2017臺灣陸域爬行類

02 紅皮書名錄
The Red Lists of
Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017

行政院農業委員會特有生物研究保育中心
Endemic Species Research Institute, COA, EY, R.O.C. (Taiwan)

行政院農業委員會林務局
Forestry Bureau, COA, EY, R.O.C. (Taiwan)

作者 陳元龍 林德恩
Authors Yen-Long Chen Te-En Lin

林瑞興 楊正雄
Ruey-Shing Lin Cheng-Hsiung Yang
2017 臺灣陸域爬行類
紅皮書名錄
The Red Lists of Terrestrial
Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017
目錄
摘要 04

1 前言 05

2 評估流程 07
2.1 界定納入評估之分類群 07
2.2 資訊蒐集與初步評估 08

3 臺灣陸域爬行類評估結果 10
3.1 國家極度瀕危 (NCR) 類別陸域爬行類名錄 10
3.2 國家瀕危 (NEN) 類別陸域爬行類名錄 10
3.3 國家易危 (NVU) 類別陸域爬行類名錄 10
3.4 國家接近受脅 (NNT) 類別陸域爬行類名錄 11
3.5 數據缺乏 (DD) 類別陸域爬行類名錄 11
3.6 暫無危機 (LC) 類別陸域爬行類名錄 14

4 臺灣全球受脅陸域爬行類 18

5 謝誌 19

6 參考文獻 19
20
Contents
Abstract

1 Introduction 21

2 Assessment process 23
2.1 Defining the taxa to be included in the evaluation 23
2.2 Data collection and preliminary evaluation 24

Assessment results of terrestrial reptile
3 species of Taiwan
26
3.1 List of Nationally Critical terrestrial
26
reptile taxa in Taiwan
3.2 List of Nationally Endangered terrestrial
26
reptile taxa in Taiwan
3.3 List of Nationally Vulnerable terrestrial
26
reptile taxa in Taiwan
3.4 List of Nationally Near-threatened terrestrial
27
reptile taxa in Taiwan
3.5 The terrestrial reptile in category of
27
Data Deficient in Taiwan
3.6 The terrestrial reptile in category of
29
Least Concern in Taiwan

Globally Threatened terrestrial reptile
4 species of Taiwan
34

5 Acknowledgements 35

6 References 35

封面照片 / 目錄照片 /
Cuora flavomarginata Plestiodon chinensis leucostictus
食蛇龜 中國石龍子白斑亞種
Yellow-margined Box Turtle White-spotted Chinese Skinks
B1b(iii,iv)c(iv) DD
林德恩 / 攝 林德恩 / 攝
4 2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄

2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄
陳元龍、林德恩、林瑞興、楊正雄
1 行政院農業委員會特有生物研究保育中心
* 通訊作者 : dragon@tesri.gov.tw

摘要
本報告為臺灣第一次依據國際自然保育聯盟 (International Union for Conservation of
Nature) 建議類別與標準對所有原生陸域爬行類進行國家陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄評估。納
入評估候選爬行類共 94 種,其中 5 種外來種不適用 (Not Applicable) 區域評估篩選門檻,
89 種進入評估流程。結果臺灣有 5 種或亞種國家受脅 (Nationally Threatened) 爬行類,其
中屬國家極危 (Nationally Critical) 類別有 1 種,屬國家瀕危 (Nationally Endangered) 類別
有 2 種,屬國家易危 (Nationally Vulnerable) 類別有 2 種,有 4 種或亞種歸於國家接近受脅
(Nationally Near-threatened) 類別,另有 25 種或亞種屬於數據缺乏 (Data Deficient) 類別,
其餘 55 種屬暫無危機 (Least Concern) 類別。國家受脅、接近受脅及數據缺乏爬行類種數
分別占評估爬行類種數的 5.6%、4.5% 及 28.1%。另出現於臺灣的全球受脅爬行類有 7 種,
其中 3 種屬國家受脅,1 種屬國家接近受脅,3 種列於暫無危機。

暫無危機類別
不適用區域評估
篩選門檻 5 數據缺乏類別
接近受脅類別
評估候選 國家受脅類別
爬蟲類種數

94
進入評估流程爬蟲類

國家受脅種數
占評估爬行類種數 5.6 %
55 89 種或亞種
25

接近受脅種數
4.5 %
占評估爬行類種數
4
數據缺乏種數
28.1 % 5
占評估爬行類種數
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 5

1. 前言

物種或分類群 (taxon) 面臨滅絕的風險是保 2006;IUCN 2016),另其類別 ( 圖 1) 及評估標
育經營管理的重要課題。依據受威脅程度所列 準 (criteria),乃至後續發布的 IUCN 紅皮書名
出的清單是復育計畫、研究、監測與保育措施 錄地區及國家級評估標準應用指南,亦成為許
排列優先順序的參考依據,同時也是爭取社會 多國家評估其國境內受脅物種名錄的首要參考
支持棲地保護及輔助資源分配決策的重要工具 依據 (Townsend et al. 2007;IUCN 2012a)。藉
(Townsend et al. 2007)。 此標準化的評估方法,不僅有助於各國立法與
執法,也讓全球紅皮書評估涵蓋的物種更加完
由國際自然保育聯盟 (International Union
整 (Rodrigues et al. 2006)。
for Conservation of Nature, IUCN) 物 種 存
續 委 員 會 (Species Survival Commission) 負 如果一個國家或地區稱其國家或區域紅皮
責 的 IUCN 紅 皮 書 名 錄 (IUCN Red List of 書的產生是依據 IUCN 系統,那麼就必須無偏
Threatened Species), 自 1964 年 開 始 發 布 差地根據 IUCN 紅皮書類別及標準 (IUCN Red
以來,已逐步成為評估全球物種保育狀況與 List Categories and Criteria) 進 行 評 估 (IUCN
變化趨勢最重要的參考依據 (Rodrigues et al. 2012b)。而所謂區域 (region) 指的是地球範圍

圖 1. IUCN 國家或區域紅皮書類別。 滅絕 EX

野外滅絕 EW

區域滅絕 RE

受脅類別
滅絕風險

極危 CR
有適當資料
瀕危 EN

易危 VU

已評估
接近受脅 NT

暫無危機 LC
符合區域評估
資料缺乏 DD

所有欲評估物種 不適用 NA

未評估 NE
6 2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄

內,任何一個可明確界定的空間範圍,如大陸、
國家及州省等 (IUCN 2012a)。由全球至區域時,
對受脅物種評估而言,自然會產生原生或外來
種,繁殖或非繁殖物種,或如先前曾經分布,
但已局部滅絕的區域現象 (IUCN 2012a)。本報
告採用的評估標準與類別係依據 IUCN 紅皮書
名錄類別與標準 : 3.1 版 (IUCN 2012b)。然而,
由於空間尺度的關係,當前述標準應用於分布
不完全侷限於評估範圍的物種時,評估流程與
標準設定的閥值可能並不適當,因此必須有所
有調整。IUCN 紅皮書名錄地區及國家級評估
標準應用指南提供調整建議 (IUCN 2012a)。

