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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 ; II B.Sc. (Agri.

), II Semester 2013-14
V Ai Awz zs

Prepared by Dr. B. Hemla Naik, Professor & Head (Hort.) cum Coordinator (PPMC), UAHS,Shimoga; hemlanaikb@yahoo.com ;94488 62225

Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

COURSE OUTLINE
13. Elements of landscape gardens
THEORY:

14. Types and styles of gardens

1. History of Floriculture and Landscape


Gardening in India.

15. Garden features

2. Scope and importance of ornamental


crops;
Industrial
importance
of
Ornamental plants & Commercial
flowers in India and abroad.

17. Indoor gardening and

3. Role of
control.

ornamentals

in

pollution

16. Garden Adornments


18. Bonsai
REFERENCES:
1.

Advanced Commercial Floriculture S.K.


Bhatacharjee & L.C. De

2.

Chrysanthemum in India by M.A. Kher

3.

Commercial Floriculture by S. Prasad/ U.


Kumar

4.

Commercial Flowers Vol.1& Vol.2 Edited


by T.K. Bose, L.P. Yadav, P.Pal, P. Das. &
V.A. Parthasarathy

5.

Complete Gardening
Gopalaswami Iyengar

v. Gladiolus

6.

vi. Tuberose

Floriculture Technology, Trades and


Trends by J. Prakash and K.R. Bhandaly

7.

Floriculture and Landscaping by T.K.


Bose, R.G. Maiti, R.S. Dhua and P.Das

8.

Floriculture -At Glance by Desh Raj

9.

Floriculture in India by Dr.


Randhawa and A. Mukhopadhyay

4. Classification of flower crops.


5-10. Production technology of flower crops
under protected and open cultivation.
i. Rose
ii. Carnation
iii. Gerbera
iv. Anthurium

vii. Jasmine
viii. Chrysanthemum
ix. Crossandra

in

India

by

G.S.

10. Pests of Floriculture crops and their control


by Pulluri Ramesh

x. Marigold
xi. China aster
11. Post harvest handling of cut flowers
12. Principles and planning of landscape
gardens.

11. Protected cultivation of Roses by Dr. T.


Venkatesh Reddy, & Dr. C.G. Nagaraja
12. Roses Amitabha Muchopadhyay
13. The Rose in India by B.P. Pal

SCHEME OF EVALUATION:
Mid Term
20.00

Practical
Exam
15.00

ATT

Assignment

5.00

5.00

Practical
Record
5.00

External
Examination
50.00

Total
100.00

Prepared by Dr. B. Hemla Naik, Professor & Head (Hort.) cum Coordinator (PPMC), UAHS, Shimoga; hemlanaikb@yahoo.com ; 94488 62225

Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

LECTURE-1:
HISTORY OF GARDENING IN INDIA

The history of gardening in India is as old as its


civilization.
The first evidence of an ornamental plant, the
Pipal (Ficus religiosa), comes from a seal
Mohen-jo-daro of the third millennium B.C.
Another seal from Harappa of the same period
depicts a tree similar to that of a weeping
willow (Salix babylonica).
The Aryans of the Vedic period were great
lovers of trees and flowers.
The lotus has been mentioned frequently in the
Sanskrit scriptures of Vedic times.
The Atharva Veda mentions the Asvatha (Pipal)
or Ficus religiosa.

Special mention can be made of the tree


Kadamba (Anthocephalus cadamba; Syn. A.
indicus) as it was closely associated with the
life of Lord Krishna.
The lotus was a popular flower and was
regarded by both the Hindus and the
Buddhists as a symbol of purity. The flower
grows in mud but is free from any mudsticking, as no dirt can stick to it.
In the Mahabharata it is mentioned that,
Bhima brought a lotus for his consort which
had one thousand petals, glowing like sun and
with sweet heavenly fragrance which could
prolong youth and revive beauty.
The Aryans developed some wishful thinking
in the form of Kalpavriksha, the wishgranting tree and Kalpalata, a similar
creeper.
The faith goes that anybody, standing
under these creepers or trees, wishing
anything from jewellary, beautiful
clothing, good food, or even beautiful
maidens, would get the same.

The Rig Veda also refers to this tree when it


describes a tree with fair foliage.
The epics of the Aryans- the Ramayana and
the Mahabharata, believed to have been
compiled during 500 B.C., mention about
gardens, trees and flowers.
In the Ramayana it has been narrated that the
palaces had nice gardens with numerous
flowers and shady groves.It is frequently
mentioned that lakes were full of lotuses.

One sculpture depicting such a tree dating back


to the third century B.C. and now preserved in
the Kolkata Museum was identified as the
banyan tree.
Another legend of that time also makes
interesting reading.
According to the
legendary story,

Every Indian must be known about the


Asokavana where Sita was held in captivity
by Ravana, the demon king. This grove was
composed mostly of Asoka (Saraca indica)
trees.

Once Lord Vishnu was bathing in a


lake on earth when a lotus bloomed
and from within came out Pitamaha
Brahma, who claimed that the lotus
was the prettiest flower one had ever
seen.

The Mahabharata the Sabhaparva of these epic,


detailed descriptions have been given of the
pleasure gardens, parks and lakes around the
palaces in Indraprastha.

Although Vishnu agreed that, it was a


beautiful flower; he guided Brahma to
his own paradise Vaikuntha and
showed him a rose bloom as pale as
moonbeam and full of sweet
fragrance. Brahma had to change his
view and accept the rose as the
prettiest bloom in the universe.

Both the epics mention the following trees and


creepers
Ficus benghalensis, F. religiosa, Saraca
indica, Michelia champaca, Terminalia
arjuna, Butea monosperma, Mesua ferrea
(Nagkesara), Cassia fistula, Shorea
robusta (Sal), Palmyra palm (Botassus
flabellifer),
Screwpine
(Pandanus),
Bignonia and Oleander.

The association of different trees with the life


of Lord Buddha is well known.
The Buddha was born under the Asoka
(Saraca indica) tree. The other trees

Prepared by Dr. B. Hemla Naik, Professor & Head (Hort.) cum Coordinator (PPMC), UAHS, Shimoga; hemlanaikb@yahoo.com ; 94488 62225

Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

such as Sal (Shorea robusta) and Plaksha


(Butea monosperma) were also there.

hundred gardens around Delhi and more


elsewhere.

The
Buddha
attained
his
enlightenment under a Pipal tree,

Babur was a great lover of flowers and


gardens. He laid out a garden at Agra, now
known as Rambagh.

Spread his new teachings under shady


banyans and mango trees and
Breathed his last in a Sal (Shorea
robusta) grove.

The
great
Emperor
Asoka
adopted
arboriculture as one of his state policies.

He encouraged the planting of avenue trees.

His son Prince Mahendra took a sapling of the


great Bodhi tree (Ficus religiosa) and planted it
at Anuradhapur in Sri Lanka.

The pipal was regarded as a sacred tree even


before the birth of the Buddha.

Vatsayana (about 300-400 A.D.) in his book


Kamasutra gives a glimpse of the joyful civic
life of that period. He narrates four kinds of
gardens:
1.

Pramododyan - meant for


enjoyment of the royal couples;

2.

Udyan - where the kings played chess,


enjoyed the dances of the maids and
jokes of the court jesters;

3.

Brikshavatika- the garden where


high-placed persons in the kings
court enjoyed life
with
courtesans; and

4.

the

Nandanavana- which was dedicated


to Lord Krishna.

Vatsayana also described the duties of a


virtuous wife.
It is said that a loyal and affectionate wife
should lay out a garden around the house.
Besides, the garden should be planted with
jasmine, Tabernaemontana coronaria, China
rose, etc.
A good housewife should also construct
arbours and seats in the gardens.
Before the Mughals came to India there was a
long blank in the gardening history of India,
with the exception of Firoz Tughlaq (13511388 A.D.) who developed about twelve

Babur is credited with the introduction of


Persian rose in India.
Akbar (1556-1605 A.D.) built a new capital at
Fatehpur Sikri, complete with gardens, trees
and flowers. He was the first Mughal to enter
Kashmir and established a garden i.e., Nasim
Bagh, close to the Dal Lake. The tomb
garden of Akbar at Sikandra is an example of
the gardening art during that period.
Jehangir (1605-1627 A.D.) was also a great
admirer of gardens and flowers and so was his
famous wife Nur Jahan. The gardens at
Shalimar, Achhabal and Verinag in Kashmir
were created by him. The tomb at Itimad-udDaulah in Agra, in memory of his father-inlaw, was also his creation.
Shah Jahan (1627-1658 A.D.) also established
several beautiful gardens. He built the Red
Fort in Delhi which had a beautiful garden.
The gardens around Taj Mahal in Agra, in
memory of his beloved queen Mumtaz
Mahal was also his creation.

The best garden created by Shah Jahan was


the Shalimar garden in Lahore (Pakistan).

Sher Shah Suri (1540-1544 A.D.), who ruled for


a short period after defeating Babur,
constructed the famous Grand Trunk Road
and planted avenue trees on both sides.
The Nawabs of Oudh also established a
number of gardens in their empire, especially
in Lucknow. One of these was Sikandar
Bagh which was established by the last
Nawab Wajid Ali Shah (1847-1856 A.D.),
which is now the National Botanical
Research Institute.
The Rajput in India also established several
gardens.
The garden at Amber Fort near Jaipur
was started by Man Singh (1590-1615
A.D.) and completed by Jai Singh II
(1699-1743 A.D.).
This beautiful
garden is laid in three terraces and has
a lake.

Prepared by Dr. B. Hemla Naik, Professor & Head (Hort.) cum Coordinator (PPMC), UAHS, Shimoga; hemlanaikb@yahoo.com ; 94488 62225

Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

The Mandor garden near Jodhpur is a


really beautiful garden still today and
was built by Raja Abhai Singh (17241749 A.D.).
The city of Jaipur was founded by Jai
Singh II (1727 A.D.) who built a palace
in the heart of the city with beautiful
gardens.
The garden palace at Deeg was founded
by Suraj Mal with fountains, water
courses, and other features, it is one of
the most beautiful gardens ever
created by any Rajput king.
The gardens and the palaces in Chittor,
the Capital of Mewar rulers were also
famous.
The rulers of Bundi in
Rajasthan also were fond of
gardening.
The arrival of the British in India
changed the whole pattern of
gardening.
The Mughal gardens in India were laid
out in symmetrical patterns, but the
English changed the style into
informal patterns by laying out parks
and gardens.
Until then Indian gardens had only
scented trees and shrubs, climbers and
bulbs, but had no flowering annuals.
The English brought with them
beautiful annuals and biennials such
as phlox, carnation, verbena, dahlia,
larkspur, etc.
Before the arrival of the English the
Indian knew about how to make
garlands and Guldasta (bouquets), but
had no idea of flower arrangements
for interior decoration, which was
taught by the British.
The greatest contribution by the British
was the establishment of botanical
gardens starting from the one
established near Kolkata.
The present-day garden styles in India
are more or less on the pattern of the
English style.

IMPORTANCE AND SCOPE OF LANDSCAPE


GARDENING IN INDIA
The role of flowers and gardens in the life of
the nation and the people is not properly
understood in India.
Largely, floriculture and gardening are being
neglected by the administrators and get last
priority in any process of planning or
allotment of funds.
Even whatever meager funds are allocated to
floriculture; it is only this branch that is made
the first target of any economy drive.
Though floriculture and gardening have to go a
long way to develop to significant level.
The credit for giving floriculture and
gardening- a good start and consequently
some status goes largely to the noted
administrator-cum scientist, Dr. M.S.
Randhawa.
His work in this field was carried further by
another noted scientist and great lover of
flowers, particularly roses, Dr. B.P. Pal.
But for the encouragement given by these two
scientists, floriculture would not have reached
the present level of achievement and gained
the status that it is having today.
Of
course,
the
patronization
and
encouragement given to floriculture and
gardening by the late Prime Minister
Jawaharlal Nehru and also the late President
Dr. Zakir Hussain must also be recalled with
gratitude.
LANDSCAPE GARDENING
The importance of gardening is also not
understood, in India. The people should be educated
to realize the importance of gardening, by providing
good parks and gardens in cities for a large population
to relax and enjoy the beauty of nature.
BIO-AESTHETIC PLANTING
The term bio-aesthetic planning, a concept of
Prof. Lancelot Hogben,
This means the proper utilization of the
available flora and fauna in the beautification
of the surroundings.
In India, the theme of bio-aesthetic planning
was propagated by Dr M.S. Randhawa who

Prepared by Dr. B. Hemla Naik, Professor & Head (Hort.) cum Coordinator (PPMC), UAHS, Shimoga; hemlanaikb@yahoo.com ; 94488 62225

Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

gave a practical shape to it in planning


Chandigarh City along with the famous
architects Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret.
The aim behind this concept is to plant
ornamental flowering trees all along the roads,
in parks, house compounds, public places and
also to develop national parks where noncarnivorous animals and beautiful birds will
find sanctuary along with beautiful flora. This
term also includes landscape gardening
though in a wider sense.
Bio-aesthetic planning should run hand in hand
with town planning.
Our new townships should not be allowed to
grow as mushrooms in dung-heaps as our
older towns are.
The roads in town and cities should be broad,
planted with flowering and shade trees, and
there should be spacious parks along with
conservatories for harmless animals and birds.
The older congested cities and towns also
should be retrieved from their present state by
bio-aesthetic planning.
One way of doing this is to acquire by
compulsion the ugly areas of the
towns in some centrally located
pockets and to convert them into
parks.

LANDSCAPE
FOR
ENVIRONMENT

POLLUTION

FREE

Air pollution is one of the most talked


problems in the present age, has reached
disturbing proportions in some of the largest
cities of the world and also in some of the
metropolitan cities in residential areas, and
proliferation of motor vehicles.
The smoke from the coal ovens (chulas) of the
residential houses, the dust and the smoke
from the grinding mills and chimneys of the
factories and the exhaust fumes from the
motor vehicles all add to the pollution of our
cities.
Pollution is causing an increase in the diseases
of the respiratory tract, cancer and many other
ailments. Unless something is urgently done
the health of our citizens many deteriorate
rapidly.
The role of open spaces such as parks and of
living plants in checking air pollution is well
known.
The parks are considered as the lungs of the
cities.
The barrier of trees checks noise pollution, dust
pollution and air pollution.
The role of landscape gardening in human
welfare cannot be overlooked.

The displaced persons may be


accommodated
in
multi-storey
buildings which occupy less land.

Even in an under developed country as India,


people do not live by bread alone.

But many planners are against vertical


growth in our towns; a compromise
must be found somewhere.

They also need some finer things of life. It is a


great tragedy that, most of our children in big
cities do not have any open space to play and
to see colourful flowers, birds and butterflies.

In some of the most congested cities


such as Kolkata, Kanpur, Mumbai etc.,
it may be really impossible to get land
in the city proper for bio-aesthetic
planning.
In such cases garden suburbs should
be developed on the outskirts of the
city with easily approachable by
vehicles or even bicycles.
The real estate value of any property
goes up if it has a compound properly
landscaped and planted with trees.

It is the moral duty of our government, through


the municipalities, corporations and such
other bodies, to provide the citizens with
spacious parks having beautiful trees and
flowers where they can relax, find peace of
mind and breathe fresh air after a days hard
work.
The children will also be able to play freely in
such parks. It is a common sight in congested
cities that groups of youngsters play football,
cricket, or hockey in the by-lanes in the
absence of playgrounds and parks.

Prepared by Dr. B. Hemla Naik, Professor & Head (Hort.) cum Coordinator (PPMC), UAHS, Shimoga; hemlanaikb@yahoo.com ; 94488 62225

Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

The wealth of any nation is linked with the


health of its people.
Unless we can ensure the healthy development
of our citizens, especially the younger
generation, by providing them for open
breathing
places
through
bio-aesthetic
planning and landscape gardening, we cannot
expect to build up a healthy society and
prosperous nation.
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE:
The art and science of analysis, planning,
design, management, preservation and rehabilitation
of the land. This includes site planning, garden
design, environmental restoration, town or urban
planning, park and recreation planning, regional
planning and historic preservation.
OR
It is the design of outdoor and public spaces to
achieve environmental, socio-behavioral and/or
aesthetic outcomes.
It involves the systematic investigation of
existing social, ecological and geological conditions
and processes in the landscape and the design of
interventions that will produce the desired outcome.
The scope of the profession includes:
Urban design;
Site planning;
Town or urban planning;
Environmental restoration;
Parks and recreation planning;
Visual
resource
management;
green
infrastructure planning and provision;
Private estate and residence landscape master
planning and design;
All at varying scales of design, planning and
management.

A practitioner in the profession of landscape


architecture is called a Landscape Architect.

A Landscape Architect is a person involved in the


planning, design and sometimes direction of a
landscape, garden, or distinct space. The
professional practice is known as Landscape
Architecture.

Landscape architecture was not commonly


recognized in developed nations as a distinct
profession until the early twentieth century.
******

LECTURE-2
FLORICULTURE

India has a long tradition of floriculture. As it is


an ancient creative skill with imagination and
an advanced science that played a very
important role in the course of human
civilization and its social development.
In most part of the country, flower growing is
carried out on small holdings and commercial
floriculture has assumed importance only in
the recent past.
Traditionally, flowers have been grown in India
in the open fields, where they have been
exposed to both biotic and abiotic stresses.
Hence, the quality is not up to the standards.
However, in the era of globalization, the
produce has to be of International quality and
globally competitive, as there is lot of demand
for different floricultural products in the
export market. The modern floriculture will
meet the above demand of the present days
consumers.
Definition:
Floriculture can be defined as a specialized
branch of horticulture which deals not only with the
cultivation of flowers, foliage, climbers, trees, shrubs, cacti,
succulents, etc., but also with their marketing and
production of value-added products from them
OR
Floriculture can also be defined as a discipline
of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering
and ornamental plants for gardens and floristry, comprising
the floral industry. It includes bedding plants, flowering
plants, foliage plants or house plants, cut greens and
cutflowers.
The floriculture business is growing in the
world at around 6-10 % per annum.
In spite of a long tradition of floriculture,
India's share in the International market for
these flowers is negligible (at present it is <
0.70 %).
During the last few years, taking an advantage
of the incentives offered by the Government of
India, a number of Floriculture units were
established in India for producing and
exporting flowers to the developed countries.

Prepared by Dr. B. Hemla Naik, Professor & Head (Hort.) cum Coordinator (PPMC), UAHS, Shimoga; hemlanaikb@yahoo.com ; 94488 62225

Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

Most of them are located near Mumbai, Pune,


Bengaluru, Hyderabad and New Delhi and are
getting the technical know-how from Dutch as
well as Israeli Consultants.
Tamilnadu is the leader in floriculture followed
by Karnataka, accounting for 75% of India's
total flower production and the state is having
the highest area under both modern and
traditional flowers.
The country's first and the only Digital Flower
Auction Centre is located in Bengaluru,
running by Karnataka Agro Industrial
Corporation (KAIC) at Hebbal.

arrangements/decorations for bouquets


preparation and for floral boskets, have
increased substantially and its share of the
total trade has also improved.

The sale of loose flowers of Jasmine,


Crossandra, Marigold, China Aster,
Chrysanthemums, Berlaria and Gaillardia
etc., are a roaring busyness in south India.

The present trend in floriculture is for


making dry flowers, extraction of natural
colours and essential oils.

There is lot of demand for good quality


flower seeds and ornamental planting
materials.

At present the global ornamental crop


industry is worth about US$ 70 billion.

The global consumption of the flowers is


about US$ 35 billion.

More than three lakhs hectare area is


under flower production in different
countries of the world.

Floriculture generates self employment


opportunities round the year. The
employment opportunities in the field are
varied such as.

IMPORTANCE OF FLORICULTURE IN INDIA:


Besides food and nutritional security,
the aesthetic value is also equally important for
our daily lively hood as well as for environmental
purity.
Floriculture is important from the following
point of view;
1. Economic point of view
2. Aesthetic point of view
3. Social point of view
1. ECONOMIC POINT OF VIEW:

Floriculture is a fast emerging major


venture in the world, especially as a
potential
money-spinner
for
many
countries in world.
Many flowers and ornamental plants are
being grown for domestic as well as for
export market will provide more
return/unit
area
than
any
other
agricultural/horticultural crops.
For example in markets such as Delhi and
Mumbai and other metros a single spike of
gladiolus and gerbera cutflower may sell
upto Rs. 3-5 in Kharif and Rs. 5-10/spike in
Rabi/Summer.

Gestation period of flower crop is very less


compared to other crops.

Modern-day floriculture refers to the


production of high-value cutflowers such
as rose, gladiolus, carnation, mums,
orchids, tuberose, anthurium, lilium,
gerbera etc,.

Now days, growing of these cutflower


crops,
suited
for
flower

i. One can join the floriculture field as


farm/estate managers, plantation experts,
supervisors and project coordinators and so
on.
ii. Teaching, Research and Extension scientists/
teachers are some other avenues of
employment in all SAUs and NARS.
iii. Marketing of Floriculture products for different
ventures is emerging as a potential segment of
this field.
iv. Besides, one can also work as consultant,
landscape architect etc with proper training.
v. One can also work as entrepreneur and offer
employment to others.
vi. In addition to these careers which involve
research and actual growing of crops.
vii. Floriculture also provides service career
opportunities which include such jobs like
floral designers, grounds keepers, landscape
designers,
architects
and
horticultural
therapists.

Prepared by Dr. B. Hemla Naik, Professor & Head (Hort.) cum Coordinator (PPMC), UAHS, Shimoga; hemlanaikb@yahoo.com ; 94488 62225

Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

viii. Professional qualification combined with an


inclination towards gardening and such other
activities produces efficient floriculturists and
landscaping professionals all over the globe.

Lot of scope for landscaping and is


considered as billion dollar earning
industry in states which ultimately adds
the
monitory
value
of
any
building/property.

To a Japanese flower arranger each flower


expresses one or more meaning (eg.
Ikebana).
The wealth of any nation is linked with the
health of its people. Unless we can ensure
the healthy development of our citizens,
especially for the younger generation, by
providing them for open breathing places
through bio-aesthetic planning like in
Chandigarh city and landscape gardening,
we cannot expect to buildup a healthy
society and prosperous nation.

Horticultural therapy - is the new


dimension of horticultural sciences to heal
the psychic debility and the science is to
use garden, landscape plants, parts of
plants, growing activity as tools to work.

The bio-force of plants offer a permanent


solution to the problems of bio force of
human thus, bio aesthetic horticulture is
emerging
as
a
new
occupational
therapeutic tool to restore the lost rhythm
and harmony back to human self or inner
environment.

It is being utilized in psychiatric hospitals,


general
hospitals
and
physical
rehabilitation centers, homes for elderly,
prisons and schools.

In our society no social function is


complete without the use of flowers, floral
ornaments,
bouquets
or
flower
arrangements they are invariably used in
all social functions.

Used in social gatherings, birthday parties,


welcoming friends or relatives and
honoring dignitaries. The concept of
Valentines Day is fast catching up in India
also.

The arrival of new born is rejoiced with


flowers,

To an Indian, especially for Hindus,


flowers have a much greater significance in
religions offerings. It has estimated that
more than 30-40 % of the total flower
productions are being consumed in Kolkata
city alone used for worshiping purpose.

Floral garlands, gajras and venis are


required in marriage ceremonies for
adornment of hairs by women of all ages,
especially in the south India.

In the present modern era sicks are wished


for speedy recovery by offering beautiful
cutflowers, while the deads are bidden
farewell with flowers along with tear of
sorrow.

Flowers are very closely associated with


mankind from the dawn of human
civilization. There is increasing habit of
saying with flowers. Any Indians born
with flowers live with flowers and finally
dies with flowers.

Presently more than 145 countries are


involved in flower production on
commercial scale.

2. AESTHETIC POINT OF VIEW:

to express the most sensitive, delicate and


loving feelings eloquently what our words
fail to express.

The patients can achieve higher level of


personal development and satisfaction.

SCOPE
TO
ENTER
FLORICULTURE
INDUSTRY IN INDIA

India is blessed with varied and dynamic


agro-climatic condition, good quality soil
and water made suitable for floriculture.

Geographically India is well located


between two major markets i.e., Europe
and East Asia.

Winter is being very mild and hence there


is lot of scope to export Indian flowers to

3. SOCIAL POINT OF VIEW:

Flowers symbolize the purity, beauty,


peace, love, adoration, innocence and
passion etc. Hence, many flowers are used

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

temperate countries during the winter


season, when the demand is in peak
because of important winter festivals like
Christmas, New Year Day and Valentines
Day.

Labour cost is very low in India, nearly 1015 times cheaper than that of similar
employees in the Netherlands, Israel and
Japan.

The Government of India has identified


floriculture as Extreme Focus Thrust Area
for export during IX plan.

With the implementation of GATT


agreement European nations has brought
down the import duty on floricultural
products, which at present is 15 %.

The International market is growing @ 8-10


% annually. The International demand is
around Rs. 90,000 crore/ year and domestic
market at 20-25 %. Hence, the scope to
enter floriculture industry in India is
unlimited.
The Govt. of India has setup the
infrastructure for floriculture industry in
major cities like New Delhi, Mumbai,
Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Pune etc.
APEDA is giving financial assistance to
some extent for various activities connected
with export of floriculture products.

Easy bank financing for hi-tech floriculture.

100 per cent export oriented units (EOUs)


are located in and around Hyderabad
(Andra Pradesh), Bengaluru, Hosur,
Doddaballapur, Devanahalli (Karnataka) in
south and Gurgaun (Haryana) in north,
Lonavala and Pune (Maharashtra) in West.

Floriculture products posses 25-30 time


more foreign exchange earning ability than
cereals
or
any
other
agricultural/horticultural products.

Floriculture is capable of attracting and


retaining large number of progressive
farmers / entrepreneurs.
Due to ample sunlight and optimum
temperature during winter, it does not
require artificial lighting or heating for green
house production of cutflowers.
The Government of India has identified
product specific zones for selective research
and development (Table-1) of floriculture.
APEDA and GOK have established four
flower auction centers including one in
Bengaluru, Noida (UP), Mumbai and New
Delhi.
APEDA also has setup a marketing center at
Aalsmeer (The Netherlands) to promote
Indian produce.
Table-1:
Products
specific
floriculture zones in India:
Sl.No.
1

3
4

For 100 % EOUs the government has


allowed to sale 50 per cent of produce in
domestic markets.

100 per cent tax exemption has given on


implements / raw materials used in
greenhouses.

The rules and regulations related to import


and exports have been minimized.

Singapore is the nearest International


standard flower auction centre, helpful for
Indian exports.

Zone
Area around
Delhi, UP and
Punjab
Area around
Bengaluru

Area around
Trivendrum
Area around
Pune
/
Nashik

North Eastern
region
including
Sikkim
Area around
Kolkata

Area around
Srinagar
Area around
Solan, H.P.

Area around
Coimbatore
including
Nilgiris

intensive

Flower crops
Rose,
Carnation,
Chrysanthemum,
Gladiolus
Rose,
Carnation,
Chrysanthemum,
Ornamental
Foliage
Plants and Seeds
Orchids,
Anthurium
and Foliage Plants
Rose,
Carnation,
Gladiolus,
Dahlia,
Chrysanthemum, Aster
and Tuberose
Orchids,
Gladiolus,
Liliums, Gerbera, Salvia,
Anthurium and other
Foliage Plants
Lotus,
Tuberose,
Jasmine,
Chrysanthemum
and
Dahlia.
Gladiolus,
Lilies
Carnation and Rose
Gladiolus,
Other
Bulbous Plants and
Seeds
Jasmine,
Tuberose,
Chrysanthemum, Rose,
Carnation and Orchids

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

PROBLEMS
/
CONSTRAINTS
FLORICULTURE INDUSTRY IN INDIA

FOR

Lack of specific information on area and


production of different flowers which, is a
handicap in planning production for domestic
and export market.
Lack of information on new / ruling varieties
which, continuously keep changing in the
International markets.

Lack of information on advanced cultivation


practices like high density planting, fertilizer and
irrigation management, plant protection, packing
and grading, etc,.

Lack of infrastructure facilities like green


house/glass house and poly house as well as
cold chain.

There is no direct cargo flight from Bengaluru


and Pune which are main production centers,
leads to double shipment which increases the
cost besides more scope for spoilage.

The freight rates in India are high which makes


produce uncompetitive in the International
markets.

There are no organized marketing co-operatives


of other bodies which can take care of
floriculture trade in India.

Lack of research and development in


floriculture. Especially on new varieties, postharvest techniques, advanced cultivation
method, etc.

No detailed economic feasibility studies with


reference to establishment, maintenance and cost
of production in glass house conditions /
protected cultivation.

Pot plants are produced in soil based container


medium which is not allowed in most middleEast and European markets.
Lack of streamlined quality control mechanism
and poor co-ordination between government
and private agencies involved in import and
export of floriculture products.
Exemption from import duty by importing
countries is needed as some countries like
Columbia Mauritius etc. are exempted from such
tariffs.
Phytosanitory certificates are given only in
selected cities like Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and
Chennai.
Lack of appropriate planting materials and
production technologies for export.

Lack of knowledge
exporting countries.

Lack of quality consciousness of the produce.


This affects the floriculture industry as a whole.

Lack of sale promotion activities in India.

about

importing

and

Lack of market intelligence regarding leading


varieties, selling price, etc.
AREA AND PRODUCTION OF FLOWERS IN THE
STATE AND THE COUNTRY
India ranks 2nd next to China with an area of 1,
91,000 hectare and produces 1031 thousand
metric tons of loose flowers and 66,671 lakh
cutflowers annually (2010-11).
Tamil Nadu is a leader in flower production; it
occupies 31,970 ha followed by Karnataka (25,
100 ha), West Bengal (21,940) ha and Andhra
Pradesh (21,400 ha).
FLOWER FEELINGS:
Flower meanings and symbolization are the key
elements for flower choice since time
immemorial as they expresses the most sensitive,
delicate and ever loving feelings eloquently what
our words fail to express.
Besides the above, flower also adds meaning to
the actual life and reinforces faith in nature by
filling the whole atmosphere with its delicate
fragrance.
So it may help the flower lovers to make the right
decision in offering the right flowers to their
belongings.
Traditional colour choice:
These traditional colour choices mainly apply to
roses but may also be applied to other flower types.

Red roses mean romantic love.


Purple roses signify that the giver has fallen
in love with the recipient at first sight.
Orange roses signal desire.
Yellow roses are joy and friendship.
Pink roses express our gratitude and
appreciation.
Light pink roses show feelings of
admiration and sympathy.
Peach is more indefinite, as it can signify
either sympathy or gratitude.
White roses show meaning of reverence and
humility.

@@@@

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

Flowers
1. Aster
2. Azalea

:
:

3. Carnation (General)
4. Carnation (Pink)
5. Carnation (Red)
6. Carnation (Purple)
7. Carnation (Striped)
8. Carnation (White)
9. Carnation (Yellow)
10. Chrysanthemum
11. Chrysanthemum (White)
12. Chrysanthemum (Yellow)
13. Daffodil

14. Daisy
15. Fern
16. Gladiolus
17. Hydrangea
18. Ivy
19. Lily (White)
20. Lily (Yellow)
21. Lily (Calla)
22. Lily (Day)
23. Lily (Eucharis)
24. Lily (Tiger)
25. Marigold
26. Orchid

:
:
:
:
:
:

27. Primrose
28. Rose (Dark Crimson)
29. Rose (Hibiscus)
30. Rose (Leaf)
31. Rose (Pink)
32. Rose (Red)
33. Rose (Tea)
34. Rose (Thorn less)
35. Rose (White)
36. Rose (White And Red)
37. Rose (White-Dried)
38. Rose (Yellow)
39. Rosebud
40. Rosebud (Red)
41. Rosebud (White)
42. Rosebud (Moss)
43. Roses (Bouquet
44. Roses (Single Full Bloom)
45. Sweet pea
46. Tulip (General)
47. Tulip (Red)
48. Tulip (Variegated)
49. Tulip (Yellow)

:
:

50. Wisteria
51. Zinnia (Magenta)

:
:

:
:

:
:

Flower meanings/ Symbolization /Feelings


Symbol of Love, Daintiness
Take Care of Yourself for Me, Temperance, Fragile
Passion, Chinese Symbol of Womanhood
Fascination, Woman Love
I'll Never Forget You
My Heart Aches For You, Admiration
Capriciousness, Whimsical
No, Refusal, Sorry I Can't Be With You, Wish I Could Be With You
Sweet and Lovely, Innocence, Pure Love, Woman's Good Luck Gift ,You Have
Disappointed Me, Rejection
You're a Wonderful Friend, Cheerfulness and Rest.
Truth
Slighted Love
Respect, Regard, Unrequited Love, You're the Only One, The Sun is Always
Shining when I'm with You
Innocence, Loyal Love, I'll Never Tell, Purity
Magic, Fascination, Confidence and Shelter
Give Me a Break, I'm Really Sincere, Flower of the Gladiators
Thank You for Understanding, Frigidity, Heartlessness
Wedded Love, Fidelity, Friendship, Affection
Virginity, Purity, Majesty, It's Heavenly to be with You
I'm Walking on Air, False and Gay
Beauty
Coquetry, Chinese Emblem for Mother
Maiden Charms
Wealth, Pride
Cruelty, Grief, Jealousy
Love, Beauty, Refinement, Beautiful Lady, Chinese
Symbol for Many Children, Thoughtful, Maturity, Charm
I Can't Live Without You
Mourning
Delicate Beauty
You May Hope
Perfect Happiness, Please Believe Me
Love, I Love You
I'll Remember Always
Love at First Sight
Innocence and Purity, I am Worthy of You, You're
Heavenly, Secrecy and Silence
Unity, Flower Emblem of England
Death is Preferable to Loss of Virtue
Decrease of Love, Jealousy, Try to Care, Friendship
Beauty and Youth, A Heart Innocent of Love
Pure and Lovely
Girlhood
Confessions of Love Gratitude
I Love You
Good-bye, Departure, Thank You for a Lovely Time
Perfect Lover, Frame, Flower Emblem of Holland
Believe Me, Declaration of Love
Beautiful Eyes
There's Sunshine in Your Smile
Welcome
Lasting Affection

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

LECTURE-3a

All these floricultural products can be sold


in the International market at Singapore.

HI-TECH FLORICULTURE

The varied agro climatic conditions


prevailing in the country with ample
sunshine can maintain regular supply of
any floricultural commodity throughout
the year.

Indias geographical location particularly


its proximity to the developing Far East,
offers tremendous competitive advantage.

Keeping in view of pollution problems


and other aesthetic values of the flowers,
we must try to sustain our floriculture
industry.

Due
to
rapid
urbanization
and
multistoried flats system the local demand
of flowers would definitely be increased.

The liberalized seed policy in late 80s


globalization of Indian economy and
economic reforms initiated in early 90s
paved the way for the advent of state of
the art of protected cultivation technology
in India.
Indian horticulture which was hither to an
individual driven become corporate
driven, which could sense the potential
and scope the modern protected
cultivation technology can offer for
furthering the floriculture industry.
As on today, Karnataka alone has more
than 100 floriculture units surpassing all
other states (185 hi-tech units).

EXPORT MARKET FOR INDIAN PRODUCTS:

Traditional flowers like jasmine and


tuberose are being exported as fresh
flowers to Malaysia, Singapore, Sree
Lanka and Gulf countries from India.
The international market price for Jasmine
concrete and absolute oil is around
30,000/- and
60,000/- per kg,
respectively. The exported flowers fetch
30 crores to
40 crores foreign
exchange annually.

Extracting essential oils from flowers is


another major industry in India.

Damask rose is widely cultivated


particularly in Azmir, Udaipur areas in
Rajasthan, Palampur and Kullu districts in
Himachal Pradesh, Aligarh, Kannauj and
Lucknow in Uttar Pradesh.

The rose petals are also used to prepare


rose water and gulkand. These products
are being exported to UK, France,
Germany and Middle East countries.

WORLD FLORICULTURE TRADE:

The Global trade in floriculture products


is recorded in terms of live plants and
bulbs, cut flowers and cut foliage.
World imports cut flowers and foliage
together accounts for a share of 51 to 55 %
whereas, live plants and bulbs accounts
for 45 to 49 %. Floriculture industry has
been the monopoly of a few countries
(mainly Netherlands),
Netherlands is the largest trader of
floricultural products, with a lions share
of 70% followed by Columbia 12% and
Israel with 6% share of the global
floriculture trade.

CUT FLOWERS EXPORT POTENTIAL:

The cut flowers generally grown under


greenhouse/polyhouses
are
being
exported to The Netherlands, Japan and
Germany.

The international buyers are re-exporting


the goods which they import from various
developing countries.

Tuberose flowers are used for extraction


of oils and it is considered as the high
value concrete in the world market.

Spain, Kenya and Israel have also started


exporting the flowers, accounting 2, 2 and
6%, respectively.

Tissue cultured plants of jasmine; scented


rose etc. can also be propagated and
supplied to Taiwan, Korea and Japan.

The other countries including developing


ones have only 20% of the total export,

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

Indias share in the total world export


being less than 1%.

The new markets for Indian flowers may


be Japan, Northern America, South East
Asia and the Gulf countries.

Indias geographical location particularly


its proximity to a developing Far East
offers
a
tremendous
competitive
advantage.

Now the floriculture has become one of


the
extreme
focus
segments
for
development of export by the Government
of India.

Developing countries have only 6% share


in the world market.
This help in
increasing the export from India which is
otherwise negligible.

TOP TEN CUT FLOWERS


THE WORLD TRADE
Sl. Cut flowers
No.
1.
Rose
2.
Chrysanthemum
3.
Tulip
4.
Lily
5.
Carnation
6.
Gerbera
7.
Freesia
8.
Cymbidium
9.
Alstroemeria
10. Limonium

AND POT PLANTS IN


Sl.
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Pot plants
Ficus
Dracaena
Kalanchoe
Chrysanthemum
Begonia
Hedera
Azalea
Saintpaulia
Hydrangea
Spathiphyllum

INDIAN SCENARIO

Germany

MAJOR IMPORT MARKETS FOR FLORICULTURE


PRODUCT:
Europe is the largest market for floricultural
products.
Among the major importing
countries Germany, USA, France, U.K and
Netherlands together accounts for nearly 64
% of the world imports.

the

single

largest

market

accounting for nearly 25 % of the world


imports.
PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION OF FLOWERS
AND PLANTS:
The consumption of floriculture products is
linked to the GDP of the countries. Developed
countries with high per capita income
obviously are the major consuming markets.
With
rising
income,
consumption
of
floricultural products is on the increase both in
developed and developing countries.
It is estimated that, the Global demand for
floricultural products is growing @ 8-10 %.
In India the demand for cut flowers and pot
plants is growing @ 20-25 %.
ROLE OF INDIAN GOVERNMENT AND
OTHER AGENCIES FOR EXPORT:

In recent times, the Indian government


has done a lot for promotion of exports of
floriculture products.

The
Government
has
identified
floriculture industry as thrust focus area
for export.

The import duty on seeds, bulbs, cuttings


etc. has reduced to zero and that to on
goods for green house items, seed
development machinery has been brought
down to 25%.

Income tax and other tax concessions have


been granted to new floriculture exporting
companies.

The eighth five year plan also contains a


provision of Rs. 320 million to boost
horticulture and floriculture.

Reduction in the tariff from 55 to 10 % on


import of live plants and other plant
bulbs, root, cut flowers and other
ornamental foliage.

The import of flower seeds and tissue


culture material of any plant origin is now
allowed without an import permit.

The Agricultural and Processed Food


Product Export Development Authority

In India, floriculture industry comprises,


Flower trade, Production of nursery plants and
potted plants,
Seed and bulb production, Micro propagation
and
Extraction of essential oils and natural
pigments.

is

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

(APEDA) and National Horticulture


Board (NHB) have also helped for export
promotion.

3. APEDA SCHEMES TO ASSIST EXPORT


ORIENTED FLORICULTURE

TO

1.

For development of Infrastructure and


services @ 25% of cost of the project
and Rs. 1.5 lakhs for purchase of refer
van.

a. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural


Development (NABARD) has evolved
a scheme for extending soft loan
assistance
to
prospective
entrepreneurs.

2.

For development of post-harvest


infrastructure @ 50% of cost/ Rs. 5.0
lakhs for pre cooling and cold storage
units.

3.

Scheme for packing development


30% of cost; maximum Rs. 1.0 lakh.

4.

Scheme for export promotion and


market development; maximum Rs.
0.5 lakh.

5.

Scheme
for
survey,
feasibility,
consultancy and data base, - 40% of
cost and maximum Rs. 20.0 lakhs.

6.

Scheme for air freight subsidy 25 %.

7.

It has already setup cold storage and


cargo handling facilities which are
operational
at
Indiga
Gandhi
International Airport, New Delhi,
Bengaluru,
Chennai
and
Thiruvananthapuram.

INSTITUTIONAL
ASSISTANCE
FLORICULTURE HI-TECH PROJECTS:
1. NABARD Soft Loan Assistance:

b. The entrepreneurs could be individual,


proprietary / partnership firm, group
of individuals, co-operative societies
etc.
2. NATIONAL
(NHB):

HORTICULTURE

BOARD

1. NHB has evolved a scheme for


development
of
post
harvest
infrastructure during the eighth five
year plan period.
2. Registered farmers organization, Cooperative societies and corporate
sector are eligible for financial
assistances.
3. Promoters have to contribute 20% of the
project cost. 40% will be provided by
NHB as soft loan @ 5% p.a. Remaining
cost of the project will be financed by
commercial banks.

4. Nationalized banks viz., State Bank of India,


Canara Bank etc.,

@@@@

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

CLASSIFICATION OF FLORICULTURAL
PRODUCTS FOR TRADE:

b) Purple, Lavender or Blue: Daisy, Rose,


Carnation, Dahlia, Ageratum, China aster,
Clitoria, Delphinium, Petunia, Viola, Verbena,
Tithonia, Torenia, Daisy, etc.

Floricultural products are classified as per the


International trade of Classification (ITC) are as
follows.

c) Yellow or orange: Antirrhinum, Marigold


Calendula, Zinnia, Gaillardia, Rose, Gladiolus,
Carnation, etc.

LECTURE-3b

1.

Bulbs, Tubers and Tuberous roots

2.

Live plants: Includes trees, shrubs, bushes,


rooted cuttings and slips.

Gladiolus,

3) Based on purpose of Growing

3.

Cut flowers and flower buds: fresh or


dried, dyed, bleached etc.,

a)

4.

Cut foliage, branches and other parts


(other than flowers or buds) of trees,
shrubs,bushes and other plants i.e. twigs,
grasses, shoots etc.

Rockery: Ageratum, Alyssum, Brachycome,


Phlox, Portulaca, Linum, Nemesia, Saponaria,
Godetia, Euphorbia, etc.

b)

Hanging basket: Dwarf Ageratum, Petunia,


Portulaca, Verbena, Torenia, Begonia.

c)

Edging of beds or path: Dwarf Ageratum,


Alyssum, Brachycome, Dianthus, Nigella,
Portulaca, Pansy etc.

5.

Masses, lichens & grasses, fresh or dried,


bleached:

6.

Dry flowers

7.

Pigments (Natural colours)

8.

Essential oils

9.

Prepared/processed food products like


gulkand, gulroghan, pankhuri etc

d) Fragrant flowers: Sweet Alyssum, Sweet


Sultan, Sweet pea, Stock, Phlox, Carnation,
Rose, Jasmine, Tuberose, etc.

10. Seed production of different seasonals


CLASSIFICATION OF FLOWERS:
1) Based on Season of growing
a) Summer season annuals

Zinnia, Kochia, Portulaca, Tithonia, Gaillardia,


Gomphrena, Sunflower, Daisy, etc.
b) Rainy season annuals

Balsam, Cocks comb, Celosia, Gaillardia, etc.


c)

d) Red pink: Antirrhinum, Rose,


Carnation, Gerbera, Dahlia, etc.

Winter season annuals

e)

Bedding purpose: Dahlia, Marigold, Phlox,


Verbena, Carnation, Petunia, Ice Plant, Candy
Tuft, Balsam, Portulaca, etc.

f)

Aromatic: Rose, Jasmine, Tuberose etc.,

g) For pots: Carnation, Chrysanthemum, Dahlia,


Rose, Antirrhinum, Petunia, Agloenema,
Alocasia,
Anthurium,
Orchids,
Aralia,
Begonia, Chlorophytum, Dracaena, etc.
h) For loose flowers: Marigold, Jasmine,
Crossandra, Barlaria, Chrysanthemums, China
Asters, Sunflowers, Zinnia, Gaillardia, Rose,
Dahlia, etc.
i)

For Dry flowers: Statice, Helichrysum,


Acroclinum,
Gomphrena,
Limonium,
Marigold, Rose, Ladys Lace, Nigella, etc.

j)

For Hedge purpose: Lawsonia, Duranta,


Tecoma, Bougainvillea, Thevetia, Hibiscus,
Murraya,
Dodonea,
Acalypha,
Aralia,
Ipatorium, Clerodendron spp, etc.

