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Human Resource Management Practices (HRMP)

Human Resource Management Practices (HRMP) RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PDM (2016 – 18) SESSION 5

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PDM (2016 – 18) SESSION 5

Introduction

Human Resource Planning (HRP) and Job Analysis helps determine the number and type of people and roles and responsibilities they need to perform so as to help the organization attain its objectives

The next logical step is to hire right number of people of right type to fill the jobs.

Hiring
Hiring
Introduction Human Resource Planning (HRP) and Job Analysis helps determine the number and type of people
Introduction Human Resource Planning (HRP) and Job Analysis helps determine the number and type of people

Recruitment

Selection

Recruitment

Recruitment involves attracting and obtaining as many applications as possible from eligible job-seekers.

Purposes and Importance of Recruitment:

Recruitment represents first contact that a company makes with potential employees

Increases the pool of job candidates for the open positions by attracting highly

qualified and

competent people.

Meets organisation’s legal and social obligations regarding the composition of workforce. Lends itself as a potential source of competitive advantage to a firm.

Pause and Ponder..!

Pause and Ponder..! Think of a firm you want to submit your job application to. What

Think of a firm you want to submit your job application to. What factors would you consider before applying?

Recruitment Process

HR Planning Job Analysis Search Potential Activation Application Screening Selection Job Vacancies Recruitment Planning • Number
HR Planning
Job Analysis
Search
Potential
Activation
Application
Screening
Selection
Job Vacancies
Recruitment
Planning
• Number
• Types
Hires
• Message
Pool
• Media
Strategy
Development
• Where
• How
• When
Applicant
Evaluation
and control
Population

Sources of Recruitment

INTERNAL SOURCES

Present Employees Employee Referrals Former Employees Previous Applicants

EXTERNAL SOURCES

Advertisements Campus Recruitment Walk-ins & write-ins Consultants Contractors Competitors Social Media Employment Agencies

What makes effective Recruiting a challenge?

Decision related to branding / marketing of the organisation. Decision on recruiting method Decision related to targeting the right number i.e. from where, how and when The recruiting yield pyramid

20 30 40 200 2000
20
30
40
200
2000

Offer Acceptance Job Offer

Offer/Acceptance (3:2)

Interview/Offer(4:3)

Invited to final interview

Screening/Invites (5:1)

Invited to screening interview Initial Contacts

What makes effective Recruiting a challenge? • Decision related to branding / marketing of the organisation.

Contacts/Screens(10:1)

Alternatives to Recruitment

Overtime Employee Leasing or Deputation Temporary Employment Outsourcing

Selection

Selection

Selection

Selection is a process of picking individuals (out of the pool of job applicants) with requisite qualification and competence to fill jobs in the organisation.

Recruitment vs. Selection

Recruitment refers to the process of identifying and encouraging prospective employees to apply for jobs whereas Selection refers to picking right candidate from a pool of applicants.

Recruitment is a positive approach as it intends to attract as many candidates as possible whereas selection is a negative approach as it intends to eliminate as many unqualified process as possible in order to identify the right candidate.

Selection a critical function…?

Work Performance

Work performance depends on individuals. The best way to improve performance is to hire people who have the competence and willingness to work.

From the employees point of view, poor or inappropriate choice can demoralise the individual concerned and de-motivate the rest of the workforce.

Legal Obligations

A mismanaged process may lead to undesired litigation E.g. Vyapam Scam, Teacher’s hiring scam in Haryana etc.

Selection a critical function…? (Contd.)

Cost:

Cost incurred in recruiting and hiring personnel speaks volumes about the role of selection.

Success

Failure

False Negative Error

True Positive (High Hit)

True Negative (Low Hit)

False Positive Error

False Positive:

Failure predicted

Success Predicted

Cost incurred for employing a misfit like production/profit losses, damage to the reputation, accidents, absenteeism etc. Cost related to training, transfer & termination Cost of replacing, rehiring False Negative Applicant who would have succeeded is rejected because of predicted failure

Selection Process

External Environment Internal Environment Preliminary Interview Selection Tests Employment Interview Reference & background check Selection decision
External Environment
Internal Environment
Preliminary Interview
Selection Tests
Employment Interview
Reference & background
check
Selection decision
Physical Examination
Job Offer
Employment Contract
Evaluation
Rejected Applicants

Selection Process (Contd.)

Environmental Factors affecting Selection

Various internal and external factors such as supply demand of specific skills in the labour market, unemployment rate, legal and political considerations, company’s image/policy, HRP, cost of hiring etc.

Preliminary Interview

Purpose is to eliminate unqualified applications based on the information supplied in their application forms.

Selection Process (Contd.)

Selection Tests

Basic Concepts of testing

Reliability: The consistency of scores obtained by the same person when retested with the identical tests or with alternate forms of the same test.

Validity: Refers to the accuracy or truthfulness of test, interview. It tells whether the test measures what it is meant to measure.

How to validate a test:

Analyse the job Choose the test Administer the test Relate test scores and criteria Cross-validate and revalidate

Selection Process (Contd.)

Types of Tests:

Test of Cognitive Abilities:

Intelligence Tests: E.g Stanford-Binet Test, Wechsler Test, Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test etc. Motor and Physical abilities: E.g. Stromberg Dexterity Test, Purdue Peg Board Test etc. Measure of Personality and Interests: E.g. Big Five, MMPI, 16 PF, Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory etc. Achievement Tests: Purdue test for machinists and machine operators etc.

