii
Canada
o French and British heritage
o French-speaking Quebec
o Divided into provinces
Settlements
o New York City, Washington D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Boston, Houston,
Miami, Seattle, Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver, Mexico City
Economic activity
o The USA as the largest economy in the world
o American consumption (houses, cars, energy)
o Migrant labour from Latin American countries

II. SOUTH AMERICA AND CENTRAL AMERICA

South American countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands
(UK), French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela
Central American countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico,
Nicaragua, Panama
Important geographical features: Panama Canal, Amazon River, Amazon rainforest, Andes
mountains, Patagonia, Galapagos Islands
Indigenous peoples: Maya (Mexico, Guatemala), Quechua (Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia)
Music and dancing: salsa, bachata, merengue, tango
Biodiversity of animals: Galapagos Islands of Ecuador; Amazon Rainforest
History
o Ancient Inca civilization: Machu Picchu, Pisac ruins, Nazca Lines
o Colonisation from 1493, primarily by Spain and Portugal
o Legend of El Dorado
o Independence of many countries in the 19th century, but lasting impact of colonisation

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WORLD HISTORY
III. THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR: CAUSES, CONFLICTS, CONSEQUENCES
Teachers: The American Civil War was a formative event in American history that contributed in many ways
to the structure of American national identity (and regional identities). In addition to the issue of slavery,
emphasise other political factors in the incitement of conflict, and ways in which the catastrophic loss of life
gave the conflict an unassailable place in American national memory.
A. TOWARDS THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
Industrial North versus agricultural South
Slavery
o Slave life and rebellions
o Abolitionists: William Lloyd Garrison and, Frederick Douglass
o Importance of Harriet Beecher Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin
Lincoln elected president
o Southern states secede
B. THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
Yankees, representing the Union, blue
o Ulysses S. Grant
Rebels, representing the Confederacy, grey
o Jefferson Davis chosen as first president
o Robert E. Lee, General Stonewall Jackson
Soldiers and the misery of war
The Emancipation Proclamation (Gettysburg Address)
Richmond (Confederate capital) falls to Union forces
o Surrender at Appomattox
Assassination of President Lincoln by John Wilkes Booth
C. RECONSTRUCTION (1865 - 1877)
The South in ruins
Freedmens Bureau
o 40 acres and a mule
13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution

BRITISH HISTORY
I. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND THE ECONOMY
Teachers: Emphasise how the Industrial Revolution was one of the most significant social and demographic
changes in history. Discuss how the mechanisation and electrification of industry and transport created, for
the first time, wealth for the many who were not landowners, and changed the social structures of Britain.
The demographic and social changes it necessitated caused a reassessment of ideas about the role of the
state and political representation.
A. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Early technological developments
o James Watts steam engine, 1778
Transport developments
o George Stephensons Rocket; Stockton-Darlington Railway

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o Canals; aqueducts
Mechanisation of Industry
o Invention of the power loom (1784), cotton mills in Lancashire; steam power
o Gas lighting on streets
Coal mining
o Particularly, the northeast of England, south of Scotland , Wales and the Midlands,
Social changes
o Poor conditions, working hours and pay in factories, collieries and mills
o Young children in factories, collieries and mills
o Unionisation of workforce
Rapid urbanisation
o Mechanisation of agriculture, surplus population moved to cities
o Liverpool as transport hub, shipbuilding in Glasgow, and manufacturing in Manchester and
Birmingham
o Political representation not adapted
o Housing conditions very poor
o Cholera epidemics were common
.

II. VICTORIAN ERA


Teachers: Queen Victoria reigned throughout a period of rapid economic growth and dramatic social and
political changes. Discuss the widespread confidence of the Victorian period, reinforced by prominence in
manufacturing and trade, as well as the British Empire, and the results of this British exceptionalism. Make
connections with both the previous and subsequent sections.
A. QUEEN VICTORIA
Young Queen, Coronation at 18 in 1837
o First monarch to live at Buckingham Palace
o Marries first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg Gotha
Reign of 63 years
o Longest reigning British monarch
B. OVERSAW PERIOD OF BRITISH ECONOMIC AND IMPERIAL GROWTH
The Great Exhibition, 1851
o Showcased global exhibits
o Emphasised British manufacturing capabilities
C. VICTORIAN PARTY POLITICS
Sir Robert Peel and the Peelites reject High Tories
o Peelites join Whigs and Radicals to form Liberal Party
William Gladstone and Benjamin Disraeli
o Gladstone and the development of Liberalism
o Disraeli and close relationship with Queen Victoria