Antirrhinum, China aster,


Larkspur, Sweet Sultan,

Cornflowers,

Phlox,

Verbena,

Candy tuft, Petunia, etc


2) Based on flower colours:
a) White flowering: Antirrhinum. Alyssum,
Dianthus,
China
aster,
Zinnia,
Chrysanthemum, Gladiolus, Gerbera, etc.

k) Cut
flowers/modern
flowers:
Rose,
Chrysanthemum,
Carnation,
Gerbera,
Anthurium, Orchids, Gladiolus, Tuberose, etc.
4) Based on Nature of Growth:
a) Annuals: Nasturtium, Ice plant, Holly hock,
Sweet
pea,
Annual
Chrysanthemum,
Carnation, Cornflower, Sweet Alyssum,

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

Dahlia, Marigold, Verbena, Phlox, Pinks,


Calendula, etc.
b) Perennials: Rose, Jasmine, Crossandra,
Anthurium,
Orchids,
Chrysanthemum,
Berlaria, Hibiscus, Gerbera, Carnation,
Bulbous Crops.
5) Based on Mode of propagation:
1) Bulbous plants:
Tuberose

Lily,

Narcissus,

Tulip,

2) Cormellous plants: Gladiolus, Crocus


3) Rhizomatous plants: Canna, Iris
4) Tuberiferous plants: Dahlia
6) Based on their end use/purpose
1. Traditional flowers: They are offered in
religious and social ceremonies, used as an
adornment by women, and offered for
worships at home as well as in temples.

2. Dry flower industry:


Some of the flowers are used for drying
purpose and are traded as dry flowers in the flower
trade.
Example:
Helichrysum,
Acroclinum,
Gomphrena,
Marigold, Rose, Limonium/ Statice, Gerbera, Zinnia,
China Aster, some foliage plants also.
3. Pigment extraction:
Some of the flowers are grown for extraction
of their natural colours and used in various
preparations viz, foods, poultry feeds, textile,
pharmaceuticals, etc.
Example: Marigold, Calendula, Hibiscus, Carnation,
Bixas, Saffron, Safflower, etc.
COMMERCIAL FLOWER INDUSTRIES IN INDIA
HAVING COLLABORATION WITH DUTCH
1.

Bumbna major Biotech Ltd, Jambhul village


pune. Collaboration with Moerheim Roses
and Trading BV., Holland with 6 million
flowers. Rs. 7.5 crores; 100% EOU

2.

Deccan Flora Base Ltd. with a transaction of


Rs. 7.0 crores, 100% EOU of roses, 9 million cut
roses (11.25ha). Talegaun (Pune); collaboration
with Flodae B.V., Netherlands.

3.

Essar Agrotech Ltd.: Lonarala (Pune). 6


Million roses, (7 ha); Rs. 5.5 crores,
collaborated with Moerhein roses a trading
B.V., Holland.

4.

Harrisons
Universal
Flowers
Ltd.
Collaborated with Universal Plants SA of
France (Meilland groups in France)
Bangalore; 6.0 crores; 2 ha.

5.

Indryani Biotech: Rs. 7.14 crores, 6 million cut


flowers; near Pune, collaborated with Florax
Max of Malaysia.

6.

Indo Bloom Pvt. Ltd, Bangalore.

7.

Karishma Floriculture Ltd. Collaborated with


Dalsem BV of Holland at Sohana in Haryana.

8.

Laxmi
Flori-tech
Ltd:
Bangalore
(Nelamangala) with Flodae BV. Holland.

9.

Oriental Flori- tech Ltd. (by TATA Industries)


in 1990 collaborated with Van Dijk Flora BV of
Holland (Pune); 4 million roses in 3.2 ha.

Eg. Jasmine, Rose, Mums, Marigold,


Crossandra, Tuberose, Barlaria, Gaillardia, etc.
2.

Non-traditional flowers: They are referred to


as cut flowers or modern flowers. Generally
flowers are harvested along with a long stem/
stalk.
Eg. Hi-tech roses (Dutch roses), Gerbera,
Carnation, Chrysanthemum, Gladiolus,
Orchids, Anthuriums, Goldenrod, Bird of
Paradise, Limonium, Liatris, Stock, etc

3. Industrial Flowers/Value Added flowers:


They are used as raw material in industries for
extraction of essential oil and also preparation
of some edible products like gulkand,
gulroghan, pigments as natural colours and
also dry flowers.
Eg. Tuberose, Jasmine, Rose, Marigold etc,.
INDUSTRIAL IMPORTANCE OF COMMERCIAL
FLOWERS IN INDIA & ABROAD:
Flowers are traded round the year all-over the
country and bulk of them are used in making
garlands, bouquets, venis, gajras and other
adornments.
1. Perfumery Industry:
The extracts from fragrant flowers such as
rose, lavender, champak, Jasmine, tuberose, marigold,
etc

10. Meghana Flori-tech Ltd, Bangalore.


11. Vasavi Florex Ltd. Bengaluru

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LECTURE- 4
ROSE

INTRODUCTION:
Rose is Eros (The Greek Love - God).
It is one of the Natures Beautiful
Creations.
Hence, it is universally acclaimed as the
Queen of flowers called by a
Sappho a poetess about more than
2500 years ago.
No other flower is a better symbol of
love, adoration, innocence, peace,
friendship, affection, passion and
other virtues than the rose since
thousands of years.
It is certainly the best known and most
popular of all the cut flowers
throughout the world and has been
growing on this earth for many
million years before the man himself
appeared on earth.
Rose is considered as National flower of
England.
In India, it was referred in old Sanskrit
literature as Tarnipushpa, Atimanjula,
Simantika, etc.

It is the largest traded flowers in the


world, worth 1.5 billion dollars
globally.
The Holland alone 500 million dollars
and is growing 7-8% annually.
IMPORTANT ROSE IMPORTERS AND
EXPORTERS:
Germany is the highest importer
followed by USA, The Netherlands,
France, Switzerland and U.K.
Whereas, the main exporter is the
Netherlands followed by Columbia,
Ecuador,
Kenya,
Israel
and
Zimbabwe.
IMPORTANCE AND USES:
The rose because of its multi-utility
occupies a prominent place amongst
the flower crops and is one of the
ancient fragrant flowers cultivated by
man.
Its different types having beautiful
flowers of exquisite shape, different
shades, bewitching colours and most
delightful fragrance has made it an
important flower for the varied uses.
USES:
1) Garden display:

The rose adorned not only the royal


palaces but also the ashrams of saints.
It has become the part and parcel of life
being connected with all phases of our
life right from birth to death.

The growing of roses in India developed


with the distillation of roses as
mentioned in Ayurveda by Charaka
around 100 AD.

The interest in cultivation however


increased considerably mainly during
the last four five decades and at
present it has become most important
commercial flower.
As a result of the great demand for
modern roses (HT roses) / standard
roses, many nurseries have been
established in an around the big cities.

Shrub or bush is prepared by budding


the desired cultivars on a root stock at
a height of 5-10 cm above the ground
level.
They are planted in small groups to
create excellent mass effect in a rose
garden.
They are also the most important
garden plant in almost all every part
of the world due to its perennial
growth habit.
They can be used as bush, standards,
climbers, hedges and edges, hangers
and in rock gardens.

2) Standard roses (Hybrid Tea roses): Also


called as tree roses. HT roses and floribundas
having vigorous growth and spreading habit
hence are budded on straight vertical stem of a
suitable root stock at different height from the
ground level to make standards.

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Classification of Standard Roses:


According to height of budding the standard
roses are classified into;

such as Fairy Queen and


Magic may be selected..
6) Pot plants: Roses as pot plants in suitable
containers are also commercially grown.
Miniature and dwarf Polyanthas should be
selected for the purpose. The cultivars like
Baby darling, Cindrella, Starina, Sweet
Dream etc.,

a. Full standards: The height of the budding has


to be done at 100-115 cm above the ground
level. H T roses and few Grandifloras are
suitable.
b. Half standards: In this case the budding may
be done at 45-60 cm height. Floribundas and
Polyantha roses are excellent for growing as
half standards.
c. Weeping standards: 150 cm or even higher the
budding may be done on drooping branches.
The growing crown is look like hanging
crown.
Example, Climbers / Rambler roses
3)

7) Hangers: Button roses can also be used for


growing in hanging pots / baskets.
Climbing miniatures like Red Cascade and
Yellow Doll may be used.
8) Loose flowers: Used for garland making,
extraction of essential oils, for button holes
i.e. Coat button holes and Cora sages (a
single rose with foliage) referred as mini
bouquet.

CLIMBERS: The climbing and rambling roses


can be used to cover the walls of the houses or
fencing or pergolas, arbours and arches.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RAMBLER AND
CLIMBER ROSES:
Rambler roses
1. Produces flowers once in a year.

1.

2. Produces flowers in clusters.

2.

3. Flowers lasting for several weeks.

3.

4. Rambler is very vigorous.

4.

5. Produces heavy crops of small flowers in


clusters for several weeks.

5.

4) Hedges or Edges: Any rose cultivars can


be used for these purposes for protection,
beautification
and
demarcation
of
different features in the landscaping.
3.1. Hedge: Any thorny cultivars are
suitable for the purpose preferably
floribundas are ideal as they are vigorous
types. Ex. Border Coral, Circus, Frensham
and Rumba
3.2. Edge: Button /miniature roses are
commonly used to form edges for
demarcation of one feature to another. Ex.
Carolin, Lady Reading, Magic, White
Button etc.,
5) Rockeries: Some hardy miniature roses
may be grown to beautify the rock
garden. Hardy miniatures
and pompon cultivars

9) CUT- FLOWERS: Besides garlands,


bouquets, buttonholes and preserves and
their use for worship it makes one of the
best cut flowers. In floriculture, roses are
Climber
roses
of foremost
commercial importance and
cut-roses have
highest demand
Flowers perpetually
(round the
the year).
throughout
the
world
year round.
Produces singly or in groups of 2sand
or 3s.
European countries, USA, Canada, Japan,
Flowering
spreads
over the
season. etc. are the
Korea,
Kenya,
Colombia,
Medium largest
in vigor. producers of cut-roses under
protected
structures.
Produces bigger flower
than ramblers round
the year.
10) PERFUME AND ALLIED PRODUCTS:

Rose water: Important commercial


product obtained from rose petals, used
as perfume, medicine and confectionary.
Its important uses are, cools the body,
used in eye lotions, eye drops for its
soothing qualities. Drinking water. It is
sprinkled on guests at weddings, feasts &
other social functions.

Rose oil (Rose perfume): It is also


obtained from rose petals, sweet
fragrance; medicinal properties; used in
Ayurveda. Bulgarian rose otto is largely
used in perfuming soaps & cosmetics.
Used in flavoring soft drinks and
alcoholic liqueurs. It has antibacterial
properties against Shilagella dysenteriae
and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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ORIGIN & HISTORY:

Species suitable are:


Rosa demascena, R. borboniana, R. centifolia, R.
alba & R. gallica. In India R. demascena and R.
borboniana are cultivated for rose oil.
b) Gulkand: Rose petals are also preserved
for direct consumption prepared by
beating equal proportion of petals and
sugar considered as tonic and laxative.
R. damascene, R. chinensis, R. gallica, R.
pomifera & some other scented roses like
Edouard roses are commonly used.
c)

Pankhuri: Dried rose petals are known as


pankhuri, they are occasionally used for
preparing sweetened cold drinks.

d) Gulroghan: The rose hair oil is prepared


from rose petals by effleurage (fragrance)
with wet sesamum seeds.
11) As a source of vitamins:
Rose hips are very good source of
ascorbic acid (Vit. C). Every 100 g
of rose hip contains 150 mg of
ascorbic acid compared with only
50 mg in fresh orange juice, 20 mg
in tomato and 5 mg in apples.
Species: R. rugosa, R. amblyotis, R.
Acicularis, R. davurica, R.
pendulina, R. glauca and R.
canina.
The hips of R. roxburghii, R. acicularis,
R. rugosa, R. davurica also found to
contain Vitamins A1, B2, K & E.
12) Other uses:
In Europe, roses are also used for
preparation
of
pot-pourri,
conserves, rose vinegar and rose
petal wine.
Jams, jellies and syrups have been
made for centuries in Bulgaria and
exported.
Rose jam aids in
digestion and it also has certain
curative properties.
In Czechoslovakia, fruits of wild
roses are used for preparing hot
drinks like tea and a popular
wine.
In America, R. multiflora bushes
are being utilized as shock
absorber or crash barrier.

o It is said that rose came first and man


afterwards. It is estimated to be more
than 30 million years old.
o According to Klougart and Fairbrother
(1966), the history of man and of the
rose is linked together for about 5000
years.
o The rose was called Queen of flowers
by Sappho a poetess more than 2500
years ago.
o No other flower has such a remarkable
written record.
o There is evidence that, roses reached
Rome before Christ.
o Preparation of rose water and attar was
also in practice even before the 17th
century.
The rose is the perfume of the Gods, the joy of
men, it adores and graces at the blossoming of love. Rose
is the favored flower of Venus.
MYTH AND LEGEND STORIES ON THE EARLY
HISTORY AND EVOLUTION:
It is said that when Cybele became angry with
Venus, she took her revenge by bringing to
life something more beautiful than the
Goddess of beauty herself and thus created
the roses.

According to Myth story the rose blooming in


the Garden of Eden was white in colour and
became red when Eve (Acc to Bible she is the
first women name mentioned in Bible) saw it
and kissed it.

Another story relates that, roses which were


originally white which became red from the
blood of Venus dropped from her foot
wounded by a thorn while hurrying through.

According to a Legendry story, once Lord


Vishnu taking bath and Lord Brahma came
out of one lotus and claimed that, lotus is the
beautiful flower in the Universe.

Then Vishnu took Brahma to his Paradise


Vaikunta and showed him a rose flower
which was very beautiful with Pale Moon
Beam colour and heavenly fragrance. After
seeing this Brahma also agreed rose is the
most beautiful than lotus.

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Muslims believed that, the roses were born


from the sweat of the Prophet Mohammed
and hence, they show great respect to rose.

The Roman king Nero loved rose so much


that, he had them every where in his palace.
Flower petals were used by the women in
their baths and for the decoration of special
beds, feasts and graves.
Rose is also mentioned in the Bible and is
believed to be known before the Bible era and
was under cultivation before the birth of
Christ.

DISTRIBUTION:

roses; most popular rose. Bears


large & highly centered flowers.
Eg: La France (1867) First
cultivar of hybrid tea group.
2) Floribunda (Hybrid polyanthas): Developed in
1924 from the cross between a
Hybrid Tea x Polyantha. They
combined the beautiful forms of
the Hybrid Teas with the perpetual
flowering habit of the Polyanthas.
Flowering in clusters with small
size and open centre. Good for
garden display. Eg: Wekplapep
(2000), Jumpin Jack (1998)
3) Hybrid perpetuals

There are about 150 recognized and described


species were identified; all are indigenous to
the temperate regions of the northern
hemisphere have been reported to be
growing.
In India, several species are found growing
wild mostly in the Himalayan ranges.
There are eleven species were reported to be
growing wild in India. They are, Rosa brunonii
(Himalayan Musk rose), R. eglanteria (Syn R..
foetida, Austrian rose), R. involucrate (Syn. R.
sempervirens),R. leschenaultiana (Syn. R.
sempervirens),R. longicuspis, R. macrophylla,R.
moschata (Musk rose),R. rubiginosa (Sweet
briar/ Eglantine rose), R. walpoleana,R. sericea
(Ladakh rose) and R. multiflora

EVOLUTION:
In the beginning some of the rose
species were hybridized in nature and
the present day improved forms have
been evolved over centuries.
Till the 19th century only four species of
roses played a role in the development
of varieties cultivated at that time.
These are
1) Rosa gallica (Red rose) (French
rose)
2) R. canina (Dog rose).
3) R. moschata (Musk rose)
4) R. phoenicia (Phoenician rose)
CLASSES OF PRESENT DAY GARDEN ROSES:
1) Hybrid Tea: Originally developed from crossing
between hybrid perpetuals and Tea

They
are
the
immediate
forerunners of Hybrid Teas. These
are considered to be the offsprings
of R. chinensis, R. gallica and R.
centifolia.
4) Teas: Also called Tea scented China roses they
derived their names from their
distinct aroma, believed to be feet
when a chest of tea leaves are
opened.
They known to have originated
from R. chinensis and R. gigantean
(Manipur Tea rose)
5) Grandifloras: Mainly obtained from crosses
between
Hybrid
Tea
and
Floribunda type. Produces large
number of flowers in cluster with
fine form. Eg: Montezuma (1955),
Queen Elizabeth (1954), Jazor
(2000).
6) Polyanthas: Dwarf with small flowered polyanthas
is the forerunner of Floribundas.
Blooms for several months.
7) China roses: (R. chinensis): It is responsible for
nearly all the present day popular
roses. Bears red to nearly white
flowers in small clusters. Also
called Bengal rose or Monthly
rosesPerpetually flowering types.
Green roses also included in this
group R. chinensis viridiflora. Eg:
Comtessedu cayla (1902)
8) Miniature / Button Roses: Popularly known as
Baby roses with small leaves &

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flowers. They are hardy and good


for pot culture. Multiplied by
cuttings as well as budding on root
stocks. Eg: Baby gold star (1940),
Baby Masquerade (1956), Cindrella
(1952), peon (1936), etc.
9) Climbers and Ramblers: They bears large clusters
of small, single or
double flowers, mainly
belong to two groups.
Used for training on
arches, pergolas, etc.
a) Multiflora ramblers from R. multiflora,
Eg: Blush Rambler (1903), Crimson
Rambler (1890)
b) Wichuriana ramblers from R. wichuriana
Eg: American Pilla (1902)
10) Damask roses: These are belongs to the species R.
damascene. Originated from cross
between R. phvenicia and R. gallica.
Bears clusters of very fragrant pale
pink to red, double petalled
flowers. Eg: Madame Hardy (1832),
Celsiana Hebes Lip (1921)
11) Bourbon roses: (Rosa borboniana): They have
originated from a natural cross
between China rose and the
Damask rose.
12) Cabbage roses: These belong to the species R.
centifolia and they are also called as
Provence rose. Petal arrangement
is like cabbage, hence the name.
They bear large, solitary, very
fragrant pink flowers. Eg: Demeaux
and chapeau de Napoleon (1827)
13) Moss Roses: They belong to cabbage rose class and
arose as budsports of the R.
centifolias.
Eg: Old pink Moss
(1845)
14) French roses: Also known as Gallica roses having
developed from R. Gallica. These
are perhaps the oldest types of
cultivated roses known. Eg: Belle
de Crecy, Cardinal de Richelieu.

between R. corymbifera and R.


gallica. Eg: Celestial, Queen of
Denmark.
16) Musk roses: R. moschata is the musk rose, derived
its name from the musky fragrance
of the flowers. They make good
shrub roses as well as pillar roses.
Eg: Eva, Felicia, Moon light, etc.
17) Noisette roses: Originated from R. chinensis and R.
moschata (hybrid of China rose and
musk roses). Climbing in nature.
Eg: Lamarque, Marechal Niel.
18) Rugosas: (R. rugosa):Very hardy type, which do
well
on
the
seashore.Very
vigorous
and
resistant
to
cold.Good for hedge, because of its
highly thorny nature, bears large,
red or white flowers. Eg: Blanc
Double de Coubert.
19) Austrian briars: (R. foetida/ R. lutea): Considered
to be the main source of yellows in
the modern rose. Eg: Austrian
copper (R. foetida bicolor), Persian
yellow is introduced by Babar (R.
foetide persiana)
LECTURE-5
CULTIVATION:
In Temperate countries, the most important
period of flowering is summer.
In Tropical climate winter and spring, whereas,
In Subtropical climate round the year
SOIL:
Although any soil is good for rose cultivation.
However, for proper drainage, the medium
loamy soil with sufficient organic matter is
essential.
It grows well in a soil with a pH of 6.0 to 7.5. It
can sustain little acidity (5.5 to 6.5), good
aeration;
The land with high water table is not suitable.

15) Albas: Along with the Gallicas and the Damasks,


the Albas constitute the truly old
garden roses, originated from cross
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increase the growth of the plant as well as


quality flower production.

CLIMATE:
The most important factors are light
(photoperiod,
intensity
and
quality),
temperature (aerial and root zone), humidity,
CO2, ventilation, etc.

o It also helps in increasing the stem length and


reduces the incidence of flower abortion.
CULTIVARS:

LIGHT INTENSITY:

The beauty of roses seems to have no


limit, no end and that is the reason
that, the search for a more beautiful
rose will always continues.
Every year many new cultivars are
added and marketed all over the
world.
The success of rose culture greatly
depends upon the proper choice of
class and cultivars.
At present there are more than 20,000
cultivars of roses, differing widely in
form, shape, size, colour, fragrance
and flowering habit.

o 6000-8000 ft candles or 6-8 K is good for roses


and it was observed that, during winter season
flower colour is better than any other season.
o During summer flower colour fades.
o In general rose requires bright sunshine for the
whole day. It should be free from shades of
trees and protected from the strong winds.
TEMPERATURE:
o It is another imported factor regulating growth
and flowering of roses.
o It affects both quality and quantity of flowers.
o Mild temperature is very important about
15.5oC is ideal for its cultivation because of this
reason in winter we get good crop.
o On sunny days 25-30oC. Whereas on cloudy
day it must be 18-20oC.
o However a maximum of 28oC in day and 1518oC in the night will be ideal for rose
production.

SELECTION OF ROSE CULTIVARS: Depends on the


purposes of growing, viz
i. Garden display
ii. Cut flower, for decoration,
sale and export for making
garlands and worshipping.
iii. Exhibition purposes.
1.

HUMIDITY:
o RH is very important with respect to pests and
disease incidence especially mildews and
black spot as they are closely associated with
high RH in greenhouses as the high humidity
results in condensation of water on flowers
and leaves.
o About 60% RH is the most ideal for rose
production.
AERATION/VENTILATION:
o An exchange of air in greenhouse is desirable
for normal growth and development of roses.
o Air circulation ensures an adequate supply of
CO2 and O2 for physiological process
occurring in the plants and also reduces the
RH.
CARBON DIOXIDE:
o In western countries an additional 1000-3000
ppm of CO2 are ejected into the greenhouse to

2.

Garden display:
The first step in the selection of rose
cultivation for this purpose will be the
kind of roses, which will suit the
location and fulfill the object.
Form, size, shape, floriferous-ness, color
and fragrance have to be taken into
consideration.
Cultivars should be resistant to insect
pests and diseases.
Cut flowers:
The HT cultivars producing beautiful
shaped blooms of long lasting quality,
Born singly on long straight stalks.
The cultivars which open slowly and the
blooms last for a longer period when
placed in water are suitable for export
purpose. Eg. Cultivars like Passion,
First Red, Sonia Milland, Mercedes,
Red Success, Miracle, Orange Gate,

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Prophyta, Nobless, Somantha etc., are


in great demand.
3.

Exhibition: For this purpose certain specific


qualities are essential.
In Rose show under different classes are
required. The most important sections are as
follows
a. H.T. specimen bloom
b. Floribundas
c. Polyanthas
d. Miniature /button roses.
e. Fragrant roses
f. Climbers
a.

a. Stem cuttings:

Easiest and least expensive method. Each shoot


should be cut clean just below the node and lower
leaves are removed.

Cuttings may be single, double or triple-eyed


bellow for rooting.

b. Budding: is the most popular and successful


method for multiplying roses.
Provides larger number
cuttings, layering or
single shoot of the
furnishes a number
budding.

H. T. Specimen bloom:

Rooted cuttings of stock or seedlings


with roots are used as in grafting.

These are major attractions in a rose


show.

T-budding, inverted T and slit method


(I).

Specimen blooms are the top quality


blooms of large sized, high centered
having sufficient number of petals
which are arranged symmetrically in
an attractive outline, forming a high
circle 3-6 flowers are arranged in
specimen section.

Shield or T-budding is commercially


practiced.
On the selected rootstocks, the buds are
inserted into a T-shaped incision and
then tied with suitable wrapping
material or polyethylene sheets /tape,
adhesive tape, binding rubber strip.

b. Floribundas:
In this section the main considerations is
the floriferousness and quality of the
spray.

Time of budding:

The time of budding varies from place to place.

The floribundas are judged on the basis


of inflorescence.

The arrangement of flowers and number


of symmetrical and well balanced
spray.

The right stage of budding is when the plants


have good sap flow and the cambium tissue is
highly active.

The best times for budding in different regions


are as follows.

They are called Spray roses.


c.

of plants than
grafting, as a
desired scion
of buds for

In eastern India January-March due to


the ideal temperature in spring
season.

Northern India December-February.

Polyanthas: They are mostly miniature like


but single petals.

PROPAGATION OF ROSES:
Methods:
Seed
propagation
propagation:

and

vegetative

In places with mild climate, all the year round,


like in Bangalore, Pune, Dharwad etc. budding
can be done almost any time.

Bud woods can be stored at 0oC and utilized for


budding.

Should be preferably done 5-7cm above the


ground.

It takes 3-4 weeks for bud union. The ideal


temperature is 10-25oC.

Vegetative propagation:
1. Cutting:

Propagation of roses by cuttings normally done to


raise root stocks for grafting or budding.

Also for multiplying vigorous types of cultivars.

Climbers, ramblers, polyanthus and miniature


roses respond quite well to this method.

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24

Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

PREPARATION OF ROSE BEDS

ROOT STOCKS:
Characteristics/ qualities of good root stock:
It should produce strong fibrous root system.
It can be easily propagated by cuttings.
It should have vigorous growth habit, healthy
and resistant to pests, disease and frost.

Preparation of soil is the key of success with


roses.

It should be rich, porous and well drained.

The initial preparation of rose beds should


preferably be started during summer season
so that the soil gets exposed to hot sun and air
and during the monsoon it gets a chance to
settle down before planting.

Grasses any perennial weeds should be


removed along with their roots, knots,
rhizomes, etc. by deep digging.

The soil should be pulverized; gravels, stones,


brick pieces and other foreign materials
removed and exposed to sun for at least a
week.

Land should be thoroughly prepared.

Pits or trenches are to be made and basal


dusting with Malathian has to be done. The
pit / trench should be filled with soil and FYM
mixture (2:1).

In Trench system, trenches of about 2.5 feet


width and between trenches 2-3 feet with any
convenient length with 1 1.5 feet depth.

Plant should have uniform growth rate.


It should have thick bark to hold the bud.
It should be reasonably free from suckers.
It should support the budded plant to survive
for a long tissue.
It should withstand a wide range of soils and
climatic conditions.
COMMON ROOT STOCKS:
1.

Rosa bourboniana (Edourad rose)


Popular in
northern plains of India.They have straight
and
Long stem.
2. R. canina inermis (Dog rose)
:
popularly
used in Europe and India, very hardy and is
an
excellent rootstock.
3. R. indica var.odorata
:
Tolerent
to
powdery mildew & other insects. Resistance
to extreme soil
conditions.
4. R multiflora var. Inermis good for outdoor roses.
Resistant to nematodes.
LAYOUT OF BEDS:
The plan of rose garden and design of
the beds should be simple and formal
or informal.
Rose beds may be of various designs,
depending upon the preference of the
grower.
However
rectangular
beds
advantageous for maintenance.

are

The width of the bed should be such


that operations like weeding, hoeing
forking, cutting of flowers, etc. can be
done from both the sides of the bed
without stepping in the bed.
The width should be 1.2-1.6 m and the
length depends on the size of the
garden, preferably not exceeding 6m
each.

PLANTING :
There are two types of planting systems are commonly
followed in rose production, viz,
1. Pit system: 45 cm3(Length x Breadth x Depth)
2. Trench system:

60 75 cm (2-2 ft) Wide

30-45 cm (1- ft) Depth

Any length depending upon availability.

60-90 cm (2-3 ft path) between the


trenches.
SPACING: It varies from types of roses, soil to soil
and place to place and purpose of planting.
Protected cultivation
Outdoor cultivation
60x30 cm.
75x75 cm for Hybrids
30x20 cm.
60x60cm for others
30x30 cm.
However, from the management point of view 60 x 60
cm is ideal for outdoor cultivation.
PLANTING: This operation should receive very
careful attention and to do this job
well there are few operations / steps

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25

Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

have to be attended for preparation


of planting materials.

IRRIGATION:

1.

Remove all immature, dead, inward


growing or diseased shoots.

Adequate soil moisture is very much essential


throughout the vegetative and flowering
stages of roses,

2.

Remove all the suckers growing below


the point of bud union.

Water logging condition is not good for rose


cultivation.

3.

Reduce the possibility of loss of


moisture by removing some leaves
including dried and yellow ones.

4.

If the rose plants are procured with


shriveled bark, immerse the plants in
water for 24 hours to plump up.

The frequency of irrigation depends on


Stage of crop growth
Soil texture/ type of media
Climate and
Type of production-field or pot culture.

5.

Before planting the plants should be


immersed in 0.1 % Blitox solution (i.e.
1.0 g In 1 liter of water) to lessen the
risk of attack of fungi.

Normally the lighter soil requires


frequent irrigation than heavy soils.

more

In general water the rose beds once in a week


or 10 days in winter and twice a week during
the summer season.

6.

Planting should be done in thoroughly


prepared beds or trenches or pits.

Different system of irrigation is prevalent in


various parts of the world.

7.

At the time of planting the soil should


not be too wet or too dry.

Drip irrigation is deal for roses.

8.

The plant should be planted at a proper


depth by keeping the bud union 2.5
5.0 cm above the soil level.

9.

The gap in the hole is to be filled with


the soil which was dugout and
pressed properly to anchor the plant
firmly.

10.

Then the soil around the stem should be


rammed firmly by treading over with
feet. This will press out air pockets in
the soil which will help the roots
coming in contact with the soil
particle and intake of water and
nutrients through the rootlets.

11.

The beds after planting thoroughly have


to be irrigated immediately.

12.

The best planting time depends mainly


on the climatic conditions of the
region.
In countries with severe
winter, planting may be done either in
autumn (or) in the spring when plants
are in dormant condition and easy to
handle.

High concentration of salt in water is harmful


to the rose plant which results in chlorosis; tip
burning and reduction in flower yield and
stem length.
MANURES AND FERTILIZERS:
Rose is a nutrient loving plant and all 16
essential nutrients are known to play an
important role for its proper growth and
development.
In addition to major nutrients like N, P2O5, K2O,
Ca, Mg & S and micronutrients like Fe, Mn,
Cu, B, Mo, Zn, etc.
The dosage of nutrients varies from soil types
and climate as well.
Basic manuring with bulky organic matter has
to be done before planting.
After establishment as well as immediately
after pruning both organic and inorganic
manures have to be applied.
Supplementary manuring should be done after
the first flush of blooming is over and there is
a pause for the next flush.

13.

The best season is rainy & winter for


better establishment (June October)

14.

Immediately after planting stake the


plants.

The recommended fertilizers dose for rose is 10:


10: 15 g of NPK / plant after each pruning.

It was reported that monthly application is


better for healthy growth and flowering.

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26

Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

Along with this 100 g of rose mixture


(complex) has to be given. Normally twice a
year i.e. after each pruning.

o The weeds not only consume water and


nutrients but also act as hosts for a
number of diseases and pests.

First dose
15 days after pruning
(when the new growth has started)

o Manual method is effective, if it is done


properly and frequently.

Second dose After the first flush is


over.
Third dose After second flush is
over, before the spring blooming.
FYM
05-10 kg / bush
The fertilizers should be applied 20 25
cm away from the stem.
Liquid fertilizers
Are also been practices through fertilizers for
spray hardening the limp stem and getting
good blooms for exhibition purpose.
Dissolve Potassium nitrate @ 680 g, ammonium
sulphate @ 340 g and potassium phosphate @
170 g in 96 gallon of water & applied @ 0.5
gallon / plant .
Micronutrients like Rose mixture / multiplex,
etc. are given through foliar spray
o 7.09 g Potassium sulphate
o 14.17 g Ammonium sulphate
o 28.35 g Potassium nitrate in 3.79 litres of
water and may be applied @ 1.36 ml / liter
of water.

o However,
chemical
method
is
economical, convenient and efficient
in eradicating weeds by one or two
applications.
Eg: 2, 4-D @ 2 kg 1600 liter per hectare
(before flowering) controls broad
leaved weeds.
Nitrofan @ 9 lb a.i. / acre
PRUNING:
Pruning refers to the removal of certain portion
of the plant.
It is an important operation for maintenance of
floriferousness and
To improve the quality of flowers along with
vigor of roses.
The pruning consists of two operations:
1) Thinning: Thinning comprises removal of old,
weak, dry, twiggy and diseased stems and
branches from the point of start.
2) Shortening: Means shortening of the remaining
shoots, aims to cutting down the last years
growth to a desirable height.

MULCHING:
Mulches are used for a number of purposes on
rose beds or in green houses.They conserve;
Soil moisture
Supply humus
Suppress the weeds

Keep the soil somewhat cooler in


summer months
Results in improvement of growth
and flowering of roses.
For mulching well decomposed
garden compost, FYM, peat straw,
saw dust, ground or whole corn cobs,
Black polythene sheets (0-18 mm
thickness).

WEED CONTROL:
o Weeds pose very serious problems in
rose cultivation.

OBJECTIVES OF PRUNING:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.

viii.

To remove the unproductive growth, because


rose plant bears flowers on a new shoot.
To ensure production of large number of
strong and healthy shoots.
To improve the flower production with
quality.
Pruning will force the eye bud to produce the
strongest shoot.
It keeps the rose bush in proper shape and
size.
To allow light and air to reach the centre of the
rose bush.
To facilitate various cultural operations like
hoeing, weeding, soil scraping, sterilization,
manuring so also harvesting the long and
straight stems.
To rejuvenate the old plants. Cut off the old
plants from the base to get strong shoots.

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

TIME OF PRUNING:
The purpose of pruning will not serve, if it is
done at the wrong time.
Sufficient time must be allowed for the new
shoots to mature and flower.
Late pruning delays flowering as well as reduce
the production considerably.
The best time for pruning in rose is the period
when the activity of the rose plant is least and
the plant is at dormant to near dormant stage.
Pruning time will depends entirely on the
climate condition of the region.
In temperate climate it is normally done in
spring.
Over a large area in India (Indo-Gangetic
plains) pruning is done only once in a year.
The most usual time for pruning is during
October-November after rains are well over
and the cold season is approaching.
The staggering of pruning at weekly interval
from September end to October end will
provide a regular supply of flowers
throughout the winter.
In some regions pruning is practiced twice a
year, i.e. in May and October for monsoon and
winter flowering, respectively.
WHERE AND HOW TO PRUNE?
Every rose stems has eyes (buds) alternating on
opposite sides in the leaf axils (usually
outward and inward).
The basic rule in pruning is always to make the
cut about half a centimeter above a vigorous
bud that finds in the direction one desires the
new shoot to grow.
Since the rose bush has to be kept open in the
centre.
The cut is made at an outward growing bud in
standard roses as well as in floribundas.
Where as in climbing roses the pruning is done
at a bud pointing more or less upward.

Always encourage outward bud to expose the


center open.

Whichever the bud is selected the cut should be


slightly slant. As the horizontal cut retains
moisture / sap and therefore, is liable to cause
fungal growth,

While making the cut care should be taken not


to make it too high above the eye (bud) as
there may be chance of die back of shoot.
On the other hand if the cut is very nearer to
the bud, it may die due to want of sap flow.
So cut one inch above the bud.
It is absolutely necessary to cut the sharp end
clean because the broken tissues, bruises or
hanging shreds of bark will invite for
infestation of pests & diseases.
All the cut ends should be pasted with cane
sealer (copper fungicide) against the attack of
fungus and cane boring insects.
Within a fortnight after pruning new flush of
growth will start and within 45 days of
pruning new flowers are ready for harvesting.
TYPES OF PRUNING:
The intensity of pruning markedly influences
the growth and flowering of roses depending upon the
extent and level of shortening. There are three types of
pruning practiced in rose viz.
1. Light pruning :
2. Moderate pruning :
3. Hard pruning :
1. Light pruning:
Dried and dead branches are trimmed
off.
Cut either at the 2nd or 3rd eye bud
immediately below the flower bearing
stalk.
Removing of tips upto 2-3 buds and is
practiced in standard roses, climbers
and ramblers.
2. Moderate pruning:
Healthy shoots are pruned back to 4560cm from the base.
Commonly practiced in floribundas and
HT roses.
3. Hard pruning:
Here keeping only three or four shoots
of the last year growth and heading
back at about three or four eyes from
the base.
Practiced for rejuvenation of old bushes
and weak plants
Pruning is done by leaving 10-30cm
from the bud joint.

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

6.

LECTURE- 6
SPECIAL CULTURAL PRACTICES TO IMPROVE
THE QUALITY OF ROSES:
1.

5.

7.

The operation of removal of


suckers from root stock i.e. the
shoots produced below the bud
union on rootstocks is called desuckering.

Pinching:

Removal of a part of terminal


growing portion of stem is called
pinching.

It is done to reduce the plant


height and to promote auxiliary
branching.

4.

Removal of the undesirable


growth like inward growth, weak
stems, blind shoots, crowded
growth.

De-suckering:

3.

Under special conditions it is


followed, but it has reported that
removal of leaves from rose plants
will increase number of blind
shoots,

It will force the plants to produce


growth and flowering during
desired period.

Thinning:

2.

Defoliation:

Pinching of blind shoot is


beneficial to increase flowering.

8.

Use of growth substances:

To some extent some growth


regulators like GA3 and retardants
like CCC are used to get more
number of flowers with good
quality.

GA3 @ 250ppm has been found to


increase the stalk length, flower
size and reduce number of blind
shoots.

Removal of faded flowers:

If the opened blooms are not


removed intime, there is chance of
developing fruits bearing seeds.

Once the hips are formed and


reach the advanced stage of
development,
growth
and
flowering are severally reduced
during the season;

Cutting of faded flowers will force


to produce strong lateral shoots
which will produce good quality
flowers.

Disbudding:

Removal of undesirable buds is


known as disbudding.

Keeping only the central bud and


removal
of
others
cause
development of a quality bloom.

It is done in standard/HT roses to


reduce number of flowers.

Removal of young vegetative shoots:

This practice is also known as deshooting. It is generally followed


in HT roses.
Young
vegetative
shoots
developing from the axils of
leaves of basal and lateral shoots
are removed to allow only one
terminal shoots.
It is important from the point of
stalk length.

HARVESTING:
The stage at which flowers should be cut, either
for decoration or for cut flower dispatch is the
tight bud stage.
When the bud shows full color but the petals
have not yet started unfolding.
Harvesting at this stage will help the flower to
last longer in vases or during transportation
for better retention of colour and freshness.
The optimum stage may varying slightly
depending on cultivar and one has to
experience to judge the right stage for cutting.
Because a flower bud of a red cultivar when cut
at a little early stage may fail to open later.

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

Most pink and red cultivars should be allowed


to develop a stage where one of the two outer
petals begins to unfurl at the upper point.
Loose flowers used for preparing perfumes and
various other products also for worshipping
are harvested only when they are fully
opened.
TIME OF HARVESTING:
The flowers should be cut before sunrise i.e.
early morning or late in the afternoon when
the sun is about to set so as to avoid damage
of buds due to high temperature during the
day.
Late harvest result in short vase life of cut
flower and low oil content.
In greenhouses for every two hours flowers can
be harvested. The stem cut should always be
given above a healthy outward pointing bud
with clean and sharp secateurs.
It has to be cut above two five leaflet leaves.
The cutting of the stem just above the
Knuckle (i.e., the point at which the shoot
originate is called Knuckle) significantly
reduces the flower yield per plant compared
to the cutting made above the 1st or 2nd five
leaflet leaf stage.
POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY:
Immediately after cutting the stem should be
dipped in clean water upto the neck or base of
the flower bud. The delay in keeping the cut
flowers in water will leads to air entry and
results in vascular blockage.
1. Pre-cooling:
In a cold storage at the temperature of
4.4 to 7.2oC the flowers have to be kept
immediately after harvesting to
remove latent heat which enhances
the keeping quality of flowers
Then they have to be dispatched to
market with maintaining cold chain
It should be transported to Airport by
Refrigerated Van and store them in
cold storage at airport and directly
shifted to refrigerated cargo frights.

Usually pre-cooling is done for 6-8


hours in winter and 8-12 hours in
summer.
2. Pulsing:
Treating of cut flowers with 2-4%
sucrose solution for 3-4 hours. This
intern makes the cut flower very
hardy and turgid to improve the
quality of cut flowers, also have lees
neck bending.
3. Grades:
The flowers which are in uniform stem
length and developing flower buds
should be grouped together at the
time of cutting and kept them in
separate container.
For easy handling the basal foliage and
thorns may be removed up to 20 cm at
the time of cutting of the flowers.
It is necessary to dispatch the flowers
within 24-30 hours after harvesting.
4. Packing:
The graded cut blooms have to be
packed in corrugated cardboard boxes
(CCB).
The size of the boxes varies with the
quality and quantity of roses to be
packed.
A box of 100cm length x 32.5cm width
and 6.5cm height will accommodate
80 roses of 65-70cm long stem.
The inside area of the box is lined with
thin polythene film and very fine
newspaper. Moist tissue papers are
spread out end to end of the box to
provide a cushion to blooms.
The blooms are generally packed in
bundles of 20 each and bundles are
tied with string or rubber band
The upper portion of the each bundle
having flower buds and are wrapped
in a corrugated paper which is fixed
with an adhesive tape or rubber sheet.
The labeling of cultivars is made on the
paper. The lower half of the bundle is
wrapped with tissue paper.

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

Two bundles are placed opposite to one


another all along the length of the
boxes in such a way that their flower
buds will face the side of the box and
their stem end towards the center of
the boxes and at the sides there will be
cushioning have to be provided.
After this the stem ends of two bundles
on either side are secured firmly with
a wooden stick fixed along the width
of the box.
This wooden stick is placed over a strip
of foam rubber to avoid damage of
stem.
The inside of the box is finally covered
with a sheet of tissue paper before
putting the cover of the box.
Labeling is done with all details includes
cultivars, colour, stem length, number
of flower/bundle, total quantity of
flowers in a box and the firm etc.
All along the outer edges of the boxes
either adhesive tapes or plastic tying
strips with tying machine
YIELD:

The final box will weighs about 5-6 kg.


The yield depends as several factors
viz., cultivars, plant density/unit area,
flowering duration, pruning method,
nutrition, other cultural operations
adopted from time to time.
On an overage the outdoor rose
cultivation produces about 60-80
flowers/m2/year
Plant density has much influence on
total yield. Normally closure spacing
yields more number of flowers than
wider spacing.

INTERNATIONAL QUALITY STANDARDS OF


ROSE CUT FLOWERS:

Uniform stem length

Tight bud and open slowly

Size of
the flower should
representative of the cultivars

Flower Should be free from blemishes,


bruising, injuries from diseases and
pests

Flower should have more number of


petals arranged capacity

be

Vase life:
Senescence in cut roses is characterized by
decrease in concentration of anthocyanin,
protein and tannic acid and an increase in
most amino acids, glutamine, Maleic acid and
free ammonia in the petal tissue.
The advances in senescence are due to increase
in ethylene production and membrane
permeability.
Pre-cooled and pulsed flowers stored better in
general. However some of the preservatives
like 8HQC @ 300ppm, 8HQS @ 150pm, AgNO3
@20-30ppm, citric acid @ 200ppm have been
found to be good for prolonging the vase life
of cut roses.
PESTS & DISEASES OF ROSES:
PESTS

: White Flies, Red Scales, Aphids, Thrips,


Chafer Beetles, Red Spider Mites, Mealy
Bugs White Flies, Jassids (Leaf Hoppers),
Digger Wasps, Nematodes (Root knot &
lesion nematodes) etc. and diseases like,

DISEASE

: Die back (Diplodia rosarum +


Collectotrichum sp), Powdery mildew:
(Sphaerotheca pannosa var. Rose), Black
spot: (Diplocarpon rosae), Leaf spot
(Alternaria alternata) ,Stem blight,Botrytis
blight (Botrytis cineria),Root fungus
(Trichoderma viridae), Rose wilt and Rose
mosaic virus.
@@@@@

General requirements

Straight, strong stem capable of


holding the flowers in upright
position.