Work Samples and Simulations

Management Assessment Centres: E.g. Group Discussions, Management Games, In- basket exercises Individual Presentations, Objective tests, interviews etc.

Situational Testing and Video-based Situational Testing The miniature job training and evaluation approach

Selection Process (Contd.)

Employment Interview: Refers to a formal, in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate the applicant’s acceptability. It is popular because of its flexibility.

Objectives:

Allows two-way exchange of information- the interviewer(s) learn about the applicant & vice versa Help obtain additional information from the applicant Facilitates giving general information to the applicant such as company policies, job, products/services etc. Helps build the company’s image among the applicants.

Shortcomings:

Absence of reliability as no two interviewers offer similar scoring after interviewing an applicant Lack of validity as very rarely standardised questions are used upon which validation studies can be done Biases of the interviewer(s) may cloud the objectivity

Employment Interviews

Structure

Content

Method of Administration

Employment Interviews Structure Administration • Structured • Semi- structured • Unstructured • Situational • Behavioural •

Structured

Semi- structured

Unstructured

Situational

Behavioural

Job-related

Stress

Unstructured sequential Structured sequential Panel Phone Video/web-assisted Computerised

Employment Interviews(Contd.)

Interviewer Biases:

Stereotyping: Involves forming generalized opinions about how people of a given gender, religion, or race appear, think, act, feel, or respond. Example: Presuming that a woman would prefer a desk job over working outdoors is stereotyping.

First impression error: The interviewer makes snap judgments and lets his or her first impression (either positive or negative) cloud the entire interview. Example: Giving more credence to the fact that the candidate graduated from the interviewer's alma mater than to the applicant's knowledge, skills, or abilities is an example of the first-impression error.

Negative emphasis: Rejecting a candidate on the basis of a small amount of negative information. Research indicates that interviewers give unfavorable information roughly twice the weight of favorable information. Negative emphasis often happens when subjective factors like dress or nonverbal communication taint the interviewer's judgment.

Employment Interviews(Contd.)

Halo effect: Occurs when an interviewer judges an applicants entire potential for job performance on the basis of a single trait, such as how the applicant dresses or talks.

Nonverbal bias: Undue emphasis is placed on nonverbal cues that are unrelated to job performance. Example: Hair length or distracting mannerisms are good examples of nonverbal bias.

Contrast effect: Strong candidates who interview after weak ones may appear even more qualified than they actually are because of the contrast.

Similar-to-me error: Picking candidates based on personal characteristics that they share with the interviewer rather than job-related criteria.

Employment Interviews(Contd.)

How to design effective interviews?

The procedure is as mentioned below:

Analyse the job Rate the job’s main duties Create interview questions Create benchmark answers

Appoint an interview panel and conduct interviews

How to conduct an effect interview?

The procedure is as mentioned below:

Understand the job well Structure the interview Get organised Establish Rapport Ask questions Take brief notes Review the interview

Employment Interviews(Contd.)

Guidelines for interviewees:

Employment Interviews(Contd.) Guidelines for interviewees: • Preparation is essential • Uncover the interviewer’s real needs •

Preparation is essential Uncover the interviewer’s real needs Relate yourself to the interviewer’s needs Think before answering Remember the appearance and enthusiasm are important Make a good first impression

Selection Process (Contd.)

Reference and Background Checks Objectives:

To gain insight about the potential employee from the people who have had previous experience with him or her. To assess/predict the potential success of a prospect

Many employers request names, addresses, and telephone numbers or references for the purpose of verifying information and gaining additional background information on an applicant

Previous employers, known public figures, university professors etc. can act as references and is done through letters of references or telephone references

Reference Checks covers:

Criminal record checks Previous employment check Educational record checks Character reference check

Selection Process (Contd.)

Physical Examination

After the selection and before the job offer is made, the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test. A job offer is contingent upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical examination.

Objectives:

To detect if the individual carries any infectious diseases To determine whether the person is physically fit to perform the work

Medical check-up protects applicants with health defects from undertaking work that could be detrimental to themselves or might become employer’s prerogative later

Protects employers from workers’ compensation claim that are not valid because illnesses/injuries were present when the employee was hired

Selection Process (Contd.)

Job Offer

Job offer is made through a formal letter of appointment

Contract of employment

Contains: Job Title/Duties/Date of joining/ Compensation details such as basic salary, allowances, overtime & shift rates/ Hours of work including lunch break etc/Number of leaves/Notice period clauses/Grievance procedure/Disciplinary Procedure/Work rules/Termination clauses/Union Membership/ Clauses related to employer’s & employee’s rights

Selection Process (Contd.)

Evaluation of the selection process

Aims to evaluate selection process meets the three Rs (Right people, Right Job, Right Time):

Cost per hire: Includes payment made to placement agency, expenses incurred on conducting tests & interviews, Cost of any on-campus/institutional drives, Cost of joining bonus and other allowances, any other incidental costs

Time to hire: Refers to time lapsed between notification of vacant position and new hire joins the organisation.

Quality of Hire: Refers to hiring the best talent

Selection Programme audit: Includes analysis of the method, procedures, implementation, results etc.

Pause and Ponder….!

If you are a chairman of your organisation, what considerations would guide your judgement on the following employment issues:

Hiring of relatives of employees?

Promotion from within vs. selecting the best from outside?

Hiring physically handicapped persons? Hiring candidates belonging to minority communities? Hiring ‘sons of the soil’?

Pause and Ponder….! If you are a chairman of your organisation, what considerations would guide your