III. SOCIAL AND POLITICAL REFORM


Teachers: Discuss the effects of the socio-economic changes caused by the Industrial Revolution, the
growing disquiet about living conditions and the gap between the rich and poor. From the 1832 Reform Act
onwards, government gradually became less dominated by the aristocratic landowning classes. The Labour
party also developed at this time. Discuss ideas about popular involvement in government, and the changing
roles and responsibilities of government in society.
A. SOCIAL PROBLEMS CAUSED BY INDUSTRIALISATION
Wide and evident gap between rich and poor
o Urbanisation

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Paternalist Industrialists
o Robert Owen; New Lanark; Utopian Socialism
o Cadburys Bourneville; Levers Port Sunlight

B. POLITICAL REFORM
Battle of Peterloo (Peterloo Massacre)
The 1832 Great Reform Act
o Limited middle class enfranchisement
o Precedent; first break in unreformed system
C. SOCIAL REFORM
Social reforms after the 1832 Great Reform Act
o 1833 Factory Act; minimum age to work; limited hours for children; 1847 Factory Act (the
Ten Hours Act)
o 1834 Poor Law reform; workhouses and less eligibility
Health problems
o Cholera epidemics
o Public Health Act 1848; general and local boards of health
o Improving sanitary conditions; London sewerage system
D. POPULAR REFORM
Chartism
o The Charter; six points; democratic ambitions
o 1848 meeting, Kennington Common
Post 1850s: liberal and humanitarian motivations gain prominence
o National Elementary Education Act, 1870; state education provision until age 12
Representation of the People Acts, 1867; 1884
o Growing enfranchisement

IV. THE BRITISH EMPIRE


Teachers: Explain how British influence and control expanded across the globe. Initially based on the
expansion of trade, the British Empire developed into a colonial empire that held territory across Africa, the
Indian subcontinent and Australia. Discuss the motivations for forming and maintaining a global empire, as
well as the consequences for the native populations. Discuss the development of nationalism and national
self-determination.
A. GROWTH OF BRITISH EMPIRE
Early exploration and trade
o Plantation of Ireland
o East India Company
Americas
o Caribbean colonies; Barbados; Jamaica; Bahamas
o Jamestown 1607; colony of Virginia (see Year 2)
o Foundation of the Thirteen Colonies
James Cook discovers Australia in 1770
o Establishment of penal settlement; convict transportation
o Australian colonies valuable for wool and gold
B. EAST INDIA COMPANY
Trading outposts on Indian subcontinent
o Growth in power and decline of Mughal rulers
o British influence across Asia through the East India Company (EIC) and Royal Navy
Indian Rebellion of 1857

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o Indian soldiers mutiny: long-term grievances and issue of tallow-greased cartridges


o Siege of Delhi; Skirmishes at Cawnpore and Lucknow
British retaliation
o Massacre of Delhi
British Raj
o End of the British East India Company
o British Crown takes control; Government of India Act 1858
o Queen Victoria crowned Empress of India

C. SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA


British colonial rule
o Ghana
o Sudan
o South Africa

V. IRISH FAMINE
Teachers: Use the Famine to discuss Irelands close but ambiguous and troubled relationship with Britain.
Irelands Great Famine and subsequent mass emigration not only shaped Ireland, her national identity and
diaspora, but also impacted heavily on the development of British politics in the period. Emphasise
nationalism, religious identities, emigration and the role of the state as some of the major themes of this unit.
A. THE IRISH FAMINE AND INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS
Background: Irish political and social situation
o Protestant Ascendancy
o Wolfe Tone and the United Irish rebellion of 1798
Act of Union in 1800
o Ireland joins Britain as part of the United Kingdom
Outbreak of Famine
o Potato blight
o Actions of the landlords
o Death toll
Government responses
o Sir Robert Peel and American maize; corn laws
o Lord John Russell and Charles Trevelyan; soup kitchens
o Charitable responses
Emigration
o United States and Great Britain
o Development of Irish Diaspora
Legacy
o Importance of memory of Famine in Ireland and diaspora
o Creation of an Irish identity
o Migration and depopulation

