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HELLENIC MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY

2009

Competition Committee
Athens, 2009
2 Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009

GREEK MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY


( ) 34 34, Panepistimiou (leftheriou Venizelou) Street
106 79 GR. 106 79 - Athens - HELLAS
. 3616532 - 3617784 - Fax: 3641025 Tel. 3616532 - 3617784 - Fax: 3641025
e-mail : info@hms.gr e-mail : info@hms.gr
www.hms.gr www.hms.gr

Frontispiece:
The image on the front page represents the Discobolus statue (Olympic discus
thrower) which was made by Myron, one of the best sculptors of ancient Greece.
Myron, who lived in 5th-century BC in Athens, was a well-known member of a new
school of Greek art that incorporated motion into free-standing statues. In this
case, Myron has caught a discus thrower at the peak of his backswing, poised for
eternity just before spinning his body in powerful rotations to give the discus even
greater speed at the moment of release. History does not record whether
Discobolus recognized a particular Olympic athlete, but Myron is known to have
produced other statues honouring specific heroes. In any event, it has evolved into
a powerful symbol of the spirit of Olympic athletic competition.
The original Discobolus statue was never recovered; an exact copy of
the statue however is placed at the entrance of Panathinaikon Stadium in Athens,
where the first modern Olympic Games were held in 1896.
Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009 3

Contents

1. Preface . 4
2. 26th Hellenic Mathematical Olympiad 2009
A. Juniors .. 5
B. Seniors7
3. Selection examinations 2009
A. Juniors ..13
B. Seniors ..17
4. Mediterranean Mathematical Competition 2009 ....... 24
4. 26th Balkan Mathematical Olympiad (Kragujevac) 27
5. 13th Junior Balkan Mathematical Olympiad (Sarajevo) 32
4 Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009

Preface
On November 3, 2008, more than 12.000 students from all Hellenic High
Schools (Gymnasiums and Lyceums) took part in the first round of the 69st Nation-
al Math Competition THALES. The best 1.500 students qualified and took part
in the second round of the 69st National Math Competition EUCLIDES, held in
January 17, 2009. From this competition about 300 students qualified and took part
in the 26th Hellenic Math. Olympiad ARCHIMEDES, held in Athens on Febru-
ary 21, 2009. The best 50 students (25 Juniors) qualified to take part in the Selec-
tion Examination for the completion of the Greek teams for the 11th Junior Balkan
Math. Olympiad (JBMO), the 26th Balkan Math. Olympiad (BMO) and the 50th In-
ternational Mathematical Olympiad. This year the Selection Examination was al-
most the same with the 10th Mediterranean Mathematical Competition 2009 (me-
morial Peter O Halloran).

The Hellenic team for the IMO 2009 consists of the students:
Giechaskiel Ilias
Logothetis Fotios
Papadimitriou Dimitrios
Pappelis Konstantinos
Taratoris Evangelos
Zadik Ilias

Twelve days of training were offered to the selected team for the IMO 2009.
Moreover, a training program was offered some Saturdays from November 2008 to
May 2009 to all students wanting to attend.

Athens, July 2009

The competition Committee


of the Hellenic Math. Society
Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009 5

26th Hellenic Mathematical Olympiad 2009


ARCHIMEDES
February 21, 2009

A. Juniors

!!! Problem 1
If the number 9 n 2 31 is integer, find the possible values of n .
2

n 7
Solution
We have
9n 2 31 9(n 2 7) 32 32
9 2 .
n2 7 n2 7 n 7
Since is integer, it follows that n 2 7 is a divisor of 32 and taking in mind that
n 2 7 8 , we conclude:
n2 7 8 , 1 6 , 3 2 n 2 1, 9 , 2 5 n 1, 1, 3 , 3 , 5 , 5 .
Alternatively, we can solve the problem by solving the given equation with re-
spect to n 2 and in the sequel determining the suitable values of for which n 2 is
a nonnegative integer.

Problem 2
From the vertex of an equilateral triangle we draw the ray x which in-
tersect the side at . On x we consider a point such that . Find
.
the angle

First solution
Since , point is the circum-
circle of the triangle A. The angle is in-
scribed to the circle C , BA and so:
1
3 0 0 .
2
Second solution
From and = , we have = ,
and the triangle is isosceles. We draw the alti-
tude from , let , .
6 Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009

of the triangle . Let


Then is also median and bisector of the angle
BZ meets AE at K. Then the triangles and
are equal because they have:
= , common side and .

Therefore we have: and since
it follows that

.

Thus quadrilateral is inscrible, and hence:

60
Finally we get

90
90 60 300 .

