ýALAysjý

WýY

ii ý'
.ýý'ý,

A CASE STUDY ON SOIL EROSION RATE AND SEDIMENT
YIELD OF A PROPOSED INFRASTRUCTURAL
DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

Ting Huong Siong

Master of Environmental Science
(Land Use and Water Resource Management)
2013

Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademii:
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK

A CASE STUDY ON SOIL EROSION RÄTE AND SEDIMENT
YIELD OF A PROPOSED INFRASTRUCTURAL
DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

TING HUONG SIONG

A thesis submitted
in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Environmental Science

Faculty of Resource Science and Technology
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
2013

and my family for their continuous support and during the course of this research. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my sincerest and deepest appreciation to my supervisor. Lim Po Teen. Last but not least. Ir Dr. Dr. Tang Jock Kie. 1 . I would like to thank my wife. Dr. Law Puong Ling for his support and encouragement. Dr. His patience and generosity are highly appreciated. Prof. I would like to thank my former SLUSE coordinators. Effendi and current SLUSE coordinator. Tay Meng Guan for their encouragementand patienceto provide guidance and support.

and (iii) post-construction stage of the study area. Best ManagementPractices (BMP) ii . Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Kapit Division. e. During construction stage. A comparison between "with BMP" and "without BMP" were carried out. respectively during (i) pre-construction stage. the disturbed soil surface would result from the site clearing. However. Erosion control measures are recommended to minimize the potential erosion rates and sedimentation. i. Significant amount of soil sediments would be washed and eroded directly to the nearby watercourse. topography and climate. ABSTRACT Soil Erosion is a process of a portion of the soil profile or soil surface detachment to the ambient environment. earthworks/ sand filling and infrastructure works at light industrial area. earthwork activities. and slope grading would produce highest erosion rates and sediment yields as compared to other construction stages. The RUSLE and MUSLE were used to estimate the potential erosion rate and the sediment yield. Keywords: Soil Erosion. it and was found that a reduction of more than 65% for both erosion rate and sediment yield with the implementation of BMPs. There are four major factors that affect erosion potential: soil characteristics. Predictions of soil erosion rate and sediment yield during different construction stages were carried out at the proposed Project site with respect to site clearing. (ii) construction stage.. silt fence and check dam would minimize the adverse effects of erosion rates to a certain extent. sediment control practices such as silt trap. vegetative cover. Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE). Batang Rajang and could result in deposition of the sediments at the river bed and lead to degradation of the aquatic ecosystem.

Untuk mencapai keberkesanan optimum BMPs di tapak pembinaan. Jumlah besar tanah yang didedahkan akan dibasuh dan dihakiskan terus ke arah saluran air yang berdekatan. pencemaran dan degradasi alam sekitar terutamanya ekosistem akuatik. kerja tanah. Daerah Kapit. dan penggredan cerun telah menghasilkan kadar hakisan yang tertinggi dan penghasilan sedimen jika dibandingkan dengan peringkat pembinaan yang lain. semua langkah-langkah kawalan dinasihatkan supaya diperiksa dan diselenggarakan dengan tetap masa. topografi dan iklim. pagar kelodak dan empangan semakan akan mengurangkan kesan-kesan buruk daripada hakisan tanah kepada persekitaran ambien. dan iii) peringkat operasi di kawasan kajian. Satu perbandingan antara BMP dan tanpa BMP telah dijalankan dan menunjukkan dengan jelasnya pengurangan melebihi 65 peratus untuk kedua-dua kadar hakisan dan hasil pengenapan dengan pelaksanaan BMPs. Oleh itu. Ramalan untuk kadar hakisan tanah dan hasil enapan dalam peringkat pembinaan yang berbeza telah dijalankan di cadangan pembersihan tapak. RUSLE dan MUSLE telah digunakan untuk menganggar kadar hakisan yang berpotensi dan basil pengenapan masing- masing di seluruh i) peringkat pra-pembinaan ii) peringkat pembinaan. Terdapat empat faktor utama mempengaruhi potensi hakisan tanah: ciri-ciri tanah. dan akan mengakibatkan pemendapan sedimen di dalam air sungai. perlindungan tumbuhan. kerja-kerja tanah / pengisian pasir dan kerja-kerja infrastruktur di kawasan perindustrian ringan. iaitu Batang Rajang. Semasa pembinaan. Amalan kawalan sedimen seperti perangkap kelodak. tanah terganggu dan terdedah yang disebabkan oleh kerja-kerja pembersihan tapak. langkah-langkah kawalan hakisan telah dicadangkan untuk mengurangkan kadar hakisan yang berpotensi dan deposisi pemendapan. ABSTRAK Hakisan Tanah adalah satu sebahagian proses daripada profil tanah atau permukaan tanah detasmen untuk persekitaran ambien. iii .

