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GEOGRAPHY OF GREECE Migration of Greeks across the Aegean Sea Asia

Peninsular and mountainous country located in Minor (Turkey)


Southern-Eastern Europe, in the Balkans peninsula Kinds of Greeks Language Settlement
Greece is the southernmost of the countries of Dorians Doric Southern part
the Balkan Peninsula: Ionians Ionic Middle part
Albania Aeolians Aeolic Northern part
Bosnia and Herzegovina Conflict between Greeks and Persians
Bulgaria HELLENIC CIVILIZATION
Croatia Hellenic Civilization is divided into the following
Kosovo periods:
Macedonia
Montenegro Neolithic Period (6800 3200 BC)
Romania
Serbia
Bronze Age (3300 1150 BC)
Slovenia
1. Cycladic (3300 2000 BC)
The country is washed to the east by the Aegean Sea, 2. Minoan (2600 1200 BC)
to the west by the Ionian Sea and to the south by the 3. Helladic (2800 1600 BC)
Mediterranean Sea 4. Mycenaean or Late Helladic (600 1100 BC)
Capital: Athens (1/3 of the population are located)
Greece mainland consists of the following regions: Dark Ages (1100 700 BC)
Sterea (Central Greece)
Peloponnese Archaic Period (700 480 BC)
Thessaly (east central)
Epirus (north west) Classical Age (480 323 BC)
Macedonia (north)
Thrace (north west) Greeks recovered Hellenic (Greek) Civilization
Also Greece consists of many islands and island Introduction of alphabet by Phoenicia (Lebanon)
complexes: Canaanite/Phoenician Alphabet
Crete No vowels added to adapt to the Greek
Cyclades language
Dodecanese Ex. Alpha (aleph) = ox, Beta (beth) = house
Ionian New political institution emergedcity-state or polis
Sporades Small independent political units (rather than a large
Saronic political union because Greece is a mountainous
Eastern Aegean islands region; love for freedom and independenceeach
RISE OF HELLENIC CIVILIZATION state is autonomous having their own laws and
THE DARK AGES constitution, army and leaders, system of taxation,
Decline of Greece and sometimes their coinage system)
Prosperity and wealth of the Mycenaean period Largest and most important city-states: Athens in
had gonetrade declined, Mycenaean palaces Attica, Sparta in Peloponnese, and Thebes in Boeotia
were abandoned 650 BC Oligarchic form of government (abuse and
Homer wrote about the heroic deeds of Mycenaean slavery)
kings in the Illiad, and other events: GREEK COLONIZATION
Agriculture had returned to a simple level of 750 BC poor farmers left their homeland (poverty
subsistence (each individual entitled to a small and insufficient farming land; minor reasons:
plot) personal adventure, political refuge, and trade)
King was no longer the supreme and Greek Colonization: Italy and Sicily, France, Spain,
authoritative leader (wealthy nobles dictate and along the coast of the northern Aegean and Black
decisions to the king) monarchy to oligarchy Seas
Introduction of iron (tools and weapons) Iron Colonies became politically and economically
Age independent; culture and religion remained
THE IONIAN MIGRATION Greek influence on Roman culture
Named by Thucidydes (Greek historian)
TYRANNIES - The Cyclades were prominent in the Early Bronze Age or the
Tyrant middle class (merchants) who became early Helladic era.
wealthy > political power (people supported) -The islands are not rich in natural resources, nor are they very
Form of government: Tyranny (definition cruel and fertile. The development of olive cultivation made them more
oppressive government or rule) productive.
Greek tyrant not brutal; however, they rule without -The island system ranges from Thera in the south to Andros
conforming to the constitution in the north. Delos and Paros are among the central islands.
- Coinage, trade and colonization, athletic musical, Naxos, Paros, and Andros are among the largest, but the
and dramatic contests islands are generally small.
Peisistratus of Athens (one of the notable tyrants) - Divided into three periods:
1. Early Cycladic I
embellished city with monuments, stimulated trade
- Named after a settlement on Naxos and a cemetery on
and industry, helped poor farmers
Melos.
Development of infantry army
- The Grotta-Pelos culture was found on Paros, Antiparos, and
Hoplite heavily armed soldier
Naxos, as well as Melos, Thera, and Amorgos.
Phalanx tight formation
- This was a peaceful period in the islands; though small,
DEMOCRACY settlements were unfortified. Huts were made of stone with
Tyrants became too authoritarian mortar.
Democratic Athens - Grape and olive cultivation probably emerged at this time, as
Oligarchic Sparta did skill in metallurgy.
NEOLITHIC PERIOD (6800-3200BC) - The period is defined largely through its pottery, which is
Livelihood: farming, stock-breeding, permanent generally black or reddish and often imperfect. Common
installation, and extensive use of rocks shapes include cylindrical jars, spherical pyxides, and collared
Man farmer-husbandman; dominated the environment jars.
- Obsidian, a volcanic glass available only on Melos, was the
Extended all over Greece
most commonly traded goods during this period. It was
Plaint of Thessaly concentration
especially useful for blades.
- Two most important settlements: Dimini and Sesklo
- Graves were for single bodies and were arranged in clusters.
Commercial transaction Cist graves were lined with stone slabs or orthostats and were
Development of seafaring in the Aegean Sea (obsidian trapezoidal in plan.
and imports) - Marble vases were also produced.
Achievement: craft specialization (led to the first 2. Early Cycladic II
craftsmen), metals are consolidated - The Keros-Syros culture is named after two islands with
Achievements were passed on from generation to important cemetery finds.
generation - During this period, there emerged an awareness of danger;
Permanent residence resulted to: though seaside settlements remained, some were located at the
Communal property sheep-folds, barns, places of public tops of steep hills. Fortified walls were used. Houses were
use and the fortification of settlements generally close together and of a rectilinear plan. Floors were
Private property - tools, vases vessels, jars, and covered with earth or stone; roofs were made of beaten earth
domesticated animals and branches on wood beams.
BRONZE AGE (3300-1150BC) - Metallurgy was more generally practiced. The metal tools are
Bronze age or also called as the Aegean Bronze Age, where flat axes and chisels to tweezers and needles.
- Weapons (e.g., spears and daggers) were made of copper.
Aegean refers to the Aegean Sea where Greece, the Cyclades,
- Silver vessels have been found, as have lead figurines and
and Crete are situated.
boat models. Vessels were also made of stone. The most
3 distinct civilizations:
common marble vessels were simple open bowls.
A. Cycladic Civilization
- Graves with an entrance added or were built of small, flattish
B. Minoan Civilization
stones laid on top of each other. Entrances allowed successive
C. Mycenaean Civilization
burials in the same grave; burials extended to 2 or 3 stories
A. Cycladic Civilization (3300-2000BC)
deep.