Problem 3
We consider the numbers
1 3 5 595 597 2 4 6 596 598 .
... a n d ...
4 6 8 598 600 5 7 9 599 601

Prove that: () , () 1 .
5990
Solution () To each fraction of A of the form 2 1 , 1, 2 , ..., 2 9 9 , cor-
2 2
responds a fraction from B of the form 2
, 1, 2 , ..., 2 9 9 . Since
2 3
2 1 2 for every * ,
0
2 2 2 3
and so for 1, 2,..., 299 , by multiplying by parts the above 299 inequalities we
obtain .

() Since 0 , from we get :


1 2 3 1 1 1
2 .
599 600 601 100 599 2
5990 2
5990

Problem 4
In the figure we see the paths connecting the square
(point ) with the school of a city (point ). In the
square there are k pupils starting to go to the school.
They have the possibility to move to the right and up. If
Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009 7

the pupils are free to choose any allowed path, determine the minimum value of k
so that in any case at least two pupils to follow the same path.

Solution
In the figure they are shown all possible allowed paths starting from the square
and leading to the school.
According to the rule it is clear that in the
nodes 1 , 2 , 3 and 1 , 2 , 3 , there is only one
possible path to choose..
Counting easily we find that all possible paths
are 20. Therefore, according to the pigeonhole prin-
ciple, at least two pupils will follow the same path ,
If the number of the pupils is k 21 . Hence the
minimum value of k is 21.

B. Seniors

Problem 1
!!! Determine the values of the positive integer n for which
9n 1

n7
is rational.

Solution
It is enough to prove that there exist a, b * with a, b 1 such that:
9n 1 a 2 . (1)
2
n7 b
From this relation we get:
7a2 b2 7 (a 2 9b 2 ) 64b 2 64b 2 (2)
n 7
9b a
2 2
9b a
2 2
9b 2 a 2
Since a, b 1 , it follows that a 2 , b 2 1 and 9 b 2 a 2 , b 2 1 , and hence
from (2) we get that n is integer, if and only if 9 b 2 a 2 is a divisor of 64.
Since a, b and n are positive integers, it follows that 9 b 2 a 2 8 , and hence:
8 Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009

9 b 2 a 2 3b a 3b a 8,16, 32, 64 . (3)


Moreover, the factors 3b a , 3b a have sum a multiple of 6 and difference a
multiple of 2 and 3b a 3b a . Therefore from relation (3) the possible cases
are the following:
3b a , 3b a 4 , 2 3 b a , 3 b a 8 , 4 3b a , 3 b a 1 6 , 2
a , b 1,1 a , b 2, 2 a , b 7, 3 .
The pair a , b 2 , 2 is rejected, because g cd 2 , 2 2 1 , and therefore
we have the values n 1 or n 11.

Problem 2
A triangle is given and let its circumcenter and 1 , 1 , 1 the middles
of its sides , and , respectively. We consider the points 2 , 2 , 2 such

that 2 = 1 , 2 1 and 2 1 , with 0 . Prove that
the lines 2 , 2 , 2 are concurrent.

Solution

Let be the orthocenter of the triangle . Then 2 1 and from

2 1 , we find: 2 2 .

If 2 meets at C (from the similarity of the triangles C and

C 2 ), we have: C 2 C . It means that 2 pass from C which divides

in ratio 2 .


Similarly, we have 2 1 and 2 2 .

Let now C the point of intersection of the lines 2 and . Then we have

C
2
C , which means that 2 pass through C which divides in ra-

tio 2 . Similarly, if C is the point of intersection of the lines 2 , then



we have that 2 pass through C which divides in ratio 2 .

Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009 9

Since the points C , C , C coincide the lines 2 , 2 , 2 are concurrent.


Comments
(1) If 1 , then C coincides with the barycenter of the triangle .
(2) If 2 , then C coincides with the center of the Eulers circle of the trian-
gle . In this case the triangles and 2 2 2 are equal and they have the
same Euler circle.
(3) In any case the triangles and 2 2 2 are similar with their sides pa-
rallel. The one triangle is the image of the other with respect to a homothety, and
thus we may have a solution using homotheties.
(4) The problem can be solved by using Analytic Geometry or complex num-
bers.

Problem 3
If the nonnegative real numbers x, y and z have sum 2, prove that:
x 2 y 2 y 2 z 2 z 2 x 2 xyz 1.
For which values of x, y and z the equality is valid?
Solution
We will use the well-known inequality 2 2 2 , which is valid for all
, . The equality holds for . Thus we have
10 Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009