Semakan Tanah Universal Kehilangan Persamaan (RUSLE). Amalan Pengurusan Terbaik (BMP) iv . Ubahsuai Tanah Universal Kehilangan Persamaan (RUSLE).Kata-kata kunci: Hakisan Tanah.

4.4.4.3 Prediction of Soil Erosion Ratesand Sediment Yield 28 3. LS 32 3.1 Rainfall Erosivity.1 Types of Soil Erosion 13 2.1.2 Topography 9 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2.Literature Review 2.2 Problem Statement 3 1.3.1 Identification of Study Area 27 3.1.1 Soil Erosion 12 2.1. R 29 3. Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademie.3 Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) 23 Chapter 3.Introduction 1.4 General Climate 9 Chapter 2. P 38 V .1 Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) 18 2.2 Scopeof Study 28 3.2.3 Geology and Soil 9 1. C 37 3.2 Soil Erodibility Factor.3 Slope Length and Slope Steepness Factor.4.Methodology 3.3.2 Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) 19 2. UNIVERSM MALAYSIASARAWAK TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgement i Abstract 11 Table of Contents V List of Appendices VI List of Tables vii List of Figures viii Chapter 1.3. K 30 3.1.2 Soil Erosion Modeling 17 2.4 Cover Management Factor.1.3.1 Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) 28 3.5 Erosion Control Practice Factor.1 The Study Area 7 1.3.2.1.4 Scope of Study 7 1.3 Objectives of Study 6 1.3.

2.2.2.1 Silt Trap / Sediment Trap 47 3.7 Volume of Runoff.2 Soil Erodibility.2.1 MUSLE 39 3.4.3 Slope Length and Slope SteepnessFactor.2 Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation 39 3.1 Introduction 50 4. P 57 4.6 Estimation of Peak Discharge. K 51 4.Results and Discussion 4.4 Best ManagementPractices(BMP) for Erosion Control 46 3.2.5 Erosion Control Practice Factor.3.4 Cover Management Factor.2.3.3. 3. C 56 4.8 Prediction of Erosion Rates and Sediment Yields 67 4.2.4.3 Volume of Runoff 42 3.2. V 65 4.2 Silt Fence 48 3.4.1 Mean of Rainfall Intensity and Rainfall Factor. Qp 58 4.3. R 51 4.3 Summary 70 Chapter 5.2.2.3 Check Dam 48 Chapter 4. LS 54 4.2.Conclusion 71 References 73 List of Appendices Appendix A Meteorological Data A-I Appendix B Soil Investigation Data A-4 Particle Size Distribution Hand Auger Log Organic Matter Content Appendix C Construction Drawing A-5 Slope Protection Works vi .2 Prediction of Erosion Rate 50 4. Peak Flow 40 3.2.

10 Runoff Coefficient 66 Summary of Erosion Rates (without BMP) in Different Construction 68 4. P 58 4.4 Runoff Curve Numbers (Undeveloped Land) 43 3.2 Estimated Soil Erodibility. P 39 3.7 Runoff Coefficient 59 4.3 LS Factors for Each Slope during Pre-Construction Stage 55 4. K (Nomograph) 54 4.14 Stages vii .5 Cover Management Factors.12 Stages 4.8 Runoff Peak Flow.6 Erosion Control Practices Factor.List of Tables 3.4 LS Factors for Each Slope during Construction / Operation Stages 56 4.2 Erosion Control Practice Factor.9 Curve Number of Runoff 65 4.1 Particles Size Analyses for Samples Collected from 6 Boreholes (BH) 53 4.3 Runoff Coefficients (Rational Equation) 41 3.11 Stages Summary of Sediment Yield (without BMP) in Different Construction 68 4. Qp 64 4. C 57 4.1 Cover Management Factors. C (Construction Site) 37 3.13 Summary of Erosion Rates (with BMP) in Different Construction Stages 69 Summary of Sediment Yield (with BMP) in Different Construction 69 4.6 Estimated Relative Erosion SedimentControl Effectiveness for Different 46 Best Management Practices (BMP) 4.5 Hydrology Soil Groups 45 3.

