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BLDC Motor Using Conventional PI Controller,

Anti-windup PI Controller and Fuzzy Controller

Arundhathi Shyam Febin Daya J L

PG scholar, School of Electrical Engineering, Assistant professor (Sr), School of Electrical Engineering,

VIT University - Chennai campus, Chennai, India VIT University - Chennai campus, Chennai, India

arundhathi.shyam2012@vit.ac.in febindaya.jl@vit.ac.in

Abstract: - Brushless dc motors (BLDC) are widely used control is the vector control of BLDC motor which is the

for various applications because of high torque, high indirect vector control it uses the actual speed of the

speed and smaller size. This type of motors are non linear machine to control the speed. Where as in the direct vector

in nature and are affected highly by the non-linearities control, it use the knowledge of the voltage and current for

like load disturbance. Speed control of this motor is

speed control. Merits of BLDC motor are simplicity and low

traditionally handled by conventional PI and PID

controllers. This paper presents the speed control of cost. Responses of BLDC motor are highly influenced by

BLDC motor using anti wind up PI controller. Problems the parameter variation and load variation. Traditional

like rollover can arise in conventional PI controller due controllers are used for simple systems and it gives good

to saturation effect. In order to avoid such problems anti response for linear systems.

wind up schemes are introduced. As the fuzzy controller

has the ability to control and as it is simple to calculate, a BLDC motors are nonlinear in nature. So it requires

fuzzy controller is also designed for speed control of advanced controllers like fuzzy controller and anti wind up

BLDC motor. The control and simulation of BLDC PI controller. Recently various control solutions are used to

motor have been done using software

improve the dynamic response are explained in [11]. Fuzzy

MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results using anti

wind up PI controller and fuzzy controller are compared controller has got applications in wide range of speed

with PI controller. variations [1, 3, 4]. Drawbacks of normal PI controller like

rollover can be overcome by anti wind up PI controller [2,5]

Keywords BLDC, speed response, PI controller, fuzzy, anti

windup. In this paper it presents the speed response of BLDC

motor with different controllers like PI controller, anti

I. INTRODUCTION windup PI Controller and fuzzy controller. It has done for

Conventional dc machines and brushless dc machines are different speed conditions and load conditions and their

more preferred for industrial purpose for the variable speed comparative study. Problems that arise during conventional

applications. Conventional dc machines have stationary pole PI controller are reduced by the introduction of anti windup

structure and flux is produced by the current through that PI controller [2]. It is to avoid problem that arises due to the

pole structure. In brushless dc motor it has permanent saturation effect of normal PI controller called rollover. It

magnet. Here flux is produced by the current through the occurs due to the large value of error input to the PI

permanent magnet. Reliable control method is required for controller or if the error remains constant for a long period.

the BLDC drive applications. By the proper control method So by this anti windup PI controller we can reduce the effect

only, it can overcome the nonlinearities and hence to obtain of rollover. Design of PI parameters are important, here it is

good dynamic response. BLDC motor is a type of done by using Ziegler Nichols method. For the large

permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM). In variations of the error fuzzy logic controllers are used.

BLDC motor back emf is trapezoidal in shape but in PMSM Various steps of fuzzy logic controller are fuzzification,

machine it is sinusoidal in shape. In the BLDC motor it has inference engine and defuzzification. A fuzzy logic

a hall sensor to sense the motor speed. This type of speed controller converts numerical values to linguistic variables

through member ship functions, fuzzy rules are used to

evaluate these functions, by the defuzzificzation process it

(10)

convert the linguistic values to the numerical values. The

aim of this paper is to show the response of the anti windup Electromagnetic torque depends on the back emf, rotor

PI controller is better for the load variation compared to the current can expressed as:

fuzzy controller but the response of the fuzzy controller is

good for the speed variation.

(11)

II. DYNAMICS OF BLDC MOTOR

Transfer function of BLDC motor can be written as:

Voltage equations of BLDC motor are given by:

(1)

(12)

electrical time constant

(3)

III. SPEED CONTROL OF BLDC MOTOR

rotor angle which is given by:

(4)

can be represented by the following equations:

Since there is no saliency self inductance are independent on In the vector control of BLDC motor, actual speed of the

the rotor position: motor is sensed using hall sensors. Error speed is given to

the controller. The controller can be PI anti windup PI or

(6) fuzzy controller. In the three phase of BLDC motor only two

phases is conducting at a time. The switching sequence of

Mutual inductance can be written as:

the inverter switches determines which two phases are going

(7) to conduct. Decoder circuit used to generate the gating

signals according to the back emf and the current of the

For a balanced three phase system phase resistance are equal motor.