1
x 2 y 2 y 2 z 2 z 2 x 2 xyz
2
2 x 2 y 2 2 y 2 z 2 2 z 2 x 2 2 xyz
1
2 xy xy 2 yz yz 2 zx zx 2 xyz
2
1
xy x 2 y 2 yz y 2 z 2 yz y 2 z 2 2 xyz (1)
2
1
xy yz zx x 2 y 2 z 2 xyz 2 yzx 2 zxy 2 2 xyz
2
1
xy yz zx x 2 y 2 z 2 xyz x y z 2
2
1
xy yz zx x 2 y 2 z 2 , (since x y z 2).
2
Till now we have shown that
1
x 2 y 2 y 2 z 2 z 2 x 2 xyz xy yz zx x 2 y 2 z 2 , (2)
2
and the equality holds, as we see from (1), when :
x y z or x y, z 0 or y z , x 0 or z x, y 0 .
Since x y z 2 , equality holds when:

x , y , z
2 2 2
, , 1,1, 0 1, 0,1 0,1,1 . (3)
3 3 3
2
In the sequel we will use the known inequality , , ,
2
putting 2 xy 2 yz 2 zx , x 2 y 2 z 2 . Thus we have
1 1
xy yz zx x 2 y 2 z 2 2 xy 2 yz 2 zx x 2 y 2 z 2
2 4
2
1 2 xy 2 yz 2 zx x 2 y 2 z 2 1
x y z 1.
4
(4)
4 2 16
From (2) and (4) we obtain the inequality
x 2 y 2 y 2 z 2 z 2 x 2 xyz 1.
The equality holds when in inequality (4) we have:
2 xy 2 yz 2 zx x 2 y 2 z 2 ,
which in consideration with (3) gives:
x , y, z 1 , 1 , 0 1 , 0 , 1 0 , 1 , 1 .
Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009 11

Problem 4
Let z1 , z2 , z3 , z4 , z5 , z6 be six pairwise different complex numbers which their
images 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 are consecutive points of the circle with center
O(0, 0) and radius r > 0 . If w is a solution of the equation z 2 z 1 0 and
z1w2 z3 w z5 0 () ,
z 2 w 2 z 4 w z6 0 ()
Prove that: () the triangle 13 5 is equilateral,
() z1 z2 z2 z3 z3 z4 z4 z5 z5 z6 z6 z1 3 z1 z4 3 z2 z5 3 z3 z6 .
Solution
() Since w is a root of the equation z 2 z 1 0 , we have w 2 w 1 0 .
Multiplying both parts by w , :
w3 w 2 w 0 w 3 3
1 1 w 1 .
w 2w
0

From the last equation we find w 1 . Substituting in relation (I)


w 2 w 1 , we find:
z1( 1 w) z3w z5 0 z1 z1w z3w z5 0 ( z 3 z 1 )w z 1 z 5 .
Hence
( z3 z1 )w z1 z5 z3 z1 w z1 z5 z 3 z 1 z 1 z 5 ().
Substituting in relation () w w 2 1 , we find:
z1w2 z3( w2 1) z5 0 z1w2 z3w2 z3 z5 0 ( z1 z3 )w2 z5 z3 .
Hence we have
( z1 z3 )w2 z5 z3 z1 z3 w2 z5 z3 z3 z1 z5 z3 ().
From () and () we obtain the equalities:
z1 z 3 z 3 z 5 z 5 z1 ,
that is the triangle 1 3 5 is equilateral..
() Similarly, using relation ()) we prove that the triangle 2 4 6 is equilat-
eral. From a known proposition of Euclidean Geometry we have
that 1 2 1 6 1 4 , and then using measures of complex numbers we
have:
12 Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009

z1 z 2 z6 z1 z1 z 4 . (1)
Similarly, from the equality 3 2 3 4 3 6 using measures of com-
plex numbers we get:
z 2 z 3 z 3 z 4 z 3 z6 . (2)
Also, from equality 5 4 5 6 5 2 we find
z 4 z 5 z 5 z6 z 2 z 5 . (3)

Summing up by parts the relations (1), (2) and (3) and using the equalities
z1 z 4 z 3 z6 z 2 z 5
we find:
z1 z2 z2 z3 z3 z4 z4 z5 z5 z6 z6 z1
3 z 1 z 4 3 z 2 z 5 3 z 3 z6 .
Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009 13

SELECTION EXAMINATION 2009


April 11, 2009

A. Juniors

Problem 1
A pupil has 7 pieces of paper. He chooses some of them and cuts each of them
into seven pieces. In the sequel, he chooses some of the pieces and cuts each of
them into seven pieces. He continues this procedure many times with the pieces he
has in hands every time. Is it possible to have some time 2009 pieces of paper?

Solution
Let he choose at the beginning 1 from the seven pieces and each of them into
seven pieces. Then he will have totally 7 1 71 7 61 pieces of paper. Sup-
pose that in the next step he chooses 2 pieces of paper and cuts each of them into
seven pieces. Then he will have totally 7 61 2 7 2 7 6(1 2 ) pieces of
paper. If he continues this procedure times, then he will have totally
7 6(1 2 ) pieces of paper. Therefore we are looking for the value of
satisfying the equation
7 6(1 2 ) 2009 6(1 2 ) 2002 ,
which is absurd, because 2002 is not divided by 6. Hence it is not possible for him
to have some time 2009 pieces of paper.