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

LECTURE- 6b:
PROTECTED CULTIVATION OF ROSES

The distance between the plants in one


row varies around 15-20 cm.
Accommodates 7 to 8 plants per metre
square (Depending upon cultivar and
cultivation system).

TYPES OF GREENHOUSE REQUIRED:


Under mild climatic conditions (Bangalore and
Pune) roses can be successfully cultivated
under Naturally Ventilated Polyhouses.
However, under warm and high temperatures
(Hyderabad and Delhi) it needs forced
ventilation system (Cool-Cell Pad) to get
quality flowers.
IMPORTANT VARIETIES:
First Red
Lambada
Ambassidor
Noblesse
Sasha
Papillon
Grand Gala Skyline
Polo
Confetti
Ravel
Lovely Red
Osiana
Golden gate Tunike
CULTIVATION PRACTICES:
BED SIZE:
1-1.6 m wide; 30-40m long and 15-20cm/ 3040cm height
0.5-0.75m between two beds.
SPACING:

MEDIA:

30-40cm between rows; 14-18cm or 1520cm between plants,


6-9 plants/m2, However, 7 plants/m2 is
optimum,

GROWTH REGULATION:
Primary bending
:
o Have to be takenup 5-6 weeks after planting to
build a strong frame work.
Secondary bending :
o 4-5 weeks after first bending to get more
number of strong shoots.
Gradual pruning
:
Harvesting of flower shoot will take care of this
operation.
MANURING:

Depends on variety, type of medium used,


growth stage, irrigation system etc.

Well decomposed FYM have to


incorporated into the bed @ 100 t/ha.

Nutrient composition of rose plant based


on leaf analysis is 3.0 per cent N, 0.2 per
cent P, 1.8 per cent K, 1.0 per cent Ca and
0.25 per cent Mg.

Nutrient requirement @ 1:0.2:1.2:0.3 NPK


& Mg

Fertigation requirement 170ppm N,


34ppm P, 160ppm K, 120ppm Mg per
every watering.

Both soil and soil-less substrates


(rockwool, peat, sphagnum moss,
vermiculites, perlite, leaf mould, Coco
peat, rice husk, etc.,)
pH 5.5-6.8
30-40cm deep well drained, porous, rich
in organic content.
Pasteurize with steam at 70-100oC for 30
minutes or use methyl Bromide @ 2530g/ M2/ 10ml/cuft for 24-48 hr or
Formalin @ 7.5-10.0 l /100 M2 or
Basamid (Dazomet) @ 30-40g/ M2

IRRIGATION:

PLANTING:
6-18 months old budded plants may be
planted during May-June.
The soil should be loose and humid but
not too wet nor muddy.
Planting may be in 2-row system.
Per compartment of 6.40 metre 6 rows
of plants can be planned.

be

The first week watering has to be done


with sprinklers or hose pipe 5-8 times
a day.
3-4 weeks after planting drip irrigation
may be employed for uniform
watering.
Each plant has to be watered @ 0.75 -1.0
liter/plant/day.
DRIP IRRIGATION.
drip
irrigation
system
is
recommended; as each plant receives
the equal amount of water.

By supplying the water directly on the


potting mix, the plant itself does not
become wet (so preventing diseases).

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

The dripper line of the irrigation system are


placed on the ground between the two rows,
this prevent the dripper line becoming empty
and keep the water temperature low and the
dripper line out the reach of direct sunlight.
A capacity of 2 liters per hour is preferred as
the chance of congestion is smaller.
By using a drip system, a wet (water) column is
created through which the roots grow.
Place the drippers by planting in the jiffy pot,
after 2-3 weeks when the roots are growing out
of the jiffy pot into the potting soil replace them
approximately 1 - 5 cm from the jiffy pot.
CROP MAINTENANCE AFTER PLANTING:

BASAL SHOOTS.
Depending upon the growth and potentiality of
a cultivar the number of basal shoots are
formed.
Per plant 2 to 3 well-formed shoots are allowed
to continue growing, if more shoots were
formed it is recommended for bending out of
these shoots.
This way a plant has got the use of more active
leaf canopy to supply enough energy for
development of a heavy crop with first quality
flowers.
SPECIAL OPERATION:
1.

BENDING IN ROSES:
After planting, shoots will develop quickly.
Only after the flower bud becomes clearly
visible the shoots are bend-out towards the path
and the flowers are removed, this process is
known as bending.
Since the plants grow about 40 cm above the
ground, it is possible to bend down the stems
deeply.
Be careful not to break the shoots, the plant
should remain capable of transporting sugars
from these areas to the new developing shoots.

Bud Capping: The flower buds are


inserted with nylon a cap which helps for
increasing bud size, avoids damage in
transportation
and
maintains
the
microclimate in package.

HARVESTING AND YIELD:


Yield starts 4-5 months after planting.
Harvest the flower buds at tight bud stage for
longer distance.
Stem length vary from 40-90cm.

At harvest it often was practice to cut back to


the first 5-leaf stage.

Hence, it is recommended for cutting back to


just above the original cutting.

The flower buds on these bend-out shoots have


to be removed. This system allows the leaves to
continue their production of energy.

The length of the remaining stem decides the


number of shoots (flower stems) which will
grow back.

When the dominating primary shoots (apical


dominance) is removed, causing the plant to
respond by developing more basal buds.

If too much (4-6 cm) stem is left, many shoots


are formed of a poor quality. Therefore it is
advised to cut back to 1 cm.

After 1 to 1.5 year the rose bush is cut back to


approximately 10 cm above the original
cutting, so creating a new top. Now again
only 1-cm stem is left after harvest.

The shoots should be bending down so the


grafting place or, if a cutting is used, the old top
of the cutting will become the top of the plant.

In the plant hormonal changes take place, which


promote
shoot
development
(balance
cytokinins/ auxins).
After cutting or bending out results in an
increased cytokine level, causing buds to break.
The shoots formed are producing auxins, so
restoring the hormonal balance in the plant.

Flower yield ranges from 100-150 stems, 200225 and 250-350 stems per m2 in large hybrid
tea, medium types and small and sprays,
respectively.
@@@@@@

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

LECTURE - 7
CHRYSANTHEMUM (Asteraceae)
(Chrysanthemum morifolium /Dendranthema
grandiflora)

INTRODUCTION:
Chrysanthemum is a popular commercial
flower crop of the many countries.
It is next only to rose in value of flower trade in
the world market.
The word Chrysos means golden and anthos
means flower.
It is commonly known as Queen of East/
autumn queen/ guldaudi.
Japanese National Flower.
ORIGIN:

Native to Europe and Asia

It originated in Europe and Asia (China).

Species involved in the development are


C. sinense, C. indicum, C.japonicum, C.
ornatum.

Tall growing type suitable


background planting in borders.

Dwarf growing for flower beds and


pot culture (pot mums)

Loose flowers
worship etc.

Long stem flowers cut flowers for


Bouquet, Vase etc.

Chrysanthemum morifolium is also an


important source of essential oil and
sesquiterpenoid alcohol.

The species like Chrysanthemum


cinerariifolium and C. coccineum are
also being cultivated as sources of
pyrethrum
and
an
important
insecticide.

Chrysanthemums are the most popular


cut flower sold in the United States.

The chrysanthemum is one of the most


beautiful and perhaps the oldest
flowering plants, commercially grown
in different parts of the world.

It is important both as cut flower and as


potted plant in the international
market.

In

IMPORTANCE AND USES

In India too, chrysanthemum occupies


a place of pride both as a commercial
crop and as a popular exhibition
flower.

It has a wide range of type, size and


colour and also forms.

Short day plant Photo sensitive (10


hours day light)

The erect and tall growing cultivars


are suitable for background planting
in borders or for cut flowers.
The cultivars with the dwarf and
compact growing habit, on the other
hand, are suitable for front row
plantation or pot culture.

The decorative and fluffy bloomed


small-flowered cultivars are ideal for
garland making and hair decoration.

The extra large-bloomed cultivars for


their exhibition value.

garland,

for

veni,

Dutch
cut
flower
auction,
chrysanthemum ranks 2nd after rose.

CLASSIFICATION

The species of the genus Chrysanthemum are


annual, perennial herbs, sometimes partly
woody.

The genus Chrysanthemum belongs to the


family Compositae / Asteraceae.

Class 1. Single

Ray florets in a single row at right angles to


the stem.

Disc is flat to slightly round and may be of


contrasting colours, e.g., Potomac.
Class 2. Semi-double
Ray florets in more than one row at right angles to
the stem but may curve downward at the tips.
Disc as in class 1.

Class 3. Anemone

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Ray florets variable, from flattened, broad and


equal in length to reflexing, pointed at tip and
unequal in length.

Disc florets are numerous tube-like and elongated


so as to form a prominent disc which may range
from flat to hemispherical in form.

Class 4. Pompon

Bloom globular, somewhat flat in young stage or


small button type.
Ray florets broad, incurved, smooth and firm with
good substance.

Class 5. Incurve

Breadth and depth should be equal to produce a


globular bloom.

Ray florets narrow to broad, smooth and incurve


in a regular to an irregular manner without
producing an open centre, e.g., Snow Ball,
Mountaineer, Nob Hill.

An Irregular Incurve chrysanthemum, or


ogiku in Japanese, meaning "big chrysanthemum".
The size of this flower is around 20cm (about 8
inches).

Class 6. Reflexing incurve

Ray florets usually broad and smooth. Breadth


and depth nearly equal to form a globular bloom,
sometimes flattened, may be less compact than
incurve.
All mature florets not completely incurving and
not all completely reflexed.
The lower florets sometimes reflexing to give a
skirted effect, e.g., Dream Castle, Indianapolis.

Class 7. Decorative
Ray florets from short and broad to narrow, long
and pointed, they generally reflex, although upper
florets may tend to incurve.
Blooms more flattened than globular,
e.g., Otome Pink, Princess Anne.
Class 8. Reflex
Bloom globular with equal depth and breadth and
a full centre, or somewhat flattened.

Ray florets narrow to broad, gracefully


overlapping in either a regular or in an irregular
manner and reflexed.
e.g., Coronation Pink.
Based on the size, shape of flower, arrangements of
florets and purpose used, the chrysanthemums are
classified into several groups.
i) Small flowered types.
ii) Large flowered types
iii) Classification based on plant growth
iv) Based on usage.
I. SMALL FLOWERED
1.

Singles The petals are arranged in one


or not more than five rows with
prominent central disc.

2.

Anemones Prominent centrally raised


hemispherical cushiony disc florets
surrounded by short rounded or flat or
twisted or quilled ray florets. Ex. Golden
sands, White sands.

3.

Korean single Small flowers with a


prominent central disc, ray florets are flat,
number of whorls or ray florets are five
and less than five. Ex: Cardinal, Gul-eSahir, Chairman.

4.

Korean double The number of whorls of


ray florets are more than five and the
central disc is open.
Ex: Flirt, Man
Bhawan.

5.

Spoon The outer ray florets are tubular


with a spatula or spoon like opening at the
tips. Ex: Anokha.

6.

Decorative Fully double flowers with


flat petals and central disc is generally
absent or not seen, ray florets are longer.
Ex: Aretic, Elegance, Blue chip, Dolly.

7.

Quilled Small flowers, ray florets are


tubular. Ex: Golden crystal, Snow crystal.

8.

Button Very compact, small flowers,


produce numerous flowers. Ex: Golden
dust.

9.

Pompon The flowers small, freely


opened, compact, hemispherical or ball
shape, the central disc is concealed or
absent, florets neatly arranged.
Ex:
Apsara, Jayanthi, Lameo, Dandy, Eve.

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i) Disbudded inflorescence
ii) Spray inflorescence

Loose flowers

Potted/bed plants

II. LARGE FLOWERED TYPES


1.

2.

III.

Incurved regular The outer ray florets


curve upwards and inwards towards the
disc florets to forma globular shape. Ex:
Snow ball, Sonar Bangla, Chandrama.
Incurve irregular The outer ray florets
incurve loosely and irregularly and do not
from a ball as in case of regular.

3.

Refluxed The outer ray florets curved


outwards and downward away from the
centre so that only their upper surface is
seen.
Ex: Cresta, City Beauty, Golden
Rule, Day dream, Peach blossom, Sweet
Heart.

4.

Intermediate The inner florets incurved


and outer florets are refluxed, they are
intermediate in shape to incurved and
refluxed. Ex: John Reid, Lady Hope town.

5.

Spider The outer ray florets are large,


elongated, tubular and curved to form a
hook or coil like structure at the tip of the
petals.
Ex: Rupasi Bangla, Mahatma
Ganthi.

6.

Quill The outer ray florets are


elongated, straight and tubular like a quill
with tips open but not flattened.

7.

Exhibition - The outer florets are refluxed


and inner florets incurred, the ray florets
are
generally
twisted,
irregularly
overlapped each other and looks
attractive.

8.

Ball type Ray florets are straight and


radiated in all directions to give a
complete ball shape.
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON PLANT
GROWTH
1. Standards plants with single flower,
other buds are removed if arise from
the laterals and produce big flower.
2. Spray The main apex bud is removed
and lateral buds are allowed.

IV.

3. Pot mums Small flowered mums with


6-9 height are beautiful in decorating
the places.
BASED ON USAGE.
Cut flowers

SPECIES AND CULTIVARS

The number of species under the genus


Chrysanthemum varied from 100-200.

Some important species are: n=9 (2n=18 to 90)


1. Chrysanthemum boreale
:Abura
Giku
2. C. carinatum : Tricolor chrysanthemum
3. C.coronarium:Garland chrysanthemum
4. C.cinerariifolium:Dalmatian pyrethrum
5. C. rubellum sturdy species used for
breeding of hardy cultivars.
6. C. satsumense : Satsuma-nogiku
7. C. sinensis- One of the sourses of
todays florists mums.
8. C. sibiricum is one of the parents for
Korean hybrids.
9. C. coccineunm :Painted daisy
10. C. indicum : Chinese/ Japanese mums
11. C. morifolium : Florists chrysamthemum
C. morifolium
is a hybrid species
and is the result of repeated cycles of
inter-specific
crossing
among
elemental species extending over a
period of 2500 years.

Plants are perennial.


CULTIVARS
More than 15000 cultivars are listed in Japan
alone.
The National Chrysanthemum Society of
Britain lists over 6000 cultivars.
In India also more than 500 cultivars.
PROPAGATION
Chrysanthemum can be propagated
both by vegetative and sexual
methods.
Maintain the purity of cultivar seeds
are used to develop hybrids.
VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION
1. SUCKERS:

Suckers arise from the underground stem and


these are separated and planted in prepared
nursery beds during January for stock plants.

Regular pinching is performed in these plants


for vigorous and profuse branching.

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

Some of these stock plants are used for


preparation of cuttings.

The first pinching is performed in April,


followed by monthly pinching up to June.

After 3rd pinching in June, cuttings are taken


from these mother plants.

2. CUTTINGS
Terminal Cuttings:

Cuttings of 5-7 cm in length are taken


form healthy stock plants in June.

The cuttings are prepared removing


basal leaves and reducing the leaf area
of remaining leaves to half.

The basal portions (less than half inch)


of cuttings are dipped rooting
hormone (1000 ppm solution of IBA)
for better rooting.

Sometimes the lower portion of


cuttings is treated with some copper
fungicide to avoid fungal growth.

These rooted cuttings are ready for


planting in the field.

LAND PREPARATION:
Chrysanthemum requires well prepared soil
for proper growth and development.
The field should be ploughed 2 to3 times
before preparing the beds and leveled well.
A basal dose of well decomposed FYM should
be applied @ 5kg/meter square.
Addition of peat or organic matter improves
the soil structure & helps in the development
of the plant.
Proper soil sterilization with carbendazim
should be done before planting to avoid soil
borne diseases.
CLIMATIC REQUIREMENT

Light and temperature are the two


important
environmental
factors
influencing the growth and flowering.

As far as light is concerned, both


photoperiod and the intensity have
profound effects on growth and
flowering of chrysanthemum.

It is a short-day plant normally initiates


and flowers during September to
December under South Indian conditions.
Hence, planting during April-May is
recommended.

3. Micro propagation
4. Grafting
Among these, propagation through cutting is
the most common and popular method.

PLANTING DENSITY

The best plant


cuttings/m2.

For cv. Chandrama, a large flowered


cultivar, spacing of 30 x 30 cm.

The suckers or slips are planted at a


spacing of 30 x 20 cm on one side of
the ridges.

CULTIVATION:
SOIL REQUIREMENT

Chrysanthemum with a shallow but


fibrous root system is sensitive to waterlogging and prone to attack by diseases,
such as root rot and wilt due to lack of
aeration.

Clay and clay loam soils retain too much


of moisture and thereby hinder proper
aeration, resulting in rotting of roots.

Sandy soils drain too quickly and require


frequent irrigation and also suffer from
loss of nutrients due to leaching.

Sandy loam soils are


chrysanthemum growing.

pH ranging between 6.2 and 6.7

ideal

population was

32

PLANTING:

May-June planting resulted in well


developed plants with good flowers.

Cut flower production was the highest


from May plantings.

90,000 to 1, 10,000 suckers or slips


obtained from 15 cents of the previous
crops are required to plant one hectare.

Before planting, the roots of the suckers


or slips are dipped in wet Cerasan or
Agallol 0.1% to protect against wilt.

for

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The field has to be ploughed thrice


during March and beds or ridges and
furrows are formed.

AFTER CARE
IRRIGATION

Recommend doses for various centers


centers
Karnataka
Ludhiana

P
200
400

K
200
200

PINCHING

The plants need adequate water during


active vegetative growth when new leaves
are being formed.

Pinching is one of most important


operations in chrysanthemum culture.

Hence, chrysanthemum are to be irrigated


twice a week in the first two weeks and
subsequent by at weekly intervals.

The operation of removal of terminal


growing portion of stem pinching
reduces plant height and promotes
axillary branches.

Chrysanthemum roots are very sensitive


to water logging but tolerate water stress
appreciable.

Time and severity of pinching depend on


the type of chrysanthemum and the
desired objectives.

After planting, the growth is mostly


upward with very little branching.

Different systems of irrigation are


prevalent in various part of the world.

To arrest such tall growth, a simple


procedure called pinching is used. It is
also called stopping.

Only soft vegetative shoot tips 1.5 to 3 cm


long are removed.

Pinching is most essential for small


flowered chrysanthemum.

First pinching is done when the plants


reach a height of 15-20 cm with 3-4 pairs
of leaves.

A second pinching may be necessary if


the plants make straggly and lean
growth.

Pinching increases the number of


flowering stems in each plant; it can
indirectly control flowering date and
bloom quality; and the number of stems
to a plant can easily be controlled.

Two types of pinching are performed:

After the formation of flower buds no


further leaf is formed and less amount of
water is needed.

These include overhead mist spray lines.


Sprinkler and self-travelling sprayers.
MANURING AND FERTILIZATION

N
200
400

Chrysanthemum is a heavy feeder and


requires large amount of both Nitrogen and
Potassium.

Nitrogen is required at early stage and the


plants need P throughout the growth period.

As the buds appear, the proportion of K


should be increased and N should be reduced.

Chrysanthemums are heavy feeders and hence


they are to be adequately manured.

25 t of FYM along with 250,120, 25 kg


NPK/ha.

Half of the N and the entire quantity of P and


K are to be applied basal by just before
planting.

The other half of N is to be applied 30 days


after planting the suckers.

The same dose can be repeated if a ratoon crop


is raised and hoeing should be done once in a
month.

Micronutrient application
Coated fertilizers
Liquid feeding

(a)

Soft pinching: By this pinching


the top soft tips of the shoot
along with 2-3 open leaves
are removed;

(b) Hard pinching: It means removing


a longer portion upto hard
shoot.

Foliar feeding
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Single pinching is done, if two flowers are


desired, whereas double pinching is done
for four flowers.

In spray chrysanthemum numerous small


to medium sized flowers are produced,
therefore, two pinchings are required to
encourage lateral growth.

As a general rule rooted cuttings are


pinched two weeks after planting or
approximately 100 days before full bloom.

DISBUDDING AND DE-SHOOTING

These operations are mostly performed


for large flowering of decorative type
chrysanthemums.

Many of the standard type varieties are


disbudded in which the largest terminal
bud is reserved and all auxiliary buds are
removed.

Disbudding of spray varieties is very easy


because in this case only the large apical
bud is removed and the auxiliary buds
are allowed to develop

For taking three blooms per plant, three


lateral strong shoots are allowed to grow
and others are removed.

Lateral buds and side shoots are removed


at their early stage of growth from time to
time.

For taking one bloom per plant no


pinching is done.

Only the main stem is allowed to grow.

Removal of undesirable lateral buds and


shoots are done.

Dis-shooting is practiced to reduce the


number of branches for improving the
size and form of the flower.
DE-SUCKERING

During the vegetative growth phase,


plants grow upward.
New suckers continue to develop from
base of plants.
For proper and vigorous growth of
plants, suckers are removed from time to
time.
It is practiced to allow single stem to
develop up to a certain height.
Without de-suckering the main plant will
loose vigour and becomes weak.

STAKING OF PLANTS

Staking is necessary to keep plants erect


and to maintain proper shape of plants
and bloom.

Stakes are prepared mostly from bamboo


sticks.
WEED CONTROL:
Weeding and hoeing are generally done
manually as and when required, normally 810 times yearly.
GREEN HOUSE CULTIVATION
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
1. Light:

Chrysanthemum flowering is very much


influenced by the quantum and quality of
light. Most of the cultivars require shorter
days for flower bud initiation and
development. Under long days they tend
to remain vegetative.

2. Temperature: Based on temperature requirements


chrysanthemum cultivars are classified into
three.
i)

Thermo-zero cultivars which flower at any


temperature between 10-27oC but most
constantly at 16oC night temperature.

ii)

Thermo-positive cultivars in which continuous


low temperature between 10-13oC inhibit or
delay flower bud initiation and at 27oC there
will be rapid initiation but delayed flowering.

iii)

Thermo-negative cultivars in which bud


initiation occurs at low temperature delay bud
development.

The effect of night temperature is more


pronounced than day temperature and
night temperature of 16-20o C was found
optimum for most of the cultivars.

High temperature may cause floral


distortion and low temperature may
some time cause discoloration of the
flower.
3. Relative humidity: The chrysanthemum requires a
moderate humid condition of 70 to 90 per cent and
hence it should be preferably grown in places there
will not be any rains during flowering time.
GROWTH REGULATORS:
Crop growth regulation and flowering can be
modified or controlled by use of growth
regulators.

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Flower quality and yield can be improved by


the use of regulators.
The plant starts flowering from 3rd months
onwards. GA3 50 ppm can be sprayed at 30,
45 and 60 days after planting to increase the
yield.

PESTS AND DISEASES


Aphids, thrips, leaf miners and mites
are the common insects attacking
chrysanthemum.
DISEASES
Cercospora leaf spot, Alternaria leaf
spot, Fusarium stem rot and Powdery
mildew are the common diseases
attacking chrysanthemums.
HARVEST AND YIELD:

Decorative types are harvested when the


petals in the centre of the topmost flower
is almost fully developed.

In standards, harvesting is generally done


when outer ray florets ceases to further
develop.

Pot-mums are sent to the market with


half to fully opened flowers.

Spray mums are generally harvested at


the two thirds to three-fourths open
stage; standard mums at the three-fourths
to full open stage of development.

Yield start from 3-4 months after


planting.

Main crop duration 6 months.

Ratoon crop 4 months. Total duration


(6+4) 10 months.
YIELD
1. Main crop
: 9-10t/ha.
2. Ratoon crop : 4-5 t/ha.
3. Sprays- 1, 00,000 stems can be obtained from
one ha.
POSTHARVEST TECHNOLOGY
GRADING
Chrysanthemums are graded based on the stem
length, flower appearance, number of flowers,
stem straightness, colour and freshness of
flowers.
Standard chrysanthemum is graded into Blue,
Red, Green and Yellow, whereas spray types
are graded into Gold, Silver and Bronze based
on the quality parameters.
In Dutch market, spray chrysanthemums are
graded into extra grade and shorter grade.

The lower leaves are stripped off up to 15-20


cm and bundled in units of 5 stems and
secured with a rubber band.
PACKING
Most often standard chrysanthemum are
placed in sleeves and packed in display boxes
measuring 91 x 43 x 15cm.
They are placed in the boxes according to the
grades.
For
bulk
packing
of
the
spray
chrysanthemums, 10, 15 or 20 stems are placed
in sleeves according to the grades.
Six sleeves, three at each end, are generally
packed in each box, measuring 80 x 50 x 23cm.
STORAGE
Chrysanthemum cut flowers can be wrapped in
plastics and stored dry for 6 to 8 weeks at a
temperature of 0.5oC.
Temperature for truck shipments across the
country ranged between 2o and 4oC.
The stems in the buckets (after grading) are
given a cut using sharp blade and pre cooled
at 1C minimum of 2 hours before packing.
Chrysanthemum can be stored for 3-6 weeks
period at 0-3C.
VASE LIFE
The use of proper preservative solution
throughout the period of post-harvest handing
is very important to prolong the life of cut
flowers.
Dipping of the stem for a very short period (5
seconds) in 1200-4800 ppm silver nitrate or
soaking the stems in 1000 ppm silver nitrate
for 10 minutes.

Addition of 2 % sucrose to silver nitrate was


found beneficial.

It increased the vase-life from 12 days to 20


days.
EXPORT STANDARDS FOR CHRYSANTHEMUM:
Parameter
Standard
Spray
Dwarf
Stem Length 88-100 cm
75-88 cm
25-38 cm
Weight 30g/stem (90cm) 30g/stem (85 cm)
15g/stem(30 cm)
# of flowers Only 1 flower 10 flowers 10-12 flowers
With 5 buds
with 5-8 buds

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LECTURE- 8

Flowers also have medicinal properties.


Used as cardio tonic, diaphoretic and
alexiteric.

It is also used for perfume extraction in


France.

CARNATION
(Caryophyllaceae; Dianthus caryophyllus L.)
INTRODUCTION:
Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) belonging
to the family Caryophyllaceae.
It is one of the important cut flower crops in the
International flower market.
It is more preferred to other cut flowers due to
its
Large array of colours,
Excellent keeping quality,
Wide range of forms
Ability to with stand long distance of
transportation,
As well as remarkable ability to
rehydrate after continuous shipping.
Carnations in general are grown only under
protected cultivation of carnation.
It is commonly called as Carnation, Divine
flower, Clove pink, Gilly Flower.
IMPORTANCE AND USES

One of the top ten cut flower crops in the


International flower market.

Apart from cut flower it is being used for


bedding, pots, rock gardens, window boxes
and edging.

It gives a unique softness in the rock


gardens.

Popular in flower
decorating homes.

Cultivated in Italy, Spain, Colombia, Kenya,


Sri Lanka, Canary Islands, France, Holland,
Germany and USA.

They are in large demand in Valentines


Day, Easter and Mothers day and during
Christmas.

In India the major carnation producing


centers are located in and around
Bengaluru, Pune, Delhi, Trivandrum,
Andhra Pradesh and HP.

arrangements

for

ORIGIN AND HISTORY:


ETYMOLOGY:
Some scholars believe that the name
"Carnation" comes from "Coronation"
or "Corone" (flower garlands), as it
was one of the flowers used in Greek
ceremonial crowns.
Others say in Latin Carnation, from
Caro (genetive "Carnis") (flesh),
which refers to the original colour of
the flower, or incarnation, which
refers to the incarnation of God made
flesh.
ORIGIN:
Native of the Eurasia
It is native to the Mediterranean
region but its exact range is unknown
due to extensive cultivation for the
last 2000 years.
Dianthus in Greek dios, divine;
anthos, flower which means 'Flower
of Zeus' or Divine flower.
The cultivar William Sim produced
in 1938 by William Sim of USA.
From the red flowering William Sim
there have been mutations to all the
possible
colours
and
several
variegated forms.
SPECIES:
There are about 250 species of Dianthus of
which only a few are under commercial cultivation.
They are as follows,
Major species
D. caryophyllus
D. barbatus
D. chinensis

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EC of 1.2 at the start of the crop and


1.5 at the generative period is ideal.

Plants can be grown in a perlite / rock


wool mixture at 3:1 or 1:1.

Soil mixture : 50 % sand, 30% loam


and 20% clay

Media have to be sterilized with


methyl
bromide@
25-30g
/
formaldehyde @ 3-7% (7.5 to 10.0
l/100/sq.mt or Basamid (Dazomet)
@30-40g/m2

Bed size : 30 cm height ; 1.05 m wide ;


length varies as per the length of the
protected structure.

Spacing between beds : 30 cm

TYPES OF CARNATION
Perpetuals:

They are hybrids involving


many Dianthus species.
Plants are not hardy and
flower all round the year.
Flower stalks are long and
hence suitable for cut flowers.
They produce better quality
flowers and withstand long
transportation.
They are grouped into
standards or Sim and sprays.

1. Standard types:

Produces single large


blooms
with
longer
flower stalks.

2. Spray types:

The miniature or spray


type
produces
many
flowers of smaller size.

Better adapted to warm


climate than standard
types.

SOIL/GROWING
PREPARATION OF BEDS

MEDIA

AND

Soil should be ploughed upto 80-100 cm


deep.
Addition of calcium carbonate or
dolomite limestone to corrects severe
acid condition and also supplies
calcium and magnesium for plant
nutrition.
Addition of sulphur or use of acid
forming fertilizers will inturn reduces
the soil pH if it is on the higher side.
A rich sandy loam or loamy soil is
considered to be the most ideal for
successful production of carnation.

CLIMATE:
Light is the most important factor, which
influences growth of the plant. About 21.51
lux is considered to be the minimum natural
light intensity required for adequate
photosynthesis of carnations.
Mild climate with a temperature ranging from
5-180C is considered to be the ideal for the
crop.
Day temperature
: 28oC (20 -25 0C)
Night temperature
: 16-18oC (10 -15 0C)
Quantitative Long Day plant (long days
promote flowering)
Critical photoperiod
: 13 hours
and light intensity is10 15 foot candle.
Co2 enrichment in greenhouse: upto 500-1000
ppm improves the flower quality.
RH
:
50
-60
%;
(Beginning: 80-85%; at full growth: 6065 %)
High day & night temperature during
flowering leads to
Abnormal flower opening
Calyx splitting

The ideal soil pH is between 6.0 to 7.0


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PROPAGATION:

Carnation may be propagated by both


sexual and asexual methods.
VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION
CUTTING

Using soft terminal cuttings is the


common method of multiplication
used
by
commercial
growers
throughout the world.

Cuttings of 10-15 cm with 3-4 nodes


weighing around 10g are ideal for
multiplication.

Rooting hormone such as IBA at


500ppm is used prior to planting of
cuttings for rooting.

Terminal cuttings give rise to good


plants. Cuttings can be stored at 0oC
before planting for several weeks.

Cuttings are spaced at 5 cm apart and


intermittent misting should be used
for good rooting.

Cuttings normally develop good root


system within 21 days.

The rooting medium should be sterilized


before planting.

Drenching with fungicide is ideal to


control fungal problem during
rooting.
LAYERING
Layering is done in pots or directly in
the ground.
The layering generally roots earlier
than the cuttings.
Ground layering was found to be
most suitable method.
GRAFTING
65 to 70 % success
Union was completed in 15 days.
MICRO-PROPAGATION
Almost all parts of the plant may be
used as explants in carnation except
the root.

Vitrification in carnation
A problem will encounter during the
In-vitro culture of carnation due to the
formation of abnormal leaves and
stem with thickened and translucent
structures.
Shoots with such abnormal leaves
usually turn brown and failed to root
in the rooting medium.
Vitrification in carnation tissues, by
transfer from solid to liquid medium
was accompanied by decreased lignin
content.
PLANTING AND AFTERCARE:
Carnation plants are planted in different
spacing normally, 30-45 plants per sqm is
considered to be ideal.
Different spacings 15x8cm, 15x15cm, 15x20cm
and 15x10cm, are followed. Alternate normal
method of transplanting wherein the plants
are planted firmly to soil, carnation,
Shallow planting is followed. Deep planting
should be avoided.
Shading should be given in the beginning of the
crop for few days.
Care should be taken to maintain the humidity
to prevent plants from drying.
SPECIAL CULTURAL PRACTICES:
SUPPORT MATERIAL:

Carnation crop has the tendency to bend


unless supported properly. Hence the crop
needs support while growing.

Good support material is metallic wire woven


with nylon mesh.

At every two meters the wire should be


supported with poles.

The poles at both the ends of bed should be


strong.

Metallic wire is tied around the bed along the


length with the support from supporting
poles.

Across the bed, nylon wires are woven like


net.

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For an optimum support, an increasing width


of the meshes can be used bottom net can be of
7.5x7.5cm /10x10cm, then two nets of
12.5x12.5cm and the upper most can be
15x15cm.
4 5 layers of nets are to be laid before
planting.
For every 2.5 to 3.0 m wires to be supported
with poles.
First net should be fixed at 12 cm above soil.
Place remaining nets over first net 15 cm apart.

DISBUDDING:
Disbudding refers to removal of side buds so
that the central/terminal bud receives
maximum food for the full development.
1.

2.

FOR STANDARDS

Removal of lateral buds.

Main flower bud alone left.

FOR SPRAYS

PINCHING:

Best time for disbudding when


apical bud is 15 mm in diameter.

Pinching refers to breaking out tip of budding


and encouraging growth of side shoots.

Essential for Standards.

4-6 well grown laterals are allowed.

At six pairs of leaf first pinching has to be


done.

First pinching done 3 -4 weeks after planting.

Depending upon the need of crop spread it is


classified into,

Single,

One and half and

Double pinches.
1. SINGLE PINCH

Terminal or main buds are removed to


encourage more number of side
shoots.

MANURING:
No inorganic fertilizers in first 3 weeks after
planting
Fertilizer application of 40g N, 20g P and 10g
K, in addition to 5kg of well decomposed FYM
/m2 will increase the yield of flowers. OR
250 : 80
: 200 : 125 : 400 g / m2 / yr N,
P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg application in 24 splits once
in 15 days.
IRRIGATION:

Over watering and poor drainage causes root


death and stunted growth.

When the plant attains 6 nodes, the


first pinch is given.

Water logging would cause deprival of


oxygen to plants.

5 -7 cm of apical portion has to be


pinched off.

The growing medium should be evenly moist.

This would give rise to 4-6 lateral


shoots.

For proper establishing of the cuttings misting


is require

Drip irrigation can be followed after 3-4 weeks


of planting

Water requirement : 4 -5 l / m2/ day

Optimum moisture : 300 -500 tension

Ideal time for pinching is morning.

2. ONE AND HALF PINCH

After single pinched shoots flower,


half of side shoots are pinched off.

2-3 of these lateral shoots are pinched


again.

3. DOUBLE PINCH

All the lateral shoots are pinched off.


i.e., 3 - 4 weeks after first pinch

Pinching is done at 4 well developed


pairs of leaves

PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDER
CALYX SPLITTING:
Cultivars with too many petals are susceptible
to calyx splitting.
Due to fluctuation in temperature and
environmental conditions also influences calyx
splitting.

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MEASURES
Selection of cultivars that are less prone to
splitting,
Regulation of temperature and maintenance of
optimal fertilizer level can minimize this
disorder.
This can also be reduced by placing a rubber
band or 6mm wide clear plastic tape is used
around the calyx of the flowers which have
just start opening. This operation is referred as
Calyx banding.
PLANT PROTECTION:
PEST AND DISEASES
Aphids: Aphids suck the sap from leaves of growing
plants and can be most series insect pest
of carnation.
They also transmit
carnation rings spot and carnation
mosaic virus diseases. They are
controlled by spraying of metasystox (2
ml/l), Malathion (2ml/l), endosulfan
(2ml/l) or rogor (2ml/l).
Thrips: They suck sap from leaves causing distortion.
Spraying of rogor (1ml/l) or sumithion
(3.5ml/l) or Malathion (2ml/l) controls
thrips.
Red Spider Mite Spraying with Kelthane (2.5ml/l) or
Wettable sulphur 3g/lit controls mite
effectively.
Nematodes - can be eliminated by growing plants in
fumigated soil. Application of furadan,
aldicarb
or
nemaphox
controls
nematode infestation.
HARVEST AND POST HARVEST:
After planting normally it takes 110-120 days to
come to peak flowering.
STANDARDS:

Carnation flowers mature in 4-5


months period.

Standard cultivars are harvested at


''Paint Brush'' stage with half-open
flowers, or almost fully open flowers.

At large bud / tight bud / cross bud


stage

Petals are visible at this stage

When at least 2-3 top flowers have


opened & other buds show colour

SPRAYS:

TIME OF HARVEST:

15 20 weeks after single pinching

YIELD:
On an average 10-20 flowers / plant/year or
150-300 flowers / m2/ year
Yearly production of 300-400 flower/m2 is
ideal and economical.
After planting normally it takes 110-120 days
to come to peak flowering.
POST HARVEST OPERATIONS:
Harvested flowers are bunched together based
on their physical measurements like length of
stem, diameter of flower etc.
For a good post harvest life, flower stems have
to be trimmed at the base and should be
immediately placed in a bucket of preservative
solution (Acidic pH 4.5) with 2-5 % sucrose
and biocides for 2 to 4 hours.
Carnation flowers can be stored for 2-4 weeks
before marketing.
Flowers have to be packed in cartons lined
with polyethylene be pre-cooled without lid.
The plastic is then loosely folded on top of the
stems and the lid is closed.
These cartons are stored in cool chambers
designed to maintain 00C with good air
circulation and a constant RH of 90-95 %.
Floral preservatives like, 8-HQS or 8-HQC @
200-600 ppm; STS (Silver Thio-sulphate) @ 0.24mM; Cytokinin @ 10-100 ppm; Sugar @ 0.52% and Citric acid @50-100 ppm.
@@@@@@@

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LECTURE -9 a
GERBERA
(Gerbera jamesonii)

INTRODUCTION:
Gerbera is commonly known as Transvaal
Daisy, Barberton Daisy or African Daisy.
It is an important commercial flower crop
grown throughout the world in a wide range
of climatic conditions.
It is ideal for beds, borders, pots ad rock
gardens.
The flowers available in a wide range of colors
and lend themselves beautifully to different
floral arrangements.
Used as cut flowers and the cut blooms have
long vase life.
ORIGIN AND HISTORY:
The genus Gerbera was named in honor of a
German naturalist, Traugott Gerber.
This is native to South Africa and Asiatic
regions.
In India they are distributed in the temperate
Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an
altitude of 1300 to 3200 meters.
Gerbera jamesonii is native to Natal and
Transvaal and Gerbera viridifolia from Cape.
Gerbera species of Indian origin are Gerbera
anandria, G. kunzeana, G.languinosa, G.
macrophylla, G. nivea, G. ovalifolia and G.
piloselloides.
Gerbera belongs to the family Compositae.
45 species have been identified, native to
tropical Asia and Africa.
SPECIES AND CULTIVARS:
The genus Gerbera consists of about 40 species.
Gerbera jamesonii is the only cultivated species.
CLASSIFICATION

There are single and double types of


gerbera.

One or two rows of ray florets on the


periphery of the disc and the rest are disc
florets in the single types.

In the double type, more than two rows of


florets are present

They are further divided into

Standard,

Spider and

Mini depending on the size and shape


of the flowers.
PROPAGATION
SEEDS;
Gerbera is propagated by seed, by cuttings of
side shoots and suckers.
Seed is set if cross-pollinated.
Sowing of seed may be done in almost any
season.
Seeds germinate in 15 to 20oC within two
weeks; otherwise it may take up to 30 days.
Plants from seeds will bloom in the second
year and produce good flowers from the third
year onwards.

VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION:
Side shoots, with some amount of heel, is
utilized for.
Divisions/ suckers, cuttings are also used.
MICRO-PROPAGATION:
Following are the plant parts used as
explants for micro propagation.
Shoot tips, Leaf mid-rib, Capitulum,
Flower heads, Inflorescence and Buds
Murashige and Skoog (MS) media
with modification is successfully used
as culture media.
SOIL AND CLIMATE
CLIMATE:
The optimum day and night temperature is
27oC and 14oC respectively
For flower initiation is 23oC and for leaf
unfolding it is 25 - 27oC
Sunny or semi-shady locations are good for
gerbera cultivation.

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SOIL:

BED PREPARATION:

To be successful in Gerbera cultivation, the soil


selection is very important. The main factors to be
considered are as follows;

Soil pH should be between 5.5 to 6.5 or it


should be maintained at this level to get
maximum efficiency in absorption of
nutrients.

The salinity level of soil should not be more


than 1 ms/cm. Therefore, as soon as you
select the sire, get the soil analyzed to decide
its further reclamation.

Gerbera are deep rooted plants and the roots


go as deep as 50 to 70cm.

The soil should be highly porous and well


drained to have better root growth and better
penetration of roots.

DISINFECTION OF SOIL:
Before plantation of Gerbera, soil disinfection is
absolutely necessary.
In particular, the
fungus Phytophthora is a menace to Gerbera.
The various methods of sterilization are;
1.

Steam: Not economically feasible for


Indian conditions.

2.

Sun: Cover the soil with plastic for 6-8


weeks. Sunrays will heat up the soil,
which will kill most fungi.

3.

Chemical sterilization:

Use of formalin @ 7.5-10 lit/100sqm.


This pure chemical should be diluted 10 times
in water and then sprayed/drenched on beds.
Cover the beds with plastic sheets for 7 days.

In general, Gerberas are grown on raised beds


to assist in easier movement and better
drainage. The dimensions of the bed should
be as follows:
Bed height
: 1.5 ft (45cm)
Bed Width
: 2 ft (60 cm)
Pathways between beds
: 1 ft (30 cm)
The beds for planting should be highly
porous, well drained and airy.
Gravel/sand can be added at the bottom
for better drainage.
Organic manure is recommended to
improve soil texture and to provide
nutrition gradually.
The soil should be loose all the time.
Organic manure and soil should be
mixed thoroughly for optimum
results.
The soil should not be very compact
after watering.
The upper layer of soil and FYM should
be properly mixed.
While bed preparation, add Single Super
Phosphate (0:16:0) @ 2.5 kg per 100
sqft for better root establishment and
Magnesium Sulphate @ 0.5 kg per 100
sqft to take care of deficiency of Mg.
@@@@
LECTURE 9b
PROTECTED CULTIVATION OF GERBERA

The height of the greenhouse/shade


house should be minimum 5-6.5 m; so
there is proper air circulation.

After sterilizing, subsequent washing out of the


soil.

Sufficient ventilation space is required on


top and sides.

It is advised to wait for 2 weeks before


plantation.
Other chemicals that can be used are,
Methyl Bromide
: @ 25 30g/sqm
Basamid (Dazomet) : @ 30 40g/sqm

To protect the plants in the monsoons


provision for covering the top with
polythene or plastic sheet is advised.

To control light intensity and solar


radiation, while shade net (50-70%) is
used.
Approximately 400w/m2 light
intensity is required on the plant level.

Then flush the soil approximately with 100


liters of water per sqm to drain the traces.

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The ideal temperature for Gerbera flower


bud initiation is 23oC and for leaf
unfolding is 25-27oC. The flowering of
Gerbera is harmed at below 12oC (Bud
initiation will stop) and above 35oC
(Frequency of flowers will be very low &
absorption of buds will take place).
The optimum humidity inside the
greenhouse/shade house should be 7075%, which will maintain the health of the
plants.

PLANTING:
While planting Gerbera plants, the crown of
plants should be 1-2 cm above soil level.
As the root system establishes the plants are
pulled down.
Therefore, the crown must be above the ground
level at planting and also throughout the life
cycle.
Plant the seedlings without disturbing the rootball.
Generally, two- three rows may be planted on
one bed at 37.5 to 40cm distance between the
rows and 30cm distance between the plants in
one row.
Row Row =37.5- 40 cm
Plant Plant =30.0cm
6 to 7 plants can be accommodated per sq m.
Rake the soil surrounding the plant every
fortnight for aeration.
After plantation, maintain the humidity at 80
90% for 4 -6 weeks to avoid desiccation of
plants.
Gerbera can also be cultivated in pots as bench
system of planting.
IRRIGATION:
Water quality should be as follows
o pH 6.5 7.0
o EC 0.5 1 ms/cm
Avoid excessive watering to gerbera
To lower the pH of water, add acids in the
water tank and then irrigate the plants.