臺灣現有 89 種原生陸域爬行類當中,有
36 種列於 IUCN 紅皮書 (IUCN 2016) 評估名單,
所占比例僅四成;然而,無論臺灣、東亞乃至
於全球的生物多樣性變化劇烈,亟需建立及更
新臺灣所有爬行類的受脅狀態。本報告主要蒐
集臺灣所有原生陸域爬行類的分布範圍,並配
合推估可能的族群趨勢、數量與受脅原因等資
訊,依據 IUCN 類別與標準評估各爬行類的最
新受脅狀態。

Japalura swinhonis
斯文豪氏攀蜥 Taiwan Japalure
LC
林德恩 / 攝
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 7

Hypsiscopus plumbea
鉛色水蛇 Boie's Mud Snake
NVU B1b(iii,iv)c(iii)
陳元龍 / 攝

2. 評估流 程

本報告臺灣各陸域爬行類種或亞種受脅狀態的評估流程與方法簡述如下:

2.1 界定納入評估之分類群
以 2016 年 The Reptile Database (Uetz (Critically Endangered, CR)、瀕危 (Endangered,
et al. 2016) 為基礎,參酌「臺灣兩棲爬行類圖 EN) 及易危 (Vulnerable, VU) 類別,同樣依據表
鑑」( 向等 2009) 及「蛇類大驚奇:55 個驚奇 1 標準進行篩選。94 種中,有 5 種不適用 (Not
主題 & 55 種臺灣蛇類圖鑑」( 杜 2004),將分 Applicable) 於區域評估篩選門檻,89 種進入評
布於臺灣之 94 種陸域爬行類列入候選評估。 估流程。
其次依據 IUCN 紅皮書名錄地區及國家級評估
評估的分類群原則為「種」,但國土範圍
標 準 應 用 指 南 (IUCN 2012a) 的 建 議 流 程, 排 內同時有特有亞種及其他亞種出現時則分別評
除外來物種,包括紅耳泥龜 Trachemys scripta 估。另繁殖與訪問 ( 遷徙且無繁殖 ) 族群可區分
elegans、多線真稜蜥 Eutropis multifasciata、 時,亦依據 IUCN 紅皮書名錄地區及國家級評
沙 氏 變 色 蜥 Anolis sagrei、 綠 鬣 蜥 Iguana 估 標 準 應 用 指 南 (IUCN 2012a) 之 建 議 分 別 評
iguana 及中國水龍 Physignathus cocincinus 等 估。若同時有外來種與原生種族群分布於國土
5 種。IUCN Red List 全球受脅物種,包含極危 範圍內,僅針對原生種族群進行評估。
8 2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄

2.2 資訊蒐集與初步評估
完成評估對象篩選後,依據 IUCN 評估標準 群 (Very small population), 以 及 E. 量 化 分 析
(IUCN 2012b) 製作每一受評估分類群的資料表。 (Quantitative analysis) 等五大標準及對應之次
資料表各欄位就所需資訊,盡量蒐集既有學術報 要 標 準 (Sub-criterion) 及 資 格 限 制 (Qualifiers)
告、研究報告、資料庫及相關專家意見等,除填 所構成之決策樹 (logic tree) 進行 ( 表 1)。每個
列數據同時載明資料來源並進行必要說明。 分類單元都會依所有標準進行評估,只要符合
任一條標準者,即列入受脅物種的類別,並在
本報告評估的空間範圍為中華民國實質控
文件報告中列出符合類別的標準及對應之次
制的陸、海領域,包括臺灣本島及周遭島嶼,
標 準。 至 於 若 無 法 符 合 極 危、 瀕 危 及 易 危 的
如澎湖、蘭嶼及綠島,及鄰近中國大陸的金門
類別,但已很接近或未來可能達到易危類別
及馬祖。
時,則列入接近受脅 (Near-threatened, NT) 類
每 一 受 評 分 類 群 均 依 照 IUCN 紅 皮 書 別。某一物種經過評估後,無法符合國家極危
名 錄 類 別 與 標 準 使 用 指 南:12 版 進 行 評 估 (Nationally Critically Endangered, NCR)、國家
(IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee 瀕 危 (Nationally Endangered, NEN) 及 國 家 易
2016)。評估流程係由包括:A. 快速族群下降 危 (Nationally Vulnerable, NVU) 的類別,但已
(Rapid population reduction)、B. 分 布 侷 限、 很接近或未來可能達到國家易危類別時,可列
碎裂化,同時存在族群下降或嚴重波動 (Small 入 國 家 接 近 受 脅 (Nationally Near-threatened,
range and fragmented, declining, or extreme NNT)。由於 IUCN 紅皮書名錄類別與標準並無
fluctuations)、C. 小 族 群 且 持 續 下 降 (Small 明確的接近受脅 (NT) 標準定義,本報告根據前
population and declining)、D. 非 常 小 的 族 述原則設定本報告國家接近受脅的標準 ( 表 1)。

表 1. IUCN 紅皮書受脅 ( 極危、瀕危、易危 ) 及接近受脅類別評估標準簡要內容。修正自 IUCN Standards and Petitions
Subcommittee (2016)

物種紅皮書受脅類別判定標準 極危 (CR) 瀕危 (EN) 易危 (VU) 接近受脅 (NT)

A. 族群量下降 ( 時間區間為 10 年或 3 個世代,以較長者為優先 )
A1 ≥ 90% ≥ 70% ≥ 50% ≥ 30%

A2, A3 & A4 ≥ 80% ≥ 50% ≥ 30% ≥ 20%

A1. 經由以下列舉任何方式所觀察、推估、推測或懷疑物種族群下降已經發生,而造成下降的原因明顯是可逆的且原因已
知並且停止:
(a) 直接觀察。[ A3 除外]
(b) 適合該分類群的物種豐度指數。
(c) 分布範圍、占有面積或棲地品質減少或下降。
(d) 實際或潛在的開發破壞。
(e) 直接觀察受外來種、雜交種、病原、污染源、競爭者或寄生物之影響。
A2. 經由 A1 所列舉任何方式所觀察、推估、推測或懷疑物種族群降低已經發生,但造成降低的原因仍未停止、不明或不
可逆。
A3. 經由 A1 所列舉任何方式所預估、推測或懷疑物種族群未來近期內會降低 ( 時間最長為 100 年 )。
A4. 經由 A1 所列舉任何方式所觀察、推估、推測或懷疑物種族群未來任何一段時間會降低,造成降低的原因仍未停止、
不明或不可逆。
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 9

物種紅皮書受脅類別判定標準 極危 (CR) 瀕危 (EN) 易危 (VU) 接近受脅 (NT)

B. 分布範圍之判定標準 ( 至少具備 B1 或 B2 其中之一的條件 )
B1. 分布範圍 (EOO) < 100 平方公里 < 5,000 平方公里 < 20,000 平方公里 <20,000 平方公里

B2. 占有面積 (AOO) < 10 平方公里 < 500 平方公里 < 2,000 平方公里 < 2,000 平方公里

且族群需遭遇以下至少兩種情況 ( 至少一種狀況適用於 NT 等級 )

