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1.

Incaraccidents,theactivationofanairbagisoftenabletosavealifewhenitcushionsimpact
onthepassengershead.Theexpansionoftheairbagiscausedbytheelectronicdetonationof
asodiumcompound,NaNx,thattriggersadecompositionreaction,producingonlysodiummetal
andnitrogengas.
Astudentwasgiven1.00gofthesodiumcompound.Heheatedthesolidonaweighing
balanceuntilaconstantmassreadingof0.354gwasobtained.Thegasproducedwas
collectedinacontainerunderroomconditions.

(a)Findtheempiricalformulaofthesodiumcompound,NaNx.(Assumethatallproductsformed
donottakepartinfurtherreactions.)

(b)Writeabalancedchemicalequationforthedecompositionandhencecalculatethevolume
(incm3)ofnitrogengascollected.(Assumethatmolarvolumeunderroomconditionsis24.0
dm3.)

(c)Thenitrogengascollectediscompressedtohalfthevolumecalculatedin(b)andheated
from20oCto40oC.Calculatethepressureexertedbythegasonthecontainer.

(d)Inreality,thepressureexertedbythegasonthecontainerwasmeasuredtobelowerthan
thecalculatedvaluein(c).Statetworeasonswhythisdiscrepancywasobserved.

2Thetablebelowshowssomethermochemicaldata:
H/kJmol1
Ca(s)Ca2+(aq)+2eH=+347kJmol1
Ca(s)+S(s)+2O2(g)CaSO4(s)H=1435kJmol1
S(s)+2O2(g)+2eSO42(aq)H=907kJmol1

(a)Usethedatainthetableabovetoconstructanenergycycleandhencecalculatethe
standardenthalpychangeofthefollowingreaction:
Ca(NO3)2(aq)+H2SO4(aq)CaSO4(s)+2HNO3(aq)

(b)(i)Explainwhatismeantbythelatticeenergyofcalciumsulfate.

(ii)Calciumsulfateissparinglysolubleinwaterwhilemagnesiumsulfateissoluble.Explain,in
termsofbondingandstructurewhymagnesiumsulfateissolubleinwater.[2]

3.Ethenereactswithbromineintetrachloromethanetoform1,2dibromoethane
(CH2BrCH2Br)asshownbytheequation:
CH2=CH2+Br2CH2BrCH2Br
Todeterminetheordersofreactionwithrespecttoetheneandbromine,etheneandbromine
werefirstdissolvedseparatelyintetrachloromethane.Variousvolumesofthesesolutionsand
tetrachloromethanewerethenmixedandthetimetakenforthebrowncolourofbromineto
disappearwasrecorded.Theresultsareshowninthetablebelow:
Experiment Volumeof Volumeof Volumeof Timetakenforcolourof
ethenesolution/ Brominesolution/ tetrachloromethane/cm3 brominetodisappear/s
cm3 cm3

1 20 20 0 15

2 12 20 8 25

3 20 10 10 25

4 40 20 20 t4

(a)WithreferencetoExperiments1to3,explainwhyvaryingvolumesoftetrachloromethane
wereused.

(b)Therelationshipbetweentherateofreactionwiththetimetakenforthecolourofbromineto
Disappearandthevolumeofbromineusedisgivenasshown:
Rate2BrVt
Usingtheexperimentaldata,deducetheorderofreactionwithrespecttoethaneandbromine.

(c)Suggestavaluefort4,thetimetakenforthebrowncolourofbrominetodisappearin
Experiment4.

(d)Thefollowinggraphshowsthesecondionisationenergytrendofsuccessiveelementsfrom
Period3.


(i)WiththeaidoftheDataBooklet,accountforthedecreasein2ndionisationenergyfrom
elementBtoelementC.

(ii)SketchthetrendofelectricalconductivityforelementAtoD.