Immediately after plantation, irrigate the plant


with overhead irrigation for four weeks to
enable uniform root development. Thereafter
gradually change to drip irrigation. Drip
irrigation is mainly for correct doses and
fertilizer application.
Generally, one dripper per plant is required.
The aim is to provide sufficient irrigation in
the 2nd year for extra foliage.
The water requirement of Gerbera plant may be
approximately 700 ml per plant per day. In
hot summer foggers can be utilized to
maintain the humidity of the air.
Before irrigation observe the soil column and
visually check the soil moisture content. Then
decide on the quantity of irrigation required.
It varies with seasons; however the frequency
is the same.
Always water the plants before 12 noon.
Until the first flowers are produced, watering
can be done as overhead irrigation. Thereafter
irrigation is through drippers.
The R.H. of air should not exceed 90 92%, as it
will lead to deformity of flowers.
As a thumb rule, the soil should be moderately
moist-however never having excessive water.
FERTILIZATION:
Irrigate and fertilize frequently in small
quantities for optimum results. However,
always take care to fulfill the crop
requirement.
Micronutrients should be given weekly or
fortnightly as per the deficiency symptoms
(preferably chelated source).
Always analyze the soil once in 2-3 months to
decide specific nutrient schedule.
As a layman, whenever you enter the
greenhouse the plants should look very
healthy and glossy.
25-75 t/ha of well decomposed organic manure
is required.
150:137:190 g NPK/m2 (40:40:40 g, three months
at monthly interval)
For the first three months after planting,
application of 20:20:20:N:P:K @ 1.5 g/l of

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water every two days during the vegetative


stage encourages better foliage.
Once flowering commences.
o N:P:K 15:8:35 at the rate of 1.5 g/l
water/day.
o Boron deficiency causes base of young
leaves to turn black coloured.
Zinc deficiency symptoms can be identified
with the C-shaped leaf structure caused by
chlorosis on one half of the leaf blade which
ceases to expand, while the other half of the
leaf is normal.
CROPPING PATTERN AND HARVESTING OF
FLOWERS:

Gerbera is a 24-30 months crop.

The first flowers are produced 7-8 weeks after


plantation.

Harvesting is done when the two outer rows


of the disc florets are fully expanded and
perpendicular to the stalk.

The average yield is 240 flowers per sqm (6-7


plants/sqm).

The flowers are harvested when 2 3 whorls


of stamens have entirely been developed; this
will decide the vase life of flowers.

Pluck the flowers in the morning or late in the


evening or during the day when temperature
is low.

Pluck the flower from the plant rather than


cutting them.

POST HARVEST HANDLING OF FLOWERS


Cut the heel of the stem by giving an angular
cut.
Pack the flowers in a box with following
dimensions.
Immediately after harvesting, flowers put in
water and kept for four hours at 7 to 8oC
The cut flowers can be stored dry at 2oC in
moisture proof retentive boxes for two days
If stored wet at 4 to 5oC, the flowers can be
kept for 5 to 7 days.

Always add 7 10 ml commercial


bleach/Sodium Hypochlorite solutions in one
litre water i.e. 1% solution.
It has a maximum vase life of 7 to 8 days.
Frequent re-cutting of stem ends is suggested.
The flowers are relatively insensitive to
ethylene.
A good flower has stalk length of 45 55cm,
and diameter of flower is 10 12cm.
Gerbera Cups - The packaging solution to
protect the gerbera flower

DISEASES/ PESTS:
Aphids, Greenhouse Whitefly, Leaf Miner,
Mites, Thrips,
Crown Rot: Caused by Phytophthora
cryptogea results in wilting disease of
Gerbera, Crown of the plant becomes
black.
Root knot Nematode: Yellowing of leaves;
nodules on roots.
Botrytis: Occurs especially when the
relative humidity of the air is more than
92% for two hours in the morning gray
spots on the flower petals rot in the heart
of flower.
NEVER APPLY THE FOLLOWING CHEMICALS
ON GERBERA:
Trade Name
Hostathion
Tilt
Topaz
Contaf
Spark
Polytrin
Ridomil

Consistent
Triazophos
Propiconazole
Penconazable
Hexconazole
Cypermethrin
+Triazophos
Profenophos
Metalaxyl 8% + Mancozeb
64%

Flower bent Loss of cell turgidity and


under nutrition (lack of
Calcium)

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V Ai Awz zs

Pre-harvest stem break High root


pressure and high humidity
in the air.
Premature wilting of Gerbera flower
Cloudy weather followed by bright sun
or carbohydrate depletion.
Double-faced Gerbera flower A
physiological disorder caused by
imbalance of nutrients.
Too much growth too little flower buds.
Non-uniform flower blooming
Physical injury to flower stem/pest
damage/phytotoxicity.
Short stem length High salinity level,
moisture stress, low soil temp.

9. Copper

: Chlorosis in younger leaves;


flower develops bad.
10. Molybdenum: Chlorosis on the edges of leaves.
11. Boron
: Bases of younger leaves are
black colored.
Control measure
Chelated sources (like Microsole, Tracel, Micnelf)
of these microelements as a foliar spray
@@@@

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS:
1. Nitrogen

2. Phosphorus

3. Potassium
4. Calcium
5. Magnesium

6. Iron

7. Zinc

8. Manganese

: General yellowing starts on


older leaves and them moves
gradually
upward
because
nitrogen is translocated out of
older leaves to the new growth
under deficiency.
: Brownish discoloration along
the vein on underside of old
leaves.
: Marginal necrosis of old
leaves.
: Extreme yellowing of young
leaves
: Interveinal chlorosis on older
leaves and leaves get thick and
crispy.
: Interveinal chlorosis on young
leaves.
Serious deficiency
results in a yellowish-white
coloring.
: Chlorosis, one half of leaf
blade ceases to expand and
develop while other halt is
normal i.e., C shaped leaf
structure.
: Leaves turn yellowish, starting
with younger ones; veins
remain green, heavy chlorosis

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LECTURE- 10
GLADIOLI
(Gladiolus spp. Iridaceae)
INTRODUCTION:

It is said to be the Queen of bulbous


flower crops and commonly known as
Sword Lily or Corn flag.

The name gladiolus was originally coined


by Pliny the Elder.

Gladiolus (Tournefort.) L. takes its name


from the Latin word Gladius meaning a
sword, because of sword- like shape of
its foliage.

IMPORTANCE AND USES:

Gladiolus is an important florist crop,


most popular as cut flower in the
domestic and International market.

In Netherlands, it ranks next only to tulip


in commercial importance

It is relatively easy to grow and also


suitable for bedding and exhibition.

The fascinating spikes bear a large


number of florets which exhibit varying
sizes and forms; with smooth, ruffled,
deeply crinkled or laciniated tepals.

The flower spikes are used in flower


arrangements, in bouquets and for indoor
decoration.

Grandiflorus and Primulinus types look


very attractive in mixed flower borders.

Spikes of gladiolus have good keeping


quality and can be transported to long
distances.

Its flowers open in acropetal succession,


one by one and spike lasts for 1 to 3
weeks in ordinary vase water, depending
upon the season and variety.

Gladiolus natalensis, G. cardinalis, G.


communis, G. callianthus, G. arneus,
recurvus, G. tristis

ORIGIN
DISTRIBUTION:

AND

There are around 200


species
scattered
throughout Tropical and South Africa and
Mediterranean region.
It is said to be in cultivation since 1578. It was
first introduced into France & soon after, it
spread to England, Germany, Holland &
North America.
No species is known to be native of India.
In India it was introduced during British
period.
TAXONOMY:
Gladiolus L. belongs to the family Iridaceae.
Basic chromosome number is n=15.
Ploidy in the genus ranges from diploid
(2n=30) to dodecaploid (2n=180)
The modern garden gladiolus is a complex of
at least 12 species and most of the cvrs are
tetraploids (2n=60) & highly heterozygous,
they will not breed true to the type if grown
from seeds.
SPECIES:

There are about 226 recorded species


scattered in Republic of South Africa.

The genus Gladiolus has further been


divided into four sections.

Section I: Euglandiolus which includes 100


species.

Section II: Habea includes 12 spp.

Section III: Schweiggeria, includes only


two species.

Section IV: Homoglossum, includes 5-6


species.

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CLASSES OF GLADOIOLUS:
On the basis of floret size, gladiolus has been
put into 5 classes, the description of which is as
follows:
Class Designation
Floret size (cm)
100
Miniature
< 6.4
200
Small or miniature
6.4 to < 8.9
300
Decorative
8.9 to < 11.4
400
Standard or Large
11.4 to 14.0
500
Giant
> 14.0

Second ploughing is done followed by


rolling for a fine tilt hand remove weeds
and stubbles thoroughly before planting.

PROPAGATION:
Seeds:
Gladiolus can be propagated through
(i) Corms
(ii) Cormels
(iii) Seeds and
(iv) Tissue culture
(i) Through Corms

CLIMATIC REQUIREMENT:

Gladioli require full exposure to sunlight


for better crop, otherwise blasting may
occur or plants may remain blind.
The long day conditions of 12 to 14 h
photoperiod increase number of florets,
spike length and percentage of
flowering.

Low light intensity causes failure in


flowering.

High light intensity without proper


temperature
also
affects
growth
adversely.

Propagation of gladiolus through corms is a


commercially used method.

A single corm produces on an average of 1 to


3 flowers along with daughter corms in a
season depending upon its size and the
variety.

10-50 cormels can be obtained from a single


corm.

(ii)

Through Cormels

Cormels from corms are used as


planting material.

The multiplication of gladiolus


through cormels is an inexpensive
and rapid method which enables
build up of large stocks with
minimum cost.

The cormels also tend to escape


diseases of viruses even if the
parent corm is infected.

Corm storage at 3 to 7oC is good for


better growth and flower production.

SOIL REQUIREMENT:

Gladioli can be grown in a wide range of


soils.

The soil should have proper drainage


facilities.

It should also contain sufficient organic


matter.

The soil should be sandy-loam and


slightly acidic with pH 5 to 8.

LAND PREPARATION:

Preferably, the bed size should be 6 x 2


meters.

The first ploughing is done to a depth of


30cm two month before planting and left
as such for another 2-3 weeks.

TIME OF PLANTING OF CORMS:


North Western Plains October (first fortnight)
Staggered planting can, however, be done at
10-15 day intervals from mid-August to midDecember to get continued supply of spikes
over a longer period and to match the market
demand.
In temperate climates, the corms are planted
after the winter, i.e. in March and April when
frosts are over and climate becomes warm.
PLANTING OF CORMS:

Only the non-dormant corms should be


planted.

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The emergence of root buds at the base of


the corms shows that the corms are ready
for planting.

The corms should be suitably treated


with fungicides before planting.

When planting, the lower portion of the


corm should be placed on the soil such
that the bud at the top lies straight above.

It is done to make sure that the stem


grows erect and does not show crooked
growth.

At planting time, the soil should contain


sufficient moisture to facilitate uniform
sprouting of corms.

The depth of planting depends more on


the size of the planting materials. The
medium and smaller sized corms are
generally planted upto 7 cm deep while
large or jumbo corms to a depth up to 15
cm.

Planting is carried out during October in


plains and March-April in hills.
The row to row distance is normally 40
cm while plant-to-plant is 15 cm.
The requirement of the corms per hectare
is roughly 1, 50,000-2, 00,000.

IRRIGATION:

The stems should be tied with strings to


thin but strong supports

WEED CONTROL:

Pro-emergence herbicides reported for


gladiolus are diuron (0.9 kg/ha) (or)
linuron (3.0 kg/ha)

Post-emergence herbicides, 2, 4-D @ 1.53.0 kg/ha has been found to reduce weed
population.

NUTRITION:

Commonly a 12:12:18 N:P:K compound


fertilizer is applied prior to planting at 1
ton per hectare.

Gladiolus can be damaged by fluorine


and phosphatic fertilizers containing
fluorine should not be used.

The crop can be top dressed as required


with calcium nitrate at an application
rate of 200-300 kg per hectare.

HARVESTING OF SPIKES AND POST


HARVEST OPERATIONS:
Harvesting of Spikes:

Gladiolus takes 60-120 days to produce


spikes.

The spikes of gladiolus generally exhibit


vase life of about 7-15 days.

Gladiolus requires water in plenty but


does not grow well under water-logged
conditions.

The spikes should be harvested in the


morning or evening hours when
temperatures are mild.

Frequency of irrigation depends upon the


soil type, weather conditions and rainfall.

Spikes should preferably be cut with


sharp knives or secateurs.

Normally in sandy soils, the crop should


be irrigated at 7-10 day intervals, whereas
in heavy soils, at less frequent intervals.

Irrigation should be withheld at least 4-6


weeks before lifting of corms.

While harvesting, at least four basal


leaves should be retained on the plant to
ensure proper development of corms and
cormels.

The stage at which the spike is to be cut


should depend upon the transportation
distance, consumer requirement and
prevailing temperature conditions.

STAKING:

Especially large-flowered varieties of


gladioli grown outdoors are susceptible
to lodging, hence need staking.

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HARVESTING AND STORAGE OF CORMS:

It generally takes 6-8 weeks after


harvesting of spikes fro the corms to
become mature and ready for lifting.

Plant growth stops at this stage.

In India, lifting of corms is carried out


manually with small garden forks or
khurpas.

After lifting the corms from the soil, the


upper leafy portions should be removed
by twisting and breaking the stalk.

The old withering mother corms attached


to the bottom of the newly-formed corms
should also be removed similarly with
the thumb.

The cormels should also be separated


simultaneously and handled separately.

The corms usually get damaged or


bruised during harvesting and cleaning
operations.

The corms should be cleaned, dipped for


30 min in 0.3% Captan 50 WP and shadedried at an aerated place for about 15
days.

Corms are then packed in crates or in net


bags and cold-stored at 3-7oC.

From cold storage, these corms should be


taken out one month prior to planting
and kept at ambient conditions at an
aerated place.

The corms or cormels of different


cultivars must be handled separately and
labeling properly so that they do not get
mixed up.

Before planting, these are once again


dipped for one hour in 0.3% Captan
solution

Irrigations should normally be withheld


at least 2-3 weeks before harvesting of
corms.

It helps to break dormancy of


corms raised under warmer
climates,

It helps to overcome warm and


dry conditions of summer
months that intervene between
lifting or corms and their
planting in the subsequent
season, and

It prevents premature sprouting


of corms.

@@@@@

STORAGE OF CORMS:

Storage of corms at low temperature (45oC) is an established commercial


practice.

It serves three main purposes:

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LECTURE -11
JASMINE
(Jasminum spp.)

INTRODUCTION:
Jasmine (Jasminum spp.) is one of the oldest
fragrant flowers.
Jasmine being one of the
important
commercial
flower crops is cultivated
in India.
It belongs to the family
Oleaceae.
As many as forty species of their genus are
known to be in India.
Important Species are
1. Jasminum auriculatum : Vasantha Mallige
2. Jasminum grandiflorum :
Jajimallige/Jathimalli (or) Pitchi (or)
Spanish Jasmine
3. Jasminum sambac
: Gundu mallige
/Malligai / Arabian jasmine
/
Tuscan jasmine
4. Jasminum pubescens (multiflorum)
Kakada
USES AND IMPORTANCE:
They are mainly grown as climbers, shrubs and
rarely as pot plants.
Jasmine flowers, known for their fragrance are
used for making garland.
Garlands are being used for personal adorning by
women and in religious offerings.
Flowers and buds used, bouquets, vent/veni
preparation.
Production of perfumed oils and attars.
The world famous jasmine oil is extracted from
Spanish jasmine (J. grandiflorum).
The essential oil extracted from the flowers is of
high value as starting material for the perfume
industry.
There is tremendous scope for the development
of jasmine essential oil industry for export.

Some portions of the flowers are also used for


the production of perfumed hair oil and
attar.
The world famous jasmine oil is extracted from
the flowers of the Spanish jasmine (J.
grandiflorum). Nearly 50% of worlds famous
jasmine oil is produced from France and the
rest is contributed by Belgium, Netherlands,
Italy, Turkey, Morocco and Tunisia.
The jasmine oil is considered unique as it
blends well with other floral extracts to make
high grade perfumes and cosmetics.
ORIGIN N HISTORY
Among the large number of species existing
only three species have attained importance in
commercial cultivation.
The Arabian or Tuscan jasmine (J. sambac) native of the East Indies.
The Royal jasmine or common white jasmine
or Poet's jasmine (J. officinale) -Persian origin.
The Spanish jasmine or Catalonion jasmine (J.
grandiflorum)
Cooke (1905) stated that J officinale is a native
of Kashmir.
Adorn in central Asia, Afghanistan, Iran,
Nepal etc.
In India it is being grown in 8000 hectare area.
India exports to Sri Lanka, Singapore,
Malaysia and Gulf countries
Historic evidences show that even 200-500
years ago, the jasmines were extensively used
for hair ornamentation by the women in
China.
DISTRIBUTION
Though jasmines are distributed in tropical
and subtropical countries of the world,
No. of species are centered around India,
China and Malaysia
Among these, about 40 species are reported to
occur in India. Some of the important are as
follows,
1. J. auriculatum
India
2. J. grandiflorm
Subtropical
Himalayan
region
3. J. sambac
India
4. J. mulfiflorum
India

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COMMERCIALLY IMPORTANT SPECIES:


1. Jasminum auriculatum (Vasantha mallige)
Shrubby in nature
Leaves are shiny, with auricles
Flowers white, sweet scented
Corolla lobes elliptic, carpels solitary
and globose
Fruits black. Flowers -perfumes.
Cultivars- Parimullai, CO 1 and CO 2
2. Jasminum grandiflorum (Spanish jasmine)
Woody bush
Leaves : Pinnate with 3-5 leaflets of equal
size
Flower: White, pinkish at the base, very
much fragrant and commercially
Used for essential oil extraction.
Cultivars- CO 1, CO 2 and Arka surabhi.
3. Jasminum sambac (Gundu mallige)
Evergreen twine. Leaves cordite to
oblong, acute or obtuse, waved,
almost sessile, rather thin;
Flowers white, fragrant usually in
small, 3-forked cymes.
Almost continuous.
Variety florepleno: shows a doubleflowered form.
Cvs : Ramanathapuram, Gundumalli,
Khoya
and
Arka
Aradhana,
Ramabanam madanban, Single mogra,
Double
mogra,
Soojimalli,
Kasthurimalli
4. J. multiflorum (Kakada)
Straggly, downy shrub, leavescorodate, mucronate, hairy beneath;
Flowers white, large, mild fragrant,
petal 6-9, lanceolate.
Round the year flowering
CULTURAL REQUIREMENTS:
SOIL AND CLIMATE:
Jasmine prefers mild tropical climate.
Loamy (or) Red loamy and well drained garden
soil is the best suited.

Since jasmine is commercially grown in India


under open field conditions, the ideal
requirements for successful cultivation of
these plants are mild winter, warm summer,
moderate rainfall and sunny days.

PROPAGATION AND PLANTING MATERIAL:

Jasmines are commercially propagated by


cuttings and layering.

J. auriculatum - Semi-hard wood

J. grandiflorum

J. sambac
- Terminal and Semihardwood cuttings.

- Terminal cutting

Growth regulators. IAA (or) IBA treated at


1000 ppm for terminal cuttings and 2500 ppm
for semi-hard wood cuttings.

The treatment is quick dip method of the basal


cut end before planting in the medium.

Best rooting medium is sand: Vermiculate:


moss at 1:1:1 ratio.
PLANT SPACING, DENSITY AND SEASON:
Species
J.auriculatum
J.grandiflorum
J.sambac

Spacing

Density(P
lants/ha)

Season

1.5 x 1.5 m

4400

June to
November

2.0 x 1.5 m
1.25 x 1.25 m

3350

- do -

6400

- do -

PLANTING:

Land with proper drainage, irrigation facilities


and sunny location are essential.

Pits of 45 cm3 are dug at least one month


before planting and exposed to sunlight.

A few days before planting, pits are filled with


2 parts of FYM and one part each of fresh
earth and coarse sand.

Pits are to be watered to settle the mixture.


Well rooted, healthy and strong plants are
planted one in each pit.

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NUTRITION:

Jasmine responds to intensive manuring.


Too much of manuring encourages vegetative
growth and hampers quality and quantity of
blooms.

Species
J. auriculatum

Quantity(g/
plant)
P2
K2
N
O5
O
60
120 120

J. grandiflorum

100

150

100

J. sambac

60

120

120

Method
Six split doses at
bimonthly
interval
In two split doses
first
June-July
and second dose
at
December
after pruning
Two split doses
first at JuneJuly and second
at
November
after pruning

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENT:
FOLIAR NUTRITION:

It also influences growth, flower bud


initiation, differentiation and ultimately the
flower production.
PRUNING PERIOD:

J. sambac

- Last week of November

J. grandiflorum - Last week of December


J. auriculatum

- Last week of January

Pruning is done at a height of 45-50 cm


from the ground level.

WEEDING:
Commonly done manually but is expensive.
Chemical weed control is effective and
economical.
Spraying with Oryzalin 1 or 2 applications is
effective.
Mulching also reduce weed population.
HARVESTING:

Jasmine gives economic yield only from the


third year and upto 12-15 years and then starts
declining in their yield.

Spraying of zinc 0.25% and magnesium 0.5%

The stage of harvest depends on the purpose

before flowering increases the yield of flowers.


Spray Feso4 at 5g/lit. at monthly intervals
until the chlorotic symptoms disappear.

For fresh flowers, fully developed unopened

IRRIGATION:

Plants are irrigated by flooding once in a


week.

Sufficient amount of moisture in the soil is


necessary for proper growth and flowering.

Jasmines can be irrigated once in ten days


depending on the soil and climatic conditions.
PRUNING:
NEED FOR PRUNING:

In jasmine, flowering habit is terminal and


axillary.
So increasing the number of shoots is the main
criterion to increase the yield, for this pruning
is an essential operation.

of flowers to be harvested.
flower buds are picked in the early morning,
while for extraction of concrete only fully
opened fresh picked flowers are required.

Picking

of flowers after 11am will


considerably reduce the yield and quality of
the concrete.

Pluckers collect the flowers in a bag.


Care should be taken to see that the flowers
are not badly handled.

Wrinkled and damaged during harvest and


transit will affect fresh flowers and concrete
recovery will be affected and the entire
product may be unmarketable.

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GRADING:

There are no standard grades available for EXTRACTION OF JASMINE CONCRETE:


jasmine.

The flowers may be graded according to the


corolla tube length, bud size, shape and
freshness.
PACKING:

Packing should be functional, economical and


attractive besides being acceptable in markets.

Harvested flower should be given cold


treatment before packing.

Corrugated cardboard boxes are the proper


packing materials for distant market.

The growers also use small bags made out of


fertilizer bag material to bring flowers of
jasmine to the market.

Wholesalers pack flowers in bamboo baskets.


They are packed so as to maintain some
moisture and air circulation in the baskets.

Water is sprinkled on the newspapers


covering the inside of the basket.

The top is covered with paper again and

Jasmine concrete obtained from Jasminum


grandiflorum (Jathi Malli/Pitchi) is a wax like
substance containing the natural flower
perfume together with some plant waxes,
albumin and colouring matter.
The natural perfume is available in very small
quantity (0.25%) in jasmine flowers in the form
of volatile oil.
The usual and simple method of steam
distillation for the extraction of the volatile oil
could not be adopted in this case as jasmines
do not yield the perfume oil on steam
distillation.
Hence, the solvent extraction method is
practiced in which the principle is that the
odoriferous substances of the flower are
allowed to be absorbed by a highly volatile
solvent and then the solvent is evaporated
leaving the odoriferous principles.
FLOWERS:

closed with a bamboo basket cover or gunny


stack which is stitched at the edges.

For extraction of concrete, only freshly picked


fully opened flowers are required.

Flower and concrete yield in jasmines vary

Jathimalli flowers open in the evening between


5-7 p.m.

YIELD:
considerably according to the species and
cultivars and management practices.

The flower yield and concrete recovery in


three important species of jasmine are:
Species

Flower
yield
(kg/ha)

Concrete
recovery (%)

Shelf
life of
flowers

J.auriculatum

4636

9022

28-30
hrs

J.grandiflorum

4329

10144

J. sambac

739

8129

0.28 to 0.36
(13.44 to 28.24
kg/ha)
0.25 to 0.32
(13.85 to 29.42
kg/ha)
0.14 to 0.19
(1.18 to 15.44
kg/ha)

24 hrs

28-30
hrs

The fully opened flowers have to be picked in


the early morning preferably before 9.30 a.m.,
Delay in picking flowers after 9.30 a.m. results
in gradual reduction of concrete yield.
Picking the flowers after 11.00 a.m. will
considerably reduce the yield and quality of
concrete especially in the hot climate.
Therefore, it is essential to pick the fully opened
flowers in the morning before it becomes hot.
The flowers should be harvested and
transported in clean baskets or cloth bags.
The flowers should be picked in such a way
that at the time of picking, the sweat, dirt etc.,
of the picking personal do not contaminate

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them. The contamination will reflect in the


quality of the concrete.
While picking and transporting care should be
taken not to damage the flowers.
The damaged flowers yield concrete with more
percentage of unwanted wax and other plant
materials.
The flowers harvested should be stored in a
cool atmosphere and processed within a
maximum period of two hours.
PROCESSING:
Processing of jasmine flowers involves two
steps.
1. Dissolving the perfume material by treating the
flowers with the solvent.
2. Removal of the solvent from the perfume
material by evaporation.
TREATMENT OF FLOWERS WITH SOLVENT:
The fully opened flowers are treated with the
solvent so that all the odoriferous material in the
flowers gets dissolved in the solvent.
In this process, the solvent penetrates the
flowers and dissolves the waxes, albumin and
colouring matter also, which have to be
removed later to get pure perfume oil.
In solvent extraction process, the most
important factor is the quality of solvent used.
Though there is no solvent possessing all the
qualities, the commercial food grade hexane has
found to satisfy many of the requirements of
good solvent and hence used in large scale for
the extraction of floral concrete throughout the
world.
Food grade hexane available in the market has
to be purified before using it as solvent.
Food grade hexane is treated with liquid
paraffin at 5% and distilled at 700C. The residue
which is not evaporating at 700C is rejected as
impurities.
The purified hexane is a colourless liquid with a
boiling point ranging from 600C to 800C.
The flowers are treated with purified hexane at
2 liters per kg of flower for about 30 minutes.

The complete extraction of the perfume from the


flowers can also be ensured by slowly rotating
the container having the flowers and solvent for
about 20 minutes in the rotary type of extractor.
EVAPORATION:
After the complete extraction of the perfume
from the flowers, the solvent is filtered and
concentrated by evaporation at a constant
temperature of 750C.
At this temperature, the solvent evaporates
leaving the perfume and other plant waxes.
The vapour of the solvent is condensed into
liquid again for recycling.
The concentrated liquid containing perfume,
wax, pigments and the solvent is distilled in a
vacuum distillation unit where the complete
removal of the solvent takes place, leaving the
floral concrete in the form of molten wax.
Based on the above principle, Tamil Nadu
Agricultural University, Coimbatore has
designed a pilot plant for extraction of floral
concrete.
It has essentially four steps viz.,
(1) Extractor
(2) Evaporator
(3) Condenser And
(4) Vacuum Distillation Unit.
EXTRACTOR:
The extractor used is a rotary type.
It has a capacity to treat 3 kg of flowers at a
time.
For every kg of flowers, 2 liters of solvent is
added and the extractor is closed tightly and
rotated slowly for 25 minutes at the rate of 3
rotations per minute.
After five minutes, the flowers are allowed to
stand in the solvent for another 20 minutes.
During the process, the solvent absorbs the
perfume of the flower.
After mixing, the solvent is drawn through the
drain cock at the bottom of the extractor, and
filtered through a fine filter to remove the dust,
dirt etc.

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By opening the drain cock all the free solvent


may come out but still a small quantity of
perfume laden solvent may be sticking to the
spent flowers in the extractor.
To draw this small quantity of solvent the spent
flowers are gently pressed. It must be noted
that the flowers should never be squeezed to
remove the solvent completely.
EVAPORATOR:
The perfume laden solvent is led into the
evaporator.
The evaporator is a wide mouthed circular
bowel made in stainless steel with a capacity to
hold 25 litres of solvent.
It has an air tight lid with a hole at the centre for
the outlet of the solvent vapour.
The evaporator is heated over a water bath at a
constant temperature of 750C.
The water bath is heated electrically by 2000
watt heating elements and the temperature is
kept 750C by thermostatic control.
Temperature control is essential as high
temperature and prolonged heating at
atmospheric pressure will spoil the quality and
appearance of the concrete.
The evaporator should never be directly heated.
It should be heated either over a water bath or
by steam circulation.
As the temperature rises in the evaporator, the
hexane evaporates and the vapour escapes
through the hole in the lid which is led into the
condenser through a stainless steel pipe.
CONDENSER:

The condenser also is made of stainless steel


and it contains several (12) small pipes fitted
parallely through which solvent vapour is
passed.

By circulating cold water in the condenser


continuously the solvent vapour is condensed
and it is collected for recycling.

The heating of the evaporator is continued till


about 90% of the solvent is recovered by
condensation which may take about 30 hours.

The remaining 10% of the solvent containing all


the aromatic oil and waxy material is

transferred to vacuum distillation unit where


the complete removal of the solvent is effected,
and the concrete is left in the still in the form
of molten wax.
Here also the still should not be heated directly.
The heating should be done on a water bath.
Since vacuum has been created into the still, the
solvent evaporates quickly at lower temperature
which is condensed in the condenser and
collected for recycling.
The heating should be continued till the last
traces of hexane are removed.
The operation can be stopped when there is no
condensation of hexane vapour in the
condenser.
After the complete removal of the solvent, a
semi-solid was like brown substance is left in
the still which is the jasmine concrete of
commerce.
The material when it is hot is transferred to the
container in which it has to be stored, when
cooled it solidifies and transfer to other
containers may be difficult.
The concrete can be stored in glass or
aluminium containers.
CONCRETE:
It is a wax like substance containing the natural
flower perfume together with some plant
waxes, albumin and colouring matter.
The natural perfume is available in very small
quantity (0.25%) in jasmine flowers in the form
of volatile oil.
PROCESSING PROTOCOL:
TWO STEPS
I.
Dissolving the perfume material by
treating the flowers with solvent.
II.
Removal of the solvent from the perfume
material by evaporation.
EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED:
1.

Extractor (Rotary type of 3 kg


capacity)

2.

Evaporator (wide mouthed circular


stainless steel bowel of 25 litre
capacity with air tight lid + hole at

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the center for the outlet of solvent


vapour)
3.

4.

Condenser (Stainless steel with 12


small pipes fitted parallelly for
solvent
vapour
passing
and
circulating cold water to condense
the solvent).

LECTURE -12
MARIGOLD
(Tagetes spp., Asteraceae)
IMPORTANCE:
Marigold has gained
popularity amongst
gardeners
and
flower dealers on
account of its easy
culture and wide

Vacuum distillation unit.

STEP I SOLVENT TREATMENT:


Flowers are soaked in Food Grade Hexane (Having
Boiling point of 70oC).

adaptability.
Free flowering and short duration.

Mixing Hexane 2 litres / kg of flowers for 30 minutes

Wide spectrum of colour, shape, size and good


keeping quality.

Rotate the container slowly for 20 minutes in the


rotary type of extractor.

Marigold is also known as Friendship Flower


in the United States.

Perfume substance along with wax and pigments


dissolved in Hexane.

In language of flowers, marigold, in general,


means anxiety but despair or grief, in
particular.

STEP II EVAPORATION:

African marigold represents vulgar minds


whereas,

Perfume laden solvent is led into the evaporator

French marigold is a symbol of jealousy.

Evaporation at a constant temperature of 75oC


Vapour of the solvent condemned into liquid for
recycling
Liquid (Perfume, wax & pigments) is distilled in a
vacuum distillation unit for complete removal of
solvent in the still
Floral concrete settled in the still in the form of molten
wax
Cooled and Stored in glass (or) aluminum containers

USES:

Used for garland, veni and other


decorations.
The long stemmed flowers used for vase
arrangements.
It is highly suitable as bedding plant, in
an herbaceous border, also as shrubbery
in landscaping.
French marigold is ideal for rockery,
edging, hanging baskets and window
boxes.
Have medicinal properties to cure boils
and carbuncles.
Floral extract is used as a blood purifier
and cure for bleeding piles.

Good remedy for eye diseases and ulcers.


Some species of Tagetes are used for
essential oil extraction.

The Pigments (Xanthophylls) are used as


a natural colour to intensify yellow
colour of egg yolk and broiler skin, flesh
and also for fish.

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Xanthophylls are the major carotenoid


fraction in the flower petals.

Lutein accounts for 80 90% of total


xanthophylls content.

Used for colouring the food stuffs, textile


industries and pharmaceuticals.
Tagetes patula contain essential oil which
can readily be extracted by steam
distillation.
The oil has a pronounced odour and acts
as a repellent to flies.

Trap crop -It is highly effective in


reducing the population of nematodes
under control and also attracts the fruit
borers in many vegetables, fruits and
ornamental plants.

ORIGIN AND HISTORY

The name Tagetes was given after


Tages, a demigod, known for his beauty.

African marigold was first introduced into


Spain early in the 16th century and
became popular in Southern Europe
under the name, Rose of the Indies. This
plant was reintroduced into Europe in
1535 under the name, Flos Africonus by
Emperor Charles V.

It continued to be so called until well upto


the 18th century, although it was correctly
figured as Plantas tagetes indica in Fuchs
Herbal of 1547 (Genders, 1971).

It is native of central and Southern


America, especially Mexico.

SPECIES
There are about 33 species of the genus
Tagetes. Some of the important are as follows
1. Tagetes erecta (African marigold):

Plant is hardy, annual, upto 90 cm tall,


erect and branched.

Flowers are single to fully double and


large sized with globular heads.

Flower varies from lemon yellow to


yellow, golden yellow or orange.

Flowers are small, either single or double


The flower colour varies from yellow to
mahogany red.
In India the cultivation of T. erecta and T.
patula are dominant.
GENETICS AND BREEDING
Genetics:
Towner 1961 compiled the species of Tagetes
based on their chromosome number is as follows
Diploid species - 2n
:
Tagetes erecta
- 24
Tetraploid species - 4n
: T.
patula
- 48
MALE STERILITY:
There are two types of male sterility is observed by
Goldsmith during 1968 in marigold viz.,
1. Apetalous
2. Double flowered.
Apetalous male sterility is more preferred to full
double flowers.
Because the second one is prone to break down
and it gives few disc florets at later stages
which, may be due to the age of the plant or
environmental factors.
Apetalous flowers are less attractive to
pollinating insects.
Male sterility is governed by recessive gene and
is incorporated into seed parent.
It is maintained by crossing the heterozygous
plants with the sterile ones.
BREEDING:
Self incompatible and cross pollinated crop.
The ratio of CP to SP is 35:65
CULTIVATION:
CLIMATIC REQUIREMENT:

2. Tagetes patula (French marigold):

A hardy annual, about 30 cm tall, bushy


type.
Foliage is dark green with reddish stem.

Marigold requires mild climate for


luxuriant growth and profuse flowering.
It ceases to grow at high temperature
thereby flower quantity and quality is
adversely affected.
During severe winter including frost
plants and flowers are killed and
blackened.
Sowing and planting is carried out
during rainy season, winter and summer
season.

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Hence, flowers of marigold can be had


almost throughout the year.

SOIL REQUIREMENT:

Marigold can be successfully cultivated


on a wide variety of soils.

However, a soil that is deep fertile and


sandy loam, friable having well water
holding capacity, well drained and near
to neutral in reaction

pH of 7.0-7.5 is most desirable.

PREPARATION OF SOIL:

Land should be well prepared by


ploughing 2-3 times and 50 tones of well
decomposed farmyard manure should be
well mixed.

Beds of convenient size are made to


facilitate irrigation and other cultural
operations.

PROPAGATION:

Marigold is propagated by both


methods i.e.,
1. Seeds
2. Cuttings.
BY SEEDS:

Crop raised from seeds is taller than the


vegetatively propagated one and
vigorous and heavy bloomer; thus, it is
preferred over cuttings.

For better seed germination, optimum


temperature range between 18 to 30oC
is required.
Seed rate of 1.5 kg is required for one
hectare area.
Seeds of marigold can be sown in pots,
seed boxes or on flat or raised nursery
beds.
Nursery beds of 3 x 1 m size are
thoroughly prepared and mixed with 10
kg of well decomposed farmyard
manure per sq m

BY CUTTINGS:

This method is commonly followed for


maintaining the purity of varieties.

Normally, the presence of adventitious


roots along the stem helps in the
establishment of cuttings.

About 10 cm long cuttings are made and


treated with seradix No.1.

The cuttings are planted in the sand to


strike roots easily and plants thus raised
are used for bedding and pot planting.

TRANSPLANTING OF SEEDLINGS:

Marigold seedlings will be easily


established after transplanting in the field
without much mortality.

At the time of transplanting, seedlings of


one month old with 3-4 true leaves have
to be selected for proper establishment
and higher yield.

Aged seedling should not be selected.

Transplant should be done early in the


morning or late in the evening. One side
of the ridges formed.

After transplanting, a light irrigation has


to be given.
SPACING:

In general Tagetes erecta requires wider


spacing than T. patula. However a wide
range is practiced all over the country for
higher yield. They are as follows,
Tagetes erecta
Tagetes patula
1) 40 x 40cm
1) 20 x 20cm
2) 45 x 30cm
2) 30 x 30cm
3) 60 x 45cm
MANURES AND FERTILIZERS:

To get highest flower yield, 100 kg N, 100


kg P2O5 and 100 kg K2O should be mixed
at the time of preparation of land.

Remaining 100 kg N per ha should be


applied in 2 splits @ 30 and 40 days after
transplanted.

WEEDING:

3-4 manual weeding are required


during the entire growth period.
IRRIGATION:

It takes about 55-60 days to complete


vegetative growth and to enter into
reproductive phase.

Season of planting determines the


frequency of irrigation.

If rainfall is normal and well


distributed, irrigation is not frequently

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required, but if the rain is scanty


irrigation is needed frequently.

From April to June, frequent irrigation


at the interval of 4-5 days is required.

PINCHING:

In tall varieties of Tagetes erecta,


emergence of side branches and their
flowering is influenced by the presence of
apical dominance.
Due to which the plants of marigold
grow straight upwards to their final
height and develop into terminal flower
bud.
However the apical portion of the shoot
is removed at the early stage to get more
number of axillaries which in turn
produces more flowers.
Pinching the plants at 40 days after
transplanting enabled the plants to yield
more flowers.

FLOWERING
In summer season crop, - commences
by the middle of May with maximum
intensity in the month of June and
continues till the onset of rains.
Rainy season crop - by the middle of
September and the flowering will
continue till December.
Flowering in winter crop - by the
middle of January and will continue
till March.
PESTS AND DISEASES:
Diseases (Fungal):
Measures

Causal organism

1. Damping off (Rhizoctonia solani) Seed


treatment with capton @ 0.5%
2. Collor rot: (Rhizoctonia solani):
Seed
treatment with capton @ 0.5%.
Phytophthora sp. Pythium sp. Sclerotium rolfsi
3. Leaf spot (Alternaria tagetica) Spray with Blitox
@ 0.4% or Cercospora spp. Bavistin @ 0.1%
4. Blight (Colletotrichum capsia) DM 45 @ 0.2%
5. Inflorescence blight (Alternaria zinnac) DM 45 @
0.2% or Bavistin @ 0.1%
6. Powdery mildew
(Oidium sp.) Spray with
calixin, sulfex @ 0.2% (WS) @ 0.2%
Viral diseases: Marigold is infected by CMV, Aster
yellow virus

PESTS
1. Red spider mite
: Spray Kelthane @ 2ml/l
2. Hairy caterpillar: Spray Endosulfan or Ekolux
@ 2ml/l
3. Leaf hopper : Spray wits Melathian or Rogar
@ 2ml/l
4. Japanese Beetle
5. Tarnished plant bug,
6. Slugs
HARVESTING AND YIELD:

Marigold flower should be plucked when


they attain the full size depending upon
the variety.
Plucking of flowers should be done in
cool hours of the day i.e, either in the
morning or evening.
Field should be irrigated before
harvesting so that, flowers keep well for
longer period after plucking.
Plucked flowers should be covered with
moist gunny bags if kept overnight
before taking to market.
Productivity
of
plants
increases
considerably by regular plucking of
flowers.

YIELD
No. of flowers
(Million/ha)
1) African marigold 1.5 2.5
2) French marigold 6.0 8.0

Fresh flower
(t/ha)
11 18
8 12

Marigold Flower Polysaccharide (MFP):


MFP can be extracted from the meal with warm
(50-55oC) water.
Petals were separated from the rest of the
flower and extracted in a soxhlet apparatus
with methanol.
@@@@@

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LECTURE-13
TUBEROSE
(Polianthes tuberosa L.; Amaryllidaceae)
INTRODUCTION:
Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa
L.), belonging to the family,
Amaryllidaceae,
It is essentially a florist's flower
and one of the leading
commercial crops because of
its multifarious uses.
The predominant characteristics of this crop
are its lingering, delightful fragrance and
excellent keeping quality.
It has a great economic potential for cut
flowers trade and essential oil industry.
Due to their great demand it is being
cultivated in most part of the tropical and
subtropical countries.
IMPORTANT AND USES
The flowers remain fresh for pretty long time
and stands long distance transport.

The tuberose flower oil of commerce is one of


the most sought after and expensive raw
materials in perfumery.
The fresh flowers give a concrete yield of 0.08
to 0.11 %, of which nearly 18 to 23%
constitutes the alcohol-soluble 'absolute'.
The essential oil is used in only the highest
grade perfumes. Sometimes, the oil is used
in flavouring candy, beverages and baked
food.
ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION:
The tuberose is a native of Mexico.
It is grown largely in the southern states of
America, Italy, France, Morocco, South Africa,
Taiwan, Egypt and many other tropical and
subtropical areas in the world.
The word tuberose is derived from tuberose.
This plant is being the tuberous hyacinth and
distinguishes from the bulbous hyacinth.
In India, tuberose is cultivated on a commercial
scale in Ranaghat, Kolaghat and Panskura in
West Bengal,
Devanahalli, Tumkur and Mysore in Karnataka;

They are used for making artistic garlands,


floral ornaments, bouquets and buttonholes.

East Godavari, Guntur, Chittoor and Krishna


districts of Andhra Pradesh;

The long flower spikes are excellent cut


flowers for table decoration.

Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu and

The variegated ones with beautiful golden


stripes on foliage margins are very attractive
and suitable for garden display.
The fleshy, white, tubular flowers emit a
strong odour and hence are cultivated on a
large scale in some parts of the world for the
extraction of highly valued natural flower oil,
the tuberose oil.
The tuberose oil contains methyl benzoate,
methyl anthranilate, benzyl alcohol, benzyl
benzoate, butryic acid, phenyl acetic acid,
methyl salicylate, eugenol, geraniol, nerol
both free and as acetates, farnesol, methyl
vanillin and piperomel.
The leaves, flowers, bulbs and roots are
reported to contain sterols, triterpenes,
carbohydrates, saponins and traces of
alkaloids.

Pune and Thane in Maharashtra.


SPECIES
AND
VARIETIES:
There are about fifteen species under the
genus Polianthes, of which twelve species
have been reported from Mexico and Central
America.
Of these, nine species have white flowers, one
is white and red and two are red.
Except Polianthes tuberosa L., all the others are
found growing wild.
Polianthes tuberosa L.:
An erect herb, 60-120 cm high with stout and
short bulbs
Leaves basal, 6-9 in number, 30-45 cm long,
about 1.3 cm wide, linear, bright green,
reddish near the base,

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Flowers funnel shaped, waxy white, the


tube bent only near the base, filaments
attached on upper part of corolla,
Fragrant, in long terminal racemes.
There are three types of tuberoses named on
the basis of the number of rows of petals
they bear. They are,
o Single,
o Semi-double,
o Double and variegated,
The single type has the most fragrance.
The flowers are pure white and are popular
among the growers for the production of
essential oil.
Calcutta Single and Single Mexican the single
varieties, are being grown in Tamil Nadu.
Suvasini a single type variety has been
released by the IIHR, Bangalore.
Rajat Rekha single flowered mutant has
been released by the National Botanical
Research Institute (NBRI), Lucknow.
The 'Semi-double' type bears white flowers
with two to three rows of corolla segments.
The 'Double' type has more than three rows
of corolla segments and is white in colour.
The flowers tinged with red in the 'Double'
type are known as 'Pearl'.
o

Pearl Double is high flower yielder with


quality.

Swarna Rekha is another double


mutant, has been released by the NBRI,
Lucknow. The leaf-margin is streaked
with golden-yellow.

There are some streaked leaf-forms,


known as 'variegated',

In others the flowers have little tinge of


red in the bud-stage, which turns to
white when fully open.