1 SheetErosion 14 2.2 Rill Erosion 14 2.3 Gully Erosion 15 2.List of Figures 1.2 Analysis on the Runoff Flow Pattern During Construction Stage 61 CatchmentAreas on Existing Topography During Pre-construction 62 4.4 SegmentArea and Slope Lengths during Pre-Construction Stage 35 3. Length and Steepness 33 3.4 Catchment Areas During Construction Stage 63 viii .3 Stage 4.3 Design Platform Level 34 3.3 Topography of Study 11 2.2 Details of Slope Elevation.1 Locality Plan of Study Area 8 1.6 Typical Details of Check Dam 49 Analysis on the Runoff Flow Pattern on Existing Topography 60 4.5 Slope Lengths During Construction and Post-Construction Stage 36 3.5 The Wind Erosion to an Open Field 17 3.1 During Pre-construction Stage 4.1 Soil Erodibility Nomograph 31 3.2 Site Plan of Study Area 8 1.4 Types of Erosion 16 2.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION' 1. carbon storage. 1 . production of ecosystem goods. The removal of soil- trapping trees during the process of deforestation near waterways causes the upper layer of soil more vulnerable to the water and wind erosion. urban development. and soil protection has been rapidly destroyed that leading to significant soil erosion. lake and marine and destroy the ecosystems. which serves as temporary water storage. mono-cropping and cultivation to support the demand of rapid-growth of population and world economic has led to the acquirement of more land especially the forest area. It can be occurred by the natural physical forces of water and wind or disturbances of human activities on the land.1 Introduction Soil Erosion is a processwhereby a portion of the soil profile or soil surface is detachedto the ambient environment. Sediments and soil carried by the runoff after rainfall from cleared lands can damage the river. biological diversity conservation.Several effects may caused by excessive erosion such as reduction of soil productivity. Deforestation and land clearing are the major attributions to industrial development. and production of sedimentsthat may result damagesof downstream. Rapid growth in industrial production. The forest. landscapedegradationswhich are complex and have diverse nature and land dimensions.

2 . Soil erosion has become the major environmental problems in Malaysia.planners. Besides. The mitigation measures. In order to control the erosion effectively and protect the natural environments. 1987. DID has further published a new specific design guideline and manual entitled Guideline for Erosion and Sediment Control in Malaysia (DID. In 2011.and contractors to engagein planning. engineers. The eroded soil flows to the waterways causes the sedimentation and siltation to the waterways and makes it shallow and reduces the flood carrying capacity of the river. control plans and Best Management Practices (BMP) should be planned and implemented in order to reduce the soil erosion and sedimentation problems especially at the construction site. When the trees are removed. 2004). the water flows more quickly to the waterways. Malaysia has establishedthe requirement of Erosion Sediment Control Plan (ESCP) to all the projects which involve soil disturbing activities and in site preparation year 2011 as part of the EIA approval under the Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA) Order. The coastal zone between Sungai Sementa and Sungai Puloh in Malaysia has been severely eroded up to 120-200 meters since 1963 at a rate of 5 to7 meters per year (Port Klang ICM Project Management Office. the land no longer absorbs the water when it rains. 2011). Department of Environment (DOE). The floods that break the river banks worsen the soil erosion problems by changing the path of the river. designing and implementing the BMP that to be adopted on construction site. the factors of influencing soil erosion should be defined. Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID) has introduced a design guidelines and manual named Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA) in year 2001 purposed for project developers. causing erosion and flashfloods.

1. which influences by the tropical climate with high rainfall intensity has led to several erosion problems. industrial developments . Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is one of the presently used models to predict the potential soil erosion hazard resulted from human activities such as rural and urban extension. Erosion is a major environmental problem for most of the construction projects especially those construction projects located in sensitive areas such as the highland. and equipment managementhave potential to pollute stormwater and contamination to the waterways.2 Problem Statement Rapid increase in construction industrial involving varieties of construction activity such as construction practices and materials. and the removal of vegetative cover which breakdown and loosen the soil structure and organic matte often reduce infiltration and accelerate runoff and the entrainment of soil particles. Malaysia. The soil-trapping forest which protects the soil to be washed away by the runoff is removed during the construction which in turn leading to the erosion. Surface runoff generated from high climatic conditions and steep terrains are highly erosive to the exposed soil surface within the construction area. and conservation planning and design for sediment control. such as Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) or Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is an important tool in management system by predicting the erosion processes. The eroded soil has causedsedimentationand siltation to the waterways and destroyedthe water ecosystems. waste. vehicles. Water is the most significant agent of soil erosion. 3 . the mathematical model. eg. New Light Industrial Estate located at Kapit Division. Thus. near rivers and streams.