4Nitratesarecommonlyusedinthemakingofpyrotechnics.Hydroxylaminenitrate,
NH3OHNO3,isoneofthemanditcanalsobeusedasarocketpropellant.Hydroxylamine
nitrateundergoescatalyticdecompositionaccordingtothefollowingequation:
4NH3OHNO3(s)3N2O(g)+7H2O(l)+2HNO3(l)
Thestandardenthalpychangeofreaction,Hrxn,is526.6kJmol1andthestandardentropy
change,S,is+180Jmol1K1.
(a)ExplainthesignificanceofthesignofS.[1]

(b)DeterminethevalueofthestandardGibbsfreeenergy,G,forthereaction. [1]

(c)Commentontheeffectofhightemperaturesonthefeasibilityofthereaction.[2]

(d)DrawthedotandcrossdiagramofN2O.[1]

(e)TheplotsofpV/RTagainstpforonemoleofanidealgasat300Kisgivenbelow.


(i)ShowonthesameaxeshowonemoleofN2Ogaswillbehaveatthesametemperatureof
300K.
(ii)Onthesameaxes,drawacurvetorepresentN2Ogaswhenitiscooledto50K.
(iii)OnthesameaxesshowhowonemoleofN2gaswillbehaveatthesametemperatureof
300K.Explainyouranswer.

6(a)Brassisamixtureofcopperandzinc.ItdissolvesinnitricacidtogiveamixtureofCu2+
(aq)andZn2+(aq)ions.3Cu(s)+2NO3(aq)+8H+(aq)3Cu2+(aq)+2NO(g)+4H2O(l)Thecopperions,
Cu2+,maybeanalysedbymeansofiodideandsodiumthiosulfate.Thezincionsdonotreact
duringthisanalysis.
1.00gofbrasswasdissolvedinnitricacidandafterboilingoffoxidesofnitrogenand
neutralisation,excesspotassiumiodide,KI,wasaddedtotheCu2+(aq)ionsandwhiteprecipitate
ofcopper(I)iodidewasformediniodinesolution,I2(aq).
Theiodineformedthenreactedwith0.0100molofsodiumthiosulfate.I2(aq)+2S2O32(aq)
2I(aq)+S4O62(aq)
Constructanequationbetweenthecopper(II)ionsandiodide.Hence,calculatethepercentage
bymassofcopperinthebrass.

(b)Thesulfurdioxideandcarbondioxidemixturewassubsequentlypassedthroughan
industrialscrubbertoseparatethetwogases.Thesulfurdioxidegasobtainedwasthenpassed
throughexcessoxygen,usingvanadium(V)oxideasthecatalystatatemperatureof500Cina
reactorof2dm3.ThisisthekeystageintheContactprocesstoproducesulfuricacid.
2SO2(g)+O2(g)2SO3(g) H=197kJmol1
(i)Explaintheconsiderationswhichleadtothetemperatureof500oCbeingused.

(ii)WriteanexpressionforKcforthisreaction.

(iii)Assuminga95%conversionofSO2(g)intoSO3(g)wasachieved,useyourexpressionin(b)(i)
tocalculatethevalueforKcwhen4molofSO2and3molofO2wereallowedtoreach
equilibriumat500C.

(iv)SomeoftheSO3(g)formedwasimmediatelyremovedfromthereactoronceequilibriumwas
established.CalculatethenewequilibriumamountofSO3(g)at500CiftheamountofO2(g)at
thenewequilibriumwas1.01mol.

(v)StateandexplaintheimpactontheequilibriumyieldofSO3(g)ifmorevanadium(V)oxide
wasaddedtothereactingsystem.

(vi)StateandexplaintheimpactontheequilibriumyieldofSO3(g)iftheprocesswascarriedout
atthetemperatureof800oC.

(c)H2SO4canbehaveasanacid,anoxidisingagentandadehydratingagent,andisacentral
substanceinthechemicalindustry.Itsprincipalusesincludeleadacidbatteriesforcarsand
othervehicles,oreprocessing,fertilisermanufacturing,oilrefining,wastewaterprocessing,and
chemicalsynthesis.