(a) 嚴重破碎化或居留區數目為右
=1 ≤5 ≤ 10 ≤ 10
項數值者

(b) 經由觀察、推估、推測或預估,下列各項情況之一的數值仍持續下降者:(i) 分布範圍;(ii) 占有面積; (iii) 棲地之區域、
實際面積或品質;(iv) 生長地點或亞族群之數目;(v) 能繁殖之成熟個體數

(c) 下列各項情況其中之一的數值呈現劇烈變動時:(i) 分布範圍;(ii) 占有面積;(iii) 生長地點或亞族群之數目;(iv) 能繁
殖之成熟個體數

C. 族群量小且下降之判定標準
族群內之成熟個體數 < 250 < 2,500 < 10,000 <20,000

且具備 C1 或 C2 其中之一的條件

C1. 經由觀察、推估或預估物種族
3 年或下一代 5 年或下二代 10 年或下三代 10 年或下三代
群成熟個體數持續下降。
下降 25% 下降 20% 下降 10% 下降 10%
( 時間至少為未來 100 年 )

C2. 經由觀察、推估或預估,能繁殖之成熟個體數持續下降,而且其族群結構遭遇下列至少一種情況者:

a(i) 每個亞族群能繁殖之
≤ 50 ≤ 250 ≤ 1,000 ≤ 1,000
成熟個體數

a(ii) 成熟個體都生長在一個單獨的
90% 95% 100% 100%
小族群內所占比例

(b) 成熟個體呈現劇烈變動

D. 族群數量極少且分布侷限之判定標準
族群遭遇以下情況:

D. 成熟個體數 < 50 < 250 D1. < 1,000 D1. < 2,500

與/或遭遇以下情況:

D2. 出現面積受限或位於居留區的物 D2. D2.
種族群在未來有可能會面臨威脅,
使之受脅程度提升至極危或瀕危 NA NA 占有面積 < 20km2 占有面積 < 50km2
等級 ( 此準則只用於評估易危及接 或分布地點≤ 5 或分布地點≤ 10
近受脅等級 )。

E. 量化分析
10 年內或三個世代內 20 年內或五個世代內
100 年內在野外絕種之 100 年內在野外絕種之
在野外絕種之機率 在野外絕種之機率 在野外絕種之機率
機率超過 10% 機率超過 5%
超過 50% 超過 20%
10 2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄

3. 臺灣陸 域 爬 行 類 評 估 結 果

評估結果有 1 種為國家極度瀕危,2 種為 其餘 55 種屬暫無危機 (Least Concern) 類別。
國家瀕危,2 種為國家易危,合計有 5 種為國 各 分 類 群 的 學 名 及 英 文 俗 名 原 則 依 據 The
家受脅,另有 4 種或亞種屬國家接近受脅及 25 Reptile Database (Uetz et al. 2016)。 本 報 告
種或亞種資料缺乏 (Data Deficient),分別占評 所有爬行類評估資料及結果請聯繫通訊作者索
估爬行類種數 89 種的 5.6%、4.5% 及 28.1%, 取。

3.1 國家極度瀕危 (NCR) 類別陸域爬行類名錄 (1 種 )

臺灣占全球
分類群 評估標準 全球紅皮書類別
數量百分比
Mauremys reevesii
(Gray, 1831) B1ab(iii,iv) EN <1
金龜

3.2 國家瀕危 (NEN) 類別陸域爬行類名錄 (2 種 )

臺灣占全球
分類群 評估標準 全球紅皮書類別
數量百分比
Hebius miyajimae
(Maki, 1931) B1ab(iii,iv) VU 100
金絲蛇
Myrrophis chinensis
(GRAY, 1842) B1ab(iii,iv)c(iii) LC <1
唐水蛇

3.3 國家易危 (NVU) 類別陸域爬行類名錄 (2 種 )

臺灣占全球
分類群 評估標準 全球紅皮書類別
數量百分比
Cuora flavomarginata
(Gray, 1863) B1b(iii,iv)c(iv) EN 20
食蛇龜
Hypsiscopus plumbea
(Boie, 1827) B1b(iii,iv)c(iii) LC <1
鉛色水蛇
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 11

3.4 國家接近受脅 (NNT) 類別陸域爬行類名錄 (4 種 / 亞種 )

臺灣占全球
分類群 評估標準 全球紅皮書類別
數量百分比
Mauremys mutica mutica
Cantor, 1842 B1ab(iii,iv) EN 20
柴棺龜
Japalura makii
Ota, 1989 B1a NE 100
牧氏攀蜥
Emoia atrocostata
(Lesson, 1830) B1ab(iii) NE <1
沿岸島蜥
Sinonatrix percarinata suriki
(Maki, 1931) B1ab(iii) LC 100
白腹遊蛇

3.5 數據缺乏 (DD) 類別陸域爬行類名錄 (25 種 / 亞種 )

臺灣占全球
分類群 評估標準 全球紅皮書類別
數量百分比
Dopasia harti
(Boulenger, 1899) — NE <5
哈特氏蛇蜥
Japalura luei
Ota, Chen & Shang, 1998 — NE 100
呂氏攀蜥
Gehyra mutilata
(Wiegmann, 1834) — NE <1
截趾虎
Gekko kikuchii
(Oshima, 1912) — DD 100
菊池氏壁虎
Hemiphyllodactylus typus
Bleeker, 1860 — NE <1
半葉趾虎
Lepidodactylus lugubris
(Duméril & Bibron, 1836) — NE <1
鱗趾虎
Lepidodactylus yami
Ota, 1987 — NE 100
雅美鱗趾虎
12 2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄

3.5 數據缺乏 (DD) 類別陸域爬行類名錄(25 種 / 亞種) (續)

臺灣占全球
分類群 評估標準 全球紅皮書類別
數量百分比
Takydromus formosanus
Boulenger, 1894 — NE 100
臺灣草蜥
Takydromus luyeanus
Lue & Lin, 2008 — NE 100
鹿野草蜥
Takydromus sauteri
Van Denburgh, 1909 — NE 100
梭德氏草蜥
Takydromus septentrionalis
(Günther, 1864) — NE <1
北草蜥
Takydromus viridipunctatus
Lue & Lin, 2008 — NE 100
翠斑草蜥
Ateuchosaurus chinensis
Gray, 1845 — NE <1
中國光蜥
Eutropis cumingi
(Brown & Alcala, 1980) — NE <1
庫氏真稜蜥
Eutropis multicarinata borealis
(Brown & Alcala, 1980) — NE <1
多稜真棱蜥
Plestiodon chinensis chinensis
(Gray, 1838) — NE <1
中國石龍子指名亞種
Plestiodon chinensis leucostictus
Hikida, 1988 — NE 100
中國石龍子白斑亞種
Gonyosoma frenatus
(Gray, 1853) — NE <1
灰腹綠錦蛇
Oligodon ornatus
Van Denburgh, 1909 — LC <5
赤腹松柏根
Pareas atayal
You, Poyarkov & Lin, 2015 — NE 100
泰雅鈍頭蛇
Pareas formosensis
(Van Denburgh, 1909) — LC 100
臺灣鈍頭蛇
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 13