-The Cyclades lie in the southwestern Aegean, east and
- Pottery is found in more varied shapes; painted decoration
southeast of Attica, and north of Crete. The name is derived
appears: dark lines on a pale surface.
from their apparent arrangement in a circle around the sacred
- Sauceboats and frying pans were also evident, as were
island of Delos.
unusual pieces, such as animals sitting with bowls.
- The Keros-Syros culture saw the development of folded-arm - First advanced civilization of Europe.
figures; the variety of these figures exhibited a range of - Is named after the mythical King Minos who ordered the
freedom within a well-defined form. Most of the folded-arm building of the labyrinth.
figures from this group portray females, with common - We owe our knowledge of Cretan civilization to the work of
anatomical traits. In general, the head was almond-shaped, the English archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans.
oval or flat with the brow tipped slightly backward. Arms are - In 1900 Evans began to excavate Knossos, the leading city of
usually folded with the left on top of the right. Breasts appear ancient Crete. There he uncovered a magnificent structure that
as small protuberances on the chest; the abdomen is often he called the Palace of Minos, so naming it from the (perhaps)
swollen. The appearance of separation of the legs is achieved mythical king of Crete who appears in several Greek legends
by a deep cleft on the front and back. The feet point (hence the civilization of Crete is often called Minoan).
downwards. Different styles emerged, and five varieties can be - Evans also established the usually accepted chronology for
distinguished. the history of Crete: Early Minoan I-III (2600-2000), Middle
KAPSALA VARIETY Minoan I-III (2000-1600), and Late Minoan I-III (1600-1100).
SPEDOS VARIETY - He based his chronology on the residue of pottery found at
DOKATHISMATA VARIETY Knossos, for different styles of pottery provide an accurate
CHALANDRIANI VARIETY record of the successive stages of civilization at a site.
KOUMASA VARIETY - The Early Minoan period I-III is usually characterized
as Prepalatial period, the Middle I-II period as
3. Early Cycladic III
the Protopalatial period, and the Middle period III to Late
- The Phylakopi culture is named after a settlement in Melos
Minoan II as the Neopalatial period.
with important finds.
- Settlements appear beside the sea, in flat, unfortified tracts.
Some larger settlements emerged. 1. Early Minoan Period I-III or The Prepalatial era
- Some graves were excavated from soft rock to form chamber
tombs. - The Prepalatial sub-period of the early Minoan period I-III
- Cylindrical covered containers (pyxides) are succeeded by a presents the island in a closer relationship with the Asia Minor
conical type. and with the Prehellenic phase of the Greek mainland.
- Incised decorations on pottery almost stop.
- Painted decorations predominate; some fantastical shapes - Round tombs existed in the south (in Messara). The sculpture
appear. (stamps, buttons and the similar products) is gaining in
- Marble vessels become rare. importance.
- The production of figurines declined significantly during this
period. - The spiral decoration appears for the first time in the early
TRADE & INDUSTRY: Minoan period III along with the white painting over a dark
- Industry also flourished: crafts, metallurgy, marble sculpting, background.
pottery, and quarrying.
- Kythnos was a major source of copper ore - Neolithic life in ancient Crete consisted of major settlements
- tin may have come from Troy at Myrtos and Mochlos. During this period the Minoans had
- Silver and lead were mined on Siphnos contact with Egypt, Asia Minor, and Syria with whom they
- engaged in trade with the mainland, Crete, Asia Minor, the traded for copper, tin, ivory, and gold.
Danube basin, the Adriatic, and beyond
CULTURE/WAY OF LIFE: - The archaeological evidence reveals a decentralized culture
- A social organization turning from the tribalism to chiefdoms with no powerful landlords and no centralized authority.
with the formation of an elite group.
- Neolithic settlers were farmers and sailors and adapted to the - The palaces of this period are focused around communities,
local conditions of each island. and circular tholos tombs were the major architectural
- Inhabitants engaged in hunting, fishing, animal husbandry structures of the time.
(sheep, goats, pigs), and agriculture (grain, grapes, olives).
- Cycladic islanders also developed substantial seafaring - The manner by which the dead were buried in these tombs
skills. indicate a society without hierarchical structure.
RELIGION:
- Numerous marble figures and figurines have been found but - The tholos tombs were used for centuries by entire villages, or
most of them are without context. It is uncertain whether or clans and older corpses and offerings were placed aside to
not they were used for worship. They have no religion. make room for a new burial.
Minoan Civilization (2600-1200BC)
- Most of the tholos tombs were circular while in Palekastro and - The palaces of the period were destroyed in 1700 BC by
Mochlos they were of a rectangular in shape with a flat roof. forces unknown to us. Speculation blames the destruction
either on a powerful earthquake, or on outside invaders.
2. Middle Minoan Period I-III or The Protopalatial Era
3. Late Minoan Period I-III or Neopalatial period
- In the Early Middle period I began the construction of the
first palaces in Phaistos and Knossos. The Malia palace - Shortly after the disaster, the palace of Knossos and
followed. The complex of the palaces at Phaistos Phaistos were reconstructed again and the Minoan
repeatedly destroyed by earthquakes, but always followed thalassocracy was founded.
its rebuilding.
- Minoan military bases are now placed in the islands of
- The protopalatial era began with social upheaval, external Kythira, Thera, Melos (Phylakopi), Kea (Ayia Triada) and
dangers, and migrations from mainland Greece and Asia Aegina, also in Rhodes (Ialyssos) and Miletus.
Minor. During this time the Minoans began establishing
colonies at Thera, Rodos, Melos, and Kithira. - In the same time is growing the importance of the Greek
royal houses in Argolis (Mycenae) and in western
- There are also saved ruins of the city. All palaces grouped Peloponnese (Peristeria).
around a large central courtyard. There were not used
only as the base of the kings, but also for administration, - Knossos held friendly relations with the Hyksos at the
the exchange of products, trading and warehouses. Aegean, and were exchanging gifts and ideas.

- The elegant royal ceramics is now manufactured only in - In writing, the linear script begins to prevail against
Knossos and Phaistos, and its products are characterized pictographic.
by the term "Kamarean" (from Kamares) type (colorful
decorative upon a dark background, motion patterns such - Around 1600 B.C. the palaces of Knossos and Phaestos
as circles, propellers, vortices, pots with thin surfaces. were destroyed again (probably by an earthquake).

- Worship areas existed up in the mountains, and among - It appears that the ruins of Knossos were looted after the
other places, in Petsofas and in caves (as in Kamares). disaster, perhaps even by Greek invaders.