A.PI controller

Rearranging the equation (5) gives:

Transfer function of PI controller is:

(9)

(13)

69

Where is the proportional constant and is the integral arises in the conventional PI controller due to saturation

constant. This value of and is obtained by the Ziegler- effect. Saturation occurs due to constant input to the

Nichols rule. integrator or due to the large value of error input [15]. In the

anti windup PI controller input to the integrator is the

difference of the saturated output and the unsaturated input.

It produces improved performance than the normal PI

controller. Relation between and is given by the

equation (14).

(14)

C. Fuzzy controller

For finding the value of constants it requires the transfer

Fuzzy controller can also be used for the speed control of

function of BLDC motor.Fig.2 shows the normal PI

BLDC motor. Fuzzy control involves fuzzification, rule base

controller. Transfer function of PI controller is given in the

and defuzzification. Fig.4 shows the fuzzy logic control

equation (13).

system. Fuzzification involves the conversion of the input

Transfer function of BLDC motor is: data values to linguistic variables. It uses membership

functions for the conversion. In the defuzzification it

converts fuzzified values to the actual output .Fuzzy rules

are given in the rule base. Fuzzy logic controller has two

input and one output. Two inputs are error in speed (e) and

Value of and are obtained using the Table. I change in error (de). Here it uses 49 rules. Linguistic

variables used are negative big, negative medium, negative

TABLE I. GAIN CONSTANTS - ZIEGLER NICHOLS RULE

small, positive big, positive medium, and positive small.

Membership functions for the inputs and output are shown

CONTROLLER

in the Fig.5, Fig.6, Fig.7 respectively [10, 12].

performance degradation that occurs due to the effect of

rollover in the conventional PI controller. Value of gain

inverse of the proportional gain . Rollover is the problem

70

condition for a reference speed of 500 rpm is shown in the

figure .9. The simulation result shows that response of fuzzy

logic control is fast compared to the PI control or anti wind

up controller. The settling time for fuzzy controller is

0.00469 seconds, but for a PI controller and anti wind up

PI controller is 0.0069 seconds and 0.0051 seconds

Fig.6. Membership functions of change in error input respectively. Results show that time taken by the fuzzy

control to settle are less compared to anti wind up PI and PI

controller. Under no load condition, over shoot is more for

normal PI controller compared to anti wind up PI and fuzzy

controller. For normal PI controller percentage overshoot is

5.26% and for anti wind up PI controller percentage

overshoot is 4.9%.Compared to these controllers fuzzy

controller has no overshoot under no load condition. Fig.10.

Fig.7. Membership functions of output function Shows response of machine for step increase in the speed

with a re reference speed of 500 rpm and 1000 rpm under no

Rules used for the fuzzy controller are if, then rules. Each load condition. Response of the machine for fuzzy controller

control input has seven fuzzy sets. So there are at most 49 is fast than anti wind up PI and normal PI controller. Fig

fuzzy rules. Fuzzy rules are shown in the table II given

.11.Shows the enlarged version of step changes of speed.

below.

No load response

TABLE II. FUZZY RULE BASE 600

500

e/de NB NM NS Z PS PM PB

NB NB NB NB NB NM NS Z 400 Reference

PI

Speed in rpm

FLC

NM NB NB NB NM NS Z PS 300

Anti wind up PI

NS NB NB NM NS Z PS PM

200

Z NB NM NS Z PS PM PB

PS NM NS Z PS PM PB PB 100

PM NS Z PS PM PB PB PB 0

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05

Time in seconds

PB Z PS PM PB PB PB PB

Fig.9. Speed response under no load

Step increase in speed

1000

Reference

800 PI

FLC

Speed in rpm

Anti wind up PI

600

400

200

0

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05

Fig.8. Simulation block diagram Time in seconds

Fig .8 shows the simulation diagram of speed Fig.10. Speed response for step increase in speed

response of BLDC motor. Speed response under no load

71

Response of machine for loaded condition is shown in the Response when machine is loaded

510

fig.12.Under loaded condition, PI controller and anti wind

up PI controller respond faster than the fuzzy control for the 505

500

than other controllers for high speed conditions under

loaded condition. Table III shows the performance 495

Speed in rpm

comparison of BLDC motor for different controller under 490

Reference

load and no load condition. In the table III settling time ts 485

Anti wind up PI

FLC

is in mile seconds and % Mp is the percentage overshoot. PI

480

Table IV shows the steady state error under loaded case.