3.5 數據缺乏 (DD) 類別陸域爬行類名錄(25 種 / 亞種) (續)

臺灣占全球
分類群 評估標準 全球紅皮書類別
數量百分比
Pareas komaii
(Maki, 1931) — NE 100
駒井氏鈍頭蛇
Plagiopholis styani
(Boulenger, 1899) — LC <1
福建頸斑蛇
Sinonatrix annularis
(Hallowell, 1856) — NE <1
赤腹遊蛇
Python molurus
(Linnaeus, 1758) — NE <1
緬甸蟒

Hebius miyajimae
金絲蛇 Maki's Keelback
NEN B1ab(iii,iv)
陳元龍 / 攝
14 2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄

3.6 暫無危機 (LC) 類別陸域爬行類名錄(55 種 / 亞種)

臺灣占全球
分類群 評估標準 全球紅皮書類別
數量百分比
Mauremys sinensis
(Gray, 1834) — EN 20
斑龜
Pelodiscus sinensis
(Wiegmann, 1835) — VU <5
中華鱉
Japalura brevipes
Gressitt, 1936 — NE 100
短肢攀蜥
Japalura polygonata xanthostoma
Ota, 1991 — NE 100
黃口攀蜥
Japalura swinhonis
Günther, 1864 — NE 100
斯文豪氏攀蜥
Gekko hokouensis
Pope, 1928 — LC <5
鉛山壁虎
Hemidactylus bowringii
(Gray, 1845) — NE <5
無疣蝎虎
Hemidactylus frenatus
Duméril & Bibron, 1836 — LC <1
疣尾蝎虎
Hemidactylus stejnegeri
Ota & Hikida, 1989 — NE 20
史丹吉氏蝎虎
Takydromus hsuehshanensis
Lin & Cheng, 1981 — NE 100
雪山草蜥
Takydromus kuehnei kuehnei
Van Denburgh, 1909 — LC <5
古氏草蜥
Takydromus stejnegeri
Van Denburgh, 1912 — NE 100
蓬萊草蜥
Eutropis longicaudata
(Hallowell, 1857) — NE <5
長尾真稜蜥
Plestiodon chinensis formosensis
Van Denburgh, 1912 — NE 100
中國石龍子臺灣亞種
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 15

3.6 暫無危機 (LC) 類別陸域爬行類名錄(55 種 / 亞種) (續)

臺灣占全球
分類群 評估標準 全球紅皮書類別
數量百分比
Plestiodon elegans
(Boulenger, 1887) — NE <5
麗紋石龍子
Scincella formosensis
(Van Denburgh, 1912) — NE 100
臺灣滑蜥
Sphenomorphus incognitus
(Thompson, 1912) — NE <5
股鱗蜓蜥
Sphenomorphus indicus
(Gray, 1853) — NE <5
印度蜓蜥
Sphenomorphus taiwanensis
Chen & Lue, 1987 — NE 100
臺灣蜓蜥
Indotyphlops braminus
(Daudin, 1803) — NE <1
鉤盲蛇
Achalinus formosanus formosanus
Boulenger, 1908 — LC 100
臺灣標蛇
Achalinus niger
Maki, 1931 — LC 100
標蛇
Amphiesma stolatum
(Linnaeus, 1758) — NE <5
花浪蛇
Boiga kraepelini
Stejneger, 1902 — LC <5
大頭蛇
Calamaria pavimentata pavimentata
Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 — LC <5
鐵線蛇
Cyclophiops major
(Günther, 1858) — LC <5
青蛇
Elaphe carinata
(Günther, 1864) — NE <5
王錦蛇
Euprepiophis mandarinus
(Cantor, 1842) — LC <5
玉斑錦蛇
16 2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄

3.6 暫無危機 (LC) 類別陸域爬行類名錄(55 種 / 亞種) (續)

臺灣占全球
分類群 評估標準 全球紅皮書類別
數量百分比
Hebius sauteri
(Boulenger, 1909) — LC <5
梭德氏遊蛇
Lycodon rufozonatus rufozonatus
(Cantor, 1842) — NE <1
紅斑蛇
Lycodon ruhstrati ruhstrati
(Fischer, 1886) — LC <5
白梅花蛇
Macropisthodon rudis rudis
Boulenger, 1906 — LC <5
擬龜殼花
Oligodon formosanus
(Günther, 1872) — LC <5
赤背松柏根
Oreocryptophis porphyraceus kawakamii
(Oshima, 1911) — NE <1
紅竹蛇
Orthriophis taeniurus friesi
(Werner, 1927) — NE 100
臺灣黑眉錦蛇
Psammodynastes pulverulentus
(Boie, 1827) — NE <1
茶斑蛇
Pseudoxenodon stejnegeri stejnegeri
Barbour, 1908 — LC 100
史丹吉氏斜鱗蛇
Ptyas dhumnades
(Cantor, 1842) — NE <5
過山刀
Ptyas korros
(Schlegel, 1837) — NE <5
細紋南蛇
Ptyas mucosa
(Linnaeus, 1758) — NE <1
南蛇
Rhabdophis swinhonis
(Günther, 1868) — LC 100
斯文豪氏頸槽蛇
Rhabdophis tigrinus formosanus
(Maki 1931) — NE 100
虎斑頸槽蛇臺灣亞種
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 17

3.6 暫無危機 (LC) 類別陸域爬行類名錄(55 種 / 亞種) (續)

臺灣占全球
分類群 評估標準 全球紅皮書類別
數量百分比
Sibynophis chinensis chinensis
(Günther, 1889) — LC <5
黑頭蛇
Xenochrophis piscator
(Schneider, 1799) — NE <1
草花蛇
Bungarus multicinctus multicinctus
Blyth, 1861 — LC <5
雨傘節
Naja atra
Cantor, 1842 — VU <5
眼鏡蛇
Sinomicrurus hatori
(Takahashi, 1930) — NE 100
羽鳥氏帶紋赤蛇
Sinomicrurus macclellandi swinhoei
Van Denburgh, 1912 — NE 100
環紋赤蛇
Sinomicrurus sauteri
(Steindachner, 1913) — LC 100
梭德氏帶紋赤蛇
Daboia siamensis
(Smith, 1917) — LC <5
鎖蛇
Deinagkistrodon acutus
(Günther, 1888) — NE <5
百步蛇
Ovophis makazayazaya
(Takahashi, 1922) — LC <5
瑪家山龜殼花
Protobothrops mucrosquamatus
(Cantor, 1839) — LC <5
龜殼花
Trimeresurus gracilis
Oshima, 1920 — LC 100
菊池氏龜殼花
Trimeresurus stejnegeri stejnegeri
Schmidt, 1925 — NE <5
赤尾青竹絲
18 2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄

4. 臺灣全 球 受 脅 陸 域 爬 行 類(7 種 / 亞種)

本報告納入評估候選之 89 種陸域爬行類中有 7 種為全球受脅陸域爬行類,其中 3 種屬國家受脅,
1 種屬國家接近受脅,其餘 3 種在臺灣列於暫無危機 (LC)。