- In the palaces is already used the writing, both the - In the Aegean, the Yxos were expelled around 1580 by
pictographic and the linear script. There are close trading the Pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty, perhaps with the
relations with Egypt and Syria. support of the Greeks of Mycenae.

- Distinctions between the classes forged a social hierarchy - During this period we see evidence of administrative and
and divided the people into nobles, peasants, and perhaps economic unity throughout the island and Minoan Crete
slaves. reach its zenith.

- After its tumultuous beginning, this was a peaceful and - Women played a powerful role in society, and the gold
prosperous period for the Minoans who continued to trade artifacts, seals, and spears speak of a very affluent upper
with Egypt and the Middle East, while they constructed a class.
paved road network to connect the major cultural centers.
- The paved road network was vastly expanded to connect
- This period also marks the development of some most major Minoan palaces and towns, and we have
settlements outside the palaces, and the end of the evidence of extensive trade activity.
extensive use of tholos tombs.
- For the first time, late in the Neopalatial period, the
- Around 2000 BC a new political system was established powerful fleet of the Minoans encountered competition
with authority concentrated around a central figure - a from an emerging power from mainland Greece: the
king. Mycenaeans whose influence began permeating Minoan
Crete itself.
- Life on the island became more militaristic as evident by - The tablets of Linear B which were unearthed during
the large number of weapons which we find for the first excavations provide the more concrete evidence of this
time in royal tombs. theory.

- The affluence of the culture during this period is evident MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS:
in the frescoes found in the Cretan palaces and in Thera, - Construction of impressive palaces such as Knossos, Malia,
Melos, Kea, and Rodos. Zakros, Palekastro, and Phaestos.
- The Palaces themselves were also the centers for economic
4. Post-palatial period (Late Minoan period II-III 1400- production with storehouses for grain, wool, oil, and
1200 BC) international trade.
- The first writing in the Greek World, called Linear A, appeared
- In this period the settlements of the Greek Mycenaeans for the first time in Crete.
spread everywhere. TYPE OF GOVERNMENT & LEADERS:
- Developed a strong naval power and installed many colonies in
- Mycenaean grave circles appear now and mansion the Aegean Sea.
buildings. Of course, there were noblemen and palaces, - The fact that the palaces were unfortified shows a confidence
the traditions, however, of the Minoan culture continued in their naval power as their defense against aggression.
in the religious section only. - Their system of government was that of a monarchy supported
by a well-organized bureaucracy.
- The ruins of the palace of Knossos partially reconstructed, CULTURE /WAY OF LIFE:
but for worship purposes only. In general, small worship - The first inhabitants of Crete probably came from western
temples are discovered in the ruins. Asia Minor well before 3000 B.C. In time, as the islanders
mastered the sea, Crete became a thriving maritime power.
- The palaces of Phaistos, Malia and Zakros had been - Trade with the older civilizations of Egypt and Asia
abandoned, while there was a considerable Mycenaean introduced new ideas and new skills. These, combined with
activity in Agia Triada, and Archanes retained their the creative energy of the Cretans, produced a distinctive
importance for the lords of Knossos, which explains the civilization.
presence of their tholos tombs there. - Fishing methods included hook and line, nets, baskets, and
spears. Fig, olive trees and date palms were considered sacred.
- The Minoan population is now moving more and more in - Dogs were used in hunting. Indigenous, wild cats were evident
the mountainous interior of the island (Karphi and on Crete; domestic cats as well as monkeys may have come
Kephala). from Egypt.
- Houses were generally one story, but sometimes two.
- Around 1200, Crete accepted migrations of marine Windows were more frequent on top. Oiled parchment
peoples and followed their own systems of government. probably served in place of glass. Houses included light wells,
For this reason, we can speak now for a subminoan small open wells to provide light and air. Lavatories were set
season. In the 11th century the Dorians settled and the against the outside walls. Large houses, like palaces, had a
Minoan identity limited within the eastern Crete (Presos). dining hall above the kitchen and food stores.
- Wheeled vehicles were used on Crete from about 2000,
- During the postpalatial period, the western part of Crete though charioteers were an important part of the Minoan
flourishes. Several important settlements developed military only very late, after 1450.
around Kasteli and Chania, while Minoan religion begins - Crete was generally self-sufficient. It imported some copper
to exhibit influences from the Greek mainland. and needed to import tin. Otherwise, luxuries materials were
imported, e.g., gold, silver, emery, fine stones, and ivory.
- An examination of the changes in Minoan society during Many such items may have been imported as raw material for
this period reveals that most likely Mycenae controlled use by local craftsmen.
Crete. - There was extensive trade across the Aegean and to Egypt.
This was controlled by the palaces, but private merchants were
- During this period, Helladic god names such as Zeus heavily involved.
begin to appear in tablets, new shapes develop in pottery, - The importance of trading led to an increase in the numbers
and vaulted tholos tombs appear for the first time. and influence of the merchant class.
RELIGION:
- Though little is known about the belief system of this
ancient religion, since no sacred texts have been
discovered, so far, from the figurines and shrines it Asia Minor and fought for 10 years, eventually destroying the
can be assumed that the Cretans, if they did not city, just to get her back.
worship nature and human beauty, held it in a very 2. The Odyssey - this is the story of King Odysseus of the
high regard. island of Ithaki, and his journey home from the war.
- The legend of the Minotaur the half-man, half-bull off- - Outlasted both the people of Cyclades and the Minoans and
spring of Pasiphae, the wife of King Minos and a bull, and expanded their influence over the Greek mainland, island of
other archaeological finds seem to confirm the worship of the Aegean and Ionian seas, Crete and the coast of Asia Minor.
the bull as some sort of divine being or symbol. - Two sets of graves found in the soil of Mycenae have given us
- It has also been suggested that this could refer to the a fascinating glimpse of the wealth and artistic
constellation of Taurus and perhaps the commemoration of accomplishments of this city.
some event that occurred. It is also interesting that Zeus, the - The graves in each were enclosed within a circular wall. The
king of the Gods, is said to have arrived in Greece from older set, tentatively dated between 1700 and 1600 B.C., was
Crete. outside the walls that surround the citadel of Mycenae.
- Many open air sanctuaries were located on top of hills; these - Interred there were wealthy Greeks, perhaps from a royal
are described as peak sanctuaries (which appear around family or clan. Alongside the bodies, the surviving relatives
2200.) had deposited various offerings, for example, a golden rattle in
- Cave sanctuaries were important throughout the period-- a child's grave. The second set of graves, inside the citadel
though less than 40 of the 1000 caves on the island held walls, far surpassed the older ones in wealth.
religious significance. Animal sacrifices occurred both - These graves, dated between 1600 and 1500 B.C., were
inside and outside the caves; agricultural goods were also discovered in 1876 by one of the founders of Greek
left as offerings. archaeology, Heinrich Schliemann, and are still among the
CAUSE OF DOWNFALL: wonders of archaeology.