VI. THE BOER WARS


Teachers: The conflict was a large and bloody one, and involved the largest British military force abroad so
far. It was notable as one of the final expansionist military campaigns of the British Empire, and for the
negative reactions of the British public to British operations.
A. ATTEMPTS TO ANNEX THE SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC (TRANSVAAL) AND THE ORANGE FREE
STATE
First Boer war in 1880
o Boers successfully resisted annexation
Discovery of gold

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Influx of foreign immigrants; more British interest in annexation

B. SECOND BOER WAR DECLARED IN OCTOBER 1899


Initial Boer offensive
o Boers besiege British settlements
British offensive
o The republics were formally annexed in 1900
Boer guerrilla attacks on British supply lines
o British scorched earth policy and concentration camps
Public opinion in Britain turned against the war
o Horrified at treatment of Boer civilians
Conflict came to an end in May, 1902
o South African Republic and Orange Free state became part of the British Empire

VII. DEATH OF VICTORIA: THE END OF AN ERA


Teachers: The death of Victoria signalled the end of the Victorian period. She had presided over a period of
British history that had seen huge economic growth, a process of social and political democratisation and an
extension of political influence worldwide.
A. QUEEN VICTORIA
Reigns for 63 years and 7 months
Death of Prince Albert
o Retires from public life
Golden and Diamond Jubilees
Death in 1901; end of Victorian Era

FEATURED GREAT EXPLORER


A. DAVID LIVINGSTONE

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Visual Arts: Year 6


Teachers: In schools, lessons on the visual arts should illustrate important elements of making and
appreciating art, and emphasise important artists, works of art, and artistic concepts. When appropriate,
topics in the visual arts may be linked to topics in other disciplines. While the following guidelines specify a
variety of artworks in different media and from various cultures, they are not intended to be comprehensive.
Teachers are encouraged to build upon the core content and expose children to a wide range of art and
artists, particularly those which they may visit at first-hand.
In studying the works of art specified below, and in creating their own art, students should review, develop
and apply concepts introduced in previous years, such as line, shape, form, space, texture, colour, light,
design, symmetry and style.

I. THE LANGUAGE OF ART


A. UNDERSTAND AND BE ABLE TO APPLY APPROPRIATELY THE FOLLOWING TERMS:

Renaissance: comes from the Italian word Rinascita (meaning re-birth), applied to describe a
regeneration of the arts along classical lines, which took place after the Middleor so-called Dark
Ages
Figurative: refers to the style of works of art which attempt to depict convincing reality or life-like
forms
Abstract: the opposite of figurative, referring to artworks wherein the depicted reflects an idea or
suggestion of something, rather than the thing itself
Genre: a term to describe distinct types of subject matter, applicable in literature as well as art, such
as landscape or portrait
Perspective: in art refers to the mathematical techniques, and linear arrangements used to
rationalise space in two-dimensional art works

II. ART AND ARCHITECTURE OF THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE


[Cross-curricular links with Year 5 World History]
Teachers: you could introduce the students to Renaissance art by reviewing previously observed works and
also looking at:
Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man (Year 2: Shape), Mona Lisa (Year 2: Portraits) and Last Supper
(Year 2: Murals)
Bruegels Peasant Wedding (Year 4: Space in Artworks)
Drers Self-Portrait (Year 2: Portraits and Self-Portraits)

Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino), The School of Athens, 1510-1511 (Vatican Museums and
Galleries), Vatican City

A. UNDERSTAND THE TERM RENAISSANCE

See section I, part A, above


Recognise that Renaissance art is not only defined by style but reflects new attitudes, achievements
and influences; namely:
o A shift in world view from medieval to Renaissance art, with a new emphasis on humanity
and the natural world
o The influence of Greek and Roman art on Renaissance artists (a return to classical subject
matter; idealisation of the human form; balance and proportion in design; the literal rediscovery of classical art works, such as Laocoon Group by Michelangelo, or Apollo
Belvedere)

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The development of linear perspective during the Italian Renaissance (the vantage point or
point-of-view of the viewer; convergence of lines toward a vanishing point; the horizon line)