臺灣占全球
分類群 國家紅皮書類別 全球紅皮書類別
數量百分比
Cuora flavomarginata
(Gray, 1863) VU EN 20
食蛇龜
Mauremys mutica mutica
Cantor, 1842 NT EN 20
柴棺龜
Mauremys reevesii
(Gray, 1831) CR EN <1
金龜
Mauremys sinensis
(Gray, 1834) LC EN <5
斑龜
Pelodiscus sinensis
(Wiegmann, 1835) LC VU <5
中華鱉
Hebius miyajimae
(Maki, 1931) EN VU 100
金絲蛇
Naja atra
Cantor, 1842 LC VU <5
眼鏡蛇

Mauremys sinensis
斑龜 Chinese Striped-necked Turtle
LC
陳元龍 / 攝
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 19

5. 謝誌

作者誠摯感謝林春富提供修正建議。感謝林毅倫、陳昱凱、陳志耘、范素瑋協助評估資訊蒐集
及整理。感謝 Mark Bruce Wilkie 協助英文編輯。

6. 參考文 獻

向高世、李鵬翔、楊懿如。2009。台灣兩棲爬行類圖鑑。貓頭鷹,臺北。

杜銘章。2004。蛇類大驚奇:55 個驚奇主題 & 55 種臺灣蛇類圖鑑。遠流出版事業股份有限公司。臺北。

IUCN. 2012a. Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels: Version 4.0.
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2012b. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. Second edition. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland
and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>.
Downloaded on 04 September 2016.

IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. 2016. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and
Criteria. Version. 12. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 November 2016.

Rodrigues, A. S. L., J. D. Pilgrim, J. F. Lamoreux, M. Hoffmann, and T. M. Brooks. 2006. The value of the IUCN
Red List for conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21:71-76.

Townsend, A. J., P. J. de Lange, C. A. J. Duffy, C. M. Miskelly, J. Molloy, and D. A. Norton. 2007. New Zealand
Threat Classification System manual. Science & Technical Publishing, Department of Conservation,
Wellington, New Zealand.

Uetz, P., P. Freed, and Jirí Hošek (eds.), The Reptile Database, http://www.reptile-database.org, accessed Aug
20, 2016.

Mauremys reevesii
金龜 Reeves' Turtle
NCR Blab(iii,iv)
陳元龍 / 攝
20 2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄

The Red List of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017
Yen-Long Chen, Te-En Lin, Ruey-Shing Lin and Cheng-Hsiung Yang
1 Endemic Species Research Institute, Jiji, Nantou, Taiwan
* Corresponding author: dragon@tesri.gov.tw

Abstract
This report is the first to adopt the categories and criteria suggested by the International
Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to evaluate terrestrial reptile species listed in the Red
List of Reptiles of Taiwan. The 94 reptile species on the red list were adopted as candidates
for evaluation. Five of the species were excluded because they were listed as “not applicable”
for region-based evaluations. Therefore, a total of 89 species were selected for evaluation.
The outcomes highlighted five species or subspecies as nationally threatened (NTH), one in
the nationally critically endangered (NCR) category, two in the nationally endangered (NEN)
category, and two in the nationally vulnerable (NVU) category. Four species or subspecies
were placed in the nationally near-threatened (NNT) category, 25 species or subspecies were
placed in the data deficient (DD) category, and 55 species or subspecies were placed in the
least concern (LC) category. The species in the NTH, NNT, and DD categories comprised 5.6%,
4.5%, and 28.1% of all the species evaluated. Seven species were discovered to be globally
threatened: three in the NTH category, 1 in the NNT category, and 3 in the LC category.

Least Concern

5
Data Deficient
Not Applicable
Near Threatened
Nationally Threatened
Candidate
Species

94 Subsequent
Evaluation

Percent of
the NTH species 5.6 % 55 89 Taxa
25

Percent of
the NNT species 4.5 %
4
Percent of
28.1 % 5
the DD species
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 21

1. Introduction

Taxa at risk of extinction are the key focus categories (Fig 1), assessment criteria as well as the
of conservation management. Lists compiled regional guidelines published by the IUCN have
based on threat level are crucial references for been adopted by many countries as the primary
the prioritization of restoration projects, research, basis for listing threatened species in their own
monitoring, and conservation measures. These lists territories (Townsend et al. 2007; IUCN 2012a).
are also essential tools to garner societal support Standardized evaluation methods not only help
for habitat conservation and to formulate decisions countries form and enforce laws but also enhance
concerning the allocation of supplementary the comprehensiveness of the assessment of
resources (Townsend et al. 2007). species on the red list (Rodrigues et al. 2006).

The Species Survival Commission of the Countries that establish national and regional
International Union for Conservation of Nature red lists based on the IUCN system inevitably
(IUCN) is responsible for compiling the IUCN conduct relevant evaluations based on the
Red List of Threatened Species. Since its first IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (IUCN
publication in 1964, the list has gradually become 2012b). A region is any clearly defined space on
a key reference for assessing the conditions and the planet, such as a stretch of land, a country,
trends of threatened species on a global scale or a province (IUCN 2012a). When the status
(Rodrigues et al. 2006; IUCN 2016). Moreover, the assessment is redirected from the global scale to

Fig.1. The regional IUCN Red List categories. Extinct EX

Extinct in the Wild EW

Regionally Extinct RE

Threatened categories
Extinction risk

Critically Endangered CR
Adequate data
Endangered EN

Vulnerable VU

Evaluated
Near Threatened NT

Least Concern LC
Eligible for Regional
Assessment
Data Deficient DD

All Species Not Applicable NA

Not Evaluated NE
22 2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄

a local level, issues such as native or alien species, Among the 89 terrestrial reptiles native
breeding or nonbreeding populations, and locally to Taiwan, 36 appear on the IUCN Red List
extinct species naturally emerge (IUCN 2012a). of Threatened Species (IUCN 2016), which is
This report adopts the evaluation criteria and approximately 40% of the native species. However,
categories listed in the IUCN Red List Categories the diversity of species in Taiwan, East Asia, and
and Criteria:Version 3.1 (IUCN 2012b). However, the world is currently undergoing a drastic change.
when these criteria are applied to species Therefore, the threat to Taiwanese reptile species
that are not found only in the defined spatial should be assessed and updated. This study
area, the evaluation procedures and standard determined the distribution of native terrestrial
thresholds may become inappropriate and require reptile species in Taiwan, examined potential
adjustment. Adjustment suggestions are proposed population trends and sizes, identified why these
in the Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List species were threatened, and adopted IUCN
Criteria at Regional and National Levels (IUCN categories and criteria to evaluate the latest threat
2012a). conditions of various reptile species.