- This civilization disappeared suddenly around 1,500 BC, - Their contents include such stunning luxuries as three masks
possibly due to the huge volcanic eruption of Santorini of gold foil that were pressed on the faces of the dead and a
Island. complete burial suit of gold foil wrapped around a child, as
- It is believed that the eruption has caused an enormous well as swords, knives, daggers, and hundreds of gold
earthquake and huge tsunamis that crossed the southern ornaments.
Aegean and covered the Minoan towns in volcanic ashes. - Bulls' heads in the graves indicate the influence of Crete on
- It is after that period, around 1,200 BC, that the rival artists working in Greece.
Mycenaean civilization took control of the trade network of - The graves tell us little about the political or social history of
Crete. Mycenae, but they do demonstrate its growing wealth in the
B. Mycenaean Civilization (1600-1100BC) sixteenth century.
- Also known as Achaean civilization. - Elaborate fortifications and large numbers of swords and other
- The Minoans are considered to be the first advanced weapons at Mycenae and other early Greek cities indicate that
civilization of Europe, while the Mycenaean culture had a Greece was a more warlike society than Crete.
great deal of influence with its legends and Greek language on - Between 1400 and 1200, Mycenae reached the height of its
what later became the splendor of Classical Greece. prosperity and created the most imposing monuments in all
- They received their name from Mycenae, the most powerful Bronze Age Greece.
kingdom that actually dominated all through this era and the - Between 1350 and 1300 the stupendous walls around the
mythical home of Agamemnon, the commander-in-chief of the citadel were built in their present form; it is significant that
Greek army in the Trojan War such defenses were apparently needed, as they were not (or at
- The name comes from the site of Mycenae, where the culture least none was built) on Crete.
was first recognized after the excavations in 1876 of Heinrich - The mighty Gate of the Lionesses (or Lion Gate) was erected
Schliemann. as an entrance to the city, and the most expensive Mycenaean
- They live on the mainland of Greece centered in the Argolis of tombs were built. These are the beehive-shaped, or tholos,
the Peloponessos. tombs, large vaults with walled entranceways. The grandest
- Describes the Helladic civilization towards the end of the 11th and best preserved is the so-called Treasury of Atreus,
cent. BCE and also called as the Age of heroes because it is conventionally named for the legendary father of King
the source of the mythological heroes and epics. Agamemnonbut we do not really know which rulers were
1. Homer's Illiad and Odyssey - The Illiad is the epic poem buried here.
about the abduction by Paris, a Trojan prince, of Helen, wife - Each city of the Mycenaean period was probably independent
of King Menelaus of Sparta, and the alliance of Greeks, led by under its own king.
King Agememnon who traveled to the city of Troy (Illium) in
- The only time these cities appear to have united was during - Mycenaean society seems to have been a highly organized
the war against Troy, a prosperous city in Asia Minor near the bureaucracy. There was probably one king with higher status
Dardanelles. and others of lesser standing.
- The war against Troy was the last feat of the Mycenaean Age.
About 1300 or a little later, various marauders began to attack - Local governments were integrated with the central
Greek ships and even mainland Greece. The identity of these administration from the palaces.
warriors is still uncertain. Historians usually call them sea-
peoples, and their homes were probably somewhere in Asia - The political hierarchy consisted of the 'The Wanax' (or King),
Minor. Whoever they were, they made trading by sea so at the top, who was the political and religious leader.
dangerous that the export of Mycenaean pottery virtually
ended. The raids by sea were temporarily destructive. But - Below him were the local chiefs and controllers who looked
much more significant was a series of attacks by land, lasting after administrative duties.
roughly from 1200 to 1100.
- Near 1100, Mycenae itself was overrun and destroyed. - The safety of the state was the responsibility of the Lawagetas,
MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS the head of the army.
- They lived in fortified citadels. Their citadels were
fortified with the "Cyclopean walls", called this way - Because of this efficient hierarchy, the Mycenaean Age was
because the Greeks believed that only Cyclopes could economically and culturally affluent, while weapons, arms and
have lift so large stones. armaments found in graves and sites confirm their society as
- The archaeological excavations of graves in Mycenae military inclined.
reveal a prosperous civilization that produced elaborate
pottery, bronze weapons and tools, and extravagant - Agricultural activities were highly organized, as evidenced by
jewelry and other objects made of precious metals and the detailed records about produce, taxes, and shares set aside
gems. for divinities.
- One of the most famous finds is the so-called Mask of
Agamemnon, a burial mask with which one aristocrat - There was a developed road system. Slavery was practiced;
was buried, made of hammered gold. most seem to have been women.
- The Mycenaeans employed a form of syllabic writing
known as Linear B. which, unlike the Linear A developed
- The commercial organization had overseas connections, and
by the Minoans, used the Greek language.
the sea fleet was essential. From early on, sea trade was
- It appears that the Mycenaeans used writing not to keep
important and extended throughout much of the
historical records but strictly as a device to register the
Mediterranean.
flow of goods and produce into the palaces from a
complex, highly centralized economy featuring regional
- The political structure (as gleaned from the extensive Linear B
networks of collection and distribution.
tablets at Pylos) seems to have included the following ranks:
- Pottery work such as stirrup jars, pitchers, kraters and
Wanax: chief administrator (at Knossos, Pylos)
chalices were made during this era. The vessels that were
Lawagetas: probably a military commander (next in rank,
exported were more intricately designed and had beautiful
had 1/3
motifs, often depicting warriors and animals. Vessels in
the land and property of Wanax)
the shape of tripods, basins, or lamps were found in large
3 Telestai: also with estates 1/3 the size of Wanax (Pylos)
quantities at the archaeological sites.
Basileus (Gausileus): minor official (baron), several were
- Meanwhile, a variety of materials (wood, leather and
within the province of one Wanax Korete: local governors (in
metal) were used in the manufacture of armour, shields,
16 administrative districts around Pylos)
helmets, spears, javelins, swords, daggers and arrows. The
Porokorete: deputies
agricultural economy was well organized and had well
Demos: perhaps a council of landholders.
distributed storage centres for products and crops. The
surplus was kept in palaces as a form of tax. We know this
CULTURE/WAY OF LIFE:
from records kept in the form of clay tablets.
- The Mycenaean society was formed by an elite group
- Important goods produced were cereals, olive oil and
organized around the authority of a single figure, the king,
wine, while herbs, spices and honey were also cultivated.
with varying degrees of power.
Sheep and goats were grazed for their wool and milk.