Other varieties include 'Albinos' and


'Excelsior'

DESCRIPTION OF COMMERCIAL CULTIVARS:


Tuberose cultivars are classified into
three types, based on the number of
rows of petals.
(i) SINGLE FLOWERED:
Ex., Rajat Rekha, Calcutta Single,
Shringar, Single Mexican etc.,
Cultivars having flowers with one
row of corolla segments.
Flowers are extensively used for
essential oil extraction and also for
loose flowers.
Single types are more fragrant than
double.
Also the per cent seed setting is high
in single.
Its floral buds are greenish white.
Flowers are pure white with only one
row of corolla segment.
Concrete content has been observed
to be 0.08 to 0.11 per cent.
Loose flowers are used for making
floral ornaments.
(ii) SEMI DOUBLE FLOWERED:
Flowers with 2-3 rows of corolla
segments on straight spikes used for
cut flowers also
E.g. Cv. Semi Double bears white
flowers with two to three rows of
corolla.
(III) DOUBLE FLOWERED:
Varieties: Swarna Rekha, Suvasini
Flowers with more than three rows of corolla
segments on long and sturdy spikes used as
cut flower as well as loose flower and for
extraction of essential oil.
Concrete recovery has been found to be
0.06%.
Flower colour white and also tinged with
pinkish red.
The double type of tuberose is previously
known as pearl.

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It does not open well and is not


commercially viable as the single
cultivar.

SOIL AND CLIMATIC REQUIREMENT:


SOIL:
Tuberose can be grown on wide variety of soils
from light, sandy loam to a clay loam.
The soil should be at least 45 cm deep, well
drained, friable, rich in organic mater and
nutrients with plenty of moisture in it.
The soil should have a pH range from 6.5 to 7.5
with good aeration.
The crop can be grown even in high salinealkaline soils with better agronomical
practices.
It is observed that the vegetative growth and
flowering are affected by increasing the levels
of NaCI and very a low concentration of
CaCI2.
CLIMATE:
The crop is best suited for cultivation in tropical
to subtropical and temperate climates.
The crop is reported to flower profusely
throughout the year, if the climate is mild and
free from extremes of high and low
temperature.
A temperature range from
considered ideal for this crop.

20-30C

is

If the temperature is above 40C, the spike


length and quality of the flowers are affected.
Very low temperature and frost will damage
the plants and flowers.
Tuberoses grow well in a sunny situation.
Although the plant is photosensitive, exposure
to a day-length of about 16 hours appreciably
promotes vegetative growth and enhances the
emergence of the first flower-spike by 10 days.
The length of the flower-spike also increases
under long days.
SEASN OF PLANTING:
Tuberoses are generally planted in FebruaryMarch in the plains and April-May in the hills.
The bulbs can also be planted during July-

August.
Tuberoses can be planted all year round in
Bangalore, but a higher flower-yield is
obtained from the April-May planting.
To obtain flowers almost throughout the year,
sequential planting can be practiced.
LAND PREPARATION:
The land is ploughed deep, twice, to a depth of
45 cm.
The first ploughing is done in January and the
second about a month before planting.
At the time of the second ploughing apply FYM
@ 20-50 t/ha and incorporate into the soil.
Then the soil is brought to a fine tilth by
breaking the clods and removing the weeds.
The field is laid out into plots of convenient
sizes with irrigation channels, ridges and
furrows at the recommended spacing.
CULTIVATION:
PROPAGATION:
Tuberoses are propagated by bulbs, bulblets
and seeds.
Multiplication by bulb-segments and in vitro
micro propagation from scale stem-sections
is also possible.
Propagation by bulbs is the most common
method practiced for the commercial
multiplication of tuberoses.
The bulbs remain dormant during the winter
months in places where the temperature is
low and,
If early planting is desired, the dormancy can
be successfully broken by dipping the bulbs
in 4% Thiourea solution for one hour.
Ethylene chlorohydrins can also be used for
breaking the dormancy.
The bulbs are separated from the clumps by
rubbing off the loose scales and the long
roots should also be removed.
Spindle-shaped bulbs with a diameter of 2.6
to 3 cm size are used for planting.
However, if the bulbs are very large they may

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be cut into 2-3 vertical sections, each


containing a bud and part of the basal plate.
Each of these sections is treated with copper
fungicide and planted vertically with their
tips just showing above the surface.
About 8 to 9 tons of bulbs are required to
plant an area of one hectare.
PLANTING:

IRRIGATION:
Irrigation is given immediately after planting.
Subsequently, the crop is irrigated at 5-7 days
intervals depending upon weather conditions.
In the summer months, irrigation is recommended twice a week.
INTERCULTURE:

The density of planting markedly influences


the yield and quality of the flowers.

In order to keep the plots free of weeds and to


avoid the exposure of bulbs, the plots are
weeded and earthed-up once a month.

The planting distance varies with the soil and


climatic conditions.

Earthing-up enables the spikes to grow erect,


despite strong winds and rains.

About 1, 00,000 to 2, 00,000 bulbs are required


for planting one hectare of land.

The application of Atrazine (@ 3 kg/ha) as a


pre-emergent weedicide keeps the plots weedfree.

A spacing of 15 x 20 cm (Maharashtra), 25 x 25
cm (West Bengal), 30 x 30 cm (Lucknow), 30 x
22.5 cm (Bangalore) and 20 x 20 cm (for other
part of South India) have been recommended
for this crop.

A pre-emergent treatment of Gramaxone (@ 3


kg/ha) followed by three post- emergent
sprayings at intervals of 110 days in between
the rows also keeps the crop weed free.

While planting, the bulbs are planted at the


recommended plant-spacing, 3.5 cm deep on
the sides of the ridges.

Mulching the plots with strips of black


polythene, dried grass and chopped straw is
effective in controlling weeds.

The plots are irrigated immediately after


planting.

The flower-spikes should be supported by


stakes after about 2 1/2 months of planting.

FERTILIZER APPLICATION:
100 kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O /ha is
recommended for tuberose production.
For achieving increased essential oil content in
flowers and for the maximum recovery of
concrete, a fertilizer dose of 80 kg N, 60 kg
P2O5 and 40 kg K2O/ha has been
recommended.
Of the full recommended dose of fertilizers,
half the N, the full dose of P and K has to be
applied at the time of planting and the
remaining half of N is given as a top-dressing
after 45 days of planting.
Apart from N, P and K, calcium, magnesium,
sulphur, iron, zinc, manganese, aluminium,
boron and copper have also been found to
influence the growth and flowering in
tuberoses.

PESTS OF TUBEROSE:
Tuberoses are hardy crops and are not much
affected by attacks of insects, pests and
diseases.
Aphids and grasshoppers are found to feed on
flower buds and leaves.
They can be controlled by a 0.1 % spray of
Malathion or Rogor at an interval of 15 days.
The flowers also get deformed by thrips attack.
The control measure suggested is to spray
Nuvacron (0.1 %) or the application of Thimet
to the soil.
Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and
greasy streak nematode (Aphelencoides besseyi)
are reported to cause damage to the crop,
which is characterized by the stunted growth
of the plants. The leaf size is reduced and the
flowers look sickly and, ultimately, the roots
rot. The application of Thimet or Furadan (20
kg/ha) to the soil has been recommended for
control.

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DISEASES OF TUBEROSE:
The fungi, Scelerotium rolfsii, deposits
prominent, coarse, mycelial masses on the leaf
surface or near the soil-level. Later, the
infested spots exhibit a light-green colour due
to rotting which extend and cover the whole
leaf. Drenching the soil around the stem with
Brassicol @ 1 % and the soil with 0.3% has
been recommended for control.
The fungi, Alternaria polyantha, causes leaf-spot
disease, which is characterized by the
appearance of brown spots with faint
concentric rings on the mid-rib. Bordeaux
mixture (0.4%), Zineb (0.5%) or Ziram spray
will effectively control the disease.
The other diseases reported are leaf-spot and
blight caused by Botrytis elliptica, rust and
powdery mildew, which are not serious.
Suitable fungicides may be administered to
control them when the damage is noticed.
HARVESTING AND YIELD:
Flowers are ready for harvest in about 3 to 3
months of planting.

1/
2

August-September is the peak period of


flowering.
Depending on the purpose, harvesting is done
by cutting the fully-opened spikes from the
base or single flowers are harvested as they
open by day; the picking of individual flowers
should be completed by 8.00 a.m.
The flowers have a shelf-life of 3 days.
Flowers yield up to 17-18 t/ha can be expected
from a well-maintained crop.

HANDLING AND PACKING OF FLOWERS


Loose flowers are transported in poly bags to
the nearby whole sale market.

The stem portion of the bundle has to be


wrapped with news paper.
To avoid damage of the flowers and buds, the
whole bundle may be wrapped with soft,
white tissue paper or polythene.
Bundles have to be packed in card- board boxes
for long distance transportation.
STORAGE OF FLOWERS
The fresh flowers can be stored at 10oC.
EXTRACTION OF ESSENTIAL OIL
About 150 kg of flowers are required to
produce 1 kg of the brown, semi-solid absolute
of Enfleurage.
The extracted flowers will contain some natural
perfume and are treated with petroleum ether
to obtain the absolute of chassis as a valuable
by-product (yield 1.2-1.5%).
In recent years, the process of Enfleurage has
been partly replaced by solvent extraction,
which requires much less labour though the
yield of the absolute reduces considerably.
The extraction of the tuberose flowers with
petroleum ether yields 0.08-0.11 % of concrete,
which gives 18-23% of absolute on treatment
with alcohol and contains 3% steam distillate.
The concrete yield is about 17-18 kglha which
gives 3.5 kg absolute and 0.8 kg distillable oil.
RATOON CROPPING:
After harvesting the main crop, the flower
stalks are headed back (cut to the base) and
the plots are manured and irrigated.
About 3-4 ratoon crops can be taken from a
single planting.
LIFTING, CURING AND STORAGE OF BULBS:

Bulbs reach maturity at the cessation


of flowering when the leaves become
yellow and dry during winter
(February-March) in North India.

At this stage, irrigation is withheld


and the soil is allowed to dry.

The flower spikes are graded according to spike


length, length of the flowering zone and
quality of individual flowers
Bunched in round bundles each having about
50-100 spikes

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The leaves are cut off at the ground


level and the bulbs are dug out.

After digging, the bulbs are lifted out


and the adhering earth shaken off
neatly and thoroughly.

The offsets are then separated out by


hand, which are used as seed-stock for
the next season.

The bulbs are the graded based on the


size into mature (> 1.5 cm diameter)
and immature (< 1.5 cm diameter).

Cleaned and graded bulbs are placed


on sheaves to dry or cure.

To hasten curing, artificial heat of 27o


to 35o C may be applied.

The bulbs must be stirred or have


their position changed every few days
to prevent fungal attack and rotting.

An ambient air temperature of at least


18oC for four to six weeks or exactly
six weeks at 30oC stimulates the yield
of commercial sized bulbs.

Longer storage at 30oC advances


flower spike yield but the quality of
spike deteriorates and the bulb
number decreases.
@@@@@

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LECTURE-14
CHINA ASTER
[Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees]

It can be grown by small and marginal farmers.


Good seed setting and no dormancy.
ORIGIN AND HISTORY:

INTRODUCTION:
China aster belongs to the
family Asteraceae
Native to China.
The genus Callistephus has
only a single species known as chinensis.
USES:

The genus Callistephus derives its name from


two Greek words kalistos means most
beautiful and stephos means a crown
referring to the flowers.
Cassini described the China aster as Callistephus
hortensis. Linnaeus as Aster chinensis and Nees
subsequently changed this name to Callistephus
chinensis.
It was introduced in Europe during 1731 and
then spread to different part of the world.

China aster is one of the most popular of all


the garden annuals grown throughout the
world.

The first change in the flower type was the


development of the central florets, which led
to quelled flowers.

Used for flower arrangement and religious


offerings.

Used commercially as cut flowers for interior


decorations.

It is best flower in bouquets and other flower


arrangements.

The German developed the German aster or


double cultivar.
Comet types introduced in 1886 replaced the
quelled types.
Introduction of new branching types in 1893in
the USA.

Popular as pot plant. It is also used in garden


decoration as an herbaceous border.

The dwarf Pompon and Lilliput types can be


grown in window boxes and herbaceous
borders

IMPORTANCE

CLIMATE AND GROWING SEASONS:

China aster is normally a winter season


flowering annual.

The day temperature of 10-12oC is


favorable to develop large size flowers.

The colour is well developed in the


temperature range of 20-30oC during day
and 15-17o C during night with relative
humidity 50-60%.

Popularity is increasing in and around cities


due to its short duration and bewitching
colors.

In India it is widely grown in Karnataka,


Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Maharashtra.

It needs sufficient sun light for both better


growth and flowering.

Its accounting for 6 % of the total area and 8.8


% of the total flower production in Karnataka
state.

It needs limited rains, 500-700mm spread


over from June to September, followed by
provision of frequent but light irrigations.

Heavy and torrential rains cause fungal


disease like leaf spot and wilt.

It can be grown in various agro climate zones.


It is also suitable for growing as intercrop in
coconut gardens and orchards also.
Cheaply available cut flower.
It can be mixed with other cut flowers for
making bouquets.

LOCATION AND SOIL:

China aster prefers to grow in an open


sunny location.

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The crop is susceptible to more water


logging; hence well drained red loamy
soils are required.
The pH should be around 6.8-7.5.
Heavy soils with high calcium content are
not suitable.

GROWING SEASON:
Area
1. Bengaluru ( KNK)

2. Pune (MHR)
3. West Bengal
4. Delhi ( like places)

Growing season
Through out the year
May June
September- October
(with irrigation facility)
June July
October- November
First week of October
August, September

CULTIVATION:
PROPAGATION:
China aster is propagated through seeds.
A seed rate of 625 750 g/ha is sufficient.
The seeds will not have dormancy and
germinate in a week at about 21oC.
The seeds loose viability at a faster rate if
stored in ordinary containers for a longer
time, therefore it is advisable to use only
fresh seeds.
Normally the seeds germinate at a
temperature range of 10-35 C. The
optimum being 21oC + 4oC
NURSERY:
Generally sowing should be staggered by
10 15 days, so that one can get flowers
for longer time and also can avoid glut in
the market.
Seeds can be sown in seed pans for
obtaining seedlings for garden use and in
small quantities.
For commercial cultivation, seed is sown
in raised beds measuring120x60x10cms
(LxBxH).
The seeds are sown thinly to avoid lanky
tall seedlings.
The seeds are sown at 10 -12cms apart and
covered with a mixture of soil and FYM.

After sowing, the beds should be watered


gently with a rose can.

TRANSPLANTING:

Aster seedlings are usually transplanted


when they have developed about three to
four leaves.

Seedlings at too early or late stages should


be avoided and usually seedlings are
ready for transplanting within 30 - 45
days.

The seedlings are hardened sufficiently


before planting.

The transplanting should be done


preferably during early morning or
evenings to avoid bright sunlight.

After planting the soil around the


seedlings is to be firmed and watered
thoroughly.

FIELD PREPARATION AND SPACING:


The field should be ploughed thoroughly
and brought to a fine tilth.
About 10-15 tones of well-decomposed
farmyard manure may be incorporated in
the soil at the time of soil preparation.
In areas receiving high rainfall the
seedlings should be planted on ridges to
avoid chances of Fusarium wilt.
A general spacing of 30 x 30 cm may be
optimum for recommendation.
FERTILIZER REQUIREMENTS:

Application of manure and fertilizers in


required quantities is important for proper
growth, yield and quality of flowers.

The deficiency of nitrogen causes


dwarfing of the plants resulting in small
sized plants and flowers.

Phosphorus deficiency causes delayed


flowering.

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The
recommended
fertilizer
is180:120:60 kg NPK/ha.

Of which 90 kg nitrogen, full dose of P &


K has to be applied at the time of
preparation of land.

dose

Remaining 90 kg/ha nitrogen has to be


applied as top dressing at 40 days after
transplanting.

IRRIGATION:
Irrigation requirement depends upon the
weather, type of soil and season of the
crop grown.
Since China aster is a shallow rooted crop,
it needs continuous soil moisture
throughout the entire period of crop
growth.
It requires irrigation at intervals of 7 to 10
days.

Individual flowers are harvested for


decoration and worship purpose whereas
flowers along with stalk or the whole
plant just above the ground are cut for cut
flower purpose.

Flower yield depends upon season of


planting and cultural practices adopted.

On an average a fresh flower yield of


20-22 tons per ha during rainy season,
15.0 to 17.5 t per ha in winter and 10.012.0 t/ha in summer can be obtained.

YIELD:

@@@@@@

PINCHING:
Pinching of main shoot at one month after
transplanting promotes growth and
flowering.
Pinching delays first flowering by 8-12
days.
USE OF GROWTH REGULATORS:

In China aster, the number of flowers per


plant and the duration of flowering were
increased by spraying GA3 at 200 or
300ppm.
Foliar spry with MH delays flowering.

HARVESTING AND
POST HARVEST HANDLING:

Flowers are ready for harvesting in 10-12


weeks after transplanting.

Harvesting plays an important role in


determining the flower quality.

China aster is harvested in two different


ways.

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The preferred colours in Dutch markets are


orange and red followed by white and pink.

LECTURE-15
ANTHURIUM

Germany is the single largest importer of Dutch


Anthuriums followed by Italy and France.

INTRODUCTION
Anthurium is an evergreen, tropical herbaceous
plant cultivated for its
colourful
spathe
and
unusual attractive foliage.
Originating
tropics,

in

American

The genus Anthurium has 600


species,
which
are
distributed worldwide.
Among the number of species available, the
most popular and economically important
species are Anthurium andreanum and A.
Scherzerianum, which posses attractive longlasting inflorescence.
Several other species like A. Magnificium, A.
Digitatum, A. Crystallinum, A. Watermaliense,
A. Clarinervium and A. Hookeri are grown for
their excellent foliage.
The Anthurium belongs to family Araceae.
Derives its name from Greek language Anthos
means flower and Oura means tail
indicating the flower with a tail.
ANTHURIUM
SCENARIO

PRODUCTION

WORLD

Anthurium ranked eleventh in the global flower


trade is next only to orchids among the
tropical flowers.
Until 1970, Hawaii was the worlds leading
producer and exporter of Anthurium flowers.
In the last ten years, the Hawaiian Anthurium
industry has declined because of bacterial
blight.
This is one of the major problems the
Anthurium growers face worldwide.

Mauritius is the second largest producer and


exporter of Anthuriums.
During the last ten years, the Anthurium
flowers from Hawaii are exported to the main
land United States of America or to Japan.
Anthurium is also produced commercially in
Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Thailand, Sri
Lanka, Singapore and Taiwan.
In India, Anthurium cultivation, which was
mainly a hobby, is transformed into a
commercial business by enterprising coffee
and tea planters, who were initially
responsible for bringing many exotic varieties
into India.
The coastal belts of south India, Eastern and
Western Ghats and North-East hilly regions
are potential area where Anthurium cultivation
can be taken up on a large scale.
Bestowed with natural wealth, the coffee belt
along the Coorg district in Karnataka as many
as 100 Anthurium growers, who have formed
an Anthurium club to promote and safeguard
the interest of Anthurium cultivation.
The Coorg Anthuriums are presently marketed
in nearly cities like Bangalore, Mangalore,
Mysore, Goa, etc., from where they reach
other flower markets in Delhi, Mumbai and
Kolkata.
Anthurium cultivation on commercial scale is
also concentrated around Pune, Nashik,
Mumbai, Trivendrum, Cochin, etc. Sensing the
potential of this crop, corporate houses are
also enthused to cultivate exotic varieties
imported mostly from Hawaii or the
Netherlands.
PLANT MORPHOLOGY

Anthurium andreanum a perennial with


creeping, climbing or arborescent stem s
with lots of aerial roots.

The attractive colourful plant that is


traded is actually a modification of the
leaf, which is botanically called spathe.

Presently, the Netherlands is the worlds


leading producer and exporter.
The Dutch production is concentrated during
May to October because of bright light
intensity during these months.

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A cylindrical fleshy spadix originates


from the same junction and produces a
number of bisexual flowers (150-250
flowers) which are arranged in
concentric whorls.

The female part of the flower matures


first (protogynous), which can be
noticed by nectar like secretions in the
form of shining droplets on the flowers.

The anthers dehisce at a later stage


forcing the flowers to cross pollinate.

AVAILABLE GERMPLASM
The genus Anthurium can be categorized into
two distinct groups
o Flowering types and
o Foliage types.
FLOWERING TYPE
Anthurium andreanum,
omaturm, etc.

A. seherzerianum,

A.

FOLIAGE TYPE
A. Clarinervium, A. corrugatum, A.crystallinum,
A. digitatum
A. holtanianum, A. leuconerum A. magnificum, A.
pentaphyllum
A. pedetoradiatum, A. olfersianum, A. hookeri, A.
veitchii
A. warocqueanum, A. watermaliense etc.
Besides these coloured varieties there are many
varieties that are bicoloured.
Such bicoloured varieties are known as Obakes
in trade.
Examples of obakes include;
Madona (Cream obake)
Farao (bright orange with green borders)
Lamboda (white-green obake) and Fla
rose (Peach)
TYPES OF ANTHURIUM
There are three basic types of Anthurium
flowers
1. STANDARD:
They have the most common
heart shape, the spathe lobes
often overlap.

Sizes range from 12x11cm to 20x18cm.


Colour range includes red, orange, pink, Coral,
white and green.
2. OBAKE:
Popular for their two-tone
coloration usually a bicolour pattern of green and
a major spathe colour.
Some varieties will lose their green colour in
summer resulting in solid coloured spathe.
Sizes vary from 8x7cm miniatures 28x23cm
large varieties.
3. TULIP:
They have up right cup
shaped spathe with a
straight and erect spadix.
The spathe size ranges
from 10x6cm.
Tulip types are mostly
hybrids with more than one species as their
parents.
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Anthurium passes through two distinctive
growth phases,
o A juvenile phase and
o A generative phase.
The juvenile phases where only vegetative
growth is observed and characterized by the
presence of vegetative buds in the axils of the
leaf.
The juvenile phase is relatively long and the
plants remain vegetative for 12-18 months.
The plants enter the generative phase
characterized by the transformation of
vegetative buds to floral buds in the leaf axils.
The sequence of a new leaf and emergence of
flower is more or less maintained from then
onwards.

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GROWING ENVIRONMENT
Diurnal temperature, light and humidity play a
major role in the growth and flowering of
Anthuriums.
DIURNAL TEMPERATURE
For a luxuriant growth the cultivated
Anthurium
(A.
andreanum
and
A.
scherzerianum) required 18.3oC during night
whereas
A higher night temperature of 21.2 to 23.9 oC is
essential for initiation of flowering.

below it, so that the light levels at the plant


growth can be modified depending upon the
ambient light conditions.
Anthurium can be shaded with saran or with
UV stabilized agro shade nets for providing
uniform shading.
The shade nets can be operated manually by
closely watching the external light intensity.
RELATIVE HUMIDITY

Anthurium thrives well in areas having high


relative humidity levels, which are common in
coastal areas of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra
Pradesh and Maharashtra, high rainfall areas
of Western, Eastern Ghats and North Eastern
hilly regions.

The optimum relative humidity levels range


from 50 to 85% and at humidity levels less
than 50%, the vegetative growth is slower and
the flower development is poor.

Anthurium
cannot
tolerate
freezing
temperature. At the same time Anthuriums do
not prefer temperatures above 35 oC.
If the temperature exceeds 35 degree centigrade
coupled with low relative humidity leaf
scorching is common.
LIGHT

Anthurium is basically a shade loving plant.

During summer where the light intensity is


more, Anthurium plants are provided with 75
to 80% shade allowing only 20-25% of light to
reach the plants.

The range of light intensity that suits


Anthurium cultivation is 20,000 to 25,000 lux.

Higher light intensity coupled with low


relative humidity and poor shading often
results in scorching of young leaves and
immature flower buds.

FLORAL DEVELOPMENT

The elongation of the stem bearing the


spadix begins about one month after
expansion of the subtending leaf.

This is subtending by a showy leaf-like


structure called a spathe.

The cycle of the leaf and flower emergence


varies with the season.

3 to 8 flowers per plant per year can be


expected.

The Anthurium flower is a spadix or


inflorescence spike, cylindrical in shape,
bearing up to 250-300 inconspicuous
bisexual flowers arranged in a series of
spirals.

Anthuriums are tropical plants, requiring high


temperature and relative humidity.

Anthuriums have a moderate to low light


requirement and require 75 to 80% shade.

The spadix and spathe are borne on a


leafless stem or peduncle.

Commercial flower harvesting takes place


when approximately three quarters of the
stigmas along the spadix have become
receptive.

In places with moderate climate where the


light intensity is not so high, the plants can be
provided with 65 to 75% shade.

SHADING

To ensure the highest possible production


during winter the shading should be removed
at the onset of winter.
In commercial practice it is advisable to have
50% shade net on the top and a 25% shade net

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GROWING STRUCTURES
Depending upon the area of cultivation, the
growing structures can be modified to suit the
local climatic conditions.
Commercial scale Anthurium cultivation can be
taken up in

Provision can be made for installing overhead


sprinkler/misters/fogging
systems
by
running GI wires from one end to another
end.
CLIMATE CONTROLLED GREEN HOUSES
The capital investment and the level of

o Low cost polyhouses,


o Shade houses or
o Climate controlled green houses.
LOW COST POLY HOUSES

In areas where the relative humidity


levels are low and the temperature
levels are high, low cost poly houses
are more suitable for commercial
cultivation of Anthuriums.

By creating a protected climate by


cladding UV stabilized polythene, the
relative humidity levels can be easily
maintained and by providing top or
side ventilation, the hot air can be
easily expelled.

Inside the poly house, the top portion


can be provided with layers of two
shade nets (50% and 25%).
If the light intensity is very high a thin
film of calcium chloride or lime can be
sprayed on the external surface of the
poly house to reduce the incoming
radiation.

SHADE HOUSES
In many of the commercial Anthurium growing
areas, shade houses are the most popular
structures because of the simplicity of
construction and low cost.
The shade houses can be constructed by taking
the support of existing tree trunks if the
Anthuriums are grown in multistoried
plantation cropping.
In open areas wooden, granite or pillars can be
erected at regular intervals connected by GI
wires as a mesh on top.
Shade net can be covered on the top to provide
the required shade 75%, (ie., 50 +25%, shade
nets).

sophistication is more in climate controlled


green houses than the previous two structures.
Climate controlled green houses can be
adopted for growing Anthuriums in areas
where conditions of growing are not so
congenial or
To produce top quality blooms exclusively for
export markets.
Unless it is warranted it is not advisable to go
for such capital intensive structures.
PHYSIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS
1) Excess light
Symptoms Leaves appear bleached in the
centers and may have brown tips.
Control Increase shade so as to reduce light
level to 1800-2500 foot-candles.
2) Over fertilization
Symptoms Lower leaves become yellow and
develop brown tips, which gradually enlarge.

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Control Reduce fertilization and leach soils


thoroughly. Check roots for damage and
possibility of secondary infection by fungus or
bacteria.

India has a rich wealth of coconut plantations


throughout southern India, the byproducts of
which can be exploited for Anthurium.

The coconut waste generated from the


industry and in the trade can be collected and
washed repeatedly to wash of the excess salts
especially sodium chloride.

The coconut waste is allowed to decompose


by using microbial (Pleurotus sp.) inoculation
to the stock of coconut husk/coco-coir/coir
dust.

3) Lack of flowering
Symptoms Mature plants produce many
leaves but few flowers. No flowers on the
lateral shoots.
Control Increase light level to 1800-2500 footcandles. Maintain higher light intensity as
long as leaves do not develop symptoms
mentioned in 1) above.
GROWING MEDIA

A). IN POTS

Anthurium requires a highly organic, well


aerated medium with good water retention.
However, the secret of success for commercial
cultivation is to have good drainage in the
medium used.
An ideal medium for pots or ground potting
should have the following properties;
Good water holding Must
provide
good
capacity.
anchorage.
High porosity.

Should have optimum pH


(5.0)
and EC (0.6m
mhos/cm2)
Good aeration.
Good structure and texture.
Low salt concentration (especially Na2, Cl and Ca2+
ions).
Various natural derivatives, which
satisfy the above conditions, were tried to grow
Anthuriums commercially. The range of media
that were used so far includes;
Sugarcane bagasse
Saw dust
Coffee leaf mould
Spent ground coffee

Tree bark
Chicken manure

Coffee husk

Ground nut shells

Cured coffee pulp

Peat

Coffee parchment

Wood shavings

Rock wool

Brick, gravel, rubble etc

CULTIVATION:

In many Anthurium growing countries,


coconut husk and coco-peat have become the
most popular media for Anthurium cultivation.

Anthurium especially the miniature type, A.


scherzerianum and its hybrids have to be
grown in pots to use them as potted plants.
When young the plants can be planted in
smaller pots (4) and as they grow they can be
shifted to bigger pots (6 to 10 diameter).
Depending on the plant size, the pots have to
be arranged in such a way that the foliage
does not overlap with the leaves of adjacent
pots.
B). IN BEDS
When planting
is done in soil,
the
plants
have to be
grown in 1.00
meter
wide
raised
beds
with gentle slope, which facilitates good
drainage.
The beds have to be raised approximately 30cm
in height which gets compressed due to
frequent irrigation and other cultural
practices.
The beds are prepared by digging about 2 feet
deep and filling the pits with the chosen
growing medium.
The dug out soil is thoroughly mixed with
chosen growing medium and is used as top
layer to create the raised beds.

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The mixing of soil with the medium, which is


otherwise loose and friable, prevents runoff of
the medium.
PLANTING
Avoid
planting
during seasons with
high
temperature
and high rainfall.
Make
sure
the
bed/medium
is
evenly moist but not
wet.
Provide an initial fertilizer dose having
increased potassium and lower calcium levels.
Dip the roots in a fungicide solution before
planting (@ 0.1% Bavistin).
Plant them in rows in cross wise pattern.
Plant at an optimum depth (15cm deep so that
new aerial roots appear above the planting
surface.

Do not prune the leaves immediately after


planting, allow the plants to establish and cut
down to three to four leaves.

PLANTING DENSITY
Depending upon the varieties, Anthurium is
also planted at a distance of ,
30 cm x 30 cm (accommodates 6 to 7 plants/m2)
/30 cm x 60 cm/45 cm x 60 cm.
The optimum spacing for commercial
cultivation of Anthurium is 45 x 45cm, which
accommodates 5 plants/m2.
A closer planting of 30cm apart is also
recommended to accommodate 7 to 10
plants/m2 (61,750 plants/ha).
At higher plant densities though Anthuriums
produce more, dense planting restricts air
circulation and interferes with spray
penetration.
Hence, disease and pest
management becomes difficult.

IRRIGATION
Anthurium requires generous watering and
should be irrigated at least twice a day in
summer months.
In field grown plantations besides ground level
irrigation, the plants can also be watered using
overhead sprinklers.
Irrigation can be accomplished by flooding
beds or by installing micro-sprinklers at the
plant level.
NUTRITION
Anthuriums prefer smaller doses of fertilizers at
frequent intervals rather than larger doses in
longer intervals.
For pot cultivation it is advisable to apply 5g of
any complex fertilizer in 500ml of water (1%)
once in a month.
Anthuriums can also efficiently
nutrients thorough foliage.

take

up

Foliar application of 0.1% urea at monthly


intervals is found to be beneficial.
Adequate levels of calcium and magnesium are
also necessary for optimum yield.
Deficiency of calcium often results in color
break in the spathes. Application of 5g of
CaNo3 at monthly intervals stabilizes the
spathe color.
On average Anthuriums require two liters of
water/m. sq. per day when supplied through
online drippers.
One gram of fertilizer per every one liter of
water is found to be suitable for good growth
of Anthurium.
After fertilizer application thorough watering is
essential @ two liters of plain water/m2 to
prevent accumulation of excess salts in the
root zone, which otherwise lead to scorching
of roots and leaves.
In high rainfall areas the nutrients get washed
away in the rain water, slow releasing
fertilizers like osmocote, neem coated urea etc.
are preferred in such areas.
In commercial plantations, fertilizers are
applied to the plants through ground level

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sprinklers or through the Drip irrigation


system.

auxins (IBA & NAA) hastens the sprouting


and rooting.

Depending on the nutrient status of the


medium, the following combinations of
nutrients are supplied through irrigation
water by many commercial growers.

Vegetative propagation by terminal cuttings


and stem sections are very slow.
2.

The highly condensed underground stem often


produces shoots at the plant base.

PROPAGATION:
BY SEEDS

Such multiple shoots may be with or without


roots and they can be separated from mother
plant and planted in individual pots.

Conventionally Anthuriums are propagated by


seeds.
Anthurium can be very easily grown by seeds,
but it is an extremely slow process.

The suckering capacity can be improved by


exogenous application of growth regulators
like BAP (@75 ppm) at monthly interval.

The berries (fruit of Anthurium) pop out


extremely slow process.
The seed (sometimes two) is enveloped by
juicy, mucilaginous pulp which depending
needs to be removed completely before
sowing.
The time required from pollination to the
maturity of the seeds is about 6-7 months.
Seeds cannot be stored and this should be sown
immediately.

3.

Anthurium starts producing suckers once they


attain an age of 12-16 months.

TISSUE CULTURE
Anthuriums are highly amenable for in-vitro
propagation using different parts as explants.

HARVESTING

in

Anthurium flowers are harvested when the


spathe is completely unfurls and the spadix is
well developed.

In fact, there may be a great variation in flower


production, colour and shape.

Development of true flowers on the spadix is


also used as a criterion for harvesting the
blooms.

The flowering starts after two years.


Seed propagated
uniformity.

cultivars

are

poor

Depending upon the type of medium used the


seeds will germinate in 10 to 40 days.
The seedlings can be transferred to individual
pots when they attain 3-4 leaf stage.
1.

BY SUCKERS

THROUGH CUTTINGS
Anthurium can be vegetatively propagated
through cuttings obtained from fully grown
plants.
Since, the vegetative growth is slow; the plants
require at least 3-4 years to elongate and to
produce 5-6 nodes and internodes.
Cuttings can be made by cutting just below the
node, so that each cutting has single eye or
bud in it.
The buds sprout in 20-30 days from the cuttings
treated with growth hormones especially, the

When one third of the flowers on the spadix


mature, change of colour can be observed that
moves from base to tip of spadix at that stage
the flowers are harvested.
Harvesting has to be done during cooler parts
of the day i.e. early morning or late evening.
The flowers are cut below leaving 2cm stem on
the plant & kept in the bucket containing
water.
Flowers are graded according to the length of
the stalk and diameter of the spathe
The flower stalk length varies from 25 to 50cm.
Depending upon the cultural practices,
planting density and variety, 5 to 10 flowers
can be obtained per plant per year.
An average yield of 2,25, 000 blooms of
exportable quality can be obtained per
hectares per year.

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Average price of Anthurium in Europe is US


$1.50 per flower.
In the India cities, prices vary from Rs.15 to
Rs.30 per flower in florist shops, while
growers get Rs.6 to Rs.10 per flower.

STORAGE AND VASE LIFE

Anthurium can be easily stored at 13oC for


2-3 weeks.

The flowers, which are harvested when th


of the length of the spadix colour changes,
last longer than the other flowers which are
harvested either early or late.

The average vase life depends upon life of


flowers ranges between 12-24 days
depending upon the cultivars.

We can expect 5-7 flowers per year per plant for


first one and half year to two years and
10 to 12 flowers per plant per year after 2 years
of planting.
Generally, some varieties are high productive &
some are low productive.
6-8 months after planting we can harvest the
flowers.
Besides flowers, Anthurium leaves can be sold
in the international market.
POST HARVEST HANDLING
1. PACKING

POST HARVEST QUALITY REQUIREMENT


o

The size, shape, colour and texture of the


spathe gets prior consideration.

A heart-shaped symmetrical spathe with


overlapping or fused lobes is desirable.

The spathe should be free from any kind of


damages and infestation.

Straight and sturdy flower stems with


shorter internodes are preferred.

Dutch packing puts few Anthuriums in a


box to make sure that the Anthurium
spathes do not bruise.

PEST AND DISEASES

Within each box flowers are of a uniform


grade and generally of the same colour.

PESTS:

Individual flowers are packed with water


vials filled with water with preservative
solution.

Flowers are packed so as not to touch each


other or the ends of the box.

White foam rubber cushions are used to


support the spadix.

If flowers are layered, 4cm thick plastic


sheeting is inserted between the layers.

White cellulose shredding is used around


the ends, particularly in the winter, when
foam peanuts or other white foam pieces
may be included in the box for insulation.

PACKAGING
Anthurium packaging is into boxes of white
surfaced corrugated cardboard,
The lids which have been printed with 3-colour
logos and lettering.
European Carton Sizes-100x20x10cm, 100 x 40 x
12 cm and 100 x 40 x 14.5 cm
In Hawaii standard master cartons are 43 x 23 x
11 inches and contain smaller boxes inside,
called trays.

The plants are occasionally infested by


aphids, scale insects, mites, thrips, mole
cricket and beetles.

Dimethoate (0.3 per cent) is effective to


control aphids.

Scale insects attack leaves and stems and


weaken the plants by sucking the plant
sap.Malathion (0.1 per cent) spray controls
them

DISEASE:
Bacterial Diseases
Soft rot (Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora),
Xanthomonas blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv.
Dieffenbachiae),
Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides),
Phytophthora leaf spot,
Flower blight, and
Root rot (Phytophthora parasitica)
Nematode:
Burrowing nematode decline (Radopholus similis)

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LECTURE-16
POST HARVEST TECHNIQUES OF CUT
FLOWERS
IMPORTANCE OF POST HARVEST HANDLING OF
FLOWERS:
The quality of flowers, which reaches the final
consumer, depends on the pre-harvest and
post-harvest handling.

Quality is the pillar for creating value and


customer satisfaction

Pre-harvest conditions under which the crop is


grown influences on the post-harvest life of
flowers.
Selection of the variety,
Environmental factors like light, temperature,
relative humidity
Nutrition, irrigation,
pollution, etc

diseases

and

pests,

The flowers are highly perishable need utmost


care.

RIGHT TIME, METHOD AND STAGE OF


HARVEST FOR DIFFERENT COMMERCIAL
FLOWERS

When flowers are detached from the plant, they


deprived of food, water, minerals and
hormones.

Right time, method and stage of harvesting


influence the vase life of flowers.

It is estimated that about 30% of flowers perish


during handling.
Therefore it is important to study post-harvest
handling of flowers to keep flowers in good
quality.
INHERENT FACTORS
HARVEST LIFE:

PRE-HARVEST FACTORS INFLUENCING POSTHARVEST LIFE:

INFLUENCING

POST-

Keeping quality of flowers vary from species


and cultivars, this may be due to genetic or
inherent factors like differences in anatomical,
physiological, physical, biochemical and genetic
make up.

Keeping quality of flowers also depends on,

Carbohydrate reserves,

Osmotic concentration,

Pressure potential of petal cells,

Stomatal functioning,

Difference in number of thick walled supporting


cells in the xylem element and phloem fibre,

Presence or absence of a complete ring of


secondary thickening in flower peduncles,

Differences in the diffusive resistance of leaves


in the field.

Lignifications,

Level of plant hormones and

Susceptibility to disease and insects.

Harvest early in morning or in the late evening


when temperatures are mild to avoid faster
respiration rate to excessive water loss.
Flowers are fully turgid due to low
transpiration at night (rose, chrysanthemum,
gerbera).
Evening harvest is advocated because of higher
sugar level in the stem due to high rates of
photosynthesis during day time.
Immediately after harvest the flowers should
be put in water or preservative solutions.
Right method of harvest includes cutting
flower stem with sharp knives or secateurs;
Avoid crushing of stem, giving slanting cut to
hard wood stems so as to expose maximum
surface area to ensure rapid water absorption.
Cutting stem length at specific lengths
depending on crop market, purpose, etc,.
Harvesting at an optimum maturity stage is
important and stage of harvest varies from
crop to crop and varieties.

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OPTIMUM
Sl. No.
1
2

STAGES

OF

Flowers
Rose
Jasmine

Anthurium

Chrysanthemum

Carnation

Gerbera

7
8

Gladiolus
China Aster

HARVESTING
Purpose
Cut flower
Loose flower
Oil extraction
Cut flower
Standard
Spray
Pompons and
decorative
Anemones
Standard
Spray
Cut flower

FOR

IMPORTANT FLOWERS:

Stage of Harvest
1-2 petals beginning to unfold. At tight bud stage.
Matured, unopened bud stage
Fully opened flowers
Spadix almost fully developed 1/3rd of flowers on spadix
mature. Change of colour from base to top.
When outer florets fully expanded
Flowers open but before shedding of pollens
Centre of the oldest flower fully open
Open but before central disc florets begin to elongate.
Paint brush stage when flowers are half open
At least two flowers fully open
Flowers open but outer two rows show shedding of pollens
(fully mature)
1-5 florets show colour
Fully opened flower with long stalk
Fully opened with short or no stem

Cut flower
Cut flower
Loose flower
and
oil
extraction
9
Tuberose
Cut flower
When few flowers open at the base
Loose flower When all the flowers are fully opened
and
oil
extraction
Why immediately after harvesting of flower the stalk
Temperature, Relative humidity, Light,
ends should be kept in water?
Ethylene
Cut stem is a living entity, deprived of
Pathogens are import factors determine the
natural source of water further,
storage life of flowers.
The flowering buds require water for
Flowers should be of good quality free from
opening.
injury, pest and diseases otherwise prone to
The turgidity of the floral parts and cut
ethylene production and infection with
stem depends on water absorption by the
pathogens.
stem, to meet water loss through
Harvested at optimum stage,
transpiration,

To avoid plugging of xylem vessels


caused due to micro organisms and

To avoid air bubbles block in the xylem


vessels.

The physical blockage of xylem vessels


leads to decrease in water uptake by the
stem tending towards senescence.

FACTORS
FLOWERS:

AFFECTING

Quality of flowers,
Stage of harvest,

STORAGE

LIFE

OF

Stored at cool temperature (1-4oc)


High relative humidity (90-95%) and
maintenance of storage room in hygienic
conditions are important.
CONDITIONING AND PRE-COOLING OF CUT
FLOWERS:
Conditioning referred to placing of stem cut
ends in water immediately after harvest to
avoid water stress;
Generally conditioning is done by placing stem
ends immersed in warm water at room
temperature for short duration and overnight
in the cold room.

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Pre-cooling referred to subjecting flowers


under cold storage conditions immediately
after harvest to brings down the respiration
rate and field heat and ultimately to enhance
the vase life and quality of cut flowers.
The pre-cooling temperature varies with the
species and cultivars.
PRE-COOLING TEMPERATURE FOR CERTAIN
FLOWERS:

Crop
Rose
Anthurium
Gerbera

Precooling
temp.
(o C)
1-3
13
4

Dendrobium
Carnation
Chrysanthemum

Crop
Cymbidium
Gladiolus
Bird of
Paradise

Precooling
temp.
(o C)
0.5-4
4-5
7-8

5-7
0.5-1
0.5-4

METHODS OF STORAGE OF CUT FLOWERS?


There are 3-4 general methods of storage of flowers,
they

For sub-tropical flowers like gladiolus, Strelitzia


and anemone is 2-8o C.
2.

Controlled atmosphere storage (CA):


Low temperature storage in gas tight
chambers under decreased levels of oxygen (O2)
and increased levels of carbon dioxide (CO2).

CO2 levels higher than 4% and O2 level lower


than 0.4 per cent causes injury and anaerobic
conditions respectively.
Different types of flowers cannot be store in the
same room at the same time since the O2 and
CO2 required for storage vary for different
flowers and it is the one major limitation in CA
storage.
3.

Modified Atmosphere storage (MA):

Less precise form of CA storage, the dry storage


of flowers in sealed bags leads to reduction in
O2 and increase in CO2 levels due to respiration
of the tissue.
Build up of very high level of CO2 may cause
damage to flowers.
Flowers stored in partially permeable materials
are beneficial.
4.

Hypobaric or Low pressure storage (LPS):

1. Refrigerated storage: Most widely used method


of storage of cut flowers. There are two types
(a) Wet storage and (b) dry storage.

Storage at low atmosphere pressure under


refrigerated conditions, continuous ventilation
and high relative humidity.

Wet storage :

Rapid loss of water from tissues is major


disadvantage and cost of installation is also
high.