Deinagkistrodon acutus
百步蛇 Chinese Moccasin
LC
陳元龍 / 攝
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 23

2. Assessment process

The method and procedures used to evaluate the threat levels of various Taiwanese terrestrial reptile
species and subspecies are described herein.:

2.1 Defining the Taxa to Be Included in the Evaluation
Based on the 2016 Reptile Database (Uetz (VU) (Table 1). Among the 94 species, 5 were listed
et al., 2016), Colored Illustrations of Amphibians as “not applicable” for region-based evaluations.
and Reptiles of Taiwan (Hsiang et al., 2009), and Therefore, 89 species were selected for evaluation.
Big Surprises Concerning Snakes: Fifty-Five
“Species” was adopted as the unit of
Surprising Themes and Fifty-Five Kinds of Snakes
classification. However, endemic subspecies were
in Taiwan (Tu 2004), 94 terrestrial reptiles from all
evaluated independently. Moreover, breeding and
over Taiwan were adopted as the candidates for
visiting (migration without mating) populations
evaluation. The evaluation procedures suggested
that were clearly distinguishable were evaluated
in the Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List
separately, as suggested in the Guidelines for
Criteria at Regional and National Levels (IUCN
Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional
2012a) were used to exclude invasive species,
and National Levels (IUCN 2012a). Only the native
including the Trachemys scripta elegans, Eutropis
population were evaluated when both native and
multifasciata , Anolis sagrei, Iguana iguana, and
invasive populations were located in the same
Physignathus cocincinus. The IUCN characterizes
region.
the global threat to its red list species as critically
endangered (CR), endangered (EN), or vulnerable

Emoia atrocostata
沿岸島蜥 Mangrove Skink
NNT
范孟雯 / 攝
24 2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄

2.2 Data collection and preliminary evaluation
After the species for evaluation were Small range and fragmented, declining, or extreme
confirmed, a data table was created for each fluctuations; C. Small population and declining; D.
targeted species according to the IUCN criteria Very small population; and E. Quantitative analysis)
(IUCN 2012b). Relevant data from academic and numerous sub-criteria and qualifiers (Table 1).
papers, research reports, databases, and expert Each taxon was analyzed against each criterion and
opinions were entered into the datasheet and listed as endangered if they satisfied one or more
necessary explanations were recorded. of the criteria. The taxa were then listed under the
appropriate categories, and corresponding criteria
The spatial scope evaluated in this report was
and sub-criteria were listed under each taxon. Taxa
the terrestrial area where the Republic of China that did not belong to the CR, EN, or VU categories
exerts substantial dominance, namely Taiwan but approximated or may potentially reach the
Island and its outlying islands and island groups VU level were listed in the near-threatened (NT)
such as Penghu, Orchid Island, Green Island, category. Taxa that did not belong to the NCR,
Kinmen, and Matsu; the latter two islet groups are NEN, or NVU (nationally CR, EN, or VU) categories
geographically proximate to China. but approximated or may potentially reach the
NVU level were listed in the nationally near-
Each taxon was evaluated in accordance threatened (NNT) category. Because the IUCN Red
with the Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List List Categories and Criteria does not provide a
Categories and Criteria Version 12 (IUCN Standards clear standard for NNT, the aforementioned criteria
and Petitions Subcommittee 2016). The evaluation established in this report were used to create the
items were compiled into a logic tree comprising NNT criteria (Table 1).
five major criteria (A. Rapid population reduction; B.

Table 1. A simplified overview of Red List criteria adopted in this study. Modified from IUCN Standards and Petitions
Subcommittee (2016)

Use any of the criteria A-E Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near Threatened

A. Population size reduction (declines measured over the longer of 10 years or 3 generations)
A1 ≥ 90% ≥ 70% ≥ 50% ≥ 30%

A2, A3 & A4 ≥ 80% ≥ 50% ≥ 30% ≥ 20%

A1. Population reduction observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected in the past where the causes of the reduction are clearly
reversible AND understood AND have ceased, based on and specifying any of the following:
(a)
direct observation. [except A3]
(b)
an index of abundance appropriate to the taxon.
(c)
a decline in area of occupancy (AOO), extent of occurrence (EOO) and/or habitat quality.
(d)
actual or potential levels of exploitation.
(e)
effects of introduced taxa, hybridization, pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites.
A2. Population reduction observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected in the past where the causes of the reduction may not have
ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible.
A3. Population reduction projected, inferred or suspected to be met in the future (up to a maximum of 100 years) [(a) cannot be used
for A3]
A4. An observed, estimated, inferred, projected or suspected population reduction where the time period must include both the
past and the future (up to a max. of 100 years in future), and where the causes of reduction may not have ceased OR may not be
understood OR may not be reversible.
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 25

Use any of the criteria A-E Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near Threatened

B. Geographic range in the form of either B1 (extent of occurrence) AND/OR B2 (area of occupancy)
B1. Extent of occurrence (EOO) < 100 km2 < 5,000 km2 < 20,000 km2 < 20,000 km2

B2. Area of occupancy (AOO) < 10 km2 < 500 km2 < 2,000 km2 < 2,000 km2

AND at least 2 of the following 3 conditions (at least one for Near-threatened category):

(a) Severely fragmented OR #
=1 ≤5 ≤ 10 ≤ 10
locations

(b) Continuing decline observed, estimated, inferred or projected in any of: (i) extent of occurrence; (ii) area of occupancy; (iii) area,
extent and/or quality of habitat; (iv) number of locations or subpopulations; (v) number of mature individuals

(c) Extreme fluctuations in any of: (i) extent of occurrence; (ii) area of occupancy; (iii) number of locations or subpopulations; (iv)
number of mature individuals

C. Small population size and decline
Number of mature individuals < 250 < 2,500 < 10,000 < 20,000

AND at least one of C1 or C2

C1. An observed, estimated or
projected continuing decline 25% in 3 years 20% in 5 years 10% in 10 years 10% in 10 years
of at least (up to a max. of or 1 generation or 2 generations or 3 generations or 3 generations
100 years in future):

C2. An observed, estimated, projected or inferred continuing decline AND at least one of the following 3 conditions:

a(i) Number of mature individuals
≤ 50 ≤ 250 ≤ 1000 ≤ 1000
in each subpopulation

a(ii) % of mature individuals in
90% 95% 100% 100%
one subpopulation =

(b) Extreme fluctuations in the number of mature individuals

D. Very small or restricted population Either:
D. Number of mature individuals < 50 < 250 D1. < 1000 D1. < 2500

AND/OR

D2. Only applies to the VU and D2. D2.
NT category
Restricted area of occupancy
or number of locations with NA NA AOO < 20 km2 or AOO < 50 km2 or
a plausible futrue threat that number of locations ≤ 5 number of locations ≤ 10
could drive the taxon to CR
or EX in a very short time.

E. Quantitative Analysis
≥ 50% in 10 years ≥ 20% in 20 years
Indicating the probability of
or 3 generations or 5 generations ≥ 10% in 100 years ≥ 5% in 100 years
extinction in the wild to be:
(100 year max.) (100 year max.)
26 2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄

3. Assessment results of terrestrial reptile
species of Taiwan

The outcomes highlighted five species or categories comprised 5.6%, 4.5% and 28.1%. The
subspecies as nationally threatened: one in the remaining 55 species or subspecies were in the LC
NCR category, two in the NEN category, and two category. The scientific and common names of the
in the NVU category. Four species or subspecies taxa were obtained from the Reptile Database (Uetz
were placed in the NNT category and 25 species or et al., 2016). The evaluation data and outcomes
subspecies were placed in the DD category. Thus, summarized in this report are available from the
of the 89 species evaluated, the NTH, NNT, and DD corresponding author.