sedimentation. 4 . f. earth movement and accumulation of sedimentation. e. d. Sediment and mud on roads with associatedtraffic problems and road safety issues. In 1996. siltation. Increased down-time on construction and building sites after storm events. gullies are the major source of erosion at the exposed construction site. Sedimentationand bank damageon construction sites. c. 2001). DOE categorized the impacts on soil erosion. 2) Water pollution and change in river bed levels due to accumulation of sedimentswashed from the construction site. and 3) Damages to the aquatic life habitat and hydrology which affect the fishery and agriculture industries. As stated in DID's Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA. Downcutting of any slope is the dominant gully enlargement process as gullies increase in size more rapidly on fill materials instead of cut slopes. Clogged drains and increasednuisanceflooding. Loss of topsoil and resulting coststo communities. and deposition into "On-site" and "Off-site": 1) On-Site a. Undermining of roads and utilities. Ngoi and Choo (2012) mentioned some of the erosion and sediment hazards caused by uncontrolled construction activities: 1) Changes in water runoff. b.

2) Off-site a) Sedimentation in reservoirs and other storage structures. f) Land degradationcausedby gully erosion and sediment deposition. Unsightly appearanceof construction works. 5 . e) Smothering of aquatic and marine flora and fauna as high turbidity in rivers excluding light penetration affecting fish life. particularly as a result of increasedturbidity. c) Siltation and sedimentation of rivers will cause a reduction in channel capacity leading to greater frequency of floods. j) Decline or total loss of recreational and commercial fishing. and i. Sedimentation and accelerated loss of capacity in sediment basins. b) Instability of stream channelscausedby increasedrunoff and sediment loads: channel change and bank erosion may affect adjacent buildings and other infrastructure. Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademik UMVERSTTIMALAYSIASARAWAK g. g) Increasedpollution of rivers and streams. h. h) Loss of navigable reachesof a river or watercourse. d) Proliferation of exotic weeds within watercourses due to the high nutrient content of silt and sediments. deposition. and k) Reducedrecreational and aestheticvalue of riverbanks and waterways. with resulting loss of water storagecapacity. i) Adverse ecological effects of high sediment loads. High cost for reconstruction and maintenance. and dredging and de-silting of waterways.

3) Literature review . Sand Filling and Infrastructural Works of Light Industrial Area for Food Processinglocated at Kapit Division..3 Objectives of Study The objectives of this study are to estimate and compute soil erosion rates during pre-construction. earthworks/ sandfilling and infrastructure works at light industrial area. the erosion control and the best managementpractices are recommendedto reduce the effects of soil erosion from the construction site. i. soil investigation data. locality and site plans.annual soil erosion rates. 6) Recommend appropriate BMP. In this study. construction. 2) Collect project details and relevant information. e. etc.1.. Sarawak. The specific aims of the study are to: 1) Identify a study area . Earthworks. 4) Tabulate slopesof construction site baseon topography data. and 6 . and estimate other relevant parameters of Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). 5) Estimate soil erosion rates by using RUSLE. etc.the Proposed Site Clearing. To reduce the environmental impacts associatedwith soil erosion. and post construction of the proposed site clearing. best managementpractices (BMP). geology and geotechnical information. structural design of slope protection works. the percentageof reduction by implementation of control measuresis going to be defined.

2 show the locality and site plan of the study area. It encompassesan area of approximately 9. The study area is accessible by car and other motor vehicles via Jalan Bleteh.1 and 1. I.3km west of Kapit Township as shown in Figure I.07 acres).4.respectively. and iii) post- construction stage.4 Scope of Study This study estimates the erosion rates and sediment yield on the disturbed soil surfaces during. 1. Kapit. ii) construction stage. Earthworks. i) pre-construction stage.34ha (23. 1. Sand Filling and Infrastructural Works of Light Industrial Area for Food Processing located at Kapit Division.1 The Study Area The study area is located on the south bank of Batang Rajang. Figures 1. Proposed Site Clearing. The study area is a classified as Mixed Zone Land and is in the category of Country Land. 7 . A series of data shall be collected from an undergoing project. 7) Estimate soil erosion rates by using RUSLE and tabulate percentage of erosion reduction by implementing BMP. approximately 2.

