ýALAysjý

WýY

ii ý'
.ýý'ý,

A CASE STUDY ON SOIL EROSION RATE AND SEDIMENT
YIELD OF A PROPOSED INFRASTRUCTURAL
DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

Ting Huong Siong

Master of Environmental Science
(Land Use and Water Resource Management)
2013

Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademii:
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK

A CASE STUDY ON SOIL EROSION RÄTE AND SEDIMENT
YIELD OF A PROPOSED INFRASTRUCTURAL
DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

TING HUONG SIONG

A thesis submitted
in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Environmental Science

Faculty of Resource Science and Technology
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
2013

Effendi and current SLUSE coordinator. Tay Meng Guan for their encouragementand patienceto provide guidance and support. Last but not least. and my family for their continuous support and during the course of this research. Dr. Tang Jock Kie. Prof. His patience and generosity are highly appreciated. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my sincerest and deepest appreciation to my supervisor. Dr. Lim Po Teen. I would like to thank my former SLUSE coordinators. 1 . Ir Dr. Dr. I would like to thank my wife. Law Puong Ling for his support and encouragement.

vegetative cover. ABSTRACT Soil Erosion is a process of a portion of the soil profile or soil surface detachment to the ambient environment. Significant amount of soil sediments would be washed and eroded directly to the nearby watercourse. Predictions of soil erosion rate and sediment yield during different construction stages were carried out at the proposed Project site with respect to site clearing. and slope grading would produce highest erosion rates and sediment yields as compared to other construction stages. Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE). However. (ii) construction stage. topography and climate. The RUSLE and MUSLE were used to estimate the potential erosion rate and the sediment yield. sediment control practices such as silt trap. silt fence and check dam would minimize the adverse effects of erosion rates to a certain extent.. There are four major factors that affect erosion potential: soil characteristics. Keywords: Soil Erosion. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). A comparison between "with BMP" and "without BMP" were carried out. Best ManagementPractices (BMP) ii . Batang Rajang and could result in deposition of the sediments at the river bed and lead to degradation of the aquatic ecosystem. it and was found that a reduction of more than 65% for both erosion rate and sediment yield with the implementation of BMPs. earthworks/ sand filling and infrastructure works at light industrial area. i. earthwork activities. and (iii) post-construction stage of the study area. the disturbed soil surface would result from the site clearing. Erosion control measures are recommended to minimize the potential erosion rates and sedimentation. Kapit Division. respectively during (i) pre-construction stage. During construction stage. e.

Terdapat empat faktor utama mempengaruhi potensi hakisan tanah: ciri-ciri tanah. Oleh itu. pagar kelodak dan empangan semakan akan mengurangkan kesan-kesan buruk daripada hakisan tanah kepada persekitaran ambien. semua langkah-langkah kawalan dinasihatkan supaya diperiksa dan diselenggarakan dengan tetap masa. perlindungan tumbuhan. dan penggredan cerun telah menghasilkan kadar hakisan yang tertinggi dan penghasilan sedimen jika dibandingkan dengan peringkat pembinaan yang lain. kerja-kerja tanah / pengisian pasir dan kerja-kerja infrastruktur di kawasan perindustrian ringan. ABSTRAK Hakisan Tanah adalah satu sebahagian proses daripada profil tanah atau permukaan tanah detasmen untuk persekitaran ambien. Daerah Kapit. pencemaran dan degradasi alam sekitar terutamanya ekosistem akuatik. Jumlah besar tanah yang didedahkan akan dibasuh dan dihakiskan terus ke arah saluran air yang berdekatan. topografi dan iklim. RUSLE dan MUSLE telah digunakan untuk menganggar kadar hakisan yang berpotensi dan basil pengenapan masing- masing di seluruh i) peringkat pra-pembinaan ii) peringkat pembinaan. langkah-langkah kawalan hakisan telah dicadangkan untuk mengurangkan kadar hakisan yang berpotensi dan deposisi pemendapan. Semasa pembinaan. Untuk mencapai keberkesanan optimum BMPs di tapak pembinaan. iaitu Batang Rajang. dan akan mengakibatkan pemendapan sedimen di dalam air sungai. dan iii) peringkat operasi di kawasan kajian. iii . Satu perbandingan antara BMP dan tanpa BMP telah dijalankan dan menunjukkan dengan jelasnya pengurangan melebihi 65 peratus untuk kedua-dua kadar hakisan dan hasil pengenapan dengan pelaksanaan BMPs. Amalan kawalan sedimen seperti perangkap kelodak. Ramalan untuk kadar hakisan tanah dan hasil enapan dalam peringkat pembinaan yang berbeza telah dijalankan di cadangan pembersihan tapak. tanah terganggu dan terdedah yang disebabkan oleh kerja-kerja pembersihan tapak. kerja tanah.