Flowers stored with their bases dipped in water


or preservative solution,
Good for short duration, day to day handling,
Stored at a temperature at 2-4oC.
Dry storage :
Flowers sealed in plastic bags are stored to
prevent loss of moisture.
More laborious but hold the flowers for longer
duration.
Pre-cooling and pulsing before dry storage is
important.
Stored at 0.5 to 1.0 o C is ideal for most flowers,
For tropical flowers like anthurium, cattleya and
poinsettia is 10-15o C and

The optimum storage temperature and duration of


storage varies with flower type.
The
recommended commercial storage conditions
for important flowers at 90-95% RH is as
follows.
Maximum
Storage
storage
Storage
Crop
temperature
period
(oC)
(days)
Dry
0-1
16-24
Carnation
0.5-1
21
Chrysanthemum
2.00
2
Gerbera
4-5
5-7
Gladiolus
0.5-2
7
Rose

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Wet

Anthurium
Carnation
Dendrobium
Gerbera
Gladiolus
Tuberose
Rose

13
0.5-1
5-7
4
4-5
7-10
2-3

14-28
21-28
10-14
4-7
7
3-5
5-7

GRADING AND ITS METHODS FOLLOWED FOR


IMPORTANT FLOWERS:
Grading refers to categorization of flowers on
the basis of their quality.
Each bunch should be of same size, weight and
quality before marketing them.
Mostly grading is done on the basis of
appearance, harvesting maturity, blemishes or
injuries due to disease, attack of insects or
pests, colour and size of the bud, straightness,
strength and length of the stem.
The flowers should look fresh, harvested at
right maturity, free from pests and diseases;
Stem should be straight, free from side shoots
and should be strong enough to hold the
flower erect.
The foliage should be free from physiological
disorders such as bent neck (in roses), tip
bending (in gladiolus), stem break (in gerbera)
and calyx splitting (in carnation) etc.
There are no uniform common standards for
flowers in the world; many countries have
developed their own grading systems based
upon the market requirements.
GERBERA

BUNCHING / BUNDLING
Flowers immediately after harvest, are made
into bunches of 5, 10, 12 or 20 stems and
loosely tied with rubber hand at the base and
close to the bunched head.
Bunching should be done carefully to avoid
bruising.
Remove lower leaves, uniform fresh basal cut is
given manually or mechanical.
Bunching helps for easy packing and handling.
Flowers such as gerbera, orchids, anthurium,
and standard chrysanthemum are packed
individually.
Dendrobium and anthurium are kept moist by
putting them in specially designed vials filled
with water or in moist wool.
The bunches are held in polyethylene sleeves or
the buds are wrapped in corrugated paper to
protect them from mechanical damage.
PACKING METHODS FOR CUT FLOWERS:
The method of packing depends on crop,
flower, method of transport and market.
The principle of packing is to keep the flowers
for long time and retain quality by lowering
the rate of transpiration and cell division
during transportation and storage.
The ideal packing should be air tight, moisture
proof and strong enough to withstand
handling, transport and staking.
Corrugated fiber board boxes possessing
isothermic properties, light in weight and
reusable are generally suitable.
The dimension of packing boxes depends on
stem length, type of flower, efficient
utilization of space in the cargo, refrigerated
trucks, etc.

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BOX SIZES, WHICH ARE COMMONLY USED FOR


PACKING FLOWERS ARE:
Flower
Carnation
Chrysanthemum
Gladiolus
Rose

Length
(cm)
100
80
120
100

Width
(cm)
40
50
50
40

Height
(cm)
20
23
15
30

Weight
(kg)
13
15
15
17

Large size 50 kg returnable boxes holding 1000


to 2000 stems are being increasingly used by
large exporters.

Wet packing for orchids, anthuriums,


polyethylene
foil
cover
for
gerbera,
chrysanthemum and anthuriums, special
packing for exotic flowers and orchids are
taken up.

The packed boxes are cooled by forced air


cooling method where vents on boxes (4-5%)
are provided to pass cool air inside the box on
flowers wrapped with polyethylene foil.
Refrigerated storage and hypobaric storage are
also used to store boxes.

PACKAGING:

1. Protection
Mechanical
Injuries
(Cuts,
bruises, mechanical,
punctures, abrasions)
Unfavourable environment.
Exposure to harmful gases.
Enables transport.
2. Preservation

Quality and shelf life (prevents moisture


loss)

3. Presentation
Display of Info about the product/
communication & advertizing, trade mark
Market penetration & competitiveness
Value Addition - silent salesman

TYPES OF PACKAGING
Primary packaging
container that
directly holds the
product
Eg.,
Wrapping materials (paper,
polythene),vases, bouquests, carton, crates, etc
Secondary packaging - any outer wrapping
that help to store, transport, inform, display
and protect the product
Eg. CFBs, decorated carton, gift boxes, etc
Tertiary packaging - grouping of products for
storage and transportation.
Eg.
Pallet
Boxes,
plastic/wooden boxes

CFBs,

cartons,

LABELING:
The packed boxes should be labeled,
o Crop,
o Variety,
o Colour
o Grade or standard,
o Grower identification
o Date of harvest
o Quantity etc.
TRANSPORT:
The flowers are usually transported by air and
by refrigerated vans.
For short distance and local markets, transport
through rail or non-refrigerated insulated
trucks can be used.
The flowers such as gladiolus, snapdragon,
antirrhinum and freesia which show bending
of tips should be hold vertically during
transport.
PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING FLOWER
SENESCENCE:
Loss of dry matter due to hydrolysis of
macromolecules such as starch, sugars,
proteins and nucleic acid.
Break down of starch into sugars which are
transported to the flowers.

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Release of ammonia due to break down of


proteins causes bluing of petals.

MEANS TO
FLOWERS:

2.

Use always clean tools to cut the flowers.

3.

Immediately after harvesting and after


transport place stem end in water or hydrating
solution (citric acid 300ppm).

4.

Discard damaged, bruised flowers and leaves


from the stem to prevent ethylene production
and infection with pathogens.

5.

Use always clean vases, change vase water


daily.

6.

Remove basal leaves submerged in vase


solution and give basal re-cut to avoid
microbial growth and plugging of xylem.

7.

Flowers like dahlia and narcissus release


milky fluid and mucilaginous substances
which spoil vase solution. Therefore, keep
them in water for 24 hours before using along
with other flowers.

8.

Adding sucrose and biocide to vase solution


increases vase life of cut flowers.

9.

Keep vases away from source of heat, fan and


near windows

OF

CUT

Pulsing, spray, dipping or gazing treatments.


Preservatives, sucrose, surfactants,
growth regulators, ethylene inhibitors.

Changes in vascular system break down of


vessel cells and appearance of globular bodies.

Ensure that the flowers are harvested at right


stage.

LIFE

Cleaning.

Peak respiration rate at bud opening and


during senescence period.

1.

VASE

Harvest high quality flowers.

Change in membrane permeability results in


leakage of pigments, mineral ions and total
electrolytes leading to death of tissues.

GENERAL POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR


IMPROVEMENT OF VASE LIFE OF CUT
FLOWERS:

EXTEND

plant

Cooling chain from packing to consumer.


Vase solution (sucrose, preservatives).

VASE LIFE OF CUT FLOWERS:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

China aster
Birds of Paradise
Carnation
Chrysanthemum
Gladiolus
Lily
Orchid
Rose (HT Rose)
Spray Rose
Tuberose

: 5 to 10 days.
: 1 to 2 weeks.
: 03 weeks.
: 1 to 2 weeks.
: 6-12 days
: 4 to 14 days.
: 3 to 4 weeks
: 7 to 10 days.
: 7 to 10 days.
: 7 to 10 days.

@@@@@@

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Crop
ROSE

GLADIOLUS

CARNATION

CHRYSANTHE
MUM

Grading method/s
Based on stem length,
Long stemmed graded from 40-90 cm with difference of 10 cm,
Short stemmed from 40-65 with 5 cm difference.
Leaves dark green, healthy, free from dust, residue pest and disease.
Buds should not be bull head, too opened, too tight, bent neck, and strong stem.
Generally based on stem length,
Number of florets per spike,
Long spikes with more florets fetch better price.
Stem straight,
Colour of florets,
Optimum stage of openness of florets, etc.
According to North American Gladiolus Council (NAGC), USA
Minimum No. of florets
Grade
Spike length (cm)
1.
2.
3.
4.

Fancy (Grade A)
107
Special (Grade B)
96-107
Standard (Grade C)
81-96
Utility (Grade D)
<81
Based on the degree of bud opening
Flower diameter
Stem length, strongest of stem etc.
According to Society of American Florists, USA
Minimum flower
Grade
Diameter (mm)
Blue
Tight
50
(Fancy)
Fairly tight
20
Open
75
Tight
44
Red (Standard)
Fairly tight
56
Open
69
Tight
<50
Fairy tight
< 50
Green (short)
Fairy tight
< 50

Minimum
(cm)

stem

length

55

43

30

Generally based on stem length and flower size,


Long stem and large sized flowers fetch better price.
According to Society of American Florists, USA
Grade

GERBERA

16
14
12
10

1.
2.
3.

Minimum flower
diameter (cm)
Blue (fancy)
14.0
Red (special)
12.1
Green (short)
10.2
Based on straight, strong, length of stem (40cm minimum),
Flowers uniform in size, not less than 7 cm.

Minimum
(cm)

stem

length

76
76
61

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ANTHURIUM

TUBEROSE

Generally, based on spathe size,


Straightness of stem, freshness, colour etc.
According to USA and Holland based on
Size of the spathe
Grade
Holland (inches)
USA (cm)
1. Extra large
>6
>15
2. Large
5-6
13-15
3. Medium
4-5
10-13
4. Small
3-4
8-10
5. Miniature/Tiny
<3
<8
Based on stalk length,
number of florets per spike,
weight of spike,
Straight and strongness, uniform length and uniform stage of development.

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LECTURE-17

friendly alternative to fresh flowers.


These can be offered in hospitals and
pollen allergic people.

DRY FLOWER TECHNOLOGY


2.

Economical and long lasting: It can


be reused several times compared to
fresh flowers.

3.

Dried
flowers
are
throughout the year.

4.

It can survive the heat of summer and


cold of winter.

5.

Especially useful in autumn and


winter when flowers are scarce and
expensive. During this period fresh
flower availability is less in temperate
countries
because
of
chilling
temperature. Cost of production is
high due to heating requirement in
green houses and non-availability of
open field grown flowers.

6.

More flexibility than fresh flowers. We


can increase the length of flower stalk
by using artificial stem. Thus creative
possibilities are greater in dried
flowers.

7.

Less transportation cost. Dry flowers


can be transported through sea,
whereas fresh flowers need quick
transportation through the air, a costly
affair. Fresh flowers need cold storage
also.

In dried flower industry, a turn over of more


than Rs. 150 crores is projected every year.

8.

Offers wide range of suitable and


striking colours.

Indias share in the export of these items is


below 1.5 per cent in Europe and it is below 1
per cent of the world requirement.

9.

Minimizes loses occurring in fresh


flower handling.

10.

Requires less maintenance.

Netherlands ranks first in the export of dried


flower followed by Columbia, Mexico, India
and Israel.

11.

Biodegradable.

12.

A variety of products can be prepared.

In view of expanding clientele, lucrative returns


and limited competition, more and more
entrepreneurs are expected to enter this
blooming business in near future.

13.

Tolerant to most temperature.

INTRODUCTION:
There is an increasing demand all over the
world for decorating living and working
places with eco-friendly things like flowers
and foliages.
Fresh flowers and foliages though exquisite in
their beauty are highly expensive.
Also they are perishable and delicate in nature
and cannot retain their beauty and fresh look
for a long time even with the use of best
technology for enhancing vase life.
Moreover, there is a non-availability of fresh
flowers and foliages all round the year in all
places.
In this context, flower can be dried, preserved
and processed to retain its beauty as well as
everlasting value.
The beauty and value of the dried flower are
that they can be kept and cherished for years,
which survive the cold of winter and heat of
summer.
At present dry flower industry is growing very
fast with more than 60 per cent share to the
floriculture industry in India.

ADVANTAGES OF DRIED FLOWERS:


1.

Eco-friendly: Dried flower market has


grown exponentially as consumers
became more eco-conscious and
choose dry flower as environmentally

available

USES OF DRIED FLOWER:


Dried flowers can be utilized in the best
manner for making.
a) Decorative floral craft items.
b) Greeting cards and covers.
c) Wall hangings/Wall plates.
d) Floral designs.
e) Calendars.

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f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
m)
n)
o)
p)
q)
r)

s)
t)

TECHNIQUES
FLOWERS:
a.

Floral balls/Flower balls.


Festive decorations.
Collages.
Pomanders.
Bouquets and wreaths.
Sweet smelling pot pourries.
Topiaries.
Swags (Vertical and horizontal).
Flower arrangements.
Landscapes.
Sheaths.
Floral album-for identification of
plants for botanical studies.
Cottage or small scale industry based
on floral crafts using dehydrated
flowers, leaves, fruits, pods, seeds and
other parts is a distinct possibility.
Dry flowers can be sealed in glass
containers for interior decorations.
Dry flower industry can be associated
with many subsidiary industries like
cotton fabrics, terracotta, packaging,
cane, basket and glass, jute, iron and
brass, ribbons and laces, candles etc.
By incorporating one with the other,
one can have the benefit of value
addition.
FOR

PRODUCTION

OF

DRY

Principles affecting dehydration

There are two important factors responsible for


loss of fresh look of flowers and foliage. They are
a) Microbial activity
b) Ageing process/senescence
Both the factors are biochemical in nature.
Moisture is essential for operation of both
factors.
Preservation by dehydration is based on the
principle of reducing moisture content by
which chemical changes are brought to a
standstill and micro-organism growths are
checked.
After dehydration, dried produce should be
stored in a dry atmosphere.
To achieve strong, natural colour in dried
material drying period should be as short as
possible.

Direct sunlight should be avoided to prevent


fading of colour. Excess damp conditions also
should be avoided as it encourages mould.
The key to drying flower is to withdraw 50 to
90 per cent water from the flowers without
distorting the shape or destroying the
appearance of flowers and foliage.
Selected materials for drying should have less
moisture content and fibrous tissue.
Too matured flowers (opened flowers) are not
suited for drying as they generally shed upon
drying and will not hold up well in
arrangements.
Dark red colour flowers turns to black while
drying due to increase in pH in the cells that
leads to co-pigmentation of flavanoids and
anthocyanins. The pH increase is due to
degradation of proteins and release of free
ammonia.
Yellow and orange colours change less while
drying while turns to brown or cream colour
due to oxidation processes.
HARVESTING:
Harvesting should be done early morning or
late evening after the dew and surface
moisture have evaporated.
If temperature is high at the time of harvest,
biochemical reactions are at faster rate which
leads to early senescence and further leads to
petal drop while dehydration.
Summer is the best season for dehydration.
However, colours are brighter in winter and
mansoon produced flowers.
Use only materials free of insect and disease
damage as damage becomes more obvious
after drying.
Place stems in a container of water to prevent
wilting while gathering.
FACTORS AFFECTING DEHYDRATION:
The process of dehydration depends upon:
1.
Atmospheric humidity.
2.
Airflow.
3.
Temperature.
4.
Embedding material.
5.
Method of drying.
6.
Moisture content of the flowers.
7.
Type and Shape of the flowers.

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1. ATMOSPHERIC HUMIDITY: Higher humidity


delays the process of drying
by reducing the capacity of air
to absorb liberated moisture
from the product. Less
humidity results in brittleness.
2. TEMPERATURE:

3. AIRFLOW:

Higher temperature leads to


rapid moisture loss so the
quality of finished product
goes down with rise in
temperature. Low temperature
leads to delayed drying and
results in poor quality due to
mould growth.
It is essential for conducting
heat from the source to the
product through embedding
and also for the transfer of
moisture liberated from the
product to the atmosphere
outside.

4. EMBEDDING MATERIAL: Rate of evaporation is


different
in
different
embedding material due to
different capacities to conduct
heat and absorb moisture.
5. METHOD OF DRYING: Rate of moisture loss and
quality of produce also depends on method of drying.
Drying methods
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Sun drying
Air drying/Drying under shade
Polyset drying
Press drying
Embedded drying : a) in room
b) in sun
6. Hot air oven drying
7. Microwave oven drying
8. Vacuum drying
9. Freeze drying
10. Skeletonizing
11. Drying through treatment with
glycerin
12. Dyeing
1. Sun drying- Most common method

Procedure: After bunching, flowers are hung


upside down tied to the thread and dried in
sun.
Advantage: Cheapest method since no cost on energy
is involved.
Disadvantage:
1.

Season bound
uncertainties.

resulting

in

supply

2.

Requires large open space.

3.

Time consuming

4.

Shrinkage of petals

5.

Loss of natural colour induced by over


exposure to sun

6.

Lack of uniform quality.

6. AIR DRYING/DRYING UNDER SHADE:


Flowers are hung in an inverted position or
kept in an erect manner in a well ventilated, warm and
shaded place. Protection from direct sunlight, dry
atmosphere and plenty of ventilation are necessary.
Advantage:

Simple and Cheaper method

No
special
involved.

Time consuming

Weather dependant

Shrinkage of petals

Unnatural straight stems

equipment

Disadvantage:

Ex., Helipterum, Helichrysum, Limonium, Strawflower,


Statice, Thistles, Yarrow, Golden rod, Babys
breath, Celosia, Globe amaranth, Salvia,
Hydrangeas, Xeranthemum, Queen Annes Lace,
Millet, Astilbe, Baptisia, Blackberry-lily, Cat
tail, Chinese lantern, Clover, Dusty miller,
False-dragonhead, Fennel, Grains Grasses,
Lilac, Marigold, Milk weed, Okra, Polygonum,
Rose, Smoke tree, Pansy, Bachelors button,
Bells-of- Ireland, Scarlet sage, Blue sage, Sea
lavender, Acacia, Acanthus (Bears breeches)
Acer
(Sycamore),
Lovelies-bleeding,
Amaryllis,
Anethum
(Dill),
Artemisia,
Arundinaria (Bamboo), Atriplex (Dock), Avena
(Blue grass), Birch, Calendula, Callistemon,
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), Corn flower,

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Clematis, Artichoke (Cynara scolymus), Dahlia,


Larkspur
(Delphinium
ajacis),
Digitalis
(Foxglove), Fennel, Kochia (Silver Cypress),
Lavender, Liatris, Lovein-a-mist, Poppy,
Chinese lantern (Physalis), Mignonette (Reseda
lutea), Reed mace, Zea mays, Rose buds,
Lavender, Zinnia, Artemesia, Astilbeetc,.

Bleeding heart, Corn flower, Golden rod,


Alyssum, Buttercup, Bachelors button,
Hydrangea Anemone, Butterfly weed, Daffodil,
Lily-of-the-valley, Azalea, Celosia, Delphinium,
Phlox, Queen Anns lace, Salvia, Sweet pea
GRASSES AND FERNS:
Adiantum, Nephrolepis, Golden fern, Silver fern

8. POLYSET DRYING:
It is a polymer preservation method which is
applied to the flower 45 minutes before drying. It is a
chemical pre-treatment application which is used
before air drying to improve the quality of the dried
flower.
Advantages:

Lessens drying time.

Improves the intensity of flower colour.

Minimizes shattering and wrinkling of petals


which may occur during air drying.

9. PRESS DRYING:
The flowers and leaves while press drying is
placed between the folds of newspaper sheets
or blotting papers giving some space among
flowers.
These sheets are kept one above the other and
corrugated boards of the same size are placed
in between the folded sheets so as to allow the
water vapour to escape.
The whole bundle should be placed in a plant
press for 24 hours.
Then it in kept is electric hot air oven for 24
hours at 40-450 C.

FOLIAGES:
Thuja, Cassia biflora, Haematoxylon, Marigold,
Casuarina, Calliandra, Rose foliage, Grevillea robusta,
Taxodium distichum.
11. EMBEDDED DRYING:
To overcome the problem of petal shrinkage
and other morphological changes in dehydrated
materials due to air drying, the flowers are dried in
embedding technique. The embedding materials cover
flowers in such a way that the original shape of the
flower is maintained.
Advantage:
Retains colour and form.
Support the petals more rigidly and
maintains shape on drying.
Disadvantage:
Labour intensive.
Expensive since it involves the cost of
embedding materials.
12. COMMON EMBEDDING MATERIALS:
Sl.
No.
1.

Material

Properties

Silica gel

Corn meal

Very clean material, does not


cake, acts very quickly, light in
weight, keeps colour well,
reusable (Bake in oven at 1200C
for two hours until turns dark
blue),
highly
hygroscopic,
expensive, rapidly absorbs
moisture from flowers, it can
absorb about 40 per cent of its
weight with water, drying
within 2-3 days.
Light, tends to stick to the
petals, hence difficult to
handle, less tendency to flatten
flowers, makes boxes easier to
handle and move after filling.

The press dried flower may be either stored in


sheets at a dry place or in desiccators for
future use.
The original shape of the materials cannot be
maintained by press drying but original colour
is retained.
The pressed flowers and foliages are used in
making floral charts, greeting cards and
landscapes.
Ex., FLOWERS: Pansy, Candytuft, Lantana,
Verbena,
Aster,
Ixora,
Chrysanthemum,
Larkspur,
Rose,
Cosmos,
Mussaenda,
Euphorbia, Pentas, Violets, Dahlia, English
Daisy, Geranium, Marigold, Zinnia, Ageratum,

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Borax

Sand

Alum

CHARACTERISTICS
MATERIALS

Hygroscopic, bleaches petals if


stored for long time, tends to
become lumpy after absorbing
moisture, drying will take 2 to
10 days. If flower remain in
borax too long, they become
brittle and lose their petals.
Cheapest, easy to handle,
heavy and does not react with
water vapour. It neither forms
lumps nor bleaches the plant
materials embedded in it. Since
heavier, it takes longer time for
drying (4 days to 2 weeks)
Double sulphate of Aluminium
and Potassium.
OF GOOD

EMBEDDING

1. Fineness: - The material should be very fine (0.020.2mm) to fill the crevices and
cavities present in flower and
completely envelope them leaving no
gaps.
2.

Inertness to water vapour: - It should not react


with water vapour released during drying, as well
as with floral parts and form lumps.

Eg:- Borax and alum tend to form lumps when


damp, sometime they harden and crack.
3.

Optimum weight:- Very light weight powders are


not suitable, since these are difficult to handle and
leave gaps during embedding.

4.

Non bleaching: - Drying material should be free


from any type of salt and chemical. Strongly
hygroscopic material should be avoided as it
bleaches plant material.

5.

Embedding and drying in room

wires are pushed into it so that the flower


remains upright.
Desiccant is then gently and gradually poured
all around and over so as to fill all the crevices
in between the petals without disturbing the
shape of flower. Flowers are covered up to a
cm on top.
Flower such as bougainvillea, candytuft,
perennial chrysanthemum, pompon dahlia,
gerbera, marigold, rose, limonium etc. can be
dried with their own stems.
Embedding in such cases is done in deep
containers so as to accommodate the plant
material without disturbing its shape and
form. These embedded materials are kept at
room temperature in a well ventilated room
till the plant material gets completely dried.
Advantages :
No shrinkage of petals
Disadvantages :
Takes longer time for dehydration
Weather dependant.
6. Embedding and drying in sun
After embedding, the containers are daily
exposed to sun. Containers are shifted under a roof
during the evening and again brought to sun in the
morning.
Advantage:
o Rapid dehydration as compared to earlier
method.
Disadvantage:
o Weather dependant.
Flowers
like
gerbera,
zinnia
and
chrysanthemum dried well with minimum shrinkage
when sun dried after placing them in a box containing
sand. This takes 4-5 days for drying.
TAKING OUT THE FLOWER:

For flowers with weak stems, stems are cut


about 2.5 cm from the base of the flower.

After dehydration, the containers are tilted for


removing the desiccants over and around the
flowers.

If stem is too soft, a thin but strong wire of 5 cm


length is inserted from the back in the center
of the flower after removing the flower stalk.
Such flower can be easily dried in shallow
earthenware or metallic trays.

The dried flowers are either picked up by hand


or by tweezers; cleaned by inverting them and
tapping the stems with fingers slowly and
gently.

About 5 cm layer of the desiccant is made at the


bottom of the container and flower stems and

Remaining desiccants are finally removed with


the help of fine hair painting brush.

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HOT AIR OVEN DRYING:

Unbelievably fast

Quality product

Procedure: The container with the embedded plant


material is kept in the hot air oven at a controlled
temperature for appropriate time.

Disadvantages: Costly method.

Advantages :

VACUUM DRYING:

Faster dehydration

Temperature can be maintained

Independent from weather conditions

Superior quality product

Principle:

Disadvantages :

Costlier

Brittle flowers
humidity.

due

to

lack

of

Accordingly drying period varies from 48 to 72 hours


and temperature varies from 30 0C to 50 0C.
MICROWAVE OVEN DRYING:

Principle behind microwave oven


drying is liberating moisture by
agitating water molecules in the
organic substances with the help of
electronically produced microwaves.

Procedure:

Embedded flowers and foliages in


silica gel contained in a non-metallic
earthenware or glass ware are kept in
an oven for few minutes to induce
effective drying.
After the treatment the containers are
taken out and kept at ambient
temperature for a particular period, so
that the moisture of the container gets
evaporated and the plant material gets
fully dried called as setting time.
Generally, drying period varies from 1
to 4 minutes and setting time 2 to 5
hours.
Microwave heating is a type of
dielectric
heating
using
high
frequency waves. When a substance
like water is absorbed in its free state
and then micro-waved it responds by
heating and vaporizing.

The embedded material may be dehydrated


under vacuum.
It employs a thick walled chamber fitted with a
heating device, a vacuum pump for
maintaining high vacuum and a condenser for
condensing the liberated moisture in drying
compartment.
Advantages:
It permits the use of low temperature for
drying, thus minimizing oxidative changes
resulting in excellent quality of the finished
product.
Energy loss is also minimum as most of the
heat is utilized for evaporating moisture.
Disadvantages: High cost of equipment and its
sophisticated nature.
FREEZE DRYING/CRYO DRYING:
It is a relatively new process.
Fully opened flowers are cut into a uniform
15cm length and placed in vials so that the
basal 5 cm are immersed in solutions of
glycerine, clove oil, ethylene glycol, dimethyl
sulfoxide and wetting agent.
Various concentrations and combinations are
used for stem uptake.
After this pretreatment, flower-stems are re-cut
to 5 cm in length and placed in a freezing
temperature at 800C for 12 hours.
Then the flowers are immediately placed in a
freeze dryer at 200C and under a vacuum of
less than 100 microns for 7 days.
Two phases in freeze dying
1.

Freezing phase.

2.

Vacuum drying phase.

Advantage of Microwave oven drying :


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Principle : Freeze drying is a dehydration process that


causes vaporization of water directly from a
solid ice crystal state to a vapour state without
passing through normal liquid state.
Flowers suited for freeze drying include
carnation, Antirrhinum and roses.
Advantages : Texture, structure, shape, size, colour etc
are similar to fresh ones.
Disadvantages :

High cost of equipment

Electrical energy consumption.

Equipment maintenance cost is higher

Requires precise processing techniques.

Though expensive, freeze drying is becoming


very popular in U.S. to preserve special
occasion flowers. Brides often choose freeze
drying to preserve their wedding bouquets.

Vacuum drying temperature had more effect


on rose and carnation flowers than freezing
temperature.
Lower
vacuum
drying
temperature (27 0C) resulted in flower with
colour closer to fresh and control flowers,
while higher vacuum drying temperature
(470C) resulted in lower moisture content and
stronger/stiffer petals but more changes in
colour.

Microwave
drying
Microwave
drying
Microwave
drying

Lavender
Mollucella
Rose

oven

Allium,
Helipterum,
Leucodendron, Mimosa,
Gomphrena, Verbena
Spray carnation

oven

Chrysanthemum (small)

oven

Iris, Orchids,
William, Tulip

Sweet

GLYCERIN TREATMENT:
It refers to replacing the moisture content in a
flower with a mixture of glycerin and water. Here the
flower is actually preserved and not dried.
Two types of glycerin treatments
1. Systemic treatment: - It allows the plant to absorb
the glycerin through the stems naturally.
2. Immersion treatment: - Here glycerin is forced
through the stems under pressure.
Flowers suited: - Caspia, Ming, Tree fern,
Salal.
Advantages:

SKELETONIZING :

It is suited for foliages.

Skeletonizing is a process of removing


soft tissue by soaking in water or
alkali solution for 7-10 days.

The decayed tissue is removed by


using a paint brush and washed.

E.g.: Peepal leaves


SUITABLE
FLOWER
TECHNIQUES:
Methods
Air drying with silica
gel
Borax/Alum drying

or
immersion
in
glycerin
Air drying preserves
fragrance
Air
drying
with
glycerin
Air
drying
with
glycerin
Air drying

FOR

DIFFERENT

Drying with sand

Crops
Anemone,
Freezia,
Zinnia, Narcissus
Snapdragon,
cosmea,
Delphinium
Dahlia

Air drying with water

Foliage

Retains natural shape and


flexibility
Lasts indefinitely
Disadvantages: Preservation destroys natural colour/
colour changes; Therefore dyes are used to
produce a wide array of choices; Dried
materials will have greasy feeling.
Leaves:
Maple, Bells- of-Ireland, Mexican, Orange
blossom , Oak
,
Beech,
Cherry,
Eucalyptus, Magnolia, Japanese Fatsia,
Mistletoe, Ferns, Mahonia, Salal, Camellia,
Ivy, Rhododendron,
Hydrangea

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Procedure
Select a branch about 18 inches or less in length.
Remove lower leaves and branch or split the
stem end of wood materials about 4 to 6
inches to increase absorption.
Make a mixture of 1 part glycerin and 2 parts
warm water.
Stir well and pour into glass containers.
Mark the level of mixture on the containers.
As the branches absorb mixture, add a reserve
mixture which contains 1 part glycerin + 4
parts water to the original marked level.
Soft stem takes 3-6 days for absorption whereas
woody stems takes 2 to 6 weeks.
Foliage colour will gradually change as
glycerin is absorbed.
DYEING OR COLOURING:

Methanol is diluted to 50 to 150 liters by adding


water.
Dye paste is added to diluted methanol.
Products are dipped in methanol solution and
immediately taken out and dried for a few
minutes.
Moisture tests to know material is dried/not
1.

Test the flower in more than one place, as


petals dry before the flower centre.

2.

Place sample in airtight jar, leave for a day or


two. If condensation appears, need to be dried
a little more.

3.

Check the sample by keeping upright in a


container for 24-48 hours. Head will droop if
plants are not completely dried because; neck
of flower dries out last.

CARE OF DRIED FLOWERS:


1.

Prevention of moisture absorption- Dry


flower absorbs atmospheric moisture and
loses their shape. Therefore, they should be
stored immediately in moisture proof
containers like glass desiccators, tin boxes,
cartons, wrapped with plastic sheet or wax
paper.

2.

Prevention of dust Storage containers


should be dust free as dust particles spoil the
beauty of flowers.

3.

Prevention of breakage- Pack carefully


ensuring that there is not too much pressure
on flower heads.

Colouring of products using dyestuff with water

4.

1-4 kg dye and 5-20 liters of water is put in a


small bucket to form a paste.

Prevention of direct sunlight and light in


order to avoid fading of colour.

5.

Prevention of damage by insects-Moth balls


should be kept in storage containers.

It is essential for good appearance.


It is a determining factor in the pricing of the
product.
Dyeing also serves as a preservative. It
enhances the natural look and texture of the
product.
Three methods of dyeing
1. Dyeing by dusting
Chalk powder mixed with dye is applied on
flower surface.
2.

This paste is added to steam boiling water tank


(800 l). About 2 l acetic acid is also added to
the tank.
The product to be coloured is then dipped into
the boiling water until the required shade is
achieved.
In case of fragile product, Magnesium chloride
is also added.
After colouring, product is placed in the open
to dry.
3.

Colouring of product using dyestuffs with


methanol

VALUE ADDITION :
Value added products
Dried flower are exported as assortments of
value added items.
DESCRIPTION OF DRIED FLOWERS
The International Trade centre (ITC) of the
United Nations Commission on Trade and
Development (UNCTAD) in conjunction with the
GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) had
developed the following product description for
dried flowers.

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These Categories are


1.

2. Potpourri

Dried, dyed, bleached, impregnated or otherwise


prepared cut flowers and flower buds for
bouquets or for ornamental purposes

It is a mixture of dehydrated flowers, berries


and leaves which is exported either raw or
scented.

ITC code : HS code-0603.90-00

The common method of display is in glass


bowls or ceramic jars which are placed in
bedrooms and bathrooms.

It includes cut flowers, bouquets, wreaths, floral


baskets etc.
2.

Dried parts of plants for bouquets or for


ornamental purposes
ITC code : HS code 0604.99-10.

3.

Dried, dyed, bleached, impregnated or otherwise


prepared foliage, branches and other parts of
plants (without flowers or buds) and grasses,
mosses, lichens suitable for bouquet or for
ornamental purpose.
ITC code: HS code 0604.99-90.
It includes decorative fruit and Christmas trees

EXPORT
OF
MATERIALS:

INDIAN

DRIED

FLOWER

India has evolved from being a raw material


supplier into a manufacturer of finished goods. The
Indian dried flower export market is classified into
four product segments. These classifications are
particular to Indian suppliers and not confirm exactly
to Harmonized code ITC (HS) descriptions or to
competing product from other origin suppliers.
Product Segmentation
The Indian dried flower export market is
classified into three main product segments and one
specialized, lower volume segment, each with its own
characteristics.
1.

Dried flowers and plant parts in bulk

2.

Potpourri

3.

Arrangements (with dried plant


materials and dried flowers) and

4.

Floral handicrafts (Specialized/ low


volume)

Dried flowers and plant parts in bulk


This is the high volume, well established end of
the business. Varieties shipped under this
classification include globe amaranth, celosia,
marigold, agro waste products as well as assembled
flowers, exotics and material for liners and fillers used
in flower arrangements. Assembled flowers consist of
a number of parts of one or more sorts of flowers.

This product can be packed in small muslin


bags or sachets which are then placed in
wardrobes and drawers are clothesfresheners.
Use of potpourri as a natural scent as well as
decorative
feature
has
gained
wide
acceptance.
Potpourri overcomes the harmful effects of
ozone depleting aerosols.
Over 300 products are used in potpourri mixes.
In India, major products used in potpourri are
bachelors button (globe amaranth), cocks
comb (Celosia argentea), marigold flower
(Tagetes sp), rose petals, bougainvillea petals,
green leaves (such as bay leaves), neem leaves
(Azadirachta indica), stones from plums,
peaches, apricot, amaranth etc.
OTHER FLOWERS INCLUDE:
Larkspur, Delphinium, Cornflower, Peony,
Sweet pea, Statice, Strawflower, Honeysuckle
Leaves from herbs like Artemisia, thyme, sage,
rosemary, basil, yarrow, lavenders scented
geraniums, mints, marjoram, Verbena, anise,
fennel.
Fruits include rose hips, hawthorn berries,
juniper berries, grapefruit rind, orange rind
and apples.
Potpourri material should have a strong natural
colour or be a light enough shade to absorb
non-toxic dyes.
Material should be dry (maximum moisture
content of 7 per cent), resistant to mould, non
toxic, free from noxious odours, of a low bulk
density and sufficiently robust to withstand
mechanical blending.
U.K. is the biggest potpourri market for Indian
raw balk materials.

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HOW TO MAKE POTPOURRI:

Basis of a potpourri is the aromatic oils found


within the plant.

These oils are not confined to flowers, but they


are at their peak at flowering time.

So harvest leaves and flowers just as the plant


begins to flower.

After harvesting, dry the plant part in a warm,


airy, dry room either by hang drying or flat
drying.

Drying at high temperature may result in loss


of aromatic oils.

For making potpourri, a fixative is needed


which is responsible for absorbing the
aromatic oils and slowly releasing them.

Common fixatives include finely ground non


iodized salt, Orris root (dried rhizomes of iris
plant), sweet flag (calamus root), gum
benzoin, and ambergris.

Other materials required are finely ground


spices (cinnamon, clove and nutmeg). To
enhance the scent, add essential oil (Patchouli
oil/rose oil/ lavender oil).

Dried floral designers require products with a


natural stalk of 15-40 cm. If stalks are not of an
acceptable length, the products have wire
stalks attached with hot-glue gums.

Products used in dried flower arrangements are


classified as Main blooms, Fillers, Liners and
Exotics

Main blooms : Plays a key role because of their


shape, size and colours in making
bouquets or arrangements. They also
include assembled everlastings. Most
common main blooms used within the
market are statice (sea lavender)
Strawflower (Helichrysum), Nigella,
larkspur and roses.
Fillers

: are a group of products used in


making bouquets and arrangements
whose function is to add bulk to the
flower arrangement. They help to fill
any empty space in design.

Liners

: Are mostly ornamental grasses, so


named because these grasses give a
linear accent to an arrangement. Most
commonly used grasses are Avena
(animated oats), Halaris (Canary
grass), Triticum (ornamental wheat)
and Phleum (Timothy).

ARRANGEMENTS :

a.

Most lucrative segment in dried flower market,


in terms of both total gross sales and unit
returns.

In addition, a wide variety of plants


such as typha (Cattail or reed mace),
maize,
sorghum,
spiked
millet
(Pennisetum), dried branches and twigs
of trees (eg: silver dollar eucalyptus)
and shrubs can also be used.

Arrangements with dried plant materials

This market is small, specialized and of higher


value.

Examples are wreaths, topiaries and swags.

Indian cottage industries are well developed in


handicrafts.

Exotics

: Consists of a group of plants and


plant materials which originate from
various tropical and subtropical
regions of the world. Indian Exotics
include Lotus heads (Seed head from
Nymphea species), palm spears (palm
leaf cut into spear shapes) and okra
pods.

Examples of common products used in India:


Cotton pods, Exotic grasses and leaf material,
large pine cones (Pinus sp), Unfurling fern fronds,
dried capsicums (C. annum, C. frutescens), Barks and
twigs, Ornamental gourds (Cucurbita pepo), Seed pods
and heads.
b. Dried flower arrangements:

High income private hotels and retail uses.


Dried items offer the arranger more flexibility
than do fresh flowers. As a result creative
possibilities are greater.

4.

Floral handicraft

Handicraft products have served to generate


new demand for dried flower products. This segment
includes items such as:

Collages
Flowers pictures
Cards and covers (press-dried
flower and foliage)

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Innovative items such as : Candle stands


Table lamps
Picture frames
Floral jewellary
Mirror decorations
Arrangements in glass containers

SOURCE OF RAW MATERIALS :

Kolkata units procure their raw materials


locally as well as from Madhya Pradesh,
North eastern states, Bihar and South India.

Tuticorin units procure some of their raw


materials from Pune and Nasik (Maharashtra)
and M.P. Bilaspur (M.P.) remains a major
source of raw material for both Kolkata and
Tuticorin.

Most raw materials are collected year round


from mountains, hills, valleys and deep sea by
villagers and trained rural labour and
supplied to the units either directly or through
collection agents.

Whole process is quite informal and traditional


20 per cent of raw material is cultivated and 80
per cent is collected from the wild.

Indias diversity in topography and climatic


conditions makes it rich in plant material and
hence, India can emerge as the leader supplier
of dried plant material

ECONOMICS:
It is possible to start a home-scale establishment
with a meager amount of Rs. 15,000/- and one may
supplement ones income by employing his family
members. A small scale industry can also be started if
the market for dry flowers and floral craft items is
explored in our country and world. There is quite high
margin of profit in this venture.
LOCATION OF DRIED FLOWER INDUSTRY:

The principal export houses /processing units


for dried flowers are concentrated in port
towns of Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu), Kolkata
(West Bengal) and Mumbai.
Tuticorin accounts for over 50 per cent of
countrys export and Kolkata for about 40 per
cent. Tuticorin offers certain logistical,
political and climatic advantages over Calcutta
for this industry.

Climate in Tuticorin is dry for best part of


the year.

EMPLOYMENT POTENTIAL:

The nature of industry requires an


exceptionally large work force at the growing
/collecting stages.

About 10,000 people are directly employed and


about 40,000 people are indirectly employed
with this industry.

A large number of employed are rural women,


who collects the flowers and plant materials,
sun dry them and then ready them for
dispatch.

More than 3,500 women are involved in this


industry in Tuticorin alone and many in
Kolkata.

Thus dried flower industry is critical from the


stand point of employment potential.

MAJOR COMPANY IN INDIAN EXPORT:


1.

M/s Ramesh Flowers Limited based in


Tuticorin has emerged as the single largest
exporter of dried flowers with a turnover of
over Rs 270 million. They have technical and
financial collaboration with Schleef of
Germany (Schleef holds 51 per cent of the
companys equity). Schleef helps in product
design and development for European
markets. M/s W. Hogenwoning India, a
prominent Dutch company has also started
exporting from Tuticorin

2.

Singhvi International, Kolkata -having 60 per


cent of total dried flower exports from India.
The Singhvi family has a stronger export base
in Tuticorin

3.

M/s Minex Agencies, Kolkata.

@@@@@@@

Major companies export their product to U.S.,


Holland Germany, Denmark, Czechoslovakia, Italy,
France, Spain, UK, Belgium, South Africa, Srilanka,
Australia and Mexico.
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9.
LECTURE-18

Fernery:
It

LANDSCAPE GARDENING

is a structure where different types of


ferns are grown or maintained for
scientific or commercial purpose.

10. Archidorium:
1.

It

Landscape gardening:
It

is a branch of floriculture which deals


with the study of ornamental
gardening or garden features.

11. Archeology:
It

(OR)
an area or piece of land into a
garden by utilizing naturally existing
features like undulations, terraces and
plain surface so as to look to have
more naturalistic effect than artificial
in order to imitate nature

Bringing

2.

3.

Landscape architecture:
It

4.

may be defined as a place for growing


plants exhibits various forms of plant
life, which are consciously directed for
ornamental or practical use.
is a combination of art and science and
it deals with the study of ornamental
or landscape gardening.

who plans, designs and executes


a work of landscaping is referred as
landscape architect.

5.

Arboriculture:
It

6.

The first and the foremost thing are not to


imitate another garden which has secured a
prize in a competition.

2.

One has to develop ones own design giving


due consideration to the local conditions.

3.

One more mistake which is commonly made is


to plant many more specimens than a garden
can accommodate causing overcrowding.

4.

In a landscape garden any difference in levels


has to be taken advantage of, but in a perfectly
flat land it will be costly to create artificial
undulations.

5.

In each garden there should be atleast one


feature or if there be a second these two
should harmonize with each other.

6.

Before planning a design one must be sure for


what purpose the garden is utility or beauty
or both.

Gardner:
Any

person who maintains or involved


in carrying out day to day operation
in the garden or a person who
establish and maintains the garden

8.

1.

Arborist:
arborist is a person who cultivates
and conducts research on tree species.

Conservatory:
The

glazed
structure used
for
maintaining/growing different plant
species or displayed for scientific
study or commercial cultivation with
or without environmental controlling
facility.

He can be described as a master artist


who uses the whole country as his
canvas and his paints are the rich
colours of red, blue, orange and white
of the different flowers.

Suggestions for implementing the principles of


gardening:

is a branch of science which deals with


the cultivation of trees.

An

7.

Landscape architect:
Person

is a branch of floriculture which deals


with different species and varieties of
orchids.

12. Bio-aesthetic planner:

Ornamental gardening:
It

is a structure where different species


of orchids are grown or maintained
for scientific or economic purpose.

PRINCIPLES OF GARDENING:
1. INITIAL APPROACH:
In theory, everyone would like to have a perfect
plot of land, but in actual practice the plot
available for gardening, in three out of five

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cases, either will not be in a good site or the


shape and size will not be ideal.

Unity has to be achieved from various angles.


o First, the unity of style, feeling and
function between the house and the
garden has to be achieved.

A good designer is one who will make best use


of such a site.
- As has already been stated, land with
natural undulations should never be
leveled, but rather the differences in
levels should be utilized with
advantage.

o Secondly, the different components of


the
gardens
should
merge
harmoniously with each other.
o The aim is to give the visitor an overall
impression of the garden rather than
blowing up some special features.

- Fencing, should be such that it looks


natural as far as practicable and it
should not obstruct any natural view.
For example, if there is natural forest
scenery or a hillock just outside the
boundary it should be incorporated in
the garden design in a thoughtful
manner so that it appears to be a part
of the garden.

o The last point, which is also very


important, is to achieve some
harmony between the landscape
outside and the garden.
o A garden laid out in complete defiance
of the local conditions may look
exotic, but is not a successful garden.
As for example, cacti planted in a
seashore garden is completely out of
place as these are inhabitants of dry
localities.

2. AXIS:

This is an imaginary line in any garden around


which the garden is created striking a balance.