- The Mycenaean society with its great military strength
Goods and produce were also exported to foreign
conquered Crete and took the control of the Minoan trade
countries, especially olive oil.
network.
TYPE OF GOVERNMENT & LEADERS:
- The Mycenaeans were bold traders and maintained - Architectural features such as sunken basins and fresco
contact with other countries from the Mediterranean and depictions of altars hint that the Megaron may have had a
Europe. religious function.
- They were excellent engineers and built outstanding
bridges, tombs, residences and palaces. - Many centres also had specific sanctuary sites for
- Their tombs known as 'beehive tombs' were circular in worship, usually close to the palace complex.
shape with a high roof. A single passage made of stone led
to the tomb. - It is clear that burial was an important ritual as evidenced
- A variety of possessions, including arms and armour, by the presence of monumental tholos tombs,
were buried with the dead, while the more affluent might prominent grave sites and the quantity of precious objects
also be buried with gold and jewellery. which were buried with the dead - golden masks,
- Interestingly, rather than being buried in a sleeping diadems, jewellery and
position, Mycenaeans were interred in a sitting position,
with the richer classes sometimes being mummified. - The Mycenaeans used relatively few temples--there are
- The difference of classes in societal structure can, to some more found on Crete than on the mainland. There are no
extent, be derived from the goods that were buried in their clear centers of cave or mountain worship on the
graves. It is clear that there was a strong, ruling class and mainland.
a lower group of the common people.
- The Mycenaeans followed a bipartite system of working. - The hearth in the center of the throne room (megaron) of
There were two groups of people. One who worked in the palaces may have had religious significance; the
palace for the rulers and another who were self-employed. Mycenaeans, unlike the Minoans, made animal sacrifice
But even those people who worked in the palace could and burning a significant part of religious activity.
run their own business if they wished.
RELIGION: - There are very few temples or shrines that have been
found where religious practices might have been
- Not a great deal is known about the Mycenaean religion. exercised: So we can assume all rituals took place on
It has been observed, however, that it was influenced to open ground or in peak sanctuaries. Some shrines that are
some degree by that of the Minoans. found have a tripartite structural design.

- Many of the Mycenaean gods are recognizable to us as CAUSE OF DOWNFALL:


the well-known Classical gods, such as Zeus, Poseidon, - Between 1,250 and 1,150 BC, a combination of internal
Hera, Ares, Athena, Dionysus, and Hermes. warfare and invasions from northern tribes destroyed
most of the Mycenaean towns and the Mycenaean
- There were many similarities between Minoan and civilization disappeared.
Mycenaean religions. Both focused on a mother goddess - The Dorian invasion is the possible cause. The tribe of the
and a divine son (and sometimes consort.) Though the Dorians came from northern Europe. They scattered the
mother goddess seemed to be a composite deity for the Mycenaean population and decentralized their established
Minoans, a separation of roles was evident for the control system.
mainland Greeks. - Agriculture, industry and trade activities were divided to
the villages.
- Beginning with the Mycenaeans, we can see evidence for - Gradually the economy, politics and culture declined and
separate goddesses, e.g, Demeter (vegetation), Artemis all the trade networks with the Near East collapsed.
(animals), and Athena (household). - Alternatively, it could have been the 'Sea People' who
attacked the Mycenaeans. The Sea People are known to
- Early on, the Mycenaeans shared the myth that the son have attacked various regions in the Levant and Anatolia,
died at the end of each year, to be resurrected in the spring so perhaps this reading of events is more credible.
amid fertility rites. - An internal societal conflict between the rich and poor,
with the lower classes becoming impoverished towards
- For the Mycenaeans, however, the divine son becomes the end of the Late Helladic period and rejecting the
Zeus and eventually overtakes the mother goddess in system under which they were governed.
importance. - By end of the Late Helladic III C, the Mycenaean
civilization had come to an end with the cities of Mycenae
and Tirynth completely destroyed. The end of the
Mycenaean civilization heralded the start of the Greek was seen as an age of faith. Men and women sought after God;
Dark Ages. some through the staid rituals of the Catholic Church, others in
DARK AGES (1100-700BC) more Orthodox forms of worship. Intellectuals view religion
The Dark Ages as a term has undergone many evolutions. Its in any form as, itself, a type of darkness. These thinkers
definition depends on who is defining it. Indeed, modern assert that those who followed religious beliefs lied to
historians no longer use the term because of its negative themselves, creating a false reality. They were dominated by
connotation. Generally, the Dark Ages referred to the period of emotions, not fact. Religion was seen as contrary to rationality
time ushered in by the fall of the Western Roman Empire. This and reason, thus the move towards enlightenment, a move
took place when the last Western emperor, Romulus away from darkness. Science and reason gained ascendancy,
Augustulus, was deposed by Odoacer, a barbarian. AD 476 progressing steadily during and after the Reformation and Age
was the time of this event. of Enlightenment. To some extent, the period of the Dark Ages
Initially, this era took on the term dark by later onlookers; remains obscure to modern onlookers. The tumult of the era,
this was due to the backward ways and practices that seemed its religious conflict and denigration, and debatable time
to prevail during this time. Future historians used the term period all work together to shroud the period in diminished
dark simply to denote the fact that little was known about light.
this period; there was a paucity of written history. Recent The irony of this is that our 21st Century world is no less dark.
discoveries have apparently altered this perception as many It is an individual darkness, which multiplies and grows as
new facts about this time have been uncovered. those who reject God walk together and dominate politics,
The Italian Scholar, Francesco Petrarca called Petrarch, was education, and society. Our age is characterized by every
the first to coin the phrase. He used it to denounce Latin intellectual and technological advance but our morals have
literature of that time; others expanded on this idea to express turned backwards. These are the characteristics of true
frustration with the lack of Latin literature during this time or darkness. Many historians and scientists regard the Western
other cultural achievements. While the term dark ages is no Europe, after the fall of the Roman Empire, as completely
longer widely used, it may best be described as Early Middle devoid of interest, a barren wilderness in the history of
Ages, the period following the decline of Rome in the Western science. Contemptuously, they give medieval Europe the Dark
World. The Middle Ages is loosely considered to extend from Ages, and this epithet evokes pictures of filthy, illiterate
400 to 1000 AD. peasants and rulers, with medieval society a pale, superstitious
shadow of the Greek and Roman ages of reason and high
The Dark Ages The State of the Church philosophy.