Kata-kata kunci: Hakisan Tanah. Ubahsuai Tanah Universal Kehilangan Persamaan (RUSLE). Amalan Pengurusan Terbaik (BMP) iv . Semakan Tanah Universal Kehilangan Persamaan (RUSLE).

3 Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) 23 Chapter 3. UNIVERSM MALAYSIASARAWAK TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgement i Abstract 11 Table of Contents V List of Appendices VI List of Tables vii List of Figures viii Chapter 1. R 29 3.1.2.1.2 Problem Statement 3 1.3.1 Soil Erosion 12 2.1.2.4 Scope of Study 7 1.3 Prediction of Soil Erosion Ratesand Sediment Yield 28 3.3.1 Types of Soil Erosion 13 2.1 Identification of Study Area 27 3.3.Methodology 3.1 Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) 18 2. P 38 V . K 30 3. C 37 3.1.1 Introduction 1 1.3.2 Soil Erosion Modeling 17 2.Literature Review 2.2 Soil Erodibility Factor.2 Scopeof Study 28 3.4.1 Rainfall Erosivity.1 Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) 28 3.Introduction 1.4.3 Geology and Soil 9 1.2 Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) 19 2.2.2 Topography 9 1.3. Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademie.4 General Climate 9 Chapter 2. LS 32 3.1.4.1 The Study Area 7 1.4 Cover Management Factor.1.4.3.3 Slope Length and Slope Steepness Factor.5 Erosion Control Practice Factor.3 Objectives of Study 6 1.

3.2 Silt Fence 48 3.7 Volume of Runoff.2.2.4 Cover Management Factor.2.8 Prediction of Erosion Rates and Sediment Yields 67 4.6 Estimation of Peak Discharge.2. LS 54 4.1 Mean of Rainfall Intensity and Rainfall Factor. K 51 4.4.2 Soil Erodibility.4 Best ManagementPractices(BMP) for Erosion Control 46 3.2.2 Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation 39 3. C 56 4. P 57 4.4.2 Prediction of Erosion Rate 50 4.2.5 Erosion Control Practice Factor.Conclusion 71 References 73 List of Appendices Appendix A Meteorological Data A-I Appendix B Soil Investigation Data A-4 Particle Size Distribution Hand Auger Log Organic Matter Content Appendix C Construction Drawing A-5 Slope Protection Works vi . V 65 4.2.3 Slope Length and Slope SteepnessFactor. R 51 4.3 Volume of Runoff 42 3.3 Check Dam 48 Chapter 4.3.Results and Discussion 4.2.1 Introduction 50 4.2.2.3. Peak Flow 40 3.3.2.3 Summary 70 Chapter 5. Qp 58 4.4.1 Silt Trap / Sediment Trap 47 3. 3.1 MUSLE 39 3.2.

2 Estimated Soil Erodibility.6 Estimated Relative Erosion SedimentControl Effectiveness for Different 46 Best Management Practices (BMP) 4.1 Cover Management Factors.2 Erosion Control Practice Factor.5 Hydrology Soil Groups 45 3.List of Tables 3.9 Curve Number of Runoff 65 4. P 58 4.12 Stages 4.7 Runoff Coefficient 59 4. C (Construction Site) 37 3.4 Runoff Curve Numbers (Undeveloped Land) 43 3.1 Particles Size Analyses for Samples Collected from 6 Boreholes (BH) 53 4.8 Runoff Peak Flow. Qp 64 4.4 LS Factors for Each Slope during Construction / Operation Stages 56 4.13 Summary of Erosion Rates (with BMP) in Different Construction Stages 69 Summary of Sediment Yield (with BMP) in Different Construction 69 4. K (Nomograph) 54 4.5 Cover Management Factors. C 57 4.6 Erosion Control Practices Factor. P 39 3.3 LS Factors for Each Slope during Pre-Construction Stage 55 4.3 Runoff Coefficients (Rational Equation) 41 3.14 Stages vii .10 Runoff Coefficient 66 Summary of Erosion Rates (without BMP) in Different Construction 68 4.11 Stages Summary of Sediment Yield (without BMP) in Different Construction 68 4.