Problem 2
Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral inscribed in a circle (O, R ) . With centers
the vertices of the quadrilateral and radius R we draw circles C A A, R , C B B , R ,

C C C , R , C D D , R . Circles CA and CB meet at K , circles CB and CC


meet at L , circles CC and CD meet at M and the circles CD , C A meet at N .
(Points K , L, M , N are the second common points of the corresponding circles,
given that all of them pass through point O ). Prove that the quadrilateral KLMN is
parallelogram
.
First solution
14 Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009

The line segment AB connects the centers of the circles C A and CB , and there-
fore it is the perpendicular bisector of the common chord OK . Since the circles
C A and CB have the same radius, the quadrilateral AOBK is rhombus. Thus point
K1 is the middle of AB .

Similarly, we can show that L1 is the middle of BC , M 1 is the middle of CD


and N1 is the middle of AD .
From the triangles OKL , OLM , OMN and ONK we conclude that: KL K1 L1 ,
LM L1M 1 , MN M 1 N1 and NK N1 K1 (because the line segments K1 L1 , L1M 1 ,
M 1 N1 and N1 K1 connect the middles of the sides of a triangle).
Hence the quadrilaterals KLMN and K1 L1M 1 N1 have their sides parallel. But we
know that the middles of the sides of a quadrilateral define a parallelogram. So the
quadrilateral KLMN is parallelogram.

Second solution
Since the line segment KO is the common chord of the equal circles C A and
CB , it is the perpendicular bisector of the line of the centers AB and vise versa.
Hence the quadrilateral KAOB is rhombus, and so
Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009 15

AK OB . (1)
Similarly the quadrilateral LCOB is rhombus and
CL OB . (2)
From (1) and (2) KACL ,

KL AC . (3)
Working similarly we can prove that the quadrilateral MNAC is parallelogram
and that
NM AC . (4)
From (3) and (4) it follows that KLMN is parallelogram .

Problem 3
Let , , are positive integers such that the number
2 3

2 3
is rational. Prove that the number
2 2 2


is integer.

Solution. First of all, it is easy to see that:


1 2 2 3 3 2 4 3 , with 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 1 3 and 2 4 .
In fact, we can write the first relation in the form
1 3 2 ( 4 2 ) 3 ,

and if 1 3 0 , then 4 2 3 , absurd. Hence 1 3 and 2 4 .


1 3 2
The converse is clear.

Let now 2 3 . Then and , that is


2 3

2 .

Hence we have:
16 Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
( )2 2 ( )( ),
and so .

Problem 4
Determine positive integers x, y, z which satisfy the system
x y z xy yz zx
xyz 1.
and have the least possible sum.

First solution
We write the system in the form
xy yz zx x y z (1)
xyz 1 . (2)
Subtracting the two equations by parts we find
xyz xy yz zx 1 x y z
xyz xy yz zx x y z 1 0
xy z 1 x z 1 y z 1 z 1 0
z 1 xy x y 1 0
z 1 x 1 y 1 0
x 1 or y 1 or z 1.
For x 1, from (1) and (2) we have yz 1 , which have the solutions

y, z a,
1
, a 0 ,
a
and so, the solutions of the system are

x, y, z 1, a,
1
, a 0.
a
Similarly, considering y 1 or z 1 we find the solutions

x, y, z a,1,
1 1
or x, y, z a, ,1 , a 0.
a a
Since for each a 0 we have
1
x y z 1 a 1 2 3 .
a
Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009 17

Equality holds for a 1 , it follows that between the solutions of the system, the
x, y, z 1,1,1 is that having the least possible sum x y z .

Second solution
Let ( x, y, z ) is the solution of the system with the least possible sum. Then,
from the inequality of arithmetic geometric mean we have
x yz 3
xyz x y z 3 ,
3
while equality holds for x y z .
Hence the least possible value of the sum x y z , between the solution of the
given system is 3 and it happens for x y z .
For x y z , from the equation xyz 1, x, y, z 0 , it follows that
x y z 1 , which satisfies also the equation x y z xy yz zx .

B. Seniors

Problem 1
If a is an even positive integer and a n a n 1 ... a 1 , n * , is a per-
fect square, prove that a is a multiple of 8.

Solution
Since a is an even positive integer, it follows that is odd. Therefore A will
be a perfect square of an odd integer, that is
2 1 4 2 4 1 4 1 1,
2

where is a positive integer. Since one of the two integers and 1 is even, we
have
4 1 1 8 1, where is appositive integer

1 a n a n 1 ... a 8 a a n 1 ... a 1 8

8 a a n 1 ... a 1 8 a , since 8, a n 1 ... a 1 1.