(i)50cm3of1moldm3ofethanoicacid,CH3COOH(aq),wasmixedwith25cm3of1moldm3of
sodiumhydroxide,NaOH(aq).
Asmallamountofsulfuricacidwasthenaddedtothemixture.Withaidofanequation,
commentifthereisanypHchange.

(ii)Theboilingpointofpuresulfuricacid,at270oC,ishigherthanthatofSCl2.Explain,interms
ofstructureandbonding,whytheboilingpointofsulfuricacidishigherthanthatofSCl2.

(d)Givethesymbols(showingtheprotonnumber,nucleonnumberandcharges)ofthe
followingtwoparticles:

7.TealightcandlesareapopularformofdecorationduringtheChristmasseasonandare
commonlymadefromalkanes.Astudentperformedanexperimentusingtealightcandles
purchasedfromIKEAandTheBodyShop.
ThecalorimeterusedintheexperimentinvolvingtheIKEAcandlewascalibratedusingthe
followingformula:Q=CTwhereQistheheatenergytransferred,CistheheatcapacityofthecalorimeterandTis
thetemperaturechange.
Thestudentusedthecalibratedcalorimetertodeterminethestandardenthalpychangeof
combustion,Hc,ofTheBodyShopcandle.
Theinformationbelowshowstheresultsoftheexperiment.


Aftertheexperiment,thestudentrealisedthathehadforgottentorecordthestandardenthalpy
changeofcombustionofTheBodyShopcandle.

(a)Definestandardenthalpychangeofcombustion.

(c)(i)UsingtheinstructionsandthedatacollectedfromtheexperimentwiththeIKEAcandle,
calculatetheheatcapacityofthecalorimeter.Leaveyouranswerto3significantfigures.

(ii)Hence,calculatethestandardenthalpychangeofcombustionofTheBodyShopcandle.
Stateoneassumptionyoumadeinyourcalculationsinc(i)andc(ii).

(d)Iron(III)oxide,Fe2O3,isproducedfromtheoxidationofironmetal.Itisoneofthethreemain
oxidesofiron,theothertwobeingFeO,whichisrareandFe3O4whichoccursnaturallyasthe
mineralmagnetite.
Standardenthalpychangeofatomisationofiron=+414kJmol1Firstandsecondelectron
affinityofoxygen=+650kJmol1Standardenthalpychangeofformationofiron(III)oxide=823
kJmol1
(i)WithreferencetotheDataBookletandgiveninformation,constructandlabelaBornHaber
cyclefortheformationofiron(III)oxidefromitselements.

(ii)Hence,usethecycleind(i)tocalculatethelatticeenergyofFe2O3(s).

(e)ThefollowingmechanismillustratesareactionbetweenreactantsAandB.
Step1: A+BC fast
Step2: C+BD+F slow
Provethattheoverallorderofthisreactionisthree.[2]

(f)Withtheaidofanenergyprofilediagram,explainthefollowingstatement:Diamondis
energeticallyunstablebutkineticallystable.[2]

(g)Iodinationofpropanoneisdoneinaqueousacidicsolutionaccordingtotheequation:
CH3COCH3(aq)+I2(aq)CH3COCH2I(aq)+H+(aq)+I(aq)
Therateofreactionwasstudiedviaacolorimetricmethod,inwhichthecolourintensityofiodine
wasmeasuredatregulartimeintervals.
Threeseparateexperimentswereperformed,inwhichtheinitialconcentrationsofiodine,
propanoneandacidwerevariedinturn,theothertwobeingkeptconstant.Theresultsare
shownbelowingraphicalform:

(i)Usingthegraphsabove,deducetheordersofreactionwithrespecttopropanone,iodineand
acid,respectively.Showallworkingclearly.

(ii)Hence,writedowntherateequationforthisreaction.