2 Details of Slope Elevation.1 During Pre-construction Stage 4.5 The Wind Erosion to an Open Field 17 3.3 Design Platform Level 34 3.List of Figures 1.1 Locality Plan of Study Area 8 1.3 Stage 4.1 SheetErosion 14 2.2 Analysis on the Runoff Flow Pattern During Construction Stage 61 CatchmentAreas on Existing Topography During Pre-construction 62 4.1 Soil Erodibility Nomograph 31 3.2 Site Plan of Study Area 8 1.4 Types of Erosion 16 2.4 Catchment Areas During Construction Stage 63 viii .5 Slope Lengths During Construction and Post-Construction Stage 36 3. Length and Steepness 33 3.6 Typical Details of Check Dam 49 Analysis on the Runoff Flow Pattern on Existing Topography 60 4.2 Rill Erosion 14 2.4 SegmentArea and Slope Lengths during Pre-Construction Stage 35 3.3 Gully Erosion 15 2.3 Topography of Study 11 2.

mono-cropping and cultivation to support the demand of rapid-growth of population and world economic has led to the acquirement of more land especially the forest area. landscapedegradationswhich are complex and have diverse nature and land dimensions. The forest. which serves as temporary water storage. carbon storage. Sediments and soil carried by the runoff after rainfall from cleared lands can damage the river. production of ecosystem goods. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION' 1. Rapid growth in industrial production. lake and marine and destroy the ecosystems.1 Introduction Soil Erosion is a processwhereby a portion of the soil profile or soil surface is detachedto the ambient environment. and production of sedimentsthat may result damagesof downstream. biological diversity conservation. and soil protection has been rapidly destroyed that leading to significant soil erosion. 1 . Deforestation and land clearing are the major attributions to industrial development.Several effects may caused by excessive erosion such as reduction of soil productivity. urban development. It can be occurred by the natural physical forces of water and wind or disturbances of human activities on the land. The removal of soil- trapping trees during the process of deforestation near waterways causes the upper layer of soil more vulnerable to the water and wind erosion.

engineers. the land no longer absorbs the water when it rains. 1987. The eroded soil flows to the waterways causes the sedimentation and siltation to the waterways and makes it shallow and reduces the flood carrying capacity of the river. In order to control the erosion effectively and protect the natural environments. 2 . Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID) has introduced a design guidelines and manual named Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA) in year 2001 purposed for project developers. When the trees are removed. The mitigation measures. control plans and Best Management Practices (BMP) should be planned and implemented in order to reduce the soil erosion and sedimentation problems especially at the construction site.and contractors to engagein planning. Soil erosion has become the major environmental problems in Malaysia. 2011). Department of Environment (DOE). 2004). designing and implementing the BMP that to be adopted on construction site.planners. DID has further published a new specific design guideline and manual entitled Guideline for Erosion and Sediment Control in Malaysia (DID. causing erosion and flashfloods. the water flows more quickly to the waterways. Malaysia has establishedthe requirement of Erosion Sediment Control Plan (ESCP) to all the projects which involve soil disturbing activities and in site preparation year 2011 as part of the EIA approval under the Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA) Order. the factors of influencing soil erosion should be defined. Besides. The floods that break the river banks worsen the soil erosion problems by changing the path of the river. The coastal zone between Sungai Sementa and Sungai Puloh in Malaysia has been severely eroded up to 120-200 meters since 1963 at a rate of 5 to7 meters per year (Port Klang ICM Project Management Office. In 2011.

3 . near rivers and streams. and conservation planning and design for sediment control. and the removal of vegetative cover which breakdown and loosen the soil structure and organic matte often reduce infiltration and accelerate runoff and the entrainment of soil particles. and equipment managementhave potential to pollute stormwater and contamination to the waterways. which influences by the tropical climate with high rainfall intensity has led to several erosion problems. vehicles. 1. such as Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) or Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is an important tool in management system by predicting the erosion processes. Malaysia. eg. Water is the most significant agent of soil erosion. the mathematical model. Thus. industrial developments .2 Problem Statement Rapid increase in construction industrial involving varieties of construction activity such as construction practices and materials. Erosion is a major environmental problem for most of the construction projects especially those construction projects located in sensitive areas such as the highland. The soil-trapping forest which protects the soil to be washed away by the runoff is removed during the construction which in turn leading to the erosion. waste. The eroded soil has causedsedimentationand siltation to the waterways and destroyedthe water ecosystems. New Light Industrial Estate located at Kapit Division. Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is one of the presently used models to predict the potential soil erosion hazard resulted from human activities such as rural and urban extension. Surface runoff generated from high climatic conditions and steep terrains are highly erosive to the exposed soil surface within the construction area.