B. OBSERVE AND DISCUSS A RANGE OF PAINTINGS BY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ARTISTS

Consider what makes them Renaissance works, including:


o Sandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus, c. 1485 (Uffizi, Florence)
o Raphael, Madonna of the Pinks (La Madonna dei Garofani), 1506-7 (National Gallery,
London)
o Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel decorations, 1508-12 (Vatican, Rome)

C. BECOME FAMILIAR WITH RENAISSANCE SCULPTURE

Consider what makes sculptures Renaissance, including:


o Donatello, Saint George, (Bronze cast after stone original), c. 1415-17 (Orsanmichelethe
Kitchen Garden of St Michael, Florence)
o Michelangelo, David, 1504 (Galleria dellAccademia, Florence)

D. BECOME FAMILIAR WITH RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE

Considerwhere possiblewho the buildings were designed and built by, who used them and what
for, and how they were decorated (often with works by important Renaissance artists):
o Il Duomo (Florence Cathedral), particularly Brunelleschis Dome which completed it in 1436
(consider the role of Cosimo de Medici as a patron, supporting Brunelleschi to win the
commission over Ghiberti)
o Palazzo Pitti, Florence, begun 1458, (from 1549 chief residence of the Medici and the ruling
families of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany)
o The Basilica of St Peters, Vatican City, Rome, 1506 (includes Michelangelos Piet, and
later additions by Bernini)
o Villa Farnesina, 1506-10 (Trastevere, Rome) (Retreat of Papal banker Agostino Chigi, who
commissioned decorations from Raphael, del Piombo and Guilio Romano)

III. VICTORIAN ART

Augustus Welby Pugin a Catholic town in 1440 and a town in 1840, Contrasts: Or A Parallel
between the Noble Edifices of the Middle Ages and Corresponding Buildings of the Present Day,
1836 (Cambridge University Press, 2013)
Gothic Revival: a return to the gothic style of architecture from the Middle Ages
The Houses of Parliament: designed in a gothic style
William Morris: wallpaper, tiles, furniture, fabrics and books
Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, The last sleep of Arthur in Avalon, 1881-98 (Museo de Arte de
Ponce), Puerto Rico

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Music: Year 6
Teachers: In schools, lessons on music should feature activities and works that illustrate important musical
concepts and terms, and should introduce important composers and works. When appropriate, topics in
music may be linked to topics in other disciplines.
The following guidelines focus on content, not performance skills, though many concepts are best learned
through active practice (singing, clapping rhythms, playing instruments, etc.).

I. ELEMENTS OF MUSIC
A. ELEMENTS
Through participation, become familiar with basic elements of music (rhythm, melody, harmony,
form, timbre, etc.).
o Recognise a steady beat, accents, and the downbeat; play a steady beat, a simple rhythm
pattern, and syncopation patterns.
o Discriminate between fast and slow; gradually slowing down and getting faster; accelerando
and ritardando.
o Discriminate between differences in pitch: high and low.
o Discriminate between loud and soft; gradually increasing and decreasing volume; crescendo
and diminuendo
o Understand legato (smoothly flowing progression of notes) and staccato (crisp, distinct
notes).
o Sing unaccompanied, accompanied, and in unison.
o Recognise harmony; sing rounds and canons; two- and three-part singing.
o Recognise verse and refrain.
o Recognise theme and variations.
B. NOTATION
Review the following notation

Crotchet

Minim

Semi-breve

Stave

Treble clef and names of lines and spaces in the treble clef

Crotchet rest

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Minim rest

Semibreve rest

Bar line

Double bar line, bar, repeat signs

Quaver

Time signature: 4 quadruple time


4

Time signature: 2 duple time


4

Time signature: 3 triple time


4

Soft: p

Very soft: pp

Loud:

Very loud:

Moderately soft: mp

Moderately loud: mf

Middle C in the treble clef

Tied notes

Dotted notes

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Sharps

Flats

Da Capo (D.C.): meaning from the beginning

Da Capo al fine (D.C. al fine): meaning repeat from beginning to the fine (end) mark

Understand the following notation and terms:


o Time signature 4 can be expressed as C (Common time)
4

o
o

Semi-quavers: the length of a quarter of a crotchet (or half of a quaver)