In a formal garden, the central line is the axis.

At the end of an axis, generally there will be a


focal point, although other architectural
features such as bird-bath or sundial can also
be erected at about the midpoint.

o To achieve a unity between the house


and the garden it is a common
practice to train creepers on the front
porch which cover the rudeness of the
masonry work and also bring the
house closer to nature.
o For the same reasons, foundation
plantings are also done. A foundation
planting broadly means the planting
of bushy plants near the foundation of
the house.

3. FOCAL POINT:

In every garden there is a centre of attraction


which is generally an architectural feature
focused as a point of interest such as statue,
fountain, rockery etc.
A focal point is one of the elements of good
landscape design.

6. SPACE:

The aim of every garden design should be such


that the garden should appear larger than its
actual size.

One way of achieving this is to keep vast open


spaces, preferably center lawn and restrict the
plantings in the periphery, normally avoiding
any planting in the centre.

But if any planting has to be done in the centre


the choice should be a tree which branches at a
higher level on the trunk (or the lower
branches are removed) and not a bushy shrub.

Such planting will not abstract the view or


make the garden appear smaller than its size.

4. MASS EFFECT:

The use of one general form of plant material in


large numbers in one place is done to have
mass effect.

To see that such mass arrangements do not


become monotonous, the sizes of masses
should be varied.

5. UNITY:

Unity in a garden is very important as when


this is achieved it will improve the artistic look
of the garden.

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Another suggestion to create the illusion of


more space in a large public garden is to
alternate large lawns followed by a group of
trees.

A large open space planted haphazardly all


over with trees looks smaller than its size.

The techniques of creating an illusion of more


space are also referred to as 'Forced
Perspective.

Then sticks of different heights, representing


the various shrubs, are planted in various
positions and by the method of permutation
and combination the most proportionate
looking arrangement is adopted.

The common practice of laying out a small


rockery at the base of a large tree with small
rockery at the base of a large tree with small
thorny specimens looks not only ugly but is
also out of scale and proportion under the
large canopy of the tree.

A tiny pool in the midst of a large lawn also


looks disproportionate.

7. DIVISIONAL LINES:

In a landscape garden, there should not be any


hard and fast divisional lines.

But there is the necessity of dividing or rather


screening a compost pit or a Malis quarter or
a vegetable garden from the rest of the garden.

In fact areas under lawn, gravel, stone or


cement path, and shrubbery border have their
natural divisional lines from its immediate
neighbour though these are not discreet. This
is what is exactly needed.

The divisional lines should be artistic with


gentle curves and these should also be useful.

Above all these lines should harmonize with


one another.

9. TEXTURE:

The surface character of a garden unit is


referred to as texture.

The texture of the ground, the leaves of a tree


or shrub will all determine the overall effect of
the garden.

The texture of rugged looking ground can be


improved to an appreciable extent by laying
meticulously chosen small pebbles from the
riverbeds, if establishing a lawn is out of the
question.

A gulmohar is a fine textured tree when in full


leaf, whereas

Spathodea companulata is a coarse textured


tree. The placement of all these various
textures with harmony and contrast has to be
achieved to get the ultimate desirable effect.

8. PROPORTION AND SCALE:

Proportion in a garden may be defined as a


definite relationship between masses.

For example, a rectangle having a ratio of 5:8 is


considered to be of pleasing proportion.

As this ratio comes down the form looks


neither a square nor a rectangle and the design
becomes undesirable.

There is no set rule as regards scale or


proportion in a garden.

But a simple rule is that a design should look


pleasant.

It is better to have an adhoc design first and


then try it out on the actual spot. If the design
looks appealing as well as pleasing, it is
implemented.

When a shrubbery border has to be planted the


outer design is marked by arranging a rubber
hose or thick wet rope in different designs on
the spot and the one which looks best is
adopted.

10. TIME AND LIGHT:

In a garden the time factor is very important.


There are three different categories of time in
a garden.

First come the daily time, which provides


different quantities and qualities of light
during the course of the day.

As the morning sun is vital for all flowers, the


designer has to take this into account while
planning.

In most parts of India the garden design should


be planned in such a way that in the afternoon
it is possible to sit in a shaded place from
where the best part of the garden should be
visible.

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The second type of time is the seasonal


changes in the year.
A good planner must roughly take into account
the seasonal movement of the sun and where
the shade and light are likely to fall during the
different parts of the season. As for example,
a lawn in Delhi which receives shade during
the early parts of the day in the winter will not
grow or remain patchy.
A good and
knowledgeable Gardner is he/she who can
visualize such eventualities.

12. MOBILITY:

In a temperate country, the garden changes


colour very sharply and contrastingly from
one season to the other thus symbolizing
mobility or movement.

As for example, many trees in the temperate


regions attire themselves with wonderful hues
due to the changes in their leaf colour in the
autumn.

In most parts of Tropical India, though these


contrasting changes cannot be achieved, it is
possible to bring in some subtle changes.

The third time, which most people overlook or


cannot visualize, is the fact as to what shape
and proportion the shrubs and trees will attain
in the years to come.
Often we can see sickly and lanky shrubs
growing near the trunk of a large tree, because
of lack of light and possibly nutrients also.

The shrubs were planted when the tree was a


sapling, without visualizing what would
happen to them when the tree attained its full
size.

The right type of tree should be planted at the


proper place so that shade is obtained during
the hot days, at the appropriate time.

11. TONE AND COLOUR:

A tendency on the part of an amateur Gardner


is to create a riot of colours by
indiscriminately planting flowering annuals of
all shades. This practice is not desirable.
Moreover, such riot of colours has only
temporary effect.
In a landscape garden, the permanent backdrop
is the green tones of the various trees and
shrubs.

It is possible to lay out a garden with fine tone


of entirely white or yellow flowers, but at the
same time making it charming also.

Another important point is that it is better to


have masses of a single colour against a
mixture of colours.

A bud of roses containing only a single colour


of say red, yellow, or pink has a much softer
tone and beauty than a rose bed containing a
mixture of colours.

For example, to create some symbol of


movement trees such as Bengal or
Indian almond (Terminalia catapa) which
changes its leaf colour into striking red
twice annually before falling.

Lagerstroemia flos-reginae which also


changes the colour of the leaves to
coppery shade in the autumn before
shedding.

Madhuca indica and Ficus religiosa, the


new foliage of these appearing as
coppery red in the spring, should be
planted in some parts of the garden.
This, in addition, improves the
landscape.

The movement and cluttering of birds also


bring life and mobility to the garden, though
sometimes some birds may become a menace.

Large trees and bird-baths attract birds. For the


smaller birds, the safety of shrubberies is
needed to protect them from large predator
birds.

Some plants, bearing berries, such as Ficus


infectoria and Syzygium cumini (Syn. Eugenia
jambolana), can also be planted in some remote
corners though they may not look very
ornamental.

Flowering trees such as Bombax malabaricum


(silk cotton) or Erythrina also attract birds
when in bloom.

The seasonal flowers will bring in the motion


and movement of colourful butterflies.

Fountains or even a lawn sprinkler and streams


in a garden also serve the objective of
movement.

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The lily pools should be filled with coloured


fish, the movement of which will be an added
attraction.

The frogs will also come and inhabit these


pools uninvited and in the process bring in
more movement.

13. STYLE:

Lastly, one has to decide about the style to be


adopted for ones garden.

Broadly speaking, every garden lover has to


invent his own style of gardening
commensurate with his budget, taste and the
nature of the site.

But a man can develop his own design only


when he studies carefully all the great garden
styles of the world and grasps the underlying
principles in them.

There is no doubt that persons not having


enough specialized knowledge will commit
mistakes; nevertheless, one should not get
deterred by this fact.
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LECTURE-19
STYLES OF GARDENING

His idea was revolutionary and found many


admirers to follow this.
The concept of wild garden is not only against
all formalism but it also breaks the rule of
landscape styles.

Besides the term landscape gardening the


other two familiar terms in gardening are the Formal
and Informal gardens.
1. FORMAL GARDENS:
A formal garden is laid out in a symmetrical or
a geometrical pattern.
In this garden the design is stiff as everything is
done in a straight and narrow way.

His main idea was to naturalize plants in


shrubberies.
He also preached that grass should remain
unmowed, as in nature, and few bulbous
plants should be grown scattered in the grass
to imitate wild scenery.
He also suggested that passages should be
opened in the woodland, and trees, shrubs,
and bulbous plants should be planted among
the forest flora to fulfill his idea of a wild
garden.

In such gardens everything is planted in


straight lines.

His other idea was to allow the creepers to


grow over the trees naturally imitating those
of the forests.

Also if there is a plant on the left hand side of a


straight road, a similar plant must be planted
at the opposite place on the right hand side
i.e., mirror image of each other.

Before someone starts to venture into designing


a garden it will be wise to get an idea abut the
major gardening styles of the world.

The flower beds, borders, and shrubbery are


arranged in geometrically designed beds.
Trimmed formal hedges, Cypress, Ashoka trees,
and topiary are typical features of a formal
garden.
2. INFORMAL GARDENS:
In an informal garden, the whole design looks
informal, as the plans and the features are
arranged in a natural way without following
any hard and fast rules.
But here also the work has to proceed
according to a set and well-through-out plan;
otherwise the creation will not be artistic and
attractive.
The idea behind this design is to imitate
nature.
3. WILD GARDEN:
A comparatively recent style of gardening,
namely, Wild Garden was expounded by
William Robinson in the last decade of the
nineteenth century.

This will pen up a window to this knowledge


on gardening and help him design his own
garden by adapting the best from each or any
of these.
But this does not mean that one should copy
any garden style. For example, when a
would-be writer studies Shakespeare, Shaw,
or Tagore it does not mean that he will
translate their ideas in his work of literature.
He only studies the styles of writing and
forms his own ideas suiting to the situation
and time.
Similarly, a garden enthusiast has to study the
different styles only to gain knowledge to help
him form his own ideas suiting the local
condition and limitations such as a available
space, funds, etc.,
Though in India from history and ancient
literature we find that gardening was quite in
vogue in olden times, but unfortunately there
is no garden style called Indian garden,
which can claim a place in the major
gardening styles of the world.
The famous garden style of India the Mughal
Gardens are nothing but a replica of the
ancient Persian Gardens.

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The major garden styles are;


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Mughal Gardens,
Persian gardens,
Italian gardens,
French gardens
English gardens and
Japanese gardens

Out of these, the Mughal, Persian, Italian and


French styles are Formal Gardens,
whereas,
English and Japanese gardens are classified as
Informal Style of gardening.
{1} ENGLISH GARDENS:
Due to favorable climatic conditions such as
high annual rainfall, the natural ground cover
in the English countryside is grass.
With this in mind the famous British garden
architects Repton and Capaciblity Brown
advocated the concept that the British gardens
should like the countryside.
Their main idea was that, the gardens should
merge with the countryside without any
artificial barriers such as fences, hedges, or the
like.
But it is only in the eighteenth century that
these two gentlemen along with Kent brought
the touch of nature in the garden, although the
history of gardening in England dates back of
fourteenth century.

trees, rivulets or streams, artificial waterfalls


and clipped hedges.
The flowering annuals, the main stay of an
English garden, came into prominence during
the nineteenth century which subdued the
architectural features.
The main features of an English garden are
the lawn, mixed border especially of
herbaceous annuals, as well as herbaceous
perennials, shrubbery, and rock gardens.
The English climate suit admirably well for the
growth of herbaceous annuals.
This prompted them to evolve a large number
of hybrids of annuals as well as to collect the
best flowering plants from all over the world.
Most of the flowering annuals that we see
today in the Indian gardens, with the few
exceptions
of
amaranthus,
balsam,
gomphrena, marigold, etc., were brought here
by the British.
(2) ITALIAN GARDENS:
The Italian garden style came into existence at
the time of Renaissance.
There is a striking similarity between the
Persian and the Mughal styles with the Italian
style.
In all these styles of gardening the similarity
was the use of heavy masonry features,
through the character of masonry was
different in the Italian style.

They started kitchen gardens to supply


vegetables to the inmates of the monasteries
and grew herb gardens for medicines.

The Italian elites conceived their gardens just as


an extension of the lavish palaces, as a
glamorous outdoor hall for entertainment and
for showing off their wealth as well as status.

But this gradually imbibed the spirit of


gardening to the people who realized the
goodness of residing in pleasant surroundings.

The most prominent features associated with


Italian gardens was,

By the middle of the sixteenth century the


English gardens saw flower beds, topiary, and
terrace gardens.
In the middle of the eighteenth century gardens
were laid out with more emphasis on
architectural features.
The main features of gardens during this
period were curved paths, informal groups of

o The massive flight of stairs, generally of


marble, complete with balustrade to
connect the different levels in the garden.
o Decorative urns, fountains generally in
combination with stone sculptures or
rather the fountains themselves used to
emerge from one part or the other of the
statues, are the other equally important
features of the Italian gardens.

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o The greatest benefit the Italian garden style


brought to gardening is that it taught all of
Europe that
Gardening could be a most respectable form of
art which demanded through and careful study.
(3) FRENCH GARDENS
In the sixteenth-century France, the court life
was shrouded with stiff formality and
exactness. Matching with that the French style
of garden designs were also very intricate and
artificial. Until this time the French gardens
were nothing but copies of Italian style.

The Persian styles are strictly formal and


symmetrical.
They used for their gardens all crafted
materials such as masonry, carved and pierced
marble stones, and highly polished stones.
The Persian gardens were laid out by cutting
terraces on the hill slopes. They also tapped
some natural spring to create a straight watercourse through the gardens and manipulated
the water-course to undertake different
movements along its run.
If there was no natural source of water this was
created artificially by diverting some rivulet or
a stream.

The new style of gardening now known as


French style is largely, rather solely, due to the
efforts of Le Notre who served in the Royal
Garden of Louis XIV from 1643 to 1700.

So the main stay of a Persian garden design


was nahars (Flowing canals) of water the
concept of Persian Paradise, where cooling
water flows.

He elevated the art of garden design to a


standard which had never since been reached.

The selection and placing of trees were very


judicious.

It was Le Notre who showed to the world the


impact in impressiveness of scale, on garden
design.

The fruit trees represented the symbol of life


while

His main creations, the gardens at Versailles,


have avenues which are memorable for their
tremendous length and width.

Cypress symbolized death and eternity.


(5) MUGHAL GARDENS

To design a garden at Vauxe-le-Vicomte, his


first master piece, Le Notre had removed three
villages to create his vista.

The gardens laid out during the rule of Mughal


Emperors in India are known as Mughal
gardens.

The moral of French garden style of Le Notre


seems to teach the lesson How to Think
Big.

The Mughal gardens are similar to the style of


gardens of Central Asia and Persia.

The style of Le Notre can be termed as an


evolution and mastery of the art of formal
garden in its perfection.
His style dominated the gardens of civilized
Europe, for a long time.
(4) PERSIAN GARDENS
Persian garden style is one of the oldest.
The Persian garden style and the Japanese style
both were based on their respective ideas of
heaven.
Except this similarity the two styles differ
widely from one another.

Babar (1494 1531) was the first Mughal ruler


to introduce this style in India.
All other Mughal rulers and some of the
Mughal Begums starting from Akbar and
followed by Jahangir, Nur Jehan, Shah Jehan,
and Aurangzeb all laid their hand on
developing one or the other Mughal gardens
in India.
The main features of Mughal gardens, which
are largely borrowed from the Persian style,
are :
(a) site and style of the design, (b) walls, (c)
gates, (d) terrace, (e) nahars or running waters,
(f) baradari, (g) often a tomb or a mosque, and
(h) trees.

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1. Site and Design:


Mughals were very choosy about the
selection of site and always preferred
a site on a hill slope with a perennial
rivulet or along the bank of a river.
Mughal
gardens
are
generally
rectangular or square in shape and
different architectural features are the
main stay of the design.
2. Walls and Gates :
The Mughals created the gardens not
only for pleasure and recreation but
also
as
forts
and
residences
surrounded by high walls and withan-imposing wooden gate at the
entrance which was studded with
bold iron nails and pointed iron
spikes.
The purpose of the high walls was
security from the enemies and shelter
against hot winds.
The gardens were a place of peace for
the Emperors to enjoy with their
wives and concubines.
3. Terrace:
The Mughals came from the hilly
terrains and so they were fond of
terraces in the gardens.
For this
reason they used to select the location
of gardens near hill slopes.
Their fascination for terrace was so
intense that even in the plains of
Punjab they created artificial terraces.
According to Islamic faith the Paradise
has eight divisions and hence some
times the gardens have eight terraces
corresponding to the eight divisions or
occasionally the gardens may be
composed of seven terraces also
representing the seven planets.
4. Nahars (Running Water):
The style for having running water by
constructing
canals
and
tanks
borrowed from the Persians.

The water canals were paved with


tiles (or marble) of blue colour to
create the illusion of depth.
The course of water used to be
manoeuvred in various ways taking
advantage of each slope, however
small it may be, to break up the flow
into artificial falls and ripples.
The water canals used to have
fountains to throw up the water high
in the air.
In the evenings small lamps used to be
illuminated
to create beautiful
reflexions.
The fascination for water came from
the Muslim faith which says that the
promised paradise is the place where
cooling waters flow.
5. Baradari:
This is noting but an arbour-like
structure, but made of stone and
masonry with a pucca roof and a
raised platform for sitting.
These were usually provided with
twelve or occasionally more doors on
all sides for the Emperors to watch the
performance of the dancing girls.
6. Tomb or Mosque:
It was a common practice to have the
gardens built around a tomb (e.g., Taj
Mahal, Akbhars Tomb at Sikandra).
It is often said that the Mughal
gardens were at their best when built
around a monument.
7. Trees and flowers:
The trees were selected with careful
planning and thought, as to Mughals
each tree symbolized something, like
life, youth, death, etc.
Fruit trees were considered symbols of
life and youth,
Cypress
eternity.

represented

death

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The Mughals had bias for spring


flowering trees and flowers.
The seasonal flower beds were of
geometrical pattern and constructed
along the water canals or near the
main buildings.
The favourite flowers were rose,
jasmine,
carnation,
hollyhock,
delphinium etc.
(6) JAPANESE GARDEN STYLE
Both the Persian and Japanese garden designs
were based on their respective ideas of
heaven.
A most important teaching of the Japanese
garden is possibly that unless a garden has
an air of peace its not worth a place visiting.
It should be a place where the mind finds rest
and relaxation.
Another strong basis of the Japanese garden is
its immutability, i.e., except some seasonal
changes in the deciduous trees the Japanese
garden hardly goes through any other strong
visible changes during different seasons.
Even during the winter the Japanese gardens
have their own beauty with snow flakes
hanging down the stone pieces or the stone
lanterns.
The immutability is achieved also because
rather than a grand mixture of flowers, shrubs,
and trees more emphasis is placed on natural
elements such as a simple path, a group of
rocks, stepping stones, streams, waterfalls,
bridges, stone lanterns, and so on.
A Japanese garden tries to capture natural
scenery or to imitate a landscape.
The three elements most important to achieve
these objectives are water, stone, and plants.

The Japanese
based on positions,
important types are;
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
(1} Hill Garden:

gardens are further classified


shape and purpose.
The
Hill garden,
Flat garden,
Tea garden,
Passage garden, and
Sand gardens.

Out of the various styles, this garden style is


considered to be the ideal by many garden
enthusiasts.
This style is known in Japanese as Tsukiyamaniwa or Tsukiyama-sansui, meaning hills
and water.
The hill garden is made up of one or more hills
designed with earth mounds and exposed
weathered stones.
The other features of this garden are- water in
the form of a stream or a pond or waterfalls or
all the three with or without islands and also
bridges, lantern, stones, and trees.
The important points in the garden are
decorated with stones and selected trees.
But pine trees may be planted to give the effect
of being swept by wind.
Untrimmed stepping stones are placed over the
walks.
An island is generally a usual feature in a hill
garden.
When the island is present it should be
decorated with a Worshipping stone, called
raithai-seki in Japanese, a Sow-viewing
lantern and a pine tree.
(2) Flat Garden:

Low sculptured bushes and trained dwarfed


trees look very attractive in a Japanese garden.

As the name implies, Hira-niwa or flat gardens


are laid out in flat ground without hills or
ponds.

Types of Garden: A Japanese garden may either be in


the form of a large public park or a small family
garden designed for living which is seen usually by
members of the family or the family guests.

Flat gardens are supposed to represent a


mountain valley or a meadowland.

A Flat garden is not necessarily as flat as a pancake. Since it stimulates a mountain valley,
low rounded hills designed with the help of

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stones or earth mounds or both will look quite


appropriate in a flat garden.

of
deciduous
predominate.

The usual features to break the monotony of a


flat garden are a well, a water-basin made of
stone in the shape of an urn, stones lying close
to the ground.

(3) Tea Garden:


The tea garden is laid out based on certain
principles and customs of the Japanese tea
ceremony and hence needs a considerable
space of at least about 200 square metres, for
its designing.
Since the performance of the tea ceremony
needs an atmosphere of intimacy it is essential
that the garden be enclosed by a fence.
To protect the tea house from the noise of the
outer world, the tea gardens are divided into
an outer garden (soto-roji) and inner garden
(uchi-roji).
Outer Tea Garden

It is comparatively a narrow area,


with a waiting place where the
guests are supposed to wait until
the master of the house appears to
welcome them.
This waiting place has a waterbasin for the convenience of the
guests who can wash their hands
and
a
stone
lantern
for
illumination, but in present days
this serves more as a decoration
piece.
A stone path, usually of steppingstones, leads to the inner garden.
The inner garden is also separated
from the outer garden by a rustic
fence and a gate made of light
material.
The outer garden will have simple
plantings and stone groupings.
The outer garden should be
exposed to sun and hence planting

should

ii. Inner Tea Garden

In a flat garden, the principle is to avoid strong


vertical lines represented by tall pines.

i.

trees

Contains the tea house.

The tea house of the classical


time was nothing but a small
straw hut with an outside
waiting place,

A small side room for


washing the utensils, and the
main ceremonial tea house
itself having a capacity to
accommodate
only
five
persons.

The entire path to the tea


house is paved with stones or
studded with stepping-stone.

The inner garden is a


subdued area and hence
evergreen trees casting more
shadows are used here.

The entrance to the tea house


is through a low-door so that
the guests have to enter in a
bending posture, simulating
respect and humility.

(4) Passage Garden:

The passage gardens, the Roji-niwa, are those


which are laid in narrow passage, as for
example a narrow space between two houses
or approaches to buildings.

As such areas are generally narrow, the garden


lay-out should be simple and not over
crowded.

In such gardens there should be hardly any


ornaments such as lanterns, basins or other
man-made features.

The common features of a passage garden are a


few key rocks, slabs of stones, and only a
couple of types of plant.

Bushy shrubs and trees are unsuitable in a


passage garden; instead, plants with open
form and slender shapes are selected.

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(5) Sand Garden :

It is the simplest style of gardening, though not


liked by many as it is totally devoid of plants.

The most famous sand garden exists in Kyoto


and is known as Ryoanji garden.

The garden consists of a rectangular area of


about 350 square metres adjoining a Zen
Budhist temple.

The main feature of this style of gardening is to


arrange few vertical and prostrate stones in
groups of 2 or 3 and to fill in gap between the
stones with fine white gravel.

The gravel is raked in most simple patterns


simulating the ripples of flowing water.

The raking has to be repeated often to keep the


garden in its best shape.

This style of garden looks pleasant and


effective only when confined to a limited area.
THE FEATURES OF JAPANESE GARDENS

Ponds ,,Streams ,Waterfalls ,Fountains


,Wells ,Islands ,Bridges ,Water ,Stone
Lanterns, Stones, Pagodas ,Fences and
Gates, Vegetation
It is good practice to use plants which
change their leaf colour in the autumn or
put forth colourful leaves in the spring.
The examples of some such trees and
shrubs are: maple, Cryptomeria japonica,
Terminalia catappa, Lagerstroemia flos
reginae, and Ficus religiosa.
The deciduous trees are never planted in
the front garden except in a tea garden, as
the bare branches may not look attractive
during the winter.

Some typical trees of Japanese gardens are;


(a) Evergreens : Pines, different species of Abies,
Cryptomeria japonica, Podocarpus
macrophylla,
and
Juniperus
chinensis;
(b) Deciduous : Maples (Acer species), Poplars
(Populus sp.) Mulbery, (Morus
alba), and Salix babylonica
(willow); (c)
Flowering trees: The most commonly
used plants are different Prunus species,
besides Magnolia grandiflora and others.
Shrubs: Aucuba japonica, Azaleas, Gardenia
florida, Nandina domestica, Camellia,
Lagestroemia indica and Rhododendrons.
Bamboos play a special role in the
Japanese gardens.
The flowers - chrysanthemums, asters
(e.g., Aster fastigiatus, A. glehnii, A.
microcephalus), carnation, different lilies,
irises, lotuses, peonies, and orchids.
Among the vines- (Clematis, Lonicera
japonica, Ipomoea hederacea, I. purpurea
(Syn. Pharbitis purpurea) Trachelosermum
jasminoides, and Wisteria sinensis are often
used.
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LECTURE-19

The garden has good collections of different


Cassias.

FAMOUS GARDENS OF INDIA

The collections of bugainvillea and hibiscus are


also very rich.

The
government,
municipalities,
city
corporations, and some other agencies maintain
some sort of gardens and parks in many parts of
India.
These gardens generally fall into two
categories.
1. Botanical Gardens - Gardens which are
meant for research as well as recreation
where all kinds of botanical species are
maintained for the benefit of the students
of botany and general public.
2.

Pleasure Gardens - A garden catering to


the needs of the ordinary citizens where
the common man visits enjoys the grass,
plants and flowers and gets relaxed from
the otherwise drab city life.

The other attractive features of the garden are


collections of foliage plants,
Pergolas, arbours, statues,
aquarium, rose garden,

The garden with its well-laid-out features,


paths, open spaces, shade and flowering trees
attracts a large number of visitors everyday.
2. BRINDAVAN GARDENS, MYSORE

This garden is one of the most important tourist


spots in India.

The garden is famous mainly for its


illuminated running waters and innumerable
fountains decorated by coloured lightings.

In the evening when all the fountains and


running water start working and are
illuminated with changing colour of lights, the
whole place looks like a paradise.

The fountain and lightings apart from the


garden have open spaces under lawn,
illuminated flower beds and other ornamental
plantings.

The river Cauvery below the giant dam divides


the garden into two parts and visitors enjoy a
boat ride in the river.

LALBAGH, BANGALORE (KARNATAKA)


Lal

bagh

Botanical

is

the

Karnataka

Garden

State

situated

at

Bangalore.
The

garden,

A beautiful natural rock formation and others.

Some of the important Indian parks and


gardens and their important features are
discussed below.
1.

water

initial layout of the garden was

started in 1760 by Hyder Ali.

3.

GOVERNMENT

The
tall
majestic-looking
Araucarias,
especially Araucaria excelsa (syn. A. cookii)
which steal the eyes of the visitors.
The avenue of the large Ficus benjamina near the
glasshouse is definitely a special feature of the
garden.
Plants such as Tecoma argentea,
Tabebuia avalandii and Tabebuia spectabilis are
prize collections of the garden.

GARDENS,

OOTACAMUND (Ooty)

The most attractive features of the garden are ;


A large glasshouse where the annual flower
shows are held.

BOTANIC

This garden is situated at an altitude of 2,175 to


2,280 m above sea level in the Nilgiris Hills.

It actually started functioning in 1848.

The garden covers an area of 20 hectares in


ascending terraces.
The garden has six major sections:

The lower gardens consisting of the main


entrance, the lower lawns, and the new gardens:
The Bandstand;
The Conservatory, the Bog Garden, and the
Tennis Court Gardens;

The terrace with fountains and picnic spots;

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The new Bandstand and its surroundings; and

The garden has many features


The sunken garden is most
interesting.
The topiary work in the garden is
most interesting which attracts the
attention of any visitor.
The childrens corner,
Greenhouses,
Rockery,
Hibiscus varietal collection,
Large stretches of lawns, and
Rosary is also important features of
the garden.

The nursery area.


4. SIMS PARK, COONOOR (TAMIL NADU)

The park was established in 1874 by J.D. Sim


after whom it was named.

This park in the Nilgiri Hills is the center of


attraction for the people of Coonoor and
Wellington.

The park is spread over an area of 15 hectares


at an altitude of about 1,740 m above the sea
level.
Some of the important features of the garden are

The terraces with winding paths,


lawns,
beds of annuals,

6. THE BYRANT PARK, KODAIKANAL (TAMIL


NADU)

rockeries,
a pond with two islands,

Arches and pergolas training creepers.

park was actually laid out in 1909.

The park has a good collection of roses, trees


of ornamental as well as economic value,
shrubs, and creepers.

The park has, Terrace gardens, Lawns,


Childrens park, A sunken garden,
A good collection of roses, chrysanthemums,
trees and shrubs.
The park is a centre for supplying ornamental

5. BOTANIC GARDEN, COIMBATORE (TAMIL


NADU)

The botanic garden situated on the campus of


Tamil Nadu Agricultural University.

The layout in the garden is a harmony between


the formal and the informal designs.

In the background of this garden is a bluishgreen hill range which ahs been incorporated
in the designing of different garden features.

It was established in 1908 by the Department of


Agriculture, Madras.

The main function of the garden is to rise and


maintain trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, etc.,
which are useful from economic as well as
ornamental and bio-aesthetic point of view.

The park has a total area of 10 hectares. The

The garden meets the needs of public, scientist


and government department in the supply of
plants.

plants.
7. THE INDIAN BOTANIC GARDEN, SIBPUR,
KOLKATA (WEST BENGAL)

Actually speaking, the garden is not situated in


Kolkata proper, but is in the twin city of
Howrah, on the opposite side of the river
Hoogly.

The garden was established in 1787 on a 150


hectare land.
It ranks among the great
botanical gardens of the world and is the seat
of the Botanical Survey of India.

The garden was established on the suggestion


of Robert Kyd, an army man.

THE FEATURES ARE The giant 200-year-old banyan tree (Ficus


benghalensis).
The large collection of palms in the Palmetum
with a pond in the foreground.
The garden has 26 lakes.

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The giant lily, Victoria regia which has giant


disc-like leaves raised at the margins. It is
reported that the leaves floating on the surface
of water can withstand the weight of a baby.
The garden has 15,000 trees and shrubs in the
open, representing 2,500 species.

1) Upper indigenous section consisting of


dominant species of the eastern as well as of
the Western Himalayas and Burma.

The palm houses, orchid houses, and ferneries


house several thousand herbaceous plants.

2) A central or middle section containing


coniferous plants.

The Royal Palm Avenue near the river gate is


another beautiful feature of the garden.

3) A rock garden, naturally displaying flora of


high altitudes and of the alpine region of this
locality.

The garden houses the best herbarium in the


country and the library has more than 25,000
volumes.
8.

The garden has a total area of 24 acres laid out


in beautiful terraces and provided with
metalled approach roads. The garden has the
following sections:

THE

AGRI-HORTICULTURAL

4) The lower exotic section houses plants mainly


from the temperate regions of the world.
5) Orchidarium:
There
are
two
large
greenhouses having about 2,500 orchids of
different species.

SOCIETY

GARDENS, KOLKATA (WEST BENGAL)

6) Students garden consists of the Sikkim


Himalayan flora, arranged family-wise.

It is possibly the oldest Horticultural society of


India. The society first started its garden in
1825, but the garden in the present site was
established in 1872.

7) Cacti and other succulents are housed in a


greenhouse.
8) In the bulbous section there are collections of
various species of lilies, amaryllis and
tuberous begonias.

The Societys gardens are well laid out and a


metalled path goes round the major parts of
the garden.

A collection of Bougainvilleas

A large pond houses good collections of


water-lilies.

Rockeries and rock garden

Lily ponds, a large independent

Sunken garden, and a long beautiful pergola


with a rich collection of creepers and climbers,

A huge open lawn,

Childrens corner,

The largest collection of trees, shrubs, and


creepers including some hybrids developed in
this garden by the famous horticulturist, S.
Percy Lancaster.

9. LLYOD BOTANIC GARDEN, DARJEELING

9) There is a rosary containing many cultivars of


roses.
10) The aquatic garden is housed in two pools
consisting of species of Nymphaeaceae and
other submerged acquatics.
11) The Herbarium and seed section contains
30,000 herbarium sheets
12) The garden has about 1,800 botanical species
representing regions such as Burma, Malaysia,
Central Asia, Japan, North and South
America, Europe, and Africa.
10.

NATIONAL

Established in 1878 and situated at an altitude


of about 2,100 m in the midst of the
Himalayas,

it is one of the most picturesque botanic


gardens of India. The garden was laid by Sir
George Kind, donated by William Lloyd.

RESEARCH

INSTITUTE, LUCKNOW (UTTAR PRADESH)

The National Botanical Research Institute


popularly known as Sikander Bagh,

Laid out by Nawab Saadat Ali Khan (1789


1814) which was further improved upon by
Nawab Wajid alishah, the latter naming it
after his wife Sikander Mahal Begum.

The present area of the garden is 27 hectares.

(WEST BENGAL)

BOTANICAL

Important features:

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The garden has a library,

A large herbarium and has wellequipped laboratories on different


branches of botany, chemistry, and a
tissue culture laboratory.

The main garden area is roughly 134 square


metres and is bounded from all sides by a
paved red stone path.

Two canals each of 5.40 m width run


from north to south and two similar
canals intersect these to form a 60 m
square island in the centre. This
island is the venue for the most of the
receptions held at Rashtrapati Bhavan.

There is a sunken or circular garden


which is a beautiful spot especially
during the winter when innumerable
seasonal flowers bloom.

The gardens with fine lawns,

Rose gardens,

Conservatory,

Cactus house, and

A Lily pool is very well maintained


and attracts streams of visitors from
all over the country.

The garden is famous for quantity and


quality of seasonal flowers.

11. HORTICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE,

There are good collections of


Bougainvilleas, different bulbous
plants as well as flowering trees which
ensure enough of colour throughout
the year.

There is a large collection of roses also.

The well-known botanists such as Falconer,


Jameson and Duthie worked in this garden.

Greenhouses with collection of


orchids, cacti, succulents and ferns.

The garden mainly conducts research on subtropical fruits.

The pergolas are laden with fine


creepers.

There are a large number of trees,


especially cypress (Cupressus) which
are clipped in the topiary style. The
garden remains open for about a
month for the general visitors during
the winter months when the seasonal
flowers are in full bloom.

This garden is popularly referred to as


Mughal Gardens.

SAHARANPUR (U.P.)

The garden was possibly laid out well before


1750.

The garden was taken over by the East India


Company in 1817.

The garden has a good collection of fruit trees.

The collection of ornamental plants such as


trees, shrubs, cacti and succulents are also
worth mentioning.

12. RASHTRAPATI BHAVAN GARDEN, NEW


DELHI

Rashtrapati Bhavan is the official residence of


the President of India and one of the largest
buildings of its kind in the world. It was
completed in 1929.

The architecture of the palace is a mixture of


Indian and Western style.

The garden inside this palace was laid on the


pattern of Mughal gardens with conventional
arrangement of squares, terraces, water
channels, etc.

13. BUDDHA JAYANTI PARK, NEW DELHI

To commemorate the 2500th birth anniversary


of Lord Buddha a park was laid out in the
rugged and rockery Ridge of New Delhi
which turned out to be one of the best laid-out
landscape gardens in the country.

The garden is of about 30 hectares in size.

Important feature of this garden are:

Most of the existing natural flora such as


Butea monosperma, Acacias, etc.,

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The natural hillocks and rock formations


were incorporated in the garden without
trying to level or distort them.

The barren rocks and woodland areas


have been planted with bulbs such as
Narcissus, Oxalis, Zephyranthes and hardy
annuals such as Coreopsis, Cosmos, and
Tithonia which seed themselves and grow
year after year giving and natural effect.

There is a Japanese style of garden in one


portion.

There is a floral clock also.

This garden is a favorable spot of


picnickers and other people and children.

The garden has a good collection of trees


and shrubs.

The garden played an important part in the


introduction of forest trees, ornamental and
other economic plants. The collection of
indigenous flora is also quite rich.

The important features of attraction are


A greenhouse containing large collection
of terrestrial and epiphytic orchids, ferns
and other shade-loving plants,
a greenhouse containing cacti and
succulents; and the plant introduction
nursery including a net-house.
In addition to the botanic garden, there is
an arboretum of 50 hectares containing
mostly forest plants yielding timber and
other economic products.
The garden has a herbarium containing
300,000 sheets. The collection of water
plants is also quite good. It has a plant
and seed exchange programme.

14. JAPANESE STYLE GARDENS

Dr. M.S. Randhawa, when he was the VicePresident of the Indian Council of Agricultural
Research, once decided to lay out a chain of
Japanese style gardens and with this in view
he visited the famous Japanese landscape
architect Prof. K. Mori in 1958.

The first Japanese style garden was laid out in


the Roshanara Park, Delhi.

The garden was laid out complete with rivulets,


water falls, pond with stepping stones,
wooden bridge and the like which are
common features and a Japanese garden.

16. MUGHAL GARDENS OF KASHMIR

The credit of developing the Mughal gardens in


Kashmir goes to Akbar, Jehangir and Shah
Jahan.
The gardens have a series of descending
terraces,
The flow of water which is another main
stay of the Mughal gardens.
The gardens on the bank of the Dal Lake,
Shalimar, Nishat Bagh, and Chasma-eShahi are well preserved and mostly
frequented by visitors.

Another garden with rivulet, stones, bridge,


etc., was laid out in the official residence of the
Prime Ministers house at Safdarjung Road.

Some other popular gardens are at


Achabal, Verinag, and Bijbehara.

15. BOTANICAL GARDEN, FOREST RESEARCH

A most spectacular feature of these


gardens is the planting of the majestic
Chenar trees in groups.

INSTITUTE, DEHRADUN (U.P.)

The botanical garden occupies about 10 hectare.

In this 500-hectare Forest Research Institutes I.


estate.

The botanic garden was started in 1934 at an


altitude of 663 m. The garden is well laid out
and is a place of attraction for the visitors.

The primary function of the garden is to


introduce new plants from all over the globe.

SHALIMAR GARDEN:

This garden was initiated by Jehangir in


1619 and extended in 1630 by Zafar
Khan, the then Governor of Kahsmir,
under the instructions of Emperor Shah
Jahan.

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The garden is connected with the Dal


Lake by a 1.6 km canal which is about
10.8 m wide.

In the second terrace, there is a


large reservoir containing 25 large
fountains.

On both sides of the canal there are


broad green paths lined by majestic
Chenar trees.

There are two main pavilions, one


at the lower end and the other at
the upper end of the garden.

The garden consists of three terraces,


the first having a baradari, the Diwan-eAm, and the second contains the Diwane-Khas. But, unfortunately, both these
buildings do not exist today, but only
their stone bases are left surrounded by
fountains.

The other pavilion is situated at


the end of the upper terrace from
where one can have a thorough
view of the entire garden.

The
beautifully
designed
flowerbeds and the avenue of
Chenars attract immediate attention
of the visitor.

Morning is the best time for


visiting this garden.

Along the centre of the garden there are


a series of water reservoirs interconnected by a wide canal.

The canals and the reservoirs are paved


with polished limestone.

The source of running water is a stream


which flows through these reservoirs
and canals and sometimes through
beautiful chutes of various designs.

The third terrace containing a


magnificent black stone pavilion was
meant for ladies.

The pavilion is surrounded by a


reservoir containing 140 large fountains.

Maharaja Hari Singh of Kashmir


provided electricity to the garden.

II. NISHAT BAGH:

The literary meaning of Nishat is


pleasure.

This pleasure garden was built by


a Persian, Asaf Jah, who happened
to be the brother of Nur Jahan.

The garden has twelve terraces


each representing the sign of the
Zodiac.

The two wooden doorways and


the baradari in the third terrace
were added by Maharaja Ranbir
Singh.
The water runs all along the
garden through a limestone lined
wide canal which has a number of
fountains.

III. CHASMA-E-SHAHI:

The garden situated about 8 km


away from Srinagar is the smallest
among the three gardens of the
valley.

The main attraction of this garden


is a spring spewing clean, ice-cold
water
having
appetizing
properties.

The garden was constructed by Ali


Mardan Khan, the Governor of
Kashmir, under the instructions of
Emperor Shah Jahan.

The garden consists of three


terraces, a central aqueduct, water
tanks, waterfalls or chute, and
fountains.

The two baradaris of the garden are


of recent origin, although the
plinth was provided by the
Mughal designer.

The garden provides a panoramic


view of the Dal Lake.

IV. VERINAG:

The centre of attraction of this


garden is the Verinag spring, the
water of which is exceedingly pure
and highly transparent.

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The reservoir around it


commenced by Jehangir
completed by Shah Jahan.

stone bridge, only the ruins of


which remain today.

was
and

The garden here has a charming


beauty.

Emperor Jehangir who expired on


his way back from Kashmir
wished that he be buried there.
But his followers buried him near
Lahore. Thus his last wish to have
eternal rest in a beautiful
surrounding remained unfulfilled.

17.

THE

The design of the garden is typical


of the Mughal style.

MUGHAL

GARDEN,

PINJORE

(HARYANA)

This garden situated 5 km below Kalka on the


Ambala Simla road.

Laidout by Fidai Khan, the foster brother of


Aurangazeb during his reign in the
seventeenth century.

V. ACHABAL:

This garden on the outskirts of the


town Anantnag was built by Nur
Jahan in 1620.

The original name of the place Panchapura or


Punjpur has association with the five Pandavas
of our epic Mahabarata.

The spring at Achabal is the largest


in Kashmir, which flows through
this garden traversed by three
aqueducts.

It is one of the best preserved gardens of north


India and is famous for its beauty.

The garden is uniquely laidout in an area of 25


hectares and is divided into six terraces.

As customary with all Mughal gardens, this


garden is also encircled by an embattled wall.

Along these paths there are lawns, flower beds,


trimmed hedges, rows and bottle palms and
many other ornamental shrubs and trees.

There is a good collection of fruit trees,


especially of mango, litchi, and sapota.

There are three magnificent buildings the


Shish Mahal, the Rang Mahal, and the Jal
Mahal.

Along the central aqueduct there


are two large tanks and the upper
one of these has a wooden pavilion
constructed on a wooden base.
There are six vertical waterfalls in
the garden, three on the upper part
and three in the lower.
The banks of the tanks and the
canals are lined with stone and
these abound in fish.

There is a ruin of hammom (Turkish


bath) and some other buildings.

The garden has a good collection


of different fruit trees besides the
large majestic Chenars.

VI. BIJBEHARA:

This garden constructed by Dara


Shikoh, the eldest son of Shah
Jahan, is situated about 48 km
from Srinagar.

There are magnificent Chenars in


this garden; the girth of one of the
tree measures about 16.2 m.

The garden was divided in two


parts which were connected by a

18. CHANDIGARH ROSE GARDEN

Rose is a very important ornamental flower for


its beauty, elegance, grace, as well as
fragrance.

The garden has an area of 10 hectares and


contains more than 36,000 roses of all types
including hybrid tea, floribunda, polyanthas,
miniatures, climbers and standards.

The Chandigarh rose garden is situated in the


centre of the city on a 15 hectare plot.

It is designed to contain about 60,000 roses


when completed.

It is also contemplated to collect about 5,000


outstanding cultivars of roses.

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The garden is situated in a valley and a natural


stream runs through it.

A section will be developed as a moonlight


garden planted with only pure-white scented
roses.

At present about 1,500 named roses are there in


the museum.

Although the ambitious plans and targets of the


garden have not yet been fulfilled, still this
garden is a wonderful place to visit.

19. MANDOR GARDEN, JODHPUR (RAJASTHAN)

This garden is situated about 5 km away from


the heart of Jodhpur.

It is one of the most beautifully laid-out


landscape gardens in our country but
unfortunately many people do not know
about it.

The credit of laying the garden goes to Raja


Abhai Singh (1724 1749 A.D.).

It is highly creditable that such a beautiful


garden has been laid out in the desert region
of Rajasthan.

The garden is fairly large in size and terraces


have been constructed on the slopes of the
hillocks to extent the garden up to the peaks.

The large spaces provided under lawn, the


flower beds, trees, and shrubs add beauty to
the garden.

There are fountains fitted with coloured lights


which are run on a payment of Rs. 20 per
hour. The tea stall situated at a higher terrace
adds beauty to the garden.

20. SAYAJI PARK, BARODA (GUJARAT)

The Sayaji Park in Baroda is named after its


founder the former Maharaja Sayajirao III who
established it in 1879 over an area of 40
hectares.

