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Characterization of the content of reducing sugars, total sugars and starch in potato

varieties and clones grown in Osorno-Chile


Luca De la Fuentea, Jennifer Varasa, Silvia Mendeza, Ma. Elita Lpezb
a

Depto. de Ciencia y Tecnologa de los Alimentos, Universidad de Los Lagos, Osorno, Chile, (ldelaf@ulagos.cl)
b
Centro de Anlisis de los Alimentos, Universidad de Los Lagos, Osorno, Chile,(melopez@ulagos.cl)

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to determine and quantify the content of reducing sugars, total sugars and
starch in six varieties of potatoes (Yagana-INIA, Patagonia-INIA, Karu-INIA, Pukar-INIA, Ona-INIA,
Puyehue-INIA) and three advanced clones (R91193-1, R89054-34 and RX90020-9), using Desire like
control. The material came from the Genetic Improvement Program at the Remehue INIA-CHILE from the
2009-2010 season.
Samples were lyophilized in fresh and cooked states. The extraction of reducing sugars, total sugars and
starch was carried out using a method standardized by the International Potato Center (CIP) in Peru, with
slight modifications. The determination of reducing sugars was made directly after extraction with alcohol.
For the determination of total sugars was necessary to do a hydrolysis with concentrated HCl for a period of
5 minutes in water bath at 65-70 C. For the determination of starch samples were subjected to acid
hydrolysis with 5% HCl for a period of 4 hours in water bath at 100C. The quantification was performed
using a 3.5 dinitrosalicylic acid spectrophotometric method.
Applying Duncan test for multiple comparisons in the lyophilized cooked varieties 7 homogeneous groups in
the starch content were observed, in the reducing sugars 5 were identified and in the total sugars 6
homogeneous groups were stablished. In the fresh lyophilized varieties 6 homogeneous groups were
observed in starch content, 7 were recognized in the reducing sugars and 6 were seen in the total sugars.
The fresh variety that contains higher starch content is the clone R89054-34 (16,070,18%). Puyehue-INIA
had the highest content of reducing sugars and total sugars (1,110,08% and 1,570,03% respectively). The
lower values of starch in fresh potato was for Pukar-INIA (13,20,07%); instead, the lower values of
reducing sugars was found in Desire (0,860,03%) and total sugars was found in Ona-INIA with
1,170,03%.
This characterization will select varieties according to their technological skills, especially to prevent the use
of specimens with high values of reducing sugars in fried and other heat treatments, as they tend to the
Maillard reaction, which damage the potatoes characteristic colour and flavour.
Keywords: potatoes; reducing sugars; starch, dinitrosalicylic acid; spectrophotometric method

INTRODUCTION
The influence of chemical composition during the industrial potato processing is of great importance to
maintain the quality of potato products (Singh et al, 2009). The dry matter and high starch contents are the
most significant components for the processing industry. Other components that directly influence the quality
and classification of varieties for different industrial processes are: glucose, fructose and sucrose, these being
the most important sugars and the ones found in greater amounts in the tuber flesh (Amrein et al, 2003 and
Lisinska & Leszczynski., 1989). The purpose of this study was to determine and quantify the content of
reducing sugars, total sugars and starch in six varieties of potatoes (Yagana-INIA, Patagonia-INIA, KaruINIA, Pukar-INIA, Ona-INIA, Puyehue-INIA) and three advanced clones (R91193-1, R89054-34 and
RX90020-9), using Desire like control. The material came from the Genetic Improvement Program at the
Remehue INIA-CHILE from the 2009-2010 season.