3.1 Nationally Critically Endangered Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in Taiwan (One Specie)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Mauremys reevesii
(Gray, 1831) B1ab(iii,iv) EN <1
Reeves' Turtle

3.2 Nationally Endangered Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in Taiwan (Two Species)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Hebius miyajimae
(Maki, 1931) B1ab(iii,iv) VU 100
Maki's Keelback

Myrrophis chinensis
(GRAY, 1842) B1ab(iii,iv)c(iii) LC <1
Chinese Mud Snake

3.3 Nationally Vulnerable Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in Taiwan (Two Species)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Cuora flavomarginata
(Gray, 1863) B1b(iii,iv)c(iv) EN 20
Yellow-margined Box Turtle

Hypsiscopus plumbea
(Boie, 1827) B1b(iii,iv)c(iii) LC <1
Boie's Mud Snake
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 27

3.4 Nationally Near-Threatened Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in Taiwan (Four Species/Subspecies)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Mauremys mutica mutica
Cantor, 1842 B1ab(iii,iv) EN 20
Yellow Pond Turtle

Japalura makii
Ota, 1989 B1a NE 100
Ota's Japalure

Emoia atrocostata
(Lesson, 1830) B1ab(iii) NE <1
Mangrove Skink

Sinonatrix percarinata suriki
(Maki 1931) B1ab(iii) LC 100
Eastern Water Snake

3.5 Taiwan Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in the Data Deficient Category (25 Species/Subspecies)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Dopasia harti
(Boulenger, 1899) — NE <5
Hart's Glass Lizard

Japalura luei
Ota, Chen & Shang, 1998 — NE 100
Lue's Japalura

Gehyra mutilata
(Wiegmann, 1834) — NE <1
Four-clawed Gecko

Gekko kikuchii
(Oshima, 1912) — DD 100
Botel Gecko

Hemiphyllodactylus typus
Bleeker, 1860 — NE <1
Tree Gecko

Lepidodactylus lugubris
(Duméril & Bibron, 1836) — NE <1
Mourning Gecko

Lepidodactylus yami
Ota, 1987 — NE 100
Lanyu Scaly-toed Gecko
28 2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄

3.5 Taiwan Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in the Data Deficient Category (25 Species/Subspecies)
(cont.)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Takydromus formosanus
Boulenger, 1894 — NE 100
Formosa Grass Lizard

Takydromus luyeanus
Lue & Lin, 2008 — NE 100
Luyea Grass Lizard

Takydromus sauteri
Van Denburgh, 1909 — NE 100
Koshun Grass Lizard

Takydromus septentrionalis
(Günther, 1864) — NE <1
China Grass Lizard

Takydromus viridipunctatus
Lue & Lin, 2008 — NE 100
Grass Lizard

Ateuchosaurus chinensis
Gray, 1845 — NE <1
Chinese Short-limbed skink

Eutropis cumingi
(Brown & Alcala, 1980) — NE <1
Cuming's Mabuya

Eutropis multicarinata borealis
(Brown & Alcala, 1980) — NE <1
Multi-keeled Mabuya

Plestiodon chinensis chinensis
(Gray, 1838) — NE <1
Chinese Blue-tailed Skink

Plestiodon chinensis leucostictus
Hikida, 1988 — NE 100
White-spotted Chinese Skink

Gonyosoma frenatus
(Gray, 1853) — NE <1
Gray-bellied Green Rat Snake

Oligodon ornatus
Van Denburgh, 1909 — LC <5
Ornate Kukri Snake

Pareas atayal
You, Poyarkov & Lin, 2015 — NE 100
Atayal Slug-eating Snake
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 29

3.5 Taiwan Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in the Data Deficient Category (25 Species/Subspecies)
(cont.)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Pareas formosensis
(Van Denburgh, 1909) — LC 100
Formosa Slug Snake

Pareas komaii
(Maki, 1931) — NE 100
Komai's Slug Snake

Plagiopholis styani
(Boulenger, 1899) — LC <1
Chinese Mountain Snake

Sinonatrix annularis
(Hallowell, 1856) — NE <1
Ringed Water Snake

Python molurus
(Linnaeus, 1758) — NE <1
Indian Rock Python

3.6 Taiwan Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in the Category of Least Concern (55 Species/Subspecies)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Mauremys sinensis
(Gray, 1834) — EN 20
Chinese Striped-necked Turtle

Pelodiscus sinensis
(Wiegmann, 1835) — VU <5
Chinese Softshelled Turtle

Japalura brevipes
Gressitt, 1936 — NE 100
Short-legged Japalure

Japalura polygonata xanthostoma
Ota, 1991 — NE 100
Ryukyu Japalure

Japalura swinhonis
Günther, 1864 — NE 100
Taiwan Japalure

Gekko hokouensis
Pope, 1928 — LC <5
Kwangsi Gecko
30 2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄

3.6 Taiwan Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in the Category of Least Concern (55 Species/Subspecies)
(cont.)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Hemidactylus bowringii
(Gray, 1845) — NE <5
Sikkimese Dark-spotted Gecko

Hemidactylus frenatus
Duméril & Bibron, 1836 — LC <1
Common House Gecko

Hemidactylus stejnegeri
Ota & Hikida, 1989 — NE 20
Stejneger's Leaftoed Gecko

Takydromus hsuehshanensis
Lin & Cheng, 1981 — NE 100
Hsuehshan's Grass Lizard

Takydromus kuehnei kuehnei
Van Denburgh, 1909 — LC <5
Kuhne's Grass Lizard

Takydromus stejnegeri
Van Denburgh, 1912 — NE 100
Stejneger's Grass Lizard

Eutropis longicaudata
(Hallowell, 1857) — NE <5
Longtail Mabuya

Plestiodon chinensis formosensis
Van Denburgh, 1912 — NE 100
Formosan Chinese Skink

Plestiodon elegans
(Boulenger, 1887) — NE <5
Shanghai Elegant Skink

Scincella formosensis
(Van Denburgh, 1912) — NE 100
Van Denburgh's Ground Skink

Sphenomorphus incognitus
(Thompson, 1912) — NE <5
Taiwan Smooth Skink

Sphenomorphus indicus
(Gray, 1853) — NE <5
Indian Forest Skink

Sphenomorphus taiwanensis
Chen & Lue, 1987 — NE 100
Taiwan Alpine Skink
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 31

3.6 Taiwan Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in the Category of Least Concern (55 Species/Subspecies)
(cont.)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Indotyphlops braminus
(Daudin, 1803) — NE <1
Brahminy Blindsnake

Achalinus formosanus formosanus
Boulenger, 1908 — LC 100
Formosa Odd-scaled Snake

Achalinus niger
Maki, 1931 — LC 100
Black Odd-scaled Snake

Amphiesma stolatum
(Linnaeus, 1758) — NE <5
Buff Striped Keelback

Boiga kraepelini
Stejneger, 1902 — LC <5
Square-headed Cat Snake

Calamaria pavimentata pavimentata
Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 — LC <5
Brown Reed Snake

