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# ME 6101: Classical Thermodynamics

## Assignment 01 Submission Date: 23/07/2016

1. A piston cylinder device is maintained at a constant pressure of 7 bars and contains 1.4
kg of air. During a process the heat transfer out is 49 kJ, while the volume changes from
0.15 to 0.09 m3 . Find the change in the internal energy of the gas, in kJ/kg. [-5.0]

2. A vessel having a volume of 5 m3 contains 0.05 m3 of saturated liquid water and 4.95 m3
of saturated water vapour at 0.1 MPa. Heat is transferred until the vessel is filled with
saturated vapour. Determine the heat transfer for this process.

## 3. A gas initially at 0 025

: m
3 and 10
: MP a is expanded quasi-statically in a piston-cylinder
device at constant pressure until the volume is 0 050
: m
3. It is then held at constant
volume and cooled until its pressure is one-half of the initial value. Then it is compressed
quasi-statically to the original state by following the path PV = onstant . Determine
the net work for the cycle in kilojoules.
 [7.67 kJ]

4. Steam at 3 MP a and 400o C enters an adiabatic nozzle steadily with a velocity of 40 m=s

and leaves at 25
: MP a and 300 m=s . Determine (a) the exit temperature and (b) the
ratio of the inlet to exit area A1 =A2

: bar C

## and a velocity of 200 . The inlet to the diffuser is 100

m=s
2 . During passage through
m

## the diffuser, the fluid velocity is reduced to 50 , the pressure increases to 1 0

m=s , and : bar

hear transfer to the surroundings is 0 5 . Determine (a) the final temperature, (b)
: kJ=kg

the mass flow rate in kg/s and (c) the outlet area in m
2.

##  [185.7, 0.485, 204.2]

6. Refrigerant 134a is throttled through a porous plug from a saturated liquid at 35o C to a
final state where the pressure is 15 : bar . Determine (a) the final temperature and (b) the
physical state of the fluid at the exit.
 17 2o C, x = 0.34]
[- :

7. A steam power cycle operates under the following conditions: (1) 100 bar and 500o at C

## the turbine inlet (2) 04

:90% quality at the turbine exit, (3) saturated liquid at
bar and
0 4 at the condenser outlet, and (4) 100 at the pump outlet. The mass flow rate
: bar bar

of water is 10 . Neglecting kinetic and potential energy changes, determine (a) the
kg=s

turbine work, (b) the condenser heat loss, (c) the pump work, all in kJ/kg and (d) the
boiler heat input, in kW.
 [970, 2087, 10.2, 30463]
8. A cooler in an air conditioner brings 0.5 kg/s of air at 35o C to 5o C, both at 101 kPa.
It then mixes the output with a flow of 0.25 kg/s air at 20o C and 101 kPa, sending the
combined flow into a duct. Find the total heat transfer in the cooler and the temperature
in the duct flow.

9. A feedwater heater in a vapour power plant operates at steady state with liquid entering
at inlet 1 with T1 = 45o C and P1 = 3.0 bar. Water vapour at T2 = 320o C and P2 = 3.0
bar enters at inlet 2. Saturated liquid water exits with a pressure of P3 = 3.0 bar. Ignore
heat transfer with the surroundings and all kinetic and potential energy effects. If the
mass flow rate of the liquid entering at inlet 1 is m1 = 3 2  105 kg/h, determine the mass
:

## flow rate at inlet 2, m2 , in kg/h.

10. An uninsulated, rigid tank contains 5 kg of steam initially at 50 bar and 300o C . The
air surrounding the tank is at a uniform temperature of 25 oC. After a period of time,
the pressure within the tank has been reduced to 10 bar due to heat transfer from the
water substance to the air. Determine (a) the heat transfer from the steam, in kJ, (b) the
entropy change for the steam, in kJ/K, (c) the entropy production for an enlarged system
composed of the steam and the heat-transfer region which includes the tank and the layer
of air adjacent to the tank, in kJ/K and (d) whether the overall process is reversible,
irreversible, or impossible.
 [-7595, -15.26 10.23, possible & internally irreversible]