-ý_.I*-_ 'ý.1: Locality Plan of Study Area Figure 1. Figure 1.'"ýkýý ýý : . Batang Rajang Project Site f.2: Site Plan of Study Area 8 . V--- .

the Southwest 9 .conglomerate and limestone lenses with weak regional metamorphism. There are two monsoon regimes.4.3). The rock formation is of the Kapit Member of Belaga Formation.4.4.4 General Climate Characteristic features of the climate in the regional and the study area are uniform temperature. phyllite and sandstone with marlstone. calcerous sandstone. e.Soil Map). The undulating terrain easestowards the riverbank and continues towards the south of the study areawhere the elevation is progressively higher. consisting primarily of shale.91m) as shown in topographical map (Figure 1. acid igneous and metamorphic rocks and are distributed in areasof steep and mountainous land (Appendix A.2 Topography The study areahas undulating terrain and the elevation rangesfrom 4m to 76m with reference from TBM 1 (RL=37. typical of equatorial regions. high humidity and high rainfall. Winds are generally light. The study area is covered mainly by skeletal soils (Kapit Series) and red-yellow podzolic soils (Kapit Series) consisting of very shallow to moderately deep loamy sands to clays. 1. slate. The soils are formed on sedimentary.1. i. 1.3 Geology and Soil The geological deposits of the study area are mainly of rocks from tertiary period with Paleoceneand Eocene sedimentary deposits.

Monsoon (May to September)and the Northeast Monsoon (November to March). 10 . East Malaysia is not directly exposedto the monsoons.wherefore there is a more climatic conditions show less seasonalvariance and peaks comparedto other south-eastAsian regions. The Northeast Monsoon brings heavy rainfall and the Southwest Monsoon normally signifies relatively drier weather. Due to the proximity of the Equator.

3: Topography of Study 11 .Figure 1.

which is 20 times greater than the loss from the agricultural land (NRCS. It is an unavoidable phenomenon associated on sloping land. Soil erosion is mainly causedby water that does not infiltrate into the soil and direct runs over the soil surface resulting erosion damages over the sloping land. 1992). 1991). 1999). of which 56% are due to water-induced soil erosion (Oldeman. Without proper soil erosion and sediment control measures. soil erosion from construction sites may loss of 8-80 tones/ha/year.1 Soil Erosion Soil erosion is a natural process that is essential for soil formation which occurred throughout geological history. 1990). Approximately 400 million tons of sediment settles in the Lower 12 . CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. The human activities such as deforestation and resulting soils depleted may boost the natural progress of soil erosion. UN Environmental Program that on about 20 million hectares could be reduced to zero reported crop productivity annually due to the soil induced degradation or soil erosion (UNEP. Natural soil erosion rate could not haved occurred constantly with consistent rates: for example. Soil erosion has become the major environmental problems in China. and soils and semi-arid soils which have less protective vegetative covers may erode at average rates of 10-50 times greaterthan those humid climate soils (Miller and Donahue. Soil erosion has caused more than 80% of land degradation. and removesmost of the topsoil that contains nutrients.

The soil particles that are removed by sheet erosion contain most of the organic matters and nutrients of the soils.).1 Types of Soil Erosion According to New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (NSWDPI n.d. 2011). Thus. (ii) SheetErosion: Removal of thin layers of soil by the impacts of the raindrop and shallow surface water flow is termed as sheet erosion (Figure 2. so the soil will be sealed and infiltration process will be reduced. there are six major types of soil erosion: (i) Splashor Raindrop Erosion: It is the first stage of erosion that resulted from the raindrop impacts on bare soil surface and destructs surface soil aggregatesis termed as splash erosion.Yellow River annually (Ministry of Water Resources.1. surfacerunoff is introduced. The splashedsoil particles will fill up the void of soil aggregates.the People's Republic of China.1). 13 . 2. It occurs where there is little vegetative cover that can anchor the soil.

2012) 14 . Figure 2.2) is common in freshly cultivated soil where the soil aggregates is loosened. Rill erosion (Figure 2. Figure 2. 2012) (iii) Rill Erosion: A form of water erosion where a numerous of shallow drainage less than 300mm depth and straight channels are produced. This type of erosion starts to develop when surface water concentrates to flow on the same channels and erodes the soil.2: Rill Erosion Source: (Ritter.1: Sheet Erosion Source: (Ritter.