Problem 2
18 Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009

Let the triangle ABC has barycenter G and circumcenter O . The perpendicular
bisectors of GA , GB and GC intersect at the points A1 ,B1 ,C1 . Prove that O is the
barycentre of the triangle A1B1C1 .

Solution
Let D, E, F be the middles of the sides BC, AC, AB , respectively.

Let, also B1C1 , A1C1 , A1B1 be the perpendicular bisectors of the line segments
GA , GB and GC , respectively. Then the points A1 , B1 and C1 are the circumcen-
ters of the triangles GBC , GAC and GAB, respectively. Hence A1D , B1E and
C1F are the perpendicular bisectors of the sides BC , AC and AB , respectively,
and therefore they will pass through the circumcenter O of the triangle ABC .
Next, we will show that A1D , B1E and C1F are the medians of the triangle
A1B1C1 . Let the extension of A1D , meets B1C1 at N . We will prove that N is the
middle of the line segment B1C1 .
E 90o ), we have M A E
From the inscrible quadrilateral AMEB1 ( M
Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009 19

E 90 o ), we get
E . Also, from the inscrible quadrilateral DOEC ( D
MB1

D EO
EC N . Therefore the triangles ADC and B NO are similar, and so
1
NB1 AD . (1)
=
NO CD
From the inscrible quadrilateral AMFC1 F 90 o ),
(M we have
F MC
MA F x and similarly from DOFB F 90 ),
(D o
we obtain
1
N y . From the above equalities the triangles ADB and C NO are
that FBD FO 1

similar and therefore:


NC1 AD . (2)

NO BD
From (1) and (2) we get NB1 NC1 . In a similar way we prove that B1E , C1F
are the other two medians of the triangle A1B1C1 .

Problem 3
Find all triples of real numbers (x, y, z) which are greater than 3 and satisfy the
equality:
( x 2)2 ( y 4) 2 ( z 6) 2
36 .
y z 2 z x4 x y6
Solution
Since x, y, z are greater than 3, it follows that y z 2, z x 4, x y 6 are
positive. Thus, from Cauchy-Schwarz inequality we get:
(x 2)2 ( y 4)2 (z 6)2
( y z 2) (x z 4) (x y 6) (x y z 12)
2

y z 2 x z 4 x y 6
( x 2) 2 ( y 4)2 ( z 6) 2 1 ( x y z 12) 2 .

y z 2 x z 4 x y 6 2 ( x y z 6)
From the hypothesis of the problem it follows that
( x y z 12)2
72 , (1)
( x y z 6)
where as the equality holds when:
( y z ) x 2 1
x2 y4 z6
( x z ) y 4( 1) . (2)
y z 2 x z 4 x y6
( x y ) z 6( 1)
20 Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009

Moreover, we observe that:


( x y z 12) 2 ( x y z 12) 2 2
,
( x y z 6) ( x y z 12) 18 18
where we have put x y z 12 . Since we have
2
4 18 72 2 4 18 4 182 0 36 0,
2

18
it follows that
( x y z 12) 2
72 . (3)
( x y z 6)
Equality holds when:
x y z 12 36 x y z 24 (4)
From relations (1) and (3) follows that:
( x y z 12) 2
72 ,
( x y z 6)
and thus equations (2) are (4) are valid, and hence we have the system
(2 1)( x y z ) 12( 1)
1.
x y z 24
For 1 , from relations (2) we get the system :
y z x 4

x z y 8 x, y, z 10,8, 6
.

x y z 12
Therefore the unique solution of the problem is the triple x, y, z 10,8, 6 ,
taking in mind that it satisfies the equation x y z 24 .

Problem 4
In the plane are given different points such that any three of them are not
collinear. We color these points red, green and black. In the sequel we consider all
line segments with ends these points and we correspond to each of them an
algebraic value according to the following rules:
1) If at least one of the ends of the line segment is black, then it has algebraic
value 0.
2) If both ends of the line segment have the same colour, red or green then it has
the algebraic value 1.
Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009 21

3) If ends of the line segment have different colour red or green, then it has the
algebraic value -1.
Determine the least possible value of the sum of algebraic values of the all line
segments.
Solution
From the three rules for the determination of the algebraic value of the line
segments we have the following table:

Let now that we have red, green and black points. Then it is clear
that .
The red points determine line segments having their ends red and so

2
they have algebraic values 1. The green points determine line segments

2
with both ends green and therefore with algebraic values 1. The number of the line
segments having ends with different colors, red or green, and so with algebraic
value -1, are . All the other line segments have algebraic value 0, because they
have at least one of their ends black.
The sum of the algebraic values of all existing line segments is:
! !

2 2 ( 2)!2 ! ( 2)!2 !
( 1) ( 1) 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2

2

(because )
2 2
- - -
2 2
.