The Dark Ages was a period of religious struggle. Orthodox Baronius


Christians and Catholics viewed the era from opposing
perspectives. Orthodox Christians regarded this time as a With the aid of arrogant hindsight, the modern perspective of
period of Catholic corruption; they repudiated the ways of the medieval society is of a war-torn and barbaric Europe. Poverty
Catholic Church with its papal doctrines and hierarchy. and ignorance replaced the great engineering works and
Orthodox Christians strove to recreate a pure Christianity, void relative peace of the Pax Romanum, and the controlling,
of these dark Catholic ways. Catholics did not view this era growing church stifled development. This view is biased and
as dark. Catholics viewed this period as a harmonious, prejudiced, because the term 'Dark Ages' is simply means that
productive religious era. The Dark Ages were also the years of there are few written records remaining from that era,
vast Muslim conquests. Along with other nomads and horse especially when compared to the meticulous record-keeping
and camel warriors, the Muslims rode through the fallen and prolific writing of the Romans. The Middle Ages have
empire, wreaking havoc and seeding intellectual and social very little evidence to support the idea that there was any
heresy in their wake. Muslim conquests prevailed until the progress in society during the periods 500 to 1400, and
time of the Crusades. This age old conflict between modern scholars regard the Golden Age of Islam and the
Christianity and Islam remains until this day. enlightenment of the Byzantine Empire as the true centers of
knowledge.
The Dark Ages Faith vs. Enlightenment
In the years immediately after the fall of Rome, there was a
The Dark Ages were a tumultuous time. Roving horse-bound period of readjustment, where medieval society was more
invaders charged the country sides. Religious conflicts arose; concerned with keeping peace and empire building than
Muslims conquered lands. Scarcity of sound literature and nurturing centers of learning. Despite this, Charlemagne tried
cultural achievements marked these years; barbarous practices to establish a scholastic tradition, and the later Middle Ages
prevailed. saw advancements in the philosophy of science and the
Despite the religious conflicts, the period of the Dark Ages refinement of the scientific method. Far from being a
backwards medieval society, overshadowed by Islam and intricate mathematical functions of the Romans and the
Byzantium, scholasticism acted as a nucleus for the Greeks.
Renaissance and the Enlightenment.
Romanticism
The Early Medieval period, from about AD 500 to 1000, is
regarded as the true Dark Ages, where medieval society By the 12th Century, centers of learning, known as the
slipped into barbarism and ignorance. There is some truth in Studium Generale, sprang up across Western Europe, drawing
this view, but even this era saw scientific and technological scholars from far afield and mixing the knowledge of the
advances amongst the maelstrom of constant war and Ancient Greeks with the new discoveries of the great Muslim
population shifts. This period was not a complete desert and, philosophers and scientists. This blend of ideas formed the
whilst we understand that raiding Saxons, Vikings, and other basis of Christian scholasticism and, whilst much of the
people halted progress, to a certain extent, there were still faint scholastic school of thought turned towards theology, it also
glimmerings that great minds were exploring the universe and began to integrate scientific empiricism with religion. This
trying to find answers. During this period, it is tempting to period may not have seen the great technological advances of
dismiss the Northmen as fierce, uncouth barbarians, forgetting the Greeks, Romans, Chinese, Persians, or Muslims, but the
that their famous longboats were marvelous feats of contribution of great thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas,
engineering, hundreds of years ahead of their time. The Grosseteste, Francis Bacon, and William of Ockham to the
Vikings and the Saxons were capable of exquisite metalwork creation of the Scientific Method cannot be underestimated.
and metallurgy, with the fine swords and beautiful jewelry
found in sites such as Sutton Hoo and Ladbyskibet showing ARCHAIC PERIOD (700-480BC)
that, even if the progress of empirical and observational
Preceded by the Dark Age (1200 800 BCE);
science was slowed, craftsmen still pushed boundaries and
followed by the Classical Period (510 323 BCE)
tried new techniques. In this, they were undoubtedly
Archaic Period had vast changes in the Greek
influenced by ideas that filtered up the trade routes from
Greece, Egypt, and even China and India. language, society, art, architecture, and politics.
Occurred because of:
Increasing population of Greece
The Norse sailors were master navigators and, whilst lacking
compasses, could use the stars and a few instruments to Increasing amount of trade (market
navigate the trackless ocean to Iceland, Greenland, and places were built in the villages; people
Vinland. For those of us in Western representative republics, began working on defensive units and
such as the UK, US, and Scandinavia, our political model and fortification)
idea of Parliament or congress was built upon the Norse Democracy
model. Despite these advances, it is safe to say that the Greek people:
centuries immediately after the fall of Rome, from the 5th No longer lived in cities (after the
Century until the 9th Century, saw little progress in what we collapse of the Mycenaean civilization)
come to regard as the scientific method. Classical thought and but instead formed small tribes
philosophy were lost to the west and became the preserve of Some were sedentary (little to no
Islam and Byzantium, as an increasingly rural and physical activity) and agricultural
dispossessed population began to rebuild after the collapse of Others were nomadic (move from place
Rome. to place) and traveled Greece
Small tribes began to form the polis
However, monastic study (city-state), which is where the word
Draco:
kept some of the scientific politics is derived from
processes alive and, while First recorded legislator of Politics and Law
most of their scholastic Athens in Ancient Greece - Laws during the 7th century BC were oral
endeavors concerned the First democratic legislator not written, thus they can easily be
Bible, the monks of (because he was requested by exploited by the aristocratic class.
Western Europe also the Athenian citizens to be a (Aristocratic class = upper class people of
studied medicine, to care lawgiver for the city-state) society; highest social class of the society)
for the sick, and - Draconian Laws (621 BCE)
astronomy, to observe the stars and set the date for the all- Introduced by Draco
important Easter. Their astronomy kept alive mathematics and Laws were incredibly harsh/brutal
geometry, although their methods were but an echo of the
Death was prescribed for almost all criminal offenses
Aristotle even said that there is nothing peculiar in his Gods honoured in each of the games:
laws that is worthy of mention, except their severity in 1. Olympic Games Olympian Zeus
imposing heavy punishment 2. Pythian Games Apollo
- Solon (594 BCE) 3. Isthmian Games Poseidon
One of the Seven Wise Men of Greece (Chilon 4. Nemean Games Nemean Zeus
of Sparta, Thales of Miletus, Bias of Priene, Cleobulus Persian Wars
of Lindos, Pittacus of Mytilene, and Periander of Corinth) Started with the Ionian revolt of Greek colonies
Imposed changes in the Athenian laws and settlements in Asia Minor from the
First to give the lower classes a fairer chance Persian Empire which prompted Darius Is
Tackled the effects of class inequality, not the causes retaliation to invade Greece
Revised every statute Draco written (except that of Darius Is retaliation failed at the Battle of
homicide) and made Athenian law more humane Marathon (490 BCE)
The most notable change implemented was The failed retaliation was later avenged by the
the seisachtheia, the shaking-off-of-burdens. This second invasion of Greece by Xerxes
decree cancelled debts, banned the use of ones own Salamis was won by the fleet
person as security for a loan that Themistocles had persuaded the Athenians to
Introduced the right of third party appeal build from the silver mines at Laurium
In order not to be pressured into changing these laws, he There were losses in these wars:
fled to Egypt for 10 years where he wrote political poems 1.The sacking of the
Peisistratids short line of Athenian tyrants that Athenian acropolis and Agora
started with Peisistratos 2. The death of Leonidas
Peisistratos was not a draconian ruler, he 3. The freedom of the Ionic
tributaries to Athens as the Delian
sympathized with the poorer classes; had two sons,
League soon became the Athenian League
Hippias and Hipparchus
CLASSICAL AGE (480-323BC)
Hippias and Hipparchus ruled until they faced an
Significant people:
assassination plot by Harmodias and Aristogen
1. Herodotus Historian (Father of History)
Cleisthenes (late 570s BCE)
2. Hippocrates Physician (Father of Modern Medicine)
Came to power after the tyrannicides (killing of tyrants) 3. Socrates Philosopher
Introduced isonomia (equal laws/rights) in Athens; gave Cleisthenes' reforms (Demokratia or Rule by the people):
less importance to aristocratic backgrounds * Revision of tribal and religious associations.