Steady state error (Ess) is given in rpm. For fuzzy controller 475

470

conventional PI and anti wind up PI. 0.049 0.0491 0.0492 0.0493 0.0494 0.0495 0.0496 0.0497 0.0498 0.0499 0.05

Time in seconds

Step increase in speed

1050 Fig.13.Speed response under load condition

1040

TABLE. III. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON

1030

Anti-wind

1020 Reference

PI FUZZY

PI up PI

1010 FLC Controller

% % %

Speed in rpm

1000

Anti wind up PI

ts Mp

ts Mp

ts Mp

990

500 rpm

6.9 5.26 5.1 4.86 4.6 0

980 no load

970 500 rpm

6.7 4.9 5.7 4.87 4.2 0

960

load

1000 rpm

950 9.0 1.6 7.1 1.4 4.1 0

0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05 0.055 no load

Time in seconds

9.0 1.54 7.7 1.3 4.3 0

load

Response when machine is loaded

600 TABLE IV.PERFORMANCE COMPARISON

Controller

Ant windup

Reference PI FUZZY

PI

400 PI

FLC

500 rpm

load 7 4 22

Speed in rpm

Anti wind up PI

300

1000 rpm

load 9 4.7 27

200

100 VI.CONCLUSION

0

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05 anti wind up PI controller and fuzzy controller for three

Time in seconds

phase BLDC motor. The simulation results are compared

Fig.12. Speed response under loaded condition with PI controller results. The conventional PI controller

results are slower compared to fuzzy and anti wind up

controllers. From the simulation results, it is clear that for

72

the load variation anti wind up PI controller gave better Controller Based on Emotional Learning Algorithm, in Proc.

response than conventional PI and fuzzy controller. Hence IEEE International Conference on Electrical Machines and

Systems (ICEMS), Nanjing, 2005.

anti wind up PI controller is found to be more suitable for [15] J. L. F. Daya and V. Subbiah, Robust control of sensorless

BLDC motor drive during load variation. It can also be permanent magnet synchronous motor drive using fuzzy

observed from the simulation results that performance of logic, in Proc. 2nd IEEE International conference on

Advanced computer control, Shenyang, 2010.

fuzzy controller is better during the case of speed variation.

[16] B K Bose, Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives, 3rd

Edition, Pearson Education Inc., 2007.

REFERENCES

Controller for Brushless DC Motor, in Proc. IEEE

International Conference on Computer Communication and

Informatics, Coimbatore, 2012.

[2] Anirban Ghoshal and Vinod John, Anti-windup Schemes

for Proportional Integral and Proportional Resonant

Controller, in Proc. National Power electronic conference,

Roorkee, 2010.

[3] M. F. Z. Abidin, D. Ishak and A. Hasni Abu Hassan, A

Comparative Study of PI, Fuzzy and Hybrid PI Fuzzy

Controller for Speed Control of Brushless DC Motor Drive,

in Proc. IEEE International conference on Computer

applications and and Industrial electronics, Malysia, 2011.

[4] J. Choi, C. W Park, S. Rhyu and H. Sung, Development and

Control of BLDC Motor using Fuzzy Models,in Proc. IEEE

international Conference on Robotics, Automation and

Mechatronics, Chengdu, 2004.

[5] C. Bohn and D.P. Atherton, An analysis package comparing

PID anti-windup strategies, IEEE Trans. controls system,

Vol.15, No. 2, pp.34-40, 1995.

[6] A. V. Sant and K. R. Rajagopal, PM Synchronous Motor

Speed Control Using Hybrid Fuzzy-PI With Novel Switching

Functions , IEEE Trans. Magnetics, Vol. 45, No. 10,

pp.4672-4675, 2009.

[7] S. Xuanfeng and L. Xingyan, BLDC motor speed servo

system based on novel P-fuzzy self-adaptive PID control , in

Proc. IEEE Int. conference on Computer appl. and Ind.

Eelctronics, Kunming, 2010.

[8] Neethu U. and Jisha V. R., Speed Control of Brushless DC

Motor: A Comparative Study, in Proc. IEEE International

Conference Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems,

Bengaluru, 2012.

[9] P. Pillay and R. Krishnan, "Modeling, simulation, and

analysis of permanent-magnet motor drives. II. The brushless

DC motor drive, IEEE Trans. industrial applications, Vol.

25, No. 2, pp.274-279, 1989.

[10] J.L Febin Daya and V. Subbiah, A novel fuzzy logic based

robust speed controller for permanent magnet synchronous

motor servo drive, in proc. IEEE TENCON 09 Region 10

conference, Singapore, 2009.

[11] Chen Chien Lee, "Fuzzy Logic in Control System: Fuzzy

Logic Controller Part I, IEEE Trans Systems, Man,

Cybernetics, Vol.20, No.2, pp.404-417, 1990.

[12] J. L Febin Daya and V. Subbiah, Implementation of Hybrid

Wavelet Fuzzy based controller for speed control of Induction

Motor Drives, Iranian Journal of Electrical and Computer

Engineering, Vol 11, No. 1, pp. 11- 19, 2012.

[13] M. Singh and A. Garg, Performance Evaluation of BLDC

Motor with Conventional PI and Fuzzy Speed Controller, in

proc. IEEE international conference on power electronics,

pp.1-6, 2006.

[14] H. Niasar, A. Vahedi, and H. Moghbelli "Speed Control of a

Brushless DC Motor Drive via Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy

73

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