2 2 2 2 2
22 Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009

From the last expression of S we conclude that: (1)



2
If is even (let 2 ), then relation (1) becomes: .

Equality in the last relation holds, if and only if and 0 .


2
For example, for 4 , we have the following result:

If is odd ( 2 1 ), then relation (1) : 2 1 1 .


2 2

Since S is integer we conclude that: 1 .


2
We check now when equality holds in the last relation. We observe that the
case odd ( 2 1 ) comes from the case even ( 2 ) by adding one
more point. The point we add in the case even ( 2 ) can be blank, red or
green, and so we have the following cases:
Case 1
Let the point we add is blank. Then the new produced line segments have alge-
braic values 0 and the equality in this case holds when: 1 and 1 .
2
The sum of all algebraic values is: 1 .
2
Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009 23

Case 2
Let the point we add is red. We had red and green points: 1 . Now
2
with the new point we can create - 1 line segments having algebraic value 1 and
2
-1 line segments having algebraic value -1. Equality in this case holds when
2
1 , 1 and 0 .

2 2

The sum of all algebraic values remains: 1 .


2

Case 3
If the point we add is green, in a similar way we conclude that the equality
holds when 1 , 1 and 0 Again: 1 .
2 2 2

From all the above we conclude that the least possible value of is
.
2
24 Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009

Mediterranean Mathematical Competition 2009

Problem 1
Determine all integers n 1 for which there exists n real numbers
x1 , x2 ,..., xn in the closed interval [-4; 2] such that the following three condi-
tions are fulfilled:
- the sum of these real numbers is at least n :
- the sum of their squares is at most 4n :
- the sum of their fourth powers is at least 34n :

Solution
Since the data of the problem concern n real numbers x1 , x2 ,..., xn in the closed
interval 4, 2 , we consider the polynomial
P x x 4 x 2 x 1 ,
2

which in 4, 2 satisfies the relation

P x x 4 x 2 x 1 0 .
2
(1)
Adding by parts the inequalities coming from (1) for x x1 , x2 ,..., xn , and taking
in mind the conditions of the problem, we find:
n n n
0 P x1 ... P xn xi4 11 xi2 18 xi 8n 34n 11 4n 18n 8n 0. (2)
i 1 i 1 i 1

Hence, since P xi 0, for all i 1, 2,..., n , from relation (2) we have:


P xi 0, for all i 1, 2,..., n , which means that xi 4,1, 2 , for all
i 1, 2,..., n . We suppose that from the integers x1 , x2 ,..., xn , a are equal to
4 , b are equal to 1 and c are equal to 2. Then we have a b c n
and from the data of the problems we have the inequalities
4a b 2c a b c c 5a

16a b 4c 4 a b c b 4a .
256a b 16c 34 a b c 222a 33b 18c

By multiplying both parts of the first inequality with 18 and the second with
33 and summing the produced inequalities by parts we get the inequality
Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009 25

33b 18c 132a 90a 222a ,


which in combination with the inequality 222a 33b 18c gives:
33b 18c 222a ,
which is valid, if and only if b 4a , c 5a , that is
a b c 10a or 10a n .
Therefore the numbers x1 , x2 ,..., xn there exist, if and only if, n is a multiply
of n . For n 10m, where m is a positive integer a possible solution arises
by taking m times the number -4, 4m times the number 1 and 5m times
the number 2.

Problem 2
26 Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009

Problem 3

Solution

Problem 4
Let x,y,z be positive real numbers. Prove that
xy x

z
.
cyclic xy x y 2x
2 2
cyclic

Solution
Given inequality is equivalent to:

1 1 1 1 1 1
.
x y y z z x z x y
1 1 1 2 2 2
y x z y x z x y z
x y z
New we can take substitution a, b, c abc 1 , so our inequality
y z x
becomes:
Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009 27

1 1 1 1 1 1
.
1 1 1 2a 2b 2c
1 a 1 b 1 c
a b c

After some computations and also using abc 1 , this becomes equivalent to:

3 a b c 3 ab bc ca ab bc ca a b c

ab bc ca 2 ab bc ca a b c a b c 2
12 4 a b c ab bc ca
.
9 2 ab bc ca 4 a b c

Now, we take substitution a b c S , ab bc ca P and inequality


becomes:

3S 3P SP 12 4S P
P3 4S 3 3P2 S PS 2 6P2 27S 27P 15PS ( )
P2 PS S 2 9 2P 4S

It is not difficult to prove that S 2 3P and also S 3, P 3 (by AM GM


and abc 1 ). Therefore:

4S 3 4S 2 S 12PS , PS 2 S PS 3PS , 3P 2 S 3 32 S 27S ,


P 3 P 2 P 32 P 9P, 6 P 2 6 P P 6 3P 18P.