The number of beats for semi-breves, minims, crotchets, quavers, and semi-quavers

II. LISTENING AND UNDERSTANDING


Teachers: Expose children to a wide range of music, including childrens music, popular instrumental music,
and music from various cultures.
A. COMPOSERS AND THEIR MUSIC
Teachers: Provide brief, child-friendly biographical profiles of the following composers, and listen to
representative works:
Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 [Builds on childrens first introduction to Beethoven in Year
3.]
Ralph Vaughn Williams, Greensleeves

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B. MUSICAL CONNECTIONS
Teachers: Introduce children to the following::
Polyphonic Music
Canons and Rounds

III. MUSICAL TRADITIONS


A. ENGLISH FOLK MUSIC
Listen to Vaughan Williams English Folk Song Suite.
Understand that folk music is passed on by each generation and generally not written down.
Recognise folk songs that are still familiar today:
o Early One Morning
o Drunken Sailor (revise from Year 2)
o Scarborough Fair
A. SPIRITUALS
Sorrow songs

IV. SONGS
A. WORKS OF MUSIC
The Blaydon Races [Cross-curricular connection with Year 6 British History]
Food Glorious Food
Greensleeves
Lean On Me
The Mountains of Mourne
Sumer is Icumen In
Swing Low
Widdecombe Fair

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Mathematics: Year 6
I. NUMBERS AND THE NUMBER SYSTEM
A. WHOLE NUMBERS
Read and write whole numbers in figures and words.
Know what each digit represents in whole numbers and partition, compare, order and around these
numbers.
Recognise and extend number sequences formed by counting on or back from any number in whole
number or decimal steps of constant size, extending beyond zero when counting backwards, e.g. a
sequence of square or triangular numbers.
Identify Roman numerals from 1 to 1000 (I M), and recognise years written in Roman numerals.
Find the difference between a positive and a negative integer, or two negative integers, in context
such as the number line or temperature.
B. FRACTIONS
Order a set of fractions by converting them to fractions with a common denominator.
Convert improper fractions to mixed numbers and vice versa.
7
1
Express a larger whole number as a fraction of a smaller one, e.g. /3 = 2 /3.
Reduce a fraction to its simplest form by cancelling common factors.
Determine the lowest common denominator (LCD) of fractions with unlike denominators.
3
5
Add or subtract mixed numbers, e.g. 2 /4 + 4 /6.
1
2
3
2
Add or subtract fractions with like or unlike denominators, e.g. /5 + /5, /4 /3.
Identify the reciprocal of a given fraction and know that the product of a given number and its
reciprocal equals 1.
1
2
3
Multiply simple unit fractions by fractions, e.g. /4 x /3, and multiply a pair of proper fractions, e.g. /4 x
2
/3, expressing the answer in its simplest form.
2
Divide proper fractions by whole numbers, e.g. /3 4, expressing the answer in its simplest form.
5
7
Use a fraction as an operator to find fractions of numbers or quantities, e.g. /8 of 48, /10 of 50.
Associate a fraction with division to calculate a decimal fraction equivalent.
C. DECIMALS
Explain what each digit represents in decimals with up to three decimal places, and partition such
numbers.
Compare decimals with up to three decimal places using the signs <, >, and =.
Order a set of decimals with up to three decimal places and position them on a number line.
Round decimals to the nearest whole number, tenth and hundredth.
45
Relate fractions to their decimal representations, e.g. 0.45 = /100.
D. PERCENTAGES
Recall, derive and use equivalences between fractions, decimals and percentages.
Find percentages of whole numbers or quantities, e.g. 45% of 160, 15% of 70.
E. RATIO AND PROPORTION
Use the vocabulary of ratio and proportion to describe the relationship between two quantities.
Scale numbers or quantities up or down.
Create simple scale drawings.
Recognise equivalent ratios and reduce a given ratio to its simplest form.