The garden is a beautiful belt of greenery in the


otherwise dry climatic region of Baroda.

The garden has about 8,000 various ornamental


trees with rare plants such as Hyphaene
thebaica, the branching palm, forming an
avenue in one corner.
This formal portion of the garden has the
arbour like bandstand, paved walks, lush
green lawns, four fountains. The park has a
zoo also with rare animals such as white tiger.

@@@@@

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LECTURE-20

The tube or the vase can be made of timber or


preferably of brick, concrete or, carved out of
stone.

These can be built permanently in position or


may be kept just like that and moved whenever
needed.

When fixed permanently, these should


generally be positioned over an ornamental
pillar keeping in view the proportion between
the two.

If there is a paved path an ornamental vase or


tub can be placed at the end of it or one each on
both sides.

Similarly, these can be placed near the gate or


near the staircase of the main entrance.

Ornamental urns preferably of metal with


carvings outside look beautiful in the terrace,
near the staircase, or even inside the house.

Suitable ornamental plants should be grown in


such containers. Window boxes are also useful
garden ornaments.

GARDEN ADORNMENTS

In a garden several adornments and necessities


should be provided to make it look more
ornamental and useful.

Garden seats, boxes, tubs, urns, ornamental


vases, fountains, bird baths, sundials, floral
clocks, Japanese lanterns, statues, ornamental
stone pillars or pieces, pergolas and arches are
some of the few examples of such garden
ornaments/adornment.

1. GARDEN SEATS

Garden seats are necessity in any garden.

The seats should be comfortable, durable,


artistic-looking and should not look out of
place.

Wooden and fabric seats are comfortable to seat


compared to those built in stone or iron.

When wooden seats are selected they should be


made of good timber like teak to withstand the
vagaries of weather especially moisture as the
furniture has to remain outdoors.

The wood is treated with preservative and


painted with moisture-proof chemicals.

The chair or bench should have an appropriate


design. For example, a chrome seated chair will
look completely out of place in the midst of
woodland scenery. Similarly, rustic furniture in
front a modern sophisticated house may be
completely out of place.
Iron or stone or concrete seats get easily heated
in the summer and become cool in the winter
thus making them uncomfortable to seat.

But for durability and to prevent from damage


and theft concrete or stone seats are preferable
in Public Park.

3.

These are nothing but large bowl-shaped


containers, generally made of concrete, fixed
over a pillar or column which is about one
metre tall.

Water is stored in the bowl for the birds to come


and drink or bath in it.

Birds baths should be constructed at a quiet


corner of the garden.

4.

2.

ORNAMENTAL TUBS, URNS AND VASES

These add beauty to a garden.

Plants displayed in ornamental tubs or urns at


suitable places look beautiful.

SUNDIALS

A sundial has many roles to play in a garden.

It can be used as a focal point in a garden, can


form a center-piece of a formal flower bed and
can be placed in the center or at the end of the
lawn and at the junction or termination of a
path.

A sundial is also a good feature in a sunken


garden.

The sundial should be positioned in a place


where the shadow from a tree or building does
not fall for a long duration, otherwise the
feature becomes meaningless.

Though iron furniture is also durable it is more


likely to be stolen because of the value of metal
unless firmly fixed.

BIRD BATHS

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There should be free access to the base of the


column, so that one can closely observe the dial.

These
are
ornaments.

The lanterns should preferably be carved in


stone and should be low and decorative as the
Japanese would prefer.

The column may be cylindrical or square faced


with ornamental carvings.

Similarly, the fire box should also be carved in


an ornamental manner.

In India one has to get it made with the digits.


The digits can be carved on the cement or the
stone itself.

The roof may be broad-roofed, commonly called


Snow View or Yukimi, so called because it
gives a charming effect to the landscape when it
is snow-bound.

Before fixing the dial, the movement of the sun


should be observed and then the dial is screwed
to the base.

Obviously these types of lanterns are made of


white stone or white marble and are suitable for
areas having a snowfall.

There is no harm even if these are preferred in a


tropical country especially near to pool.

The narrow-roofed or Kasuga lanterns have a


six facet fire box.

Hundreds of these lanterns are found in the


Kasuga temple near the town of Nara in Japan
and hence the name.

Many people also fix decorative metal lanterns


over ornamental columns or pillars, also of
metal.

The lanterns should be positioned in suitable


places near the house or near a stream or pool.

The column of the sundial should be fixed


firmly in the ground and is generally made of
bricks, tiles, stones, or a combination of these
without a mortar coating to look more artistic.

The top is generally square where the sundial


with the compass is fixed.

This is also made of stone or concrete. In


western countries, metal sundial plates with
compass are available for sale. Even dials for
specific districts are available there.

The height of the column should not exceed 6090 cm or the dial will not be visible easily.

Live sundials made of living plants complete


with the figures, compass etc., in the form of
topiary can be seen in some western countries.
5.

JAPANESE LANTERNS

6.

FLORAL CLOCKS

highly

sought-after

garden

These are nothing but huge clocks, generally


operated by electricity, having huge hands for
showing the seconds, minutes, and hours.

The machinery of the clock is concealed in an


underground chamber with only the hands
showing above he ground against a dial of
carpet bedding plants or flower beds.

A carpet bedding of green plants (E.g., Pilea


muscosa, Sedum) with figures made of red
plants (e.g., Alternanthera, Iresine sp.) or viceversa looks quite ornamental.

Ornamental stone pillars or pieces of rounded


form or other abstract designs, if properly
placed, improves the look of any garden to a
great extent.

The stones can be placed near lily pools, along


or in the midst of streams and waterfalls.

Large ornamental pieces can also be placed at


the doorway and other suitable places.

The Japanese create most artistic stone gardens


with pieces of stones.

First a large bed of crushed stone is made which


is raked artistically to create ripples to simulate
sea, over which single large piece of stone or a
group of stones are placed artistically at
intervals.

Similar effects can be obtained by various


coloured flowering annuals. The problem with
annuals is that these are to be replaced
seasonally, whereas carpet bedding plants are of
permanent nature.
Instead of living plants the dial can be decorated
with various coloured (natural or artificially
coloured) pebbles also.

7.

ORNAMENTAL STONES

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8.

FOUNTAINS

10.

PLANT STANDS

Unless there is water under pressure one cannot


have any good fountain.

The

Fountains are made to work by circulating the


same water contained in a pool.

Plant

There are various designs of fountains.

There may be a straight upright water jet or a


number of finer water jets conversing in the
form of an umbrella.

Water jets can also be designed in the form of


rainbows.

The jets and pipes are made of anti-corrosive


material.

To make the fountains more colourful during


the nights, coloured lights are provided under
water, with water-proof fittings.

With an automatic switch it is possible to


change the colours at regular intervals which
further adds to the beauty of the fountains.

9.

plant stands are also very useful


structures for decorating the gardens.
stands are generally made of mild
steel rods molded in different fashions
with various-sized rings attached to
hold the pots growing the plants.

These

can be displayed in the terrace


garden, at the entrance of the house,
in the roof garden or in any other
advantageous position in the garden.

STATUES

Statues of animate or inanimate objects are also


used in the garden to improve the looks.

The statues can be carved out of stone or made


of bronze.

The concrete statues can be placed in the midst


of a running stream or a pool, at the intersection of two roads, or at the end of a road or
near the doorway of the house.

The statues should be of good taste and artistic


value.

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DESIGNS

LECTURE-21
GARDEN ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF
GARDEN DESIGNS
The planning of a garden is an art. A garden
architect should learn enough of geology, geography,
garden history, styles of gardening, and above all
should have a profound knowledge about plants.
Basic Principles of Landscaping / General Principles
of Garden Design:
1.

Simplicity:
Garden design should be simple.
It should not have scope for under
complexity.
Visitors should catch entire effect.
Visitors should know purpose of garden
design/plan.

2.

Ideal garden should have space i.e. over


crowding of plants should be avoided.

3.

Judicious uses of more number of


varieties/species of plants, instead of going
for few plants go for more number of plants
because it serves two purposes.
a) Increases aesthetic beauty.

1.

Major elements

2.

Minor elements
: Stones, bricks, tiles, tar,
metal, grass, plastic, wood, sculpture etc.,

3.

Other elements
touch, food etc.,
Major elements:

: plants and water

Light,

sound,

smell,

1. PLANTS:
Classification of plants based on utilities and
functional value:
1. Aesthetic purpose:
a) Avenue planting- flower parade
b) Ground planting
c) Shrubbery, rockery, topiary, hedges,
edges
d) Potted plant, flower beds, boarders
e) Ground cover
f) Water garden
2. Functional purpose:
a) Control pollution
b) Reduces noise
c)

Control soil erosion

d) Wind break
e) Deciduous plants can utilize to
increase temperature during winter

b) Serves the scientific purpose.


Criteria for selection of plants:

4.

Garden path/ drive should not too straight


and long.

5.

Garden should layout for owners comfort and


convenience.

Height of the plant

6.

Natural grade
consideration.

to

Types of branches- upright, drooping,


horizontal

7.

All garden features should be accommodated


in proper place in a proportionate manner,
careful selection of plant and also increase
beauty of garden.

Spread and width of the plant

Form of the plat

Type of plant- evergreen, deciduous

Colour of the plant

Texture of the plant- smooth, rough

Flowering time of the plant

of

greens

taken

in

8.

It should comfortable to living (Private


garden).

9.

It should serve perfect place for passing


leisure time.

10. Easy to maintain to carry out all intercultural


operations.
11. When we say garden is complete garden
should look beautiful and should give
pleasant look to the garden.

Morphological character should be considered


while selecting the plants;

1. WATER: water has the ability to change form, at low


temperature water freezes, evaporates at
high temperature and liquefies at
moderate temperature
i.
Aesthetic use:
Water
fallscascade
type,
fountains, streams, lakes, ponds,
Nappe, Chadar, chute.

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v.

Water is used for creating


reflection during night time along
with lighting.

SCULPTURES:
Artistic material adds beauty to the
garden with the use of stones,
granites, sandstone, marbles, metals

The use of water helps in reducing


the
temperature
in
the
microclimate.

Sculptures includes
being, animals etc

Sound of water makes a person


feel comfortable.

vi.
Functional use: Water will nourish the
plant, increases growth and development
vii.

ii.

Keep in mind that stone radiates heat


and will have to be used carefully
BRICKS:

For creating garden walls, ponds

As paving material

For constructing plant boxes

GLASS : It includes mist chamber, green


house, conservatory, terrariums and
illumination purpose

MINOR ELEMENTS:
i.
STONES:
For creating rockery, statues or
sculptures, to imitate natural water
falls, garden benches, path/walks

human

It can be kept in front, middle part,


and in running streams of the garden

Water may mask the over power


unwanted sounds
ii.

birds,

Concrete : Used for creating drives, paths,


walks, ground cover

viii.
ix.

Tar/ Asphalt: Creating drives


Plastic : Drippers, sprinklers, pots, waste
bin

OTHER ELEMENTS:
i.

Lighting: Illumination, focusing the focal


points, illuminating water

ii.

Sound:

water falls,

running streams,

musical fountain, and wind chimes


iii.

WOOD:

iii.

Wood adds colour and texture to the


garden
Used for creating paths, steps, garden
bridges, ornamental picket fence,
country fences, arches, pergolas

iv.

iv.

surface,

For creating artistic features like


garden bridges, arches, pergolas,
Arbour, fence, light stands, metal
gardens
Used as a base material for plants to
grow on, when used for topiary
Metals should be treated with anti
corrosive materials before using in the
out doors

sculptures,

paving,

Garden

benches

Wood should be coated with paints/


preservatives to prevent decay
METAL:

Smell: planting of aromatic plants in


different parts of the garden, trees,
Aromatic plants, annual beds can be used
Touch: Texture of materials like plant

v.

Food: Created at out side boundary of the


garden

BASIC PATTERN IN GARDEN DESIGN


1.

Circular pattern- series of circles can utilize to


create circular. It is used in formal and
informal gardens

2.

Diagonal pattern- draws a grid line at 450 to


the boundary. It is also used in formal and
informal gardens

3.

Rectangular pattern- it is utilized in formal


garden in a symmetrical manner

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ii.

STEPS IN GARDEN DESIGN


i.

Identification of site: Identify the site for


two purposes

Mulching

iii.

Ground covers

iv.

Minimize water loss by providing


drips

a. Public garden: give importance for


@@@@@

likings of the public


b. Private garden: Give importance for
owners comfort
ii.

Analysis: Need to study two factors


i. Physical

factor-

climate,

weather, soil type, existing


vegetation, existing manholes,
roads, path
ii. Social factors
iii.

Measuring up: Draw rough sketch of the


area like existing features, length and
width of all features

iv.

Drawing to the scale: based on sheet


available for small garden 1: 50 and for big
garden 1: 100

v.

Evolving a pattern: Fence, lawn, flower


beds, hedge, edge, border, water falls,
rock garden, pond, shrubbery, island
beds, carpet beds, standards etc

vi.

Turning pattern in to reality: Mark the


area using pegs and bars and plant the
permanent features on marked ground

vii.

Xeriscaping: This is a technique use to


practice water conservation in creative
landscape, this can be practiced in areas
where scarcity of water.

This can be achieved by:


i.

Grouping/selection of drought
tolerant plant, trees, shrubs,
annuals, cacti and succulents

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LECTURE-22

When specimen plants grown in clay pots are


used for interior decoration, these may be
plunged in a larger sized ceramic, glazed pot,
or in any other good looking metallic
container to improve the look.

Potting the plants in various shaped plant


stands also improved the look of display plant
stands may be made to accommodate only one
plant or it may be branching to hold several
pots together.

These are generally made of mild steel rods or


plates with a heavy base and having a ring to
hold the pot.

The branching types generally have several


protruding hands from the main support at
the end of which there will be rings to hold the
pots.

It is advisable to fix buckets made of GI sheets


or plastic at each ring and to place the pots
inside the bucket to arrest the drips.

A live screen can be created in window by


growing light indoor creepers.

ELEMENTS OF INTERIOR DECORATION AND


PRACTICE

The term Interior Decoration refers to


decorating the interior of a house with objects
of ornamental and aesthetic value so as to
make the appearance of indoors beautiful,
pleasant and attractive.

It is less costly to decorate the interior of a room


with live plants compared to flowers, which
are becoming costlier day by day and besides
they are to be replaced frequently.

Either foliage or flowering plants or even


Bonsai plants may be selected for decorating
the indoor.

A houseplant should be compact in growth


habit, evergreen in nature and should stand
some amount of shade around its growing
environments.

For decorating a small table, the plant should


be compact and bushy in nature.

Besides the ornamental foliage and flowering


plants, cacti and succulents, palms, ferns and
some bulbous plants can be grown inside a
house.

Growing a screen of creepers in between can


separate the dining space in a drawing or
living.

The art of growing houseplants or indoor


plants inside a house is known as indoor
gardening.

Plants grown in bowls or metal hanging


baskets can be fixed on the walls by using
brackets, which will bring a relief to an
otherwise empty expanse of a wall.

Tubs and urns are portable and hence can be


used for temporary decoration indoors and
elsewhere.

The popular methods of growing indoor plants


are in hanging baskets, china baskets, and tubs
made of concrete, wood cane etc., bowls and
dishes, bottles and windows.

o Wooden tubs can be made with artistic


designs.
o All tubs should stand on their leg or
should be placed over bricks for easy
drainage.

Gardening in trays and trolleys are also part of


indoor gardening. Trolleys fixed with flexible
wheels meant for serving tea and snacks are
quite suitable for growing indoor plants.

All the four sides of the trolley should be raised


to conceal the pots kept in it.

Trays of different make and size can be used for


growing indoor plants.

Growing of houseplants in China baskets made


of cane even plastic gives an artistic and
elegant touch to the dcor of the room.

Troughs made of cane standing on its own legs


are very artistic and pleasing for growing
plants indoors.

o Wooden or cement tubs are painted to


match with the color of the house.
o The tub should be quite aesthetic in
look.

The topiary work should be displayed against a


wall or a screen in the terrace.

Hanging baskets can be hanged at the entrance


of the house to welcome the visitor.
o Hanging baskets can also be placed in
the hall the drawing room besides a
well lit window or in the bathroom
above a fluorescent light.

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o A plain wall in a sunny room or a


passage can also be artistically
decorated with hanging baskets.

The boxes should rest on


wooden edges to keep a gap
between the sills for drainage.

o The containers should be attractive, light


and easy to hang, wire baskets with
three hooks for hanging is a good
container as they provide good
aeration.

The boxes are also fitted about


2cm away from the frame or
wall to prevent rotting and
attack by termites.

The boxes should be painted


every two years to keep them
showy and attractive and also
rust-free. A miniature rock
garden can be built in the
window box.

o Wooden baskets are better looking.


o Earthen pots of various sizes and shapes
are available for use as hanging
baskets can also be made out of dried
gourd and coconut shells.
o For indoor purposes baskets of brass,
copper and glazed pottery may be
used.
o Even ordinary earthenware or ceramic
pots can be hanged in brackets on the
wall.
o For a larger basket two or three types of
plants; one of vertical statue and the
other of training nature can be used.

Trough

is larger in size containing more


number of plants which can be
displayed in the window sill, on the
floor or at the entrance of the house
under a covered veranda, bowls and
dishes are meant for decorating dining
table, television set, radio set, tea table
bowls and dishes generally have to
drainage holes.

garden also known as window


box gardening refers to that kind of
gardening where plants are grown
within the room just, opposite or close
to the window or on the windowsill
outside.

Troughs can be made of


concrete, stone, wood, plastic
or fiber glass.

Fruit bowls, conical baskets,


wooden dishes or bread trays,
pottery, conical and low
plastic bowls are used for
flower arrangements are very
suitable for starting a dish or
bowl garden. Island or forest
scenery can be created.

Window

There are different types of


window boxes such as Fiberglass
box, pottery box (Terracotta boxes),
Iron boxes, cast cement boxes,
Asbestos boxes, plastic boxes or
wooden boxes can be used.
The security of the boxes can be
achieved by fastening the boxes
with the window frame by a hookand-eye arrangement, or the boxes
can rest over metal or wooden
brackets attached to the frame of
the window aluminum nails or
screw should be used to prevent
rusting.
In addition to brackets, with boxes
can be secured further by tying
them round with galvanized wires
and fixing the ends of the wires
with the window frame.

Jar

made of glass having fall sides with


or without lid is good for bottle
gardening as this conserves moisture.

The

jar has a wider mouth than a bottle.

Terrarium

is a glass bowl of 25-30cm


diameters having an airtight lid.
o

Any size of bottle, jar or jug is


suitable
for
gardening
provided these are made of
clear glass.

These offer a good display on


a table, a stand, or a well-lit
window. Fish aquariums also
serve this purpose.

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For glass gardening long


handle tea spoon, table fork
and a long pair of tongues are
used as tools.

Bottle garden plants need a


reasonable amount of light
but direct sunlight will
overheat the plants.

The lamp is to be fitted in the


neck of the bottle, with the
help of a clamp.

Interior decoration not only includes the above


mentioned subjects of beautification but also
the other objects such as
o Use of screens for doors and windows,
o Drapery rods,
o Coir mats for floorings,
o Tiles for floorings,
o Painting the walls with light color
attractive paints,
o Decorative ceiling fans,
o Lamp shades,
o Wall plates depicting wild life or
natural scenery,
o Mirrors,
o Statues,
o Carvings artistic furniture,
o Showcases and positioning them at
appropriate positions or spots or
places.
@@@@@

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pass the wires through these posts starting


from 22.5cm intervals at ground level to
30cm upwards up to a height of 1.8m.

LECTURE- 23
THE DIFFERENT FEATURES OF A
GARDEN

GARDEN WALLS

A garden lover will never like to block the


view of his garden by putting a wall along
its periphery.

A garden as it is enjoyed from inside


should also be visible from outside.

But, sometimes, from safety or beauty


point of view (e.g., to obscure the ugly
sight of an open drain), it may be
necessary to erect a brick, concrete, or
stone wall along the periphery of the
garden.

A compromise is to have a low brick (or


concrete or stone) wall of say 60-90 cm
height and to put over it some grills, so
that the view is not totally obscured from
outside.

Alternatively, walls from 1.80 to 5m may


also be erected depending upon the size of
the garden.

To break the drabness of a concrete or


brick wall, at least in the more prominent
places, one may grow creepers such as
Ficus repens over the wall.

FENCING

Though not exactly a part of the garden in


the stricter sense, fences are a utility item
essentially needed for marking the
boundary and for protection.

The posts are embedded at least 45-60 cm


in the ground and the wires are stretched
with the poles with strong staples or
clamps.

Wire netting fence is cheaper than chainlink fence but is less durable.

Wire netting can also keep away the


rabbits, provided the netting is buried at
least 22.5 cm in the soil and turned
outward at the bottom to stop burrowing.

Chain-link fencings of various designs are


available and these are fixed in angle iron
poles spaced at 3m distance.

Iron grills of various designs can also be


used for fencing but the cost, of course
will be prohibitive.

The sight of an expanse of fencing does


not suit to the artistic design of a nicely
laid-out garden and hence people would
like to obscure it from view as quickly as
possible by growing quick-growing and
elegant creepers such as Bignonia venusta,
Honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymeman),
Vernonia elaegnifolia, etc.
STEPS

Sometimes it becomes necessary to have


steps in a garden, as for example, when a
path goes from one level to the other or
one has to climb or get down from the
terrace garden.

Steps can be made of various materials but


usually the same mateial used for the path
is used for steps also.

The materials used are concrete, stone,


wood, or gravel.

Sometimes, fences are also put to separate


one part of the garden from the other.

The gravel can be held in position with a


stone-retaining wall.

Several materials such as wood, bamboo,


wire, wire nettings and chain-link fences
may be used for this purpose.

Grass should not be used in the steps as it


becomes slippery when watered.

Fences of wood and bamboo get spoilt


quicker than the wire fences.

The steps in the garden should be


different than those in the building.

Here, the treads (i.e., steppings) should be


quite broad and the risers low, so that
people can have an easier climb.

The simplest wire fencing will be to put


stout wooden posts at 3m distance and

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A garden is meant for leisure, pleasure


and comfort and hence steep and narrow
steps are unsuitable as they cause
discomfort in climbing.

GARDEN DRIVES AND PATHS

A depth of 50 to 7.5cm of fine gravel is


spread over this, sprinkled with water,
and rolled heavily.
The drive should be kept free of weeds
with the help of some weedicide.
(b) Asphalt or Concrete Drives:

A garden must have a carriage drive


leading to the house and garage besides
several other paths or walks leading to
different parts of the garden.
The main criterion of a good garden drive
or path is to provide a flat, dry and
pleasant passage for the persons or
vehicles and it should harmonize with the
other garden features.

A path in the garden should be laid out


after due consideration is given to its
necessity and artistic appeal.

Too many paths, especially in a small


garden, may spoil the artistic value.

A path with graceful and gentle curves


will look much better than a straight path.

Materials used for the construction of


drives are gravel, asphalt, or concrete,
whereas

For asphalt or concrete roads also the


foundation is prepared in the same
manner and on top of it either asphalt or
concrete is laid.

A layer of 5cm concrete will be enough for


most roads.

For long roads a slope of 1: 100 may be


allowed for drainage.

All roads should be a little higher (2.5cm)


than the surrounding ground.

The width of the garden roads should be


about 3-5m.

(B) PATHS
A garden path should never be less than 60cm
wide but should be preferably between 90 and
120cm, if sufficient space is available.
A wider path allows easy passage for wheel
barrows and other garden implements.

For garden paths much more attention


should be taken for the appearance and as
such concrete or asphalt is seldom used.

Paths should not be generally too high or too


low from the adjoining ground except in a
marsh or a rock garden.

Garden paths are generally made of


gravel,
paving-stones,
crazy-paying,
bricks, or grass.

Gravel paths, Brick paths, Stone paving, Crazy


paving, Grass Paths,

HEDGE

(A) DRIVES
(a) Gravel drives:

A gravel drive should be given adequate


foundation to prevent it from sinking.

The soil is excavated to a depth of about


30 cm but in heavy clayey soil this should
be a little more to ensure proper drainage.

About one-third to half of the excavated


depth is filled up with rough stones, wellburnt brick pieces, clinkers, or any other
hard material.

The greater part of the remaining


excavated depth is filled with coarse
gravel mixed with a little earth and rolled.

Shrubs or trees planted at regular intervals to


form a continuous screen are called a hedge.
The above definition is broad-based, but many
other plants such as succulents, cactus, and
sub-shrubs also form beautiful and useful
hedges.
Purpose:
A garden hedge can serve the purpose of a
compound wall, give shelter from strong gails
ensure privacy, i.e.
Serve the purpose of a screen, form a
background for a floral display such as
herbaceous border, as a part of the garden on

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its own merit, separate one component of a


garden from the other (e.g., the vegetable
garden from the flower garden).
Screen the ugly and unwanted spots such as
manure pits, lavatory, servants quarters, etc.,
in the garden.
Criteria for selecting a hedge plant: In a
garden a hedge is planted with two purposes:
(a) Protective, which means protection
against theft, trespass, wind. etc., and
(b) Ornamental purposes or screening.
For protection a hedge plant should have the
following characteristics
Quick growing, hardy, including droughtresistant character, thorny, dense, should
respond to frequent pruning and clipping
and can be raised quickly by seeds or
cuttings.
Though attractive foliage and flower is not
a criterion in this category, definitely these
characters will be an added attraction.
Ornamental hedges should have attractive
foliage and/or flowers, should be dense in
growth habit and stand regular clipping.
The ornamental hedges are generally low
in height and they do not obstruct the view
completely since the other portion is visible
over the hedge.
Selection of suitable plants: There is a wide variety of
trees, shrubs and other plant which can be formed into
hedges. Some trees form good tall hedges. A list is
provided below for a general guidance.
(A) Palms as Hedge: Areca lutescens, Ptychosperma
macarthurii, Rhapis escelsa
(B) Trees as Hedge: Acacia farnesiana, Erythrina,
Grevillea robusta,
Inga dulcis, Parkinsonia aculeate,
Polyalthia longifolia, Pongamia glabra, Putrajniva
roxburghii, Thevetia nerifolia.
(C) Conifers as Hedge:
Cryptomeria japonica, Thuja
i.

Casuarina

equisetifolia,

Trees are generally planted 60-90 cm apart in a


hedge.

(D) Shrubs for Hedges:


i. Acalypha, A. tricolor, A hamiltoniana, A.
wilkesiana var. musaica and other smallleaved species can be trimmed regularly to
form ornamental hedges. The tall species
can be used as protective hedge also.
Cuttings are planted 25-30 cm apart.

ii. Aralia: Different species.


iii. Barleria: Different species with their
beautiful flowers subject themselves to be
trimmed to beautiful hedges; plants are 60100 cm high. Rooted cuttings are planted
20-25 cm apart.
iv. Bauhinia acuminata: It can be trimmed to a
nice hedge, which looks more beautiful
with its white flowers.
v. Bougainvillea: B. spectabilis, B. glabra, Mrs.
Fraser, Partha, and some other cultivars
form good protective as well as ornamental
hedges withstanding frequent trimming
planting is done at 60-90 cm spacing.
vi. Caesalpinia pulcherrima: It should be pruned
tall; harder pruning forces it to ageing
faster. The plant flowers freely.
vii. Carissa carandas: A thorny bushy shrub
which is used as an effective protective
hedge. Seeds are sown 60-75 cm apart in
single rows. Cuttings also root easily.
viii. Clearodendron inerme: It is most suitable for
ornamental hedge and can also be used as
protective hedge. It is planted 15-20 cm
apart in double rows spaced at same
distance.
ix. Duranta: It forms a good ornamental as
well as a protective hedge. The variegated
variety looks very ornamental.
It is
planted 30-40 cm apart and can be kept
quite low by trimming.
x. Eranthemum: Several species (see page 144)
are used as ornamental hedge. Cuttings
are planted 15 cm apart in double rows.
xi. Hamelia patens: A beautiful shrub which
stands trimming and attains a height of 7590 cm. It is planted 30 cm apart.
xii. Hibiscus: Different types especially H. rosasinensis are grown as hedge mainly for
ornamental purposes.
It is frequently
pruned to keep a height of 75 to 90 cm.
xiii. Lantana: Different species of this genus are
used as hedge and these stand trimming
and pruning very well.
xiv. Murraya exotica: It also forms a good atall
attractive hedge when properly trimmed.
xv. Plumbago capensis: It forms a pretty
ornamental hedge. Cuttings are put in
double rows, 15-20 cm apart.
xvi. Punica granatum: It forms a tall hedge, 1.5
to 2m high. It is drought-resistant.
xvii. Poinsettia pulcherrima: It can be used as a
beautiful ornamental hedge.

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xviii. Rosa: Some species such as R. multiflora


can make a good spiny hedge.
xix. Sesbaia aegyptica (Syn. Aeschynomene sesban):
It grows to a height of 2m within 2-3
months and is a popular hedge in the drier
parts of India.
xx. Strobilanthes anisophyllus: A shade-loving
ornamental hedge.
xxi. Tecoma stans: It forms an attractive tall (1
to 3m) hedge within a span of two years.

Edging may be formal, made of stone,


bricks, tiles, etc.,

Informal edges consisting of living plants.

There are certain plants which are very


suitable for edging purposes and these are
known as edge plants.

Edge plants, unlike hedges, should grow


very low as the purpose is not for
screening but to provide a lining only, for
the purpose of decoration or demarcation.

(E) Cactus, succulents, and others as hedge


i.
ii.

iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.

xi.

xii.

Agave Americana: This and other tall growing


agaves are used as barriers to cattle.
Bambusa: Some dwarf species such as dwarf
Chinese bamboo (B. nana) make untidy hedge.
Bamboo hedge may harbour snakes, if kept
untidy.
Euphorbia antiquorum: A spiny succulent shrub
which makes a tall hedge up to 3m.
E. bojeri: With its pretty scarlet flowers this
forms a good hedge, 45-60cm high.
E. splendens: It is similar to above but stems and
spines are stouter.
E.tetragona: It is used to form a tall spiny hedge.
E. tirucalli: It is a spineless succulent tree,
branches slender, brush-like and cylindrical.
Furcraea selloa: A plant like agave with spines
can be used as cattle-proof hedge.
Optmtia: Many species of Opuntia, belonging to
Cactaceae, form into thorny hedges.
Pandanus: The screw pine is a thorny plant and
should not be used as hedge in a small garden.
It is used as hedge in large commercial farms
growing food crops. The plant bears scented
flowers. Because of its thick growth, the plant
is a good hiding place for snakes.
Pedilanthus
tithymaloides
(Syn.Euphoribia
canaliculata): A spineless plant belonging to
Euphorbiaceae is commonly used as
ornamental hedge. Cuttings are planted 10-15
cm apart in double rows spaced 15cm from
each other.
Cactus (Cereus, Opuntia) when used as hedge
outgrows in size and should not be used in
home gardens.

(A) Foliage Plants for Edging


1. Alternanthera, A. amabilis, A. amoenga, A.
bettzichiana var. spathulata, and A. versicolor.
The last tows are very colourful, shaded red,
bronze, and pink. Cuttings are planted 3-5 cm
apart in double rows spaced at 5 to 10cm in
situ.
2. Acalyphas or similar shrubs in shrubberies.
3. Coleus: Family: L Labiate. Some dwarf coleus
(20-45 cm high) can also form edging to
ornamental shrubs.
4. Pilea muscosa (Syn. P microphylla)
(B) Flowering Plants Used of Edging
Many of the flowering annuals and some
perennials are used for edging. The most important
among these are Alyssum, Amaryllis, Brachycome,
Gerbera, Torenia, Zephyranthes different types, pansy
and perennial verbena. Many cultivars of miniature
roses are also used for edging.

ARCHES

A garden may need some arches for


training climbers or ramblers.

Arches are generally constructed near the


gate or over paths in the garden.

An arch should be at least 2 to 2.5m high,


so that the branches of creepers hanging
down should not interfere with access.

The breadth depends upon the path over


which it is constructed but should not be
less than 1m.

Galvanized wire nettings may be fixed on


the sides of the arches to help the creepers
to climb up.

EDGING

Lining of borders of flowerbeds, paths,


lawn and shrubbery with brick, concrete,
living plants, etc., is known as edging.

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The portions above ground should be


painted green.

In broad pergolas it may also be possible


to keep a few shade loving plans to
protect them against sun, but this may not
be desirable all the time.

PERGOLAS

For growing creepers in a row pergolas


are ideal structures on which these may be
trained.

A pergola may be defined as a series of


arches joined together.

Pergolas are generally constructed over


pathways, which add beauty to a garden.

Like arches the support can be made of


wooden or stone or brick pillars, angle
iron and G.I. pipes.

TOPIARY

The width of pergolas is kept generally


within 2-2.5m and the height is also the
same but preferably on the higher side.

The width may be increased or decreased


a little, if necessary.

The length will depend upon the area to


be covered, the number of creepers
available and of course the budget.

It

is an old art but how-a-days.

It

is becoming popular in city parks to


recreate visitors specially childrens.
making good topiary, ideal shrubs
and trees should be selected.

Characteristics of plants

The roof may be made of angle irons of


different sections with longitudinal and
cross rails.
Over this base strong galvanized wiremesh or welded-mesh may be placed for
the creepers to spread easily.

is an art of trimming plants into


different shapes i.e., of birds, animals,
domes, umbrellas etc.

For

The supporting pillars may be connected


together by wooden rafters or MS rods
may be welded to the pillars.

It

Plant should be quick growing in


nature.

Leaves should be small, green or


yellow in color.

Ability
to
withstand
clipping/pruning.

Produces good number of lateral


shoots.

frequent

E.g. Clerodendron inermae, Duranta


plumari, D. variegata D. goldiana,
Juniferous chinensis, J. horizontalis,
Cupressus sempervirans, and Thuja
orientalis.
For temperate countries
English yew, Box tree.

Method: Training frames are generally


employed for making topiary.

These frames are generally made from soft


steel rods or galvanized wire frames.

Making frames true to shape is highly


technical and artistic for true depiction of
figures.

The roof of a pergola may be flat or in the


shape of an arch.

As in the case of an arch, the pergola is


also painted green to merge with the
colour of the foliage.

A pergola is a useful resting place during


the summer months in a tropical country.

Identify and mark the suitable place


for planting

The path below remains cool due to the


creepers growing above.

Excavate the pit with the size of 3 cft


or 2 cft

Both pit and soil should be exposed to


sunlight for the period of 10-15 days

Fill the soil into the pit without


changing the soil strata. Top soil

If the pergola is side enough concrete or


wooden benches may be constructed for
sitting.

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should be mixed with


quantity of sand and FYM.

enough

Leave the soil for 10-15 days for


proper settling.

Select healthy, strong seedling and


plant exactly centre of the pit.

After put forth the new growth,


pinch/stopping should be done to
encourage the laterals shoots.

After plant attaining proper height


and with, lace pre-fabricated iron or
steel frame over the plant cut all the
shoots which come out from the frame
to achieve desired shape.

Maintenance: The topiary plants


should be watered fertilized liberally
so that plants make a dense and
colorful growth.

Suitable plants
1. Annuals: All annuals may be accommodated
in the rockery depending on their height in
between shrubs and other perennial plantsAsclepias, Calliandra, Clerodendron, Crossandra,
Cuphea, Euphorbia .
2. Shrubs: Duranta, Juniferous, Lantana sellowiana,
Russelia juntia, Thuja orientalis etc.
3. Cacti and Succulents: Adiantum, Pony tail
plant, Opentia, Cerus, Mumalaria, Agave,
Kalanchoe, Sansiveria, Yacca, Hawarthia, Furcrea,
Sedum etc.
4. Ferns: Nephrolepsis, Polypodium and Adiantum
etc.
5. Shade
plants:
Imparatiens
sultaniana,
Pedilanthes
tithymaloides,
Pilea
muscosa,
Portulaca sps, minature roses, Zebrana pendula,
Tradescantia albifolia, Vincea rosea etc.
11. CARPET BED:

It means covering an area preferably a bed


or a series of beds, with dense low
growing herbaceous plants according to a
set of design.

It looks attractive in sloppy land when it is


not existed in the selected area, the soil
should be imported from the other places
for creating the slope.

Carpet bed can often utilized for creating


figures or letters are cutout with the help
of plants having different growth habits
or having different colored leaves.

To have a contrast, plants with one color


as background and then other color may
run through in groups, strips or lines or
letters to have the desired effect.

It can also be created in an artistic manner


depending upon the taste of the designer
and plants available at hand.

10. ROCK GARDEN:

Rocks and soils are arranged in such a


fashion that conditions are created for
the growth of different plants.
In nature, rocks may be getting
covered with different colored moss
and if soil collected in cracks and
crevices of rocks, plants grow there
naturally.
Selection of site: It is easy to create
rock garden where natural rocks are
available nearby.
But large rock
garden should be situated in a place
where there will fit with the other
garden features.
Apart from this
corners, middle part of garden, under
large trees are better places for
creating rock garden.

Characteristics of rocks: The rocks


should be of local origin, porous and
have a weathered look. Stones having
diameter of 60cm or more should be
selected.
Types of rockery: Common types are
a. Tyre type of rockery b.
Round
rockery
c.Rectangular
rockery
d. Square rockery
e. Rockery
under tree
f. Alpine rockery
g. Flat type rockery

Plant characteristics:
a.

They should be perennial in


nature
b. They should retain better contrast
through out the year
c. They
should
have
quick
recuperative quality
d. They
should
withstand
to
frequent pruning and mowing

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e.

f.

They must be capable to


withstand summer sun and heavy
rains
They must be capable to
withstand drought

E.g. Alternanthera (Red, green, variegated,


range types), Dwarf coleus, Irisine lindanae, Pilea
microphylla, Portulaca, Sedum, Mexican grass,
Korean grass, etc

Main idea of creating flowerbeds in the


garden is to display the flowers in best
way as possible.

The flowerbeds can be planted with


winter flowering annuals sown during
September-October or summer flowering
ones sown during February-March and
rainy season flowers sown during AprilJune.

The perennial plants like Canna, daisy


etc., are planted in flower beds.

Kidney shaped beds, beds with sharp


points and angles also look very
attractive.

For marking the beds simple plastic hose


pipe or wet rope may be used to obtain
the desired shape on the ground then
mark out the outer border with lime
powder followed by digging.

Growing of shrubs in a groups is


referred as Shrubbery

Shrubs are the permanent features and


once planted will become permanent
features unlike the seasonal flowers
which are to be replaced every season.

If shrubs are properly selected, the


shrubs in the shrubbery will provide
flowers throughout the year.

Corners of the gardens

It is defined as beds, which are more in


length than breadth and contain plants of
heterogeneous character.
There are three types of borders
1. Herbaceous border 2.Annual mixed border
3. Mixed border

HERBACEOUS BORDER:

This is a characteristic of English


garden, containing hardy perennial
herbaceous plants, which die down
to the ground level after flowering,
but put up new growth from the
roots in the next season.

Herbaceous border needs good


depth of soil and sunny situation.

The border may be placed against a


wall, a fence, shrubbery, a hedge or
a double divided grass path.

Annual mixed border: A border consisting of


mixed annual flowers. The beds are annual in
duration.

Mixed border:

A mixed border generally herbaceous


shrubs with less spreading root
system,
sub-shrubs,
herbaceous
perennials, bulbous plants and annual
flowers.

A mixed border is arranged against the


background of walls, ornamental trees
or fencing and compound walls.

13. SHRUBBERY:

Centre part and

Designs: The shape of flowerbeds should


be simple designs such as circles,
rectangles, squares, ellipses are easier to
maintain.

14. BORDERS:

12. FLOWER BEDS:

Suitable places for shrubbery in the


garden are

15. ARBOUR

It is nothing but a hut like structure


having more than eight entrances.

It acts as a resting place for visitors.

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Suitable place of construction of arbor is


preferably highest part of the garden so
that visitors can see overall structure and
beauty of garden.
Materials: For pillars: Wooden poles,
metal pipes, brick pillars, concrete pillars.
Roofing materials: Metal rods, wooden
flats GI mesh or tiles.
Construction procedure similar to pergola.

18. BONSAI

Bonsai is a tree or simply a plant


cultivated in a pot or container,
resembling a fully grown tree on a
miniature scale.

Bonsai first appeared in China over a


thousand years ago on a very basic
scale, known as pun-sai.

The word is derived from Chinese


Penjing and In Japanese Bon means,
Shallow pan/pot and Sai means
Plant, it is literally called as Tray
planting.

Bonsai is an art of growing trees,


plants proportionately in smaller
containers
occasionally
in
combination with rocks of many
forms, by treating them with certain
technique in order to reproduce in
miniature appearances found in
nature.

Bonsai comprises a tree or shrub


planted for developing as a miniature
plant showing the general appearance
of that plant species found in nature
for many years.

It is the art of dwarfing trees or plants


and developing them into an
aesthetically appealing shape by
growing, pruning and training those
in containers according to prescribed
techniques.

Overall, bonsai is a great interest,


hobby or even profession to
undertake.

A bonsai is not a genetically dwarfed


plant and is not kept small by cruelty
in any way.

It is also common belief that bonsai


are only a few centimeters tall.

Most are over 05 centimeters (2II) tall


and max upto 1 meter (3.33 ft).

This is what is meant by the


expression "heaven and earth in one
container".

16. GARDEN BRIDGES

Bridges are necessity item in a garden to


cross the stream or pond.

This should be developed harmoniously


with landscape.

The shape, size and material of the bridge


depend upon the type of water barrier it is
to transverse.

In pictures are garden designs, rustic


looking materials is more appropriate
than the formal one. They are made up of
stone, wood or concrete materials.

17. LAWN:

Lawn is defined as a piece of land thickly


covered with uniformly green soft grass.
It is also called as Green carpet

It is like a cushion, velvet carpet giving


pleasure both to sight and feeling.

Lawn is an art of any garden.

It is a center peace around which all


garden elements are placed in subordinate
order like the royal court where the kind
occupied the central position surrounded
by his courtiers.

Lawn was introduced by Englishmens,


since then it has continued to stay as the
most important feature in our garden.
Selection of grasses:

A good grass is one, which should


put-up fair growth of uniform texture
and greater tolerance to abuse.

Common grasses
a. Calcutta doob b. Mexican grass
c. Korean grass d. Kentukey blue grass
e. Zade velvet
f. Bermeda g. St. Augustian
grass
h. Green gem i. Polypogium

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BONSAI STYLES:
There are many styles in bonsai, which have
been developing over the ages. The following are the
principal classical bonsai styles developer over the
years.
1.

Formal upright style (Chokkan): In this style


branches grow symmetrically and horizontally
around the upright straight trunk.

2.

Winding or Kyokkum/Curved trunk style


(Moyogi): In this style plants retains a very
natural appearance with the help of curving
nature of the trunk. The branches get smaller in
size towards the top growing also in the edge of
the curves.

3.

Oblique/Leaning trunk style (Shakakn): The


trunk leans to one side; braches are positioned
horizontally, shooting out in all directions. The
surface roots clearly visible in the side opposite
to the lean.

4.

Windswept style (Fukinagashi): This differs


from previous style that branches grow on one
side of the trunk only. This gives the impression
of the blowing continually from the direction.

5.

Broom style (Hokidachi): This style having the


similarity in appearance to unturned broom. It
spreads the branches in the shape of a fan, may
occupy half the total height of the tree. The trunk
is upright.

6.

Cascade style (Kengai): The branches grow out


over the edge of the container chosed for this
style is high enough to show off cascade effect to
best advantage.

7.

Multiple trunks style or Clump shaped


(Kadudaki): Trunks are allowed to grow a single
root, which has put several shoots. The result of
this is a little group of trees. Generally, they
should make up an odd number but if only
trunks appear, they should of different sizes.

8.

Raft style (Ikuabuchi): This style creates an


effect of fallen trunk, which has put out roots
downward, and branches upward. The final
impression, which is quite original, is one of the
groups of individual plants all spring from a
horizontal trunk.

9.

Woodland (Yose ue): In this fascinating style, in


a single container a number of all individual
plants of the same species are laid out in a
correctly proportioned manner.

10.

Twisted trunk style: The trunk diminishes size


toward the top and gives the appearance of
twisting in upon itself; the branches break out in
all directions.

11.

On the rock: The piece of rock is places


appropriately in the container to be embraced
eventually by the roots of the bonsai. This
however sinks into the soil below. Once the little
tree starts growing and putting new roots in to
small cavities in the rock, one can get so called
rock planting.

12.

Memo bonsai/Mini bonsai/Disc bonsai: The


plants are often not more than 8 15cm high (3
6 inches) and grow in containers after no bigger
than a thumble.
@@@@@The End@@@@@

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138