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APPENDICES

APPENDIX A

List and Uses of Apparatus

1. Dropper a short glass tube with a rubber bulb at one end and a tiny hole at the other, for

measuring out drops of medicine or other liquids. It was used in the experiment to dispense

small amounts of a liquid.


2. Erlenmeyer flask a conical flat-bottomed laboratory flask with a narrow neck used for the

storing and mixing of chemicals in the laboratory.


3. Graduated Cylinder is a cylindrical glass used in the measurement of liquids in the

laboratory.
4. Spectrophotometer an apparatus for measuring the intensity of light in a part of the

spectrum.
5. Pipette with pipetol a slender tube attached to or incorporating a bulb, for transferring or

measuring out small quantities of liquid.


6. 6. Wash bottle a bottle, typically plastic, with a nozzle used for directing a stream of liquid

on to something. Stirring Rod is elongated thin glass used for a complete mixing of the

reagents.

APPENDIX B

Definition of Terms
1. Absorbance a measure of the capacity of a substance to absorb light

of a specified wavelength. It is equal to the logarithm of the reciprocal of the transmittance.

2. Acidification is a change in natural chemical balance caused by an increase in the

concentration of acidic elements

3. Beers law is an equation that relates the attenuation of light to properties of a material.

The law states the concentration of a chemical is directly proportional to the absorbance of

a solution.

4. Chromatography a technique for the separation of a mixture by passing it in solution or

suspension through a medium in which the components move at different rates.

5. De-ionized water is often synonymous with de-mineralized water; is water that has had

almost all of its mineral ions removed, such as cations like sodium, calcium, iron, and

copper, and anions such as chloride and sulfate.

6. Sulfate is a salt or ester of sulphuric acid, containing the anion SO 42or the divalent group

OSO 2O.

7. Wavelength the distance between successive crests of a wave, especially points in a sound

wave or electromagnetic wave:

APPENDIX C

Computations

Coplo Bridge Absorbance at 420 nm


Trial 1 0. 268
Trial 2 0. 266
Table C.1 Data for Coplo Bridge

Computations for the establishment of the calibration curve

mg
Concentration X, L Absorbance A

5 0.115

15 0.331

20 0.352

30 0.472

40 0.591

0.59

0.47

0.33 0.35

0.12

5.0 15.0 20.0 30.0 40.0

Concentration, mg / L

Sulfates

Figure C.1. Calibration Curve

Computations for ppm (from the calibration curve)

( A0.0878)
Formula: A = 0.0129(X) + 0.0878; X = 0.0129
(0. 2680.0878)
Trial 1: X = 0.0129 = 13.9689ppm

(0. 2660.0878)
Trial 2: X = 0.0129 = 13.8140 ppm

13.9689+12.8140
13.8914 ppm
Average: 2 =

APPENDIX E

Documentations
Fig. E.1. Addition of 20 ml of acetic acid using a Pippete.

Fig. E.2. Addition of Solid reagents (30 grams of Magnesium chloride, 5 grams Sodium
Acetate, 1.0 grams of Potassium)
Fig. E.3. Dissolving of the reagents.