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II. NUMBER OPERATIONS AND CALCULATIONS


A. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
Use the principles of the commutative and associative laws as they apply to addition.
Use known number facts and place value to mentally add or subtract decimals, e.g. 3.6 + 8.7, 9.4
5.8.
Use efficient written methods to add and subtract whole numbers and decimals.
B. MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
Use the principles of the commutative, associative and distributive laws as they apply to
multiplication:
o example of commutative law: 8.4 7 = 7 x 8.4
o example of associative law: 16.8 50 = 16.8 x (10 x 5) or (16.8 x 10) x 5 = 168 x 5 = 840
o example of distributive law: 7.6 95 = 7.6 x (100 5) = (7.6 x 100) (7.6 5) = 760 38 =
722
Recall quickly multiplication facts up to 12 x 12 and the corresponding division facts.
2
Recall square numbers to 12 x 12, e.g. 12 , and the corresponding square roots, e.g. 144, and use
known square numbers to derive squares of multiples of 10.
Identify and use multiples, common multiples, lowest common multiples (LCM), factors, common
factors and highest/greatest common factors (HCF/GCF).
Know and use the meanings of prime number, prime factor and composite number.
Use known number facts and place value to mentally multiply or divide decimals by a one-digit
number, e.g. 5.8 x 6, 8.6 3.
Use efficient written methods to:
o multiply a two-, three- or four-digit number by a two-digit number, e.g. 574 x 42;
o multiply decimals with one or two decimals places by a one-digit or two-digit number, e.g. 6.8 x
12, 9.25 x 8;
o divide a three-digit or four-digit number by a two-digit number, including division with remainders,
rounding up or down depending on the context, e.g. 465 16;
o divide decimals with one or two decimals places by a one-digit or two-digit number, e.g. 14.65
4, 54.6 12.
C. MIXED OPERATIONS
Use knowledge of rounding, number operations and inverse relationships to estimate and check
calculations.
Use brackets to solve multi-step calculations.

III. MEASUREMENT
A. LENGTH, MASS, CAPACITY, VOLUME AND TEMPERATURE
Estimate, measure and record lengths, masses, capacities and temperatures using standard units
(km, m, cm, mm, kg, g, l, ml, C) to a suitable degree of accuracy.
Convert between different units of measure using decimals to three places, e.g. 2.475 kg = 2475 g,
or vice versa.
Read and interpret scales on a range of measuring instruments.
Understand and use equivalencies between metric and common imperial units still in everyday use.
3
3
Use the formula, and the standard units cm and m , to calculate the volume of cubes and cuboids.
B. TIME
Read a timetable using 24-hour clock notation and calculate time intervals.
C. MONEY
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Use all four operations, fractions and percentages to solve problems involving money.

D. PERIMETER AND AREA


Measure and calculate the perimeter of regular and irregular polygons.
2
2
2
2
Use the formula, and a variety of standard units (mm ; cm ; m ; km ), to calculate the area of
rectangles and related compound shapes.
Use the formulae to calculate the area of triangles and parallelograms.
Use the formulae to calculate the surface area of cubes and cuboids.

IV. GEOMETRY
A. 2-D SHAPES AND 3-D SOLIDS
Identify, visualise, describe and classify triangles, quadrilaterals, regular polygons and 3-D solids.
Make and draw shapes with increasing accuracy and apply knowledge of their properties.
Illustrate and name the parts of a circle including radius, diameter, circumference, arc and chord.
B. POSITION, DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT
Use coordinates in all four quadrants to read and plot specified points.
Draw the position of a shape after one or two translations on a coordinate plane.
Estimate angles, and use a protractor to draw and measure angles with increasing accuracy.
Calculate angles in a straight line, in a triangle, in a quadrilateral and around a point.
C. SYMMETRY
Draw the reflection of a shape:
o in a mirror line touching the shape at a point, where all sides of the shape are not necessarily
parallel or perpendicular to the mirror line;
o in two mirror lines at right angles, where the sides of the shape are parallel or perpendicular to the
mirror line.
Identify all the symmetries of 2-D shapes, cubes, cuboids and other common 3-D solids, including
prisms.

V. DATA
A. DATA
Collect, process, represent, interpret and discuss data in a frequency table, bar chart (with grouped
discrete data), line graph or pie chart.
Find and interpret the mode, range, median and mean of a set of data.
B. PROBABILITY
Use the language of probability to describe the chance or likelihood of particular events.
Express the probability of a given event as a fraction or percentage, or on a probability scale from 0
to 1.

VI. PROBLEM SOLVING AND REASONING

Represent and interpret numerical and symbolic patterns and relationships.