Made a big reform in regards to the tribal system: Before *An attempt to make the different factions and regions of
there were 4 tribes then there were 10 tribes. Athens into one people.
Panhellenic Games 1. Mixed the previous 4 clans into 10 phyles.
Greek polis or city-states were pitted against one another 2. Divided Attica into 3 regions (City, Coastal, and
Religious and athletic competitions for talented, generally Inland)
wealthy, individual athletes in the areas of speed, strength, 3. Each region was also divided into 10 smaller regions.
dexterity, and endurance (3 regions per phyle)
Had 4 games: 4. Local councils (demes)
1. Olympic Games (776 BCE) held at the sanctuary of *six demes per phyle
Zeus at Elis *2 demes per region
2. Pythian Games (586 BCE) held at Delphi -Every month a tribe will take turns at being the chair or
3. Isthmian Games (581 BCE) held at the Isthmus of "presidents" (prytaneis)
Corinth Spartas Government
4. Nemean Games (573 BCE) held at the sanctuary of - Diarchy (2 Kings)
Nemea - One line of hereditary kings was from the Eurypontid
The four games were crown games because the Dynasty while the other king was from the Agiad
victors won a crown or wreath as prize: Dynasty
1. Olympic Games olive wreath Ionian Revolt (499 BC 493 BC)
2. Pythian Games laurel wreath - The City of ionia was captured by the Persians (540
3. Isthmian Games pine garland wreath BC)
4. Nemean Games wild - Head by a Tyrant that was elected by the Persian
celery wreath satrap(Governor) in Sardis.
- Aristagoras, launched a joint expedition with the
Persian satrap Artaphernes (Brother of King Darius the - King Leonidas I Blocked the pass of Thermopylae with
Great) to conquer Naxos, in an attempt to bolster his his army.
position. The expedition was a failure. - This strategy was used so that the numbers of the
- Fearing of losing his position as a tyrant, Aristagoras Persian army will be insignificant.
chose to incite the whole of Ionia into rebellion against - The defense lasted for 7 days until they were betrayed
the Persian King Darius the Great. (499 BC) by a native of this region Ephialtes
-Supported by troops from Athens and Eretria, the - Ephialtes lead Xerxes Immortals to a narrow goat pass
Ionians marched on, captured, and burnt Sardis. (498 which lead to the back of Leonidas arm
BC) Battle of Artemesium
Battle of Ephesus -Occurred simultaneously with the battle of Thermopylae
- Followed by the Persians on their way back to Ionia. - The allied fleet successfully defended the straits of
- Persians were defeated artmisium for 2 days
Battle of Peduses (497 BC) - They had to retreat to Salamis after the Defense of
- A three pronged attack was launched by the Persians Thermopylae failed.
led by Daurises (son-in-law of the King) in order to -Xerxes I fulfilled his fathers revenge on Athens
recapture lost ground. Battle at Salamis
- Daurises army was annihilated in an ambush. -A larger allied army led by Themistocles.
- Resulted to the stalemate for the rest of 496 BC 495 -Defended the straits of Salamis
BC -The Persian fleet became disorganized because of the
Battle of Lade (494 BC 495 BC) narrow straits of Salamis
- A naval attack by the Persians to the epicenter of the -The Persians were defeated
rebellion at Miletus -Xerxes retreated leaving General Mardonius with his
- The Samians defected elite army to fulfill the conquest.
- The Ionians were defeated Battle of Platae
- Led to the surrender of the Carians and also a Peace -The Allied army arranged the largest hoplite army
Treaty -Hoplites are soldiers equipped with a spear and a shield
- King Darius swore revenge against the Athens and and practiced the phalanx formation
Eretria. -The phalanx formation relied on discipline rather than
First Persian Invasion (492 BC 490 BC) numbers. (greek word for phalanx is finger)
*First Campaign -The Allied army defeated Mardonius and killing him in
- Mardonius Re-subjugated Thrace and forced Macedon the process
to become a fully subordinate client kingdom part of Battle of Mycale
Persia -Occurred simultaneously with the Battle of Platae
-Lost most of his army due to a storm. -The Allied Navy defeated the remnants of the Persian
- Darius sent ambassadors to all parts f Greece, fleet.
demanding their submission. -This naval fleet also captured Byzantium in 478 BC
- Athens and Sparta did not submit and executed the -With this double defeat the Persian invasion ended and
ambassadors sent to them tipped the balance of the Greeks position from defensive
* Second Campaign to offensive and drove away the remaining Persian forces
- under the command of Datis and Artaphernes. out of Europe.