2) Water pollution and change in river bed levels due to accumulation of sedimentswashed from the construction site. Clogged drains and increasednuisanceflooding. 2001). Sediment and mud on roads with associatedtraffic problems and road safety issues. 4 . f. Loss of topsoil and resulting coststo communities. c. In 1996. and 3) Damages to the aquatic life habitat and hydrology which affect the fishery and agriculture industries. e. Downcutting of any slope is the dominant gully enlargement process as gullies increase in size more rapidly on fill materials instead of cut slopes. siltation. d. As stated in DID's Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA. DOE categorized the impacts on soil erosion. Undermining of roads and utilities. Increased down-time on construction and building sites after storm events. b. and deposition into "On-site" and "Off-site": 1) On-Site a. earth movement and accumulation of sedimentation. Ngoi and Choo (2012) mentioned some of the erosion and sediment hazards caused by uncontrolled construction activities: 1) Changes in water runoff. sedimentation. Sedimentationand bank damageon construction sites. gullies are the major source of erosion at the exposed construction site.

and k) Reducedrecreational and aestheticvalue of riverbanks and waterways. g) Increasedpollution of rivers and streams. with resulting loss of water storagecapacity. b) Instability of stream channelscausedby increasedrunoff and sediment loads: channel change and bank erosion may affect adjacent buildings and other infrastructure. Unsightly appearanceof construction works. 2) Off-site a) Sedimentation in reservoirs and other storage structures. deposition. f) Land degradationcausedby gully erosion and sediment deposition. j) Decline or total loss of recreational and commercial fishing. Sedimentation and accelerated loss of capacity in sediment basins. h. c) Siltation and sedimentation of rivers will cause a reduction in channel capacity leading to greater frequency of floods. particularly as a result of increasedturbidity. Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademik UMVERSTTIMALAYSIASARAWAK g. h) Loss of navigable reachesof a river or watercourse. 5 . and dredging and de-silting of waterways. i) Adverse ecological effects of high sediment loads. d) Proliferation of exotic weeds within watercourses due to the high nutrient content of silt and sediments. e) Smothering of aquatic and marine flora and fauna as high turbidity in rivers excluding light penetration affecting fish life. and i. High cost for reconstruction and maintenance.

4) Tabulate slopesof construction site baseon topography data. construction. soil investigation data.the Proposed Site Clearing. and post construction of the proposed site clearing. best managementpractices (BMP). 2) Collect project details and relevant information. To reduce the environmental impacts associatedwith soil erosion. Sand Filling and Infrastructural Works of Light Industrial Area for Food Processinglocated at Kapit Division.1. earthworks/ sandfilling and infrastructure works at light industrial area. etc. The specific aims of the study are to: 1) Identify a study area .. geology and geotechnical information. e. 3) Literature review . 5) Estimate soil erosion rates by using RUSLE. structural design of slope protection works. and estimate other relevant parameters of Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). 6) Recommend appropriate BMP. locality and site plans. Sarawak. the erosion control and the best managementpractices are recommendedto reduce the effects of soil erosion from the construction site. i. the percentageof reduction by implementation of control measuresis going to be defined. In this study. etc.annual soil erosion rates. and 6 .3 Objectives of Study The objectives of this study are to estimate and compute soil erosion rates during pre-construction.. Earthworks.

approximately 2.respectively.1 The Study Area The study area is located on the south bank of Batang Rajang. Kapit.2 show the locality and site plan of the study area.4 Scope of Study This study estimates the erosion rates and sediment yield on the disturbed soil surfaces during. It encompassesan area of approximately 9. 7 . and iii) post- construction stage. Proposed Site Clearing.4. i) pre-construction stage.34ha (23. Figures 1. 7) Estimate soil erosion rates by using RUSLE and tabulate percentage of erosion reduction by implementing BMP. I. 1.3km west of Kapit Township as shown in Figure I. The study area is accessible by car and other motor vehicles via Jalan Bleteh. Earthworks. A series of data shall be collected from an undergoing project. Sand Filling and Infrastructural Works of Light Industrial Area for Food Processing located at Kapit Division. 1. ii) construction stage.07 acres). The study area is a classified as Mixed Zone Land and is in the category of Country Land.1 and 1.