11. Air is compressed from 1 bar , 25o C to 40 : bar , 135o C , in a steady-flow device. Any
heat transfer occurs between the air and the environment at 27o C and the actual shaft
work input is 185 kJ=kg . (a) Determine the heat transfer, in kJ/kg, for the air flowing
through the compressor. Then determine the entropy production, in kJ/kg-K, for (b) the
control volume for the air flowing through the compressor, (c) the control volume which
includes the air flow and the immediate surroundings where heat transfer occurs, and (d)
the control volume containing only the heat-transfer region.
 [-74.12, 0.1288, 0.1659, 0.03709]

12. Refrigerant 134a enters an air-cooled condenser as a superheated vapor at 10 bar and
60oC , and leaves as a saturated liquid at 10 bar . Atmospheric air at 30 oC is blown over
the condenser tubes and leaves at 45o C . The heat transfer between the two fluid streams
equals 20 . Changes in kinetic and potential energy are negligible. Determine (a)
M J=h

the mass flow rates of the R134a and the air, in kg/h, (b) the entropy production rate
in the condenser, in kJ/hr-K, and (c) the change in kinetic energy for R134a if the pipe
diameter is 2.0 cm in kJ/h. (d) Is neglecting the change in kinetic energy a reasonable
modeling assumption?
 [107.5, 1324, 0.642, -0.258]

13. A pump draws a solution with a specific gravity of 1.2 from a storage tank an 10 cm pipe.
The velocity in the inlet pipe is 1.2 m/s. The height of the liquid in the storage tank is
maintained constant by the addition of makeup liquid. The open end of the 5-cm discharge
pipe is 15 m above the top of the liquid in the storage tank. If the process is assumed to
be internally reversible and adiabatic, and the fluid to be incompressible, determine the
power supplied to the pump in the piping system, in kilowatts.
 [3.62]

14. A refrigeration system contains an adiabatic compressor which handles refrigerant 134a.
Inlet conditions are 140 kP a and 15o C and the exit state is 15
: MP a and 90o C . The
changes in potential and kinetic energies are negligible. Find (a) the adiabatic efficiency
of the compressor and (b) the entropy generation, in kJ/kg-K.
 [67, 0.07]

15. A rigid tank is divided into two equal parts by a partition. One part of the tank contains
1.5 kg of compressed liquid water at 300 kP a and 60o C while the other part is evacuated.
The partition is now removed, and the water expands to fill the entire tank. Determine
the entropy change of water during this process, if the final pressure in the tank is 15 kP a .
 [-0.1133]

16. Refrigerant 134a enters an adiabatic compressor as saturated vapor at 120 kP a at a rate of
03
:
3
m =min and exits at 1 MP a pressure. If the isentropic efficiency of the compressor is
80 percent, determine: (a) the temperature of the refrigerant at the exit of the compressor
and (b) the power input, in kW.
 [59, 1.70]

## 17. A tank of air at 35

: bar and 350o C has a volume of 06
: m
3 . Heat transfer occurs from the
air to the atmosphere until the temperature of the air in the tank is 40o C . The surrounding
atmosphere is 15o C and 1 bar . Determine (a) the availability change of the air, and (b)
the irreversibility of the process including the heat-transfer region, both answers in kJ.
 [-975, 975]

18. One kg of steam with a quality of 20 percent is heated at a constant pressure of 200 kPa
until the temperature reaches 400o C. Calculate the work done by the steam.

19. An air-standard gas-turbine cycle operates with air entering the compressor at 100 kPa and
25 C. The pressure ratio is 7:1 and the air enters the turbine at 1100 K. The compressor
and turbine are 85 and 85 percent efficient, respectively. Compute the entropy generation
for (a) the compressor and (b) the turbine and (c) the cycle thermal efficiency assuming
the ideal-gas.
 [0.073 kJ/kg-K, 0.104 kJ/kg-K, 0.25]

20. Heat transfer from a 20o C kitchen to a block of 1.5 kg ice at -10o C melts it to liquid at
10o C. How much entropy is generated?