- Captured Naxos Peloponnesian War (431 BC 404 BC)
- island-hopped between the rest of the Cycladic Islands 1. The Delian League
- Took their revenge on Eretria. - Formed in 478 BC to continue the fight to the Persians
Battle of Marathon after the second Persian invasion
-The Persians was fought by the smaller army of the -Led by Athens
Athenians 2. The Spartan League
-The Persians lost because their weapons were inferior -Origins track back to the7 th century with the conflict of
and were not ready for a direct attack. Sparta with Argos
-Persians tried to attack the undefended city of Athens -Formed for the Security and dominance of Sparta over
-The army of Athens marched double-time and were able the Peloponnese peninsula.
to reach the city of Athens before the Persians could. The thirty year peace treaty
Second Persian Invasion (480BC-479BC) - Signed by King Archidamus II on the autumn of 446 BC
-King Xerxes I ordered the second invasion of Greece. and was took in effect on the winter of 445 BC
*Battle of Thermopylae - Sparta and Athens divided Greece into 2 Large power
zones Battle of Aegospotami (405 BC)
-The war party of Sparta was too strong -Lysander with the Spartan fleet, Attacked and destroyed
-King Archidamus II was forced to go to war (431 BC) the Athenian navy
-In the year 427 BC, King Archidamus II died and his son -Athens facing bankruptcy offered a peace treaty
Agis II succeeded to the Eurypontid throne of Sparta -Sparta took hold of Athens and established an oligarchy
Causes of the war led by The thirty Tyrants
- Corinth vs. Corcyra for the colony of Epidamnus (433 -Meanwhile in Sparta , Eurypontid King Agnis II died
BC) -Leotychidas was not given the sit of the King because he
-Sparta refused to join the war and suggested to settle it in was suspected to be a bastard son of Alcibiades.
peace -Alcibiades then proposed that he should be King
-Corcyra sought help from its enemy, Athens -Lysander didnt agree with this and instead put the son of
-Corcyra promised the support of their navy which is the the second wife of Agnis II, Agesilaus II onto the thrown.
third largest navy of Greece and Athens agreed. 4th Century BC
-Corcyra vs. Athens (432 BC) for the control of Potidaea -Spartans dominated Greece
- Athens Besieged Potidea and won -Her Political skill did not match her military prowess
-Megarian Decree was a set of economic sanctions levied -Democratic parties soon recovered in Athens
upon Megara and this violated the thirty year peace treat -They kicked out Lysander from office and was replaced
*First phase : Archidamian War (431 BC 421 BC) by Callicratidas
-Sparta invaded Attica -Callicratidas navy was sabotaged by Lysander by giving
-Plague infested Attica which killed General Pericles away the funds collected to Cyprus
-Athens raided Peloponnese Corinthian war
-Athens won the naval battles in Rhium(429 BC), -While being supported by Persia; Athens, Argos, Thebes,
Naupuctus(429 BC), and Pylos (425 BC)because they and Corinth declared war against Sparta.
have a superior fleet. -Sparta was losing the war
- The first phase concluded when Athenian Leader Nicias -Persia was worried that Athens will again dominate so
signed a peace treaty for 50 years they now back up Sparta
*Second phase: Ionian War (418BC 404 BC) -The Peace of Antalcidas (Kings Peace) was signed
-Spartans conflict with Argos -The peace terms were to include Ionia and Cyprus back
-Alcibiades persuaded Athens to side with Argos into Persian hands, to make other territories independent,
-Athens captured Melos a neutral island (416 BC) The territories won by Athens be theirs and that Sparta
-Athens planned an attack on Syracuse, Sicily with a massive will be the Guardian of Greece and the dissolving of the
expeditionary force (416-413 BC) boeotian league
-The attack failed and the whole force was lost -With the dissolved league, Sparta easily captured Thebes
-Sparta took Argos and other lost ground on the Peloponnese -Because of the failed attack of the Spartan General
-Alcibiades defects to Sparta and became an advisor Sphodrias on Piraeus (Attican town) the blood of the
-Advised the Spartans to build a naval fleet and to seek help rebellion boiled
from the Persians - The Thebans started freeing the former cities of the
-Alcibiades now speaks with the Persian court to seek for their boeotian league.
support. Battle of Tegyrea 375 BC
-Persia agreed but only in order to exhaust Sparta and Athens -revived boeotian league (led by Pelopidas) versus Sparta
-Alcibiades now wants to return to Athens -First time that Sparta lost against a numerically inferior
-Wanted to establish an oligarchic coup in Athens team
-The 400 succeeded in the coup -Athens feared the rising power of Thebes
-The 400 by was replaced by The 5000 -A Second Athenian League was formed
-Alcibiades was made a naval commander by the year of 410 -After the razing of Plataea (Ally of Athens) Athens
BC seeked alliance with Sparta and both sent a delegates to
Battle of Abydos(410 BC) Persia to declare a new Kings peace
-Alcibiades led 18 trireme (Warships) against the Persian- -Thebes sent Pelopidas and was able to persuade Persia to
financed Spartan fleet not establish a new treaty
-The Spartans lost -Pelopidas won in the Battle of Cynoscephalae but
-The Spartans then took Alcibiades advice and built their Pelopidas was killed in battle
own fleet with the financial support of the Persians Battle of Leuctra 371 BC
-Found a new leader Lysander -Boeotian League ( Led by Epaminondas) versus a
coalition of Athenian, Spartan, Elisian, Mantinean and
Achean forces - 356 BC, the Macedonians attacked and conquered the
-This determined which Alliance will have Hegemony Athenian-controlled port city of Pydna
over Greece -Athens had two parties, the war party led by
-Thebes won but Epaminondas died Demosthenes and the peace party led by Phocion
Athenian Hegemony -The war party succeeded
-The Alliance was funded by syntaxeis (Tax for War) Battle of Chaeronea 338 BC
-Athenian Generals were in charge of collecting Taxes -Macedonia versus Athens and Thebes
-Some of the members of the alliance found this -Macedonia won
unattractive -In 336 BC, Philip II was assassinated at the wedding of
-Athens lost most of its allies and was threatened by his daughter Cleopatra of Macedon
Persia that if they dont let their allies go independent Alexander the Great (356-323BC
they will send 200 triremes (warships) against Athens -Son of King Philip II of Macedonia
Theban Hegemony -Was tutored by Aristotle (Philosopher)
-tentative with no future -Murdered other claimants from the throne including his
-*5th century Boeotian confederacy (447-386 BC) half-brother Caranus
-11 districts each head by a boeotarch Alexander and Athens
-Citizens were divided according to wealth -Alexander charmed Athens which strengthened the peace
-Dissolved during The Kings Peace and resurrected after party
the Fall of Sparta -Peace was found
No Hegenomy succeeded from 362 BC onwards - In 334 BC, Alexander with about 30,000 infantry
Rise of Macedon soldiers and 5,000 cavalry crossed the Hellespont into
-Philip II of Macedonia was proclaimed King(359-336 Asia
BC) - He managed to extend Macedonian power not only over
- expanded into the territory of the Paeonians, Thracians, the central Greek city-states, but also to the Persian
and Illyrians empire, including Egypt and lands as far east as the
- In 358 BC, Philip allied with Epirus in its campaign fringes of India
against Illyria -In 323 BC, He died in Babylon.
- In 357 BC, Philip came into direct conflict with Athens -Alexander the Greats deathis the end of the Classical
when he conquered the Thracian port city of Amphipolis , Greece and the beginning of the hellinistic period.
A major trading port of Athens