By summing these inequalities we found ( ) to be true so our proof is


finished. Equality is obviously achieved when

S 2 3P 9 a b c 1 x y z .
28 Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009

26th Balkan Mathematical Olympiad


Kragujevac, Serbia, April 30, 2009

Problem 1
Solve in the set of positive integers the equation
3x 5 y z 2 .
Solution
Working with respect modulo 3 in both sides of the equation we get that
z 2 (1) y (mod 3) .
When y is even, we have z 2 1(mod 3) , (impossible). Hence
y 2 y1 1 , y1 0,1, 2,... (1)
Working with respect modulo 4 in both sides of the equation we get
z 2 ( 1) x 1y (mod 4).
If x is odd, then the above equation becomes z 2 2(mod 4) , (impossible).
Hence we have
x 2 x1 , x1 1, 2,... (2)
Using (1) and (2) in the given equation, we obtain
32 x1 52 y1 1 z 2 52 y1 1 (3x1 z )(3x1 z ) (3)
We have that (3, z ) 1 , (otherwise 3|z, which is absurd according to (3)) and so
(3x1 z,3x1 z ) 2 3x1 , 2 z 2 3x1 , z 2 .

Hence (3x1 z ,3x1 z ) 1 or 2 and since z is even (otherwise (3) is absurd), we


have
(3x1 z ,3x1 z ) 1 .
Moreover, from (3), since 52 y1 1 , 3x1 z 0 , we get 3x1 z 0 and
since 3 z 1 , we finally have
x1

3x1 z 1 , 3x1 z 52 y1 1 .
23x1 52 y1 1 1 (4)
Now we distinguish the cases:
If x1 2 x 2 , then (4) can be written as 29 x 5 25 y 1 and considering
2 1

both sides mod24 we find


29 x2 51y1 1(mod 24) 9 x2 3(mod12) ,
Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009 29

which is absurd, because the left half side gives always remainder 9, when divided
by 12.
If x1 2 x2 1 , then (4) can be written as
239 x2 525 y1 1. (5)
Therefore, for x2 0 we find y1 0 , and finally y = 1, x = 2 and z = 2.
If x2 1 , then considering both sides mod9 we obtain 57 y1 1(mod 9) ,
which is valid, only when y1 1(mod 3) y1 3 y2 1 , (since 73 1(mod 9) ).
If y2 0 , then equation (5) has not solutions, where as for y2 1 , substituting
y1 into (5) we have mod7 in both sides
62 x2 543 y2 1 1(mod 7) 62 x2 2064 y2 1(mod 7)
62 x2 (1)1y2 1(mod 7)
62 x2 0(mod 7), absurd.
Hence the given equation has the unique solution (x, y ,z)=(2, 1, 2).

Problem 2
Line MN is parallel to the side BC of the triangle ABC , where M , N are
points of the sides AB, AC , respectively. Lines BN and CM meet at point P
The circumcircles of the triangles BMP and CNP intersect at two different
points P Q . Prove that : BAQ CAP .

Solution
, PAN
We put BAQ and QAP
x. From the inscribed quadrilaterals
BMPQ and QPNC we get:
BPQ
MBQ and QNC
QCN QPC
MBQ
,
and therefore the quadrilaterals AMQC and ABQN are inscrible. From the hypo-
thesis of the problem we observe that at point P are concurrent the Cevian lines
passing through the vertices of the triangles ABC and QMN .
Using trigonometric form of Cevas theorem we have the relations:
sin ACP
sin BAP sin CBP

1, (1)
sin PCB
sin PAC sin PBA

30 Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009

sin MNP
sin NQP
sin QMP
1. (2)

sin PNQ sin PQM sin PMN

From the inscribed quadrilaterals MBQP, PQCN , ABQN , AMQC and the
relation MN BC , we obtain the angle equalities
x, PAC
BAP , QMP NQP
PBQ QAN x, ACP ,
NMP
CBP MNP
, PCB , PBA , PNQ
PQM PCQ MAQ ,
and therefore by dividing by parts (1) and (2) we have:
sin x sin
1 sin x sin sin x sin
sin sin x
cos x cos 2 x cos x cos 2 x cos 2 x cos 2 x ,
1800 , it follows that: .
from which , given that x BAC

Second solution (D. Papadimitriou)


It is enough to prove that AQ , AP are isogonal conjugates of the sides AB , AC .
If AP meets side BC at T , then from the theorem of Ceva we have:
BT CN AM
1. (3)
TC NA MB
Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009 31

Since MN BC , it follows that :


AM NA , (4)

MB CN
and hence from (3) and (4), it follows that BT TC , that is point T is the middle
of the side BC . Hence, it is enough to show that AQ is a symmedian of the trian-
gle ABC . Equivalently, it is enough to show that point Q satisfies the equality:
QK AB (5)
,
QL AC
where QK AB and QL AC .
But the triangles QBM , QNC are congruent, because they have:
MQB MPB
NPC
NQC and QMB QPB QCN ,
from the inscribed quadrilaterals NPQC and MBQP . Thus we have:
QK MB AB
, (since MN BC ).
QL NC AC