Batang Rajang Project Site f.-ý_.I*-_ 'ý. Figure 1.'"ýkýý ýý : . V--- .1: Locality Plan of Study Area Figure 1.2: Site Plan of Study Area 8 .

the Southwest 9 .91m) as shown in topographical map (Figure 1.4. typical of equatorial regions. e. consisting primarily of shale. calcerous sandstone.1. There are two monsoon regimes. The undulating terrain easestowards the riverbank and continues towards the south of the study areawhere the elevation is progressively higher. The study area is covered mainly by skeletal soils (Kapit Series) and red-yellow podzolic soils (Kapit Series) consisting of very shallow to moderately deep loamy sands to clays. The soils are formed on sedimentary.Soil Map).3 Geology and Soil The geological deposits of the study area are mainly of rocks from tertiary period with Paleoceneand Eocene sedimentary deposits.4. slate. 1.4.2 Topography The study areahas undulating terrain and the elevation rangesfrom 4m to 76m with reference from TBM 1 (RL=37. acid igneous and metamorphic rocks and are distributed in areasof steep and mountainous land (Appendix A.4 General Climate Characteristic features of the climate in the regional and the study area are uniform temperature. Winds are generally light.3). The rock formation is of the Kapit Member of Belaga Formation. i.conglomerate and limestone lenses with weak regional metamorphism. high humidity and high rainfall. phyllite and sandstone with marlstone. 1.

East Malaysia is not directly exposedto the monsoons. Due to the proximity of the Equator. 10 .Monsoon (May to September)and the Northeast Monsoon (November to March).wherefore there is a more climatic conditions show less seasonalvariance and peaks comparedto other south-eastAsian regions. The Northeast Monsoon brings heavy rainfall and the Southwest Monsoon normally signifies relatively drier weather.

3: Topography of Study 11 .Figure 1.

The human activities such as deforestation and resulting soils depleted may boost the natural progress of soil erosion. soil erosion from construction sites may loss of 8-80 tones/ha/year. and removesmost of the topsoil that contains nutrients. Soil erosion has caused more than 80% of land degradation. 1990). Soil erosion is mainly causedby water that does not infiltrate into the soil and direct runs over the soil surface resulting erosion damages over the sloping land. 1999). Soil erosion has become the major environmental problems in China.1 Soil Erosion Soil erosion is a natural process that is essential for soil formation which occurred throughout geological history. 1992). CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. and soils and semi-arid soils which have less protective vegetative covers may erode at average rates of 10-50 times greaterthan those humid climate soils (Miller and Donahue. It is an unavoidable phenomenon associated on sloping land. UN Environmental Program that on about 20 million hectares could be reduced to zero reported crop productivity annually due to the soil induced degradation or soil erosion (UNEP. Without proper soil erosion and sediment control measures. which is 20 times greater than the loss from the agricultural land (NRCS. Approximately 400 million tons of sediment settles in the Lower 12 . 1991). Natural soil erosion rate could not haved occurred constantly with consistent rates: for example. of which 56% are due to water-induced soil erosion (Oldeman.

d.1. 2011).Yellow River annually (Ministry of Water Resources. 13 . Thus. so the soil will be sealed and infiltration process will be reduced. 2. there are six major types of soil erosion: (i) Splashor Raindrop Erosion: It is the first stage of erosion that resulted from the raindrop impacts on bare soil surface and destructs surface soil aggregatesis termed as splash erosion. It occurs where there is little vegetative cover that can anchor the soil. The soil particles that are removed by sheet erosion contain most of the organic matters and nutrients of the soils.1). surfacerunoff is introduced.1 Types of Soil Erosion According to New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (NSWDPI n. The splashedsoil particles will fill up the void of soil aggregates.). (ii) SheetErosion: Removal of thin layers of soil by the impacts of the raindrop and shallow surface water flow is termed as sheet erosion (Figure 2.the People's Republic of China.

2: Rill Erosion Source: (Ritter. Figure 2.1: Sheet Erosion Source: (Ritter. This type of erosion starts to develop when surface water concentrates to flow on the same channels and erodes the soil. 2012) (iii) Rill Erosion: A form of water erosion where a numerous of shallow drainage less than 300mm depth and straight channels are produced. Figure 2. Rill erosion (Figure 2. 2012) 14 .2) is common in freshly cultivated soil where the soil aggregates is loosened.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.