MATERIALS & METHODS


The crops were grown on the premises of INIA-Remehue, located 8 km north of the city of Osorno. Latitude
40 31' 13, 97'' S, Longitude 73 3' 53, 06'' W. Production began in October 2009 and the harvest began in
March 2010. The crops were grown on volcanic ash soil type (soil quality with high levels of organic matter
characteristic of the area), with certified INIA seeds. A preemergence herbicide application was conducted
for growth. Late blight fungicides, food nitrogen-based fertilizers, Potassium and phosphorus were also used.
The potatoes were stored in plastic boxes with 25 to 35 Kg capacity, in closed warehouses and dark
environment at an initial temperature of 4-7C, reaching 12C as time went by. Three replicas of 18 tubers
for each variety were analysed and were lyophilized in fresh and cooked states. The dry matter determined
through thermogravimetric method. The extraction of reducing sugars, total sugars and starch was carried out
using a method standardized by the International Potato Center (CIP) in Peru, with slight modifications. The
determination of reducing sugars was made directly after extraction with alcohol. For the determination of
total sugars was necessary to do a hydrolysis with concentrated HCl for a period of 5 minutes in water bath at
65-70 C. For the determination of starch samples were subjected to acid hydrolysis with 5% HCl for a period
of 4 hours in water bath at 100C. The quantification was performed using a 3.5 dinitrosalicylic acid
spectrophotometric method (DNS) at 490 nm, using glucose as standard.

RESULTS & DISCUSSION


The Table 1 and Figure 1shows the content of reducing sugars, total sugars and starch in potato varieties and
clones grown in Osorno-Chile, in variety and clones in fresh state expressed in base wet in the top of table
and in cooked state expressed in base wet in the bottom of table. Applying Duncan test for multiple
comparisons in the fresh lyophilized varieties 6 homogeneous groups were observed in starch content, 7 were
recognized in the reducing sugars and 6 were seen in the total sugars. In the lyophilized cooked varieties 7
homogeneous groups were observed in the starch content, and 5 in the reducing sugars.
Table 1. Content of reducing sugars, total sugars and starch in potato varieties and clones grown in Osorno-Chile,
2009-2010 season.
Varieties and
clones

% Dry Matter

Desire
Patagonia-INIA
Puyehue-INIA
Yagana-INIA
Ona-INIA
Karu-INIA
Pukar-INIA
RX90020-9
R89054-34
R91193-1

17,6 0,44
17,1 0,48
20,7 1,67
18,1 0,77
18,7 0,24
15,2 0,17
19,9 0,06
17,7 0,67
23,8 0,73
18,7 0,41

% Starch
% Reducing sugars
(g/100 g fresh)
(g/100 g fresh )
Content in fresh states
10,35 0,36f
0,86 0,03b
e
11,55 0,35
0,58 0,07cd
12,83 0,16c
1,11 0,08a
d
12,19 0,41
0,23 0,01f
d
12,07 0,17
0,64 0,02c
10,72 0,19f
0,35 0,01e
13,54 0,07b
0,2 0,01g
d
12,26 0,21
0,62 0,06c
16,07 0,18
0,51 0,04d
12,33 0,10cd
0,57 0,003c

Desire
Patagonia-INIA
Puyehue-INIA
Yagana-INIA
Ona-INIA
Karu-INIA
Pukar-INIA
RX90020-9
R89054-34
R91193-1

22,2 1,36
17,1 1,07
19,7 0,07
20,3 0,41
19,1 0,25
18,5 0,49
20,6 0,15
17,5 0,35
22,4 1,27
21,7 0,9

15,47 0,29b
11,28 0,45f
13,72 0,13c
13,52 0,01c
13,12 0,12d
12,81 0,16e
14,03 0,06c
9,18 0,05g
15,92 0,28ab
16,13 0,22a

% Total sugars
(g/100 g fresh)
0,94 0,03c
0,64 0,06d
1,57 0,03a
0,29 0,01f
1,17 0,03b
0,33 0,02e
0,28 0,01f
0,62 0,05d
0,65 0,04d
1,06 0,04c

Content in cooked states


0,43 0,03c
0,80 0,10a
0,36 0,03cd
0,72 0,01ab
0,30 0,01de
0,26 0,02e
0,66 0,01b
0,43 0,04c
0,44 0,06cd
0,28 0,01e

0,59 0,04de
1,31 0,10b
0,66 0,04d
1,38 0,03a
0,39 0,003g
0,33 0,02g
0,74 0,03c
0,47 0,02f
0,52 0,05ef
0,39 0,01g

Content of starch in fresh states, (g/100g).

Content of starch in cooked states, (g/100g).

Content of reducing sugars in fresh states, (g/100g).

Content of reducing sugars in cooked states, (g/100g).

Content of total sugars in fresh states, (g/100g).

Content of total sugars in cooked states, (g/100g).