Problem 3
912 rectangle is partitioned into unit squares. The centres of all the unit
squares, except for the four corner squares and the eight squares sharing a common
side with one of them, are coloured red. Is it possible to label these red centres
C1 , C2 ,...., C96 in such a way that the following two conditions are both fulfilled:

(i) the distances C1C2 , C2C3 , ...., C95C96 , C96 C1 are all equal to 13 ,
(ii) the closed broken line C1C2 ....C96C1 has a centre of symmetry.
Solution
Such a broken line does not exists. To show this, color the red point squares in
a chess pattern (black and white), so that every two red points at distance 1 lie in
squares of different color. It is easy to see that any two red points at distance 13
lie on squares of different colors, so black and white alternate along the broken
line. Also, the center of symmetry of the line must coincide with that of the set of
points, and thus with that of the rectangle.
Consider now the points 2, 2 and 8,11 (as usual the point i, j is the
center of the unit square in the i -th row and the j -th column). The line can be di-
vided in two parts one leading from A to B , and the other from B to A. If they
32 Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009

are symmetric to each other, each of them must consist of 96:2=48 edges. So an
even number of edges connect A to B, hence A and B must lie in squares of same
color, which is not true.
So, each pert is symmetric to itself (since the symmetrical of the pert leading
from A to B, can only be the other part, case dismissed in the above, or itself; and
same for the part leading from B to A), and each part contains an odd number of
edges. Since the edges can be divided in symmetric pairs, each part must contain
some edge symmetric to itself. Only two such edges are possible: one joining 4,5
and 6,8 , and the other joining 6,5 and 4,8 .
Consider now the point 2, 2 . It can only be joined to 5, 4 and 4,5 , so the
line must include these two edges. A similar consideration for the points 8, 2 ,
8,11 2,11 shows that the line must include the edges 4,5 2,2 5,4
8, 2 6,5 4,8 2,11 5,9 8,11 6,8 4,5 . But this is a closed broken
line that does not contain all the points, a contradiction.

Problem 4
Let * 1, 2,3,... be the set of positive integers. Find all functions
f : * * such that


f f m 2 f n
2 2
m 2
2n 2 , for all m, n .
*

Solution
First we prove that f is injective. In fact, for any fixed n , if f m1 f m2 ,
then:
m12 2n 2 f f m1 2 f n
2 2
f f m 2
2
2 f n
2
m 2
2 n2 , whence
m12 m22 and m1 m2 .
Since f is injective we have:
f m 2 f n f p 2 f q m 2 2n 2 p 2 2q 2
2 2 2 2
(1)
Putting f 1 a , we find for m n 1, f 3a 3 . Then from (1) we get
2

f 5a 2 f a f 3a 2 f 3a 3 f 3a 27 .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Since the solution of the equation x 2 2 y 2 27 in positive integers is x, y


= 3,3 and x, y 5,1 , it follows that f a 2 1 and f 5a 2 5 .
Also, from (1) we have
Hellenic Mathematical Competitions 2009 33

2 f 4a 2 2 f 2a 2 f 5a 2 f a 2 24 .
2 2 2 2

Since the unique solution in positive integers of the equation x 2 y 2 12 is


x, y 4, 2 , it follows that f 2a 2 2 and f 4a 2 4 .
Using (1) again we can have
k 4 a
2 2
k 3 a
2 2
k 1 a
2 2
f ka 2 ,
2
f 2f 2f
as it arises easily by the identity k 4 2 2 k 12 k 2 2 k 32 , and therefore
f ka 2 k , by induction on k . Then f a 2 a f 1 and thus a 1 . Hence
f k k , for any k * . Finally it is easy to verify that f k k , is a solution of
the problem.

13th Junior Balkan Mathematical Olympiad


Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 25-30 June 2009

Problem 1.
Let ABCDE be a convex pentagon such that AB CD BC DE and k a circle
with center on side AE that touches the sides AB, BC , CD and DE at points
P, Q, R and S (different from vertices of the pentagon) respectively. Prove that
lines PS and AE are parallel.
Problem 2.
Solve in non-negative integers the equation

2 a 3b 9 c 2 .
Problem 3.
Let x, y, z be real numbers such that
0 x, y , z 1 and xyz 1 x 1 y 1 z .
Show that at least one of the numbers 1 x y, 1 y z , 1 z x is greater than or

equal to 1 .
4
Problem 4.
Each one of 2009 distinct points in the plane is colored in blue or red, so that on
every blue-centered unit circle there are exactly two red points. Find the greatest
possible number of blue points.