Solve mathematical problems and puzzles involving numbers or shapes.
Suggest and test hypotheses involving numbers or shapes.
Solve multi-step problems involving whole numbers, decimals, fractions and percentages, in the
context of numbers or measurements, including money and time.

VII. PRE-ALGEBRA

Construct and use simple expressions and formulae expressed in words then symbols.
Generate and describe linear number sequences.

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Recognise variables and solve basic equations using variables, e.g. What is 7 - c if c is 3.5?

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Science: Year 6
I. CHEMISTRY: MATTER AND CHANGE
A. ATOMS, MOLECULES, AND COMPOUNDS
Basics of atomic structure: nucleus, protons (positive charge), neutrons (neutral), electrons (negative
charge)
Atoms are constantly in motion, electrons move around the nucleus in paths called shells (or energy
levels).
Atoms may join together to form molecules or compounds.
Common compounds and their formulas:
o Water H2O
o Salt NaCl
o Carbon Dioxide CO2

B. ELEMENTS

Elements have atoms of only one kind, having the same number of protons. There are a little more
than 100 different elements.
The periodic table: organises elements with common properties
o Atomic symbol and atomic number
Some well-known elements and their symbols
o Hydrogen
H
o Helium
He
o Carbon
C
o Nitrogen
N
o Oxygen
O
o Sodium
Na
o Aluminium
Al
o Silicon
Si
o Chlorine
Cl
o Iron
Fe
o Copper
Cu
o Silver
Ag
o Gold
Au
Two important categories of elements: metals and non-metals
o Metals comprise about 2/3 of the known elements
o Properties of metals: most are shiny, ductile, malleable, conductive

C. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHANGE


Chemical change changes what a molecule is made up of and results in a new substance with a new
molecular structure. Examples of chemical change: rusting of iron, burning of wood, milk turning sour
Physical change changes only the properties or appearance of the substance, but does not change
what the substance is made up of. Examples of physical change: cutting wood or paper, breaking
glass, freezing water

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II. CLASSIFYING LIVING THINGS


Teachers: As the children study animal classifications, discuss: why do we classify? How does classification
help us understand the natural world?
Scientists have divided living things into five large groups called kingdoms, as follows:
o Plant
o Animal
o Fungus (Mushrooms, yeast, mould, mildew)
o Protist (algae, protozoans, amoeba, euglena)
o Prokaryote (blue-green algae, bacteria)
Each Kingdom is divided into smaller groupings as follows:
o Kingdom
o Phylum
o Class
o Order
o Family
o Genus
o Species
o Variety
When classifying living things, scientists use special names made up of Latin words (or words made
to sound like Latin words), which help scientists around the world understand each other and ensure
that they are using the same names for the same living things
o Homo Sapiens: the scientific name for the species to which human beings belong to (genus:
Homo, species: Sapiens)
o Taxonomists: biologists who specialise in classification
Different classes of vertebrates and major characteristics: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
(review from Year 4)
CELLS: STRUCTURES AND PROCESSES
All living things are made up of cells
Structure of cells (both plant and animal)
o Cell membrane: selectively allows substances in and out
o Nucleus: surrounded by nuclear membrane, contains genetic material, divides for
reproduction
o Cytoplasm contains organelles, small structure that carry out the chemical activities of the
cell, including mitochondria (which produce the cells energy) and vacuoles (which store
food, water, or wastes)
Plant cells, unlike animal cells, have cell walls and chloroplasts.
Cells without nuclei: monerans (bacteria)
Some organisms consist of only a single cell: for example, amoeba, protozoans, some algae.
Cells are shaped differently in order to perform different functions.
Organisation of cells into tissues, organs, and systems:
o In complex organisms, groups of cells form tissues (for example: in animals, skin tissue or
muscle tissue; in plants, the skin of an onion or the bark of a tree).
o Tissues with similar functions form organs (for example: in some animals, the heart,
stomach, or brain; in some plants, the root or flower).
o In complex organisms, organs work together in a system (recall, for example, from earlier
studies of the human body, the digestive, circulatory, and respiratory systems).
TAXONOMIES
Teachers: Introduce an example of how an animal is classified, in order for students to become familiar with
the system of classification, not to memorise specific names. For example, a collie dog is classified as
follows:
Kingdom: Animalia

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Phylum: Chordata (Subphylum: Vertebrata)