Note: Difference fonts indicate significant differences between varieties, p< 0,05.
Figure 1: Content of reducing sugars, total sugars and starch in potato varieties and clones (wet basis) grown in
Osorno-Chile, 2009-2010 season.

The fresh variety that contains higher starch content is the clone R89054-34 (16,070,18%). The PuyehueINIA had the highest content of reducing sugars and total sugars (1,110,08% and 1,570,03% respectively).
The lower values of starch in fresh potato was for Pukar-INIA (13,20,07%); instead, the lower values of
reducing sugars was found in Desire (0,860,03%) and total sugars was found in Ona-INIA with
1,170,03%.
Hasbn, J. et al (2009) and Liu, Q. et al (2007) show the starch results are in the 13.4 and 20.8 g/100 g fresh
(raw skinless samples) range. The latter used the method described by Megazyme for determination of
reducing sugars and the method described by Nielsen for the determination of starch.

Loyola, N., et al (2010), specifically analyzed the starch content in the Desire variety through the Munson
and Walker method, getting a 13.79 g/100g fresh level.
In its cooked state and expressed on wet basis, the the starch results vary in the 9.18 0.05 and 16.13 0.22
g/100 g range, corresponding to the RX90020-9 and R91193-1 clones respectively.
Regarding reducing sugars, Hasbn, et al (2009) indicates a 0.076 and 1.384 g/100 g fresh range. Another
study by Gallego, E.M., et al (2006) shows a smaller range that varies between 0.11 and 0.24 g/100 g fresh.
Analyses were conducted using the dinitrosalicylic acid method (DNS) and considers the study of seven
varieties among which is Desire with a level of 0.13 0.01 g/100 g fresh. Loyola, N., et al (2010)
specifically points a 0.13 g/100 g fresh level to the Desire variety, analyzed by the Munson and Walker
method.
In its cooked state and expressed on wet basis, the reducing sugars results vary in the 0.26 0.02 and 0.8
0.10 g/100 g range, corresponding to the Kar and Patagonia varieties respectively.
In its raw state and expressed on wet basis, the total sugars results are in the 0.28 0.01 and 1.57 0.03
g/100 g range, corresponding to the Puyehue and Pukar varieties respectively. The study by Loyola, N., et al
(2010) points to the Desire variety a 0.2 g/100 g fresh level, analyzed by the Munson and Walker method.
In its cooked state and expressed on wet basis, the total sugars results vary in the range of 0.33 0.02 and
1.38 0.03 g/100 g, corresponding to Yagana and Kar varieties respectively.
The Table 2 shows the difference between the starch, reducing sugars and total sugars content values
obtained in its fresh and cooked states. The results show variations between 0 and close to 5 %.

Table 2: Comparison between the starch, reducing sugar and total sugars contents in fresh and cooked
samples expressed in wet basis.
Varieties and
clones

Differences between Fresh and Cooked Potatoes (%)


Starch

Reducing sugars

Total sugars

R89054-34

-0,15

-0,07

-0,13

Pukar

0,49

0,46

0,47

Puyehue

0,89

-0,75

-0,90

R91193-1

3,80

-0,29

-0,67

RX90020-9

-3,08

-0,19

-0,16

Yagana

1,33

0,49

1,09

Ona

1,05

-0,34

-0,78

Patagonia

-0,27

0,22

0,67

Kar

2,09

-0,09

0,00

Desire

5,12

-0,43

-0,35

CONCLUSION
This characterization will select varieties according to their technological skills, especially to prevent the use
of specimens with high values of reducing sugars in fried and other heat treatments, as they tend to the
Maillard reaction, which damage the potatoes characteristic colour and flavour.
It is important to emphasize the characterization of the clones in this study, proving to be very good quality
genotypes, with high starch and dry matter content and significant reducing sugar values. We must pay close
attention to these genotypes and consider potential varieties that in the near future may contribute to the
industry and help achieve a better use of the potato market by minor and large farmers.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Consorcios Tecnolgicos Empresariales de Investigacin. FIA Papa Chile. FIC-CS-C-2005-1-A-006, P3, y
Vicerrectora de Investigacin y Postgrado de la Universidad de Los Lagos.