Class: Mammalia (mammal)
Order: Carnivora (eats meat)
Family: Canidae (a group with doglike characteristics)
Genus: Canis (a coyote, wolf, or dog)
Species: Familiaris (a domestic dog)
Variety: Collie (a breed of dog)

IV. PLANT STRUCTURES AND PROCESSES


A. STRUCTURE: NON-VASCULAR AND VASCULAR PLANTS
Non-vascular plants (for example: algae)
Vascular plants
o Vascular plants have tube-like structures that allow water and dissolved nutrients to move
through the plant
o Parts and functions of vascular plants: roots, stems and buds, leaves
B. PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Photosynthesis is an important life process that occurs in plant cells, but not animal cells (photo =
light; synthesis = putting together). Unlike animals, plants make their own food, through the process
of photosynthesis.
Role in photosynthesis of: energy from sunlight, chlorophyll, carbon dioxide and water, xylem and
phloem, stomata, oxygen, sugar (glucose)

V. LIFE CYCLES AND REPRODUCTION


A. THE LIFE CYCLE AND REPRODUCTION
Life cycle: development of an organism from birth to growth, reproduction, death
o Example: Growth stages of a human: embryo, foetus, newborn, infancy, childhood,
adolescence, adulthood, old age
All living things reproduce themselves. Reproduction may be asexual or sexual.
o Examples of asexual reproduction: fission (splitting) of bacteria, spores from mildews,
moulds, and mushrooms, budding of yeast cells, regeneration and cloning
o Sexual reproduction requires the joining of special male and female cells, called gametes, to
form a fertilised egg.
B. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN ANIMALS
Reproductive organs: testes (sperm) and ovaries (eggs)
External fertilisation: spawning
Internal fertilisation: birds, mammals
Development of the embryo: egg, zygote, embryo, growth in uterus, foetus, newborn
C. REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS
Asexual reproduction
o Example of algae
o Vegetative reproduction: runners (for example: strawberries) and bulbs (for example:
onions), growing plants from eyes, buds, leaves, roots, and stems
Sexual reproduction by spore bearing plants (for example: mosses and ferns)
Sexual reproduction of non-flowering seed plants: conifers (for example: pines), male and female
cones, wind pollination
Sexual reproduction of flowering plants (for example: peas)
o Functions of sepals and petals, stamen (male), anther, pistil (female), ovary (or ovule)
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o
o

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Process of seed and fruit production: pollen, wind, insect and bird pollination, fertilisation,
growth of ovary, mature fruit
Seed germination and plant growth: seed coat, embryo and endosperm, germination
(sprouting of new plant), monocots (for example: corn) and dicots (for example: beans)

VI. THE HUMAN BODY: HORMONES AND REPRODUCTION


A. HUMAN GROWTH STAGES
Puberty
o Glands and hormones (see below, Endocrine System), growth spurt, hair growth, breasts,
voice change
B. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Females: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, menstruation
Males: testes, scrotum, penis, urethra, semen
Sexual reproduction: intercourse, fertilisation, zygote, implantation of zygote in the uterus,
pregnancy, embryo, foetus, newborn
C THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
The human body has two types of glands: duct glands (such as the salivary glands), and ductless
glands, also known as the endocrine glands.
Endocrine glands secrete (give off) chemicals called hormones. Different hormones control different
body processes.
Pituitary gland: located at the bottom of the brain; secretes hormones that control other glands, and
hormones that regulate growth
Thyroid gland: located below the voice box; secretes a hormone that controls the rate at which the
body burns and uses food
Pancreas: both a duct and a ductless gland; secretes a hormone called insulin that regulates how
the body uses and stores sugar; when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, a person has
a sickness called diabetes (which can be controlled).
Adrenal glands: secrete a hormone called adrenaline, especially when a person is frightened or
angry, causing rapid heartbeat and breathing.

VII. SCIENCE BIOGRAPHIES

Tim Burners-Lee (inventor of the World Wide Web)


Humphry Davy (chemist and inventor; discovered alkaline earth metals, chlorine and iodine)
Dorothy Hodgkin (British chemist, confirmed the structures of penicillin and vitamin B12)
Carl Linnaeus (botanist and Father of taxonomy who standardised the classification system)

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