Cyclophiops major
(Günther, 1858) — LC <5
Greater Green Snake

Elaphe carinata
(Günther, 1864) — NE <5
Taiwan Stink Snake

Euprepiophis mandarinus
(Cantor, 1842) — LC <5
Mandarin Ratsnake

Hebius sauteri
(Boulenger, 1909) — LC <5
Sauter's Keelback

Lycodon rufozonatus rufozonatus
(Cantor, 1842) — NE <1
Red-banded Snake

Lycodon ruhstrati ruhstrati
(Fischer, 1886) — LC <5
Rushstrat's Wolf Snake

Macropisthodon rudis rudis
Boulenger, 1906 — LC <5
False Habu
32 2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄

3.6 Taiwan Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in the Category of Least Concern (55 Species/Subspecies)
(cont.)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Oligodon formosanus
(Günther, 1872) — LC <5
Formosa Kukri Snake

Oreocryptophis porphyraceus kawakamii
(Oshima, 1911) — NE <1
Red Bamboo Snake

Orthriophis taeniurus friesi
(Werner, 1927) — NE 100
Taiwan Beauty Snake

Psammodynastes pulverulentus
(Boie, 1827) — NE <1
Common Mock Viper

Pseudoxenodon stejnegeri stejnegeri
Barbour, 1908 — LC 100
Stejneger's Bamboo Snake

Ptyas dhumnades
(Cantor, 1842) — NE <5
Keel-backed Rat Snake

Ptyas korros
(Schlegel, 1837) — NE <5
Indo-Chinese Rat Snake

Ptyas mucosa
(Linnaeus, 1758) — NE <1
Oriental Ratsnake

Rhabdophis swinhonis
(Günther, 1868) — LC 100
Taiwan Keelback

Rhabdophis tigrinus formosanus
(Maki 1931) — NE 100
Formosan Tiger Keelback

Sibynophis chinensis chinensis
(Günther, 1889) — LC <1
Chinese Many-tooth Snake

Xenochrophis piscator
(Schneider, 1799) — NE <1
Asiatic Water Snakes

Bungarus multicinctus multicinctus
Blyth, 1861 — LC <5
Many-banded Krait
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 33

3.6 Taiwan Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in the Category of Least Concern (55 Species/Subspecies)
(cont.)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Naja atra
Cantor, 1842 — VU <5
Chinese Cobra

Sinomicrurus hatori
(Takahashi, 1930) — NE 100
Hatori's Chinese Coral Snake

Sinomicrurus macclellandi swinhoei
Van Denburgh, 1912 — NE 100
MacClelland's Coral Snake

Sinomicrurus sauteri
(Steindachner, 1913) — LC 100
Oriental Coral Snake

Daboia siamensis
(Smith, 1917) — LC <5
Eastern Russell's Viper

Deinagkistrodon acutus
(Günther, 1888) — NE <5
Chinese Moccasin

Ovophis makazayazaya
(Takahashi, 1922) — LC <5
Taiwan Mountain Pitviper

Protobothrops mucrosquamatus
(Cantor, 1839) — LC <5
Brown Spotted Pitviper

Trimeresurus gracilis
Oshima, 1920 — LC 100
Taiwan Pit Viper

Trimeresurus stejnegeri stejnegeri
Schmidt, 1925 — NE <5
Chinese Green Tree Viper

Japalura makii
牧氏攀蜥 Ota's Japalure
NNT
林德恩 / 攝
34 2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄

4. Globally Threatened Terrestrial Reptile Taxa of Taiwan
(Seven Species/Subspecies)
A total of 89 terrestrial reptile species were adopted as candidates for evaluation, among which seven
were globally threatened: three in the NTH category, one in the NNT category, and three in the LC category.

National Red List Proportion (%)
Taxon name Global Red List Category
Category of Global Population

Cuora flavomarginata
(Gray, 1863) VU EN 20
Yellow-margined Box Turtle

Mauremys mutica mutica
Cantor, 1842 NT EN 20
Yellow pond Turtle

Mauremys reevesii
(Gray, 1831) CR EN <1
Reeves' Turtle

Mauremys sinensis
(Gray, 1834) LC EN <5
Chinese Striped-necked Turtle

Pelodiscus sinensis
(Wiegmann, 1835) LC VU <5
Chinese Softshelled Turtle

Hebius miyajimae
(Maki, 1931) EN VU 100
Maki's Keelback

Naja atra
Cantor, 1842 LC VU <5
Chinese Cobra

Takydromus sauteri
梭德氏草蜥♀ Koshun Grass Lizard
DD
林德恩 / 攝
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 35

5. Acknowledgements
We would like to extend our sincerest gratitude to Chun-Fu Lin for providing revision suggestions. We
would also like to thank Yi-Lun Lin, Yu-Kai Chen, Chih-Yun Chen, and Su-Wei Fan for their assistance in the
collection and collation of the evaluation data. We also thank Mark Bruce Wilkie for his help editing the
English.

6. References
Hsiang, K. S., Lee, P. H., and Yang, Y. R., 2009. Colored Illustrations of Amphibians and Reptiles of Taiwan.
Owl Publishing House: Taipei. (in Chinese)

Tu, M. C., 2004. Big Surprises Concerning Snakes: Fifty-Five Surprising Themes and Fifty-Five Kinds of Snakes
in Taiwan. Yuan-Liou Publishing Co., Ltd.: Taipei. (in Chinese)

IUCN. 2012a. Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels: Version 4.0.
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2012b. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. Second edition. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland
and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>.
Downloaded on 04 September 2016.

IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. 2016. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and
Criteria. Version. 12. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 November 2016.

Rodrigues, A. S. L., J. D. Pilgrim, J. F. Lamoreux, M. Hoffmann, and T. M. Brooks. 2006. The value of the IUCN
Red List for conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21:71-76.

Townsend, A. J., P. J. de Lange, C. A. J. Duffy, C. M. Miskelly, J. Molloy, and D. A. Norton. 2007. New Zealand
Threat Classification System manual. Science & Technical Publishing, Department of Conservation,
Wellington, New Zealand.

Uetz, P., P. Freed, and Jirí Hošek (eds.), The Reptile Database, http://www.reptile-database.org, accessed Aug
20, 2016.
2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017

發行人 方國運、林華慶
作者 陳元龍、林德恩、林瑞興、楊正雄
出版 行政院農業委員會特有生物研究保育中心
行政院農業委員會林務局
地址 55244 臺灣南投縣集集鎮民生東路 1 號

美編設計 天晴文化事業
地址 708 臺南市安平區健康路三段 326 號
電話 06-2933266

出版年月 2017 年 7 月
ISBN 978-986-05-1347-9
GPN 1010601060
定價 新臺幣 100 元
本報告依據 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
License 授權,使用者可進行重製散布、重混、調整,以及依原
著作建立新著作 ( 包括商業與非商業性利用 ),惟使用時必須引用
按照指定方式註明來源。

Publisher Kuo-Yun Fang, Hwa-Ching Lin
Authors Yen-Long Chen, Te-En Lin, Ruey-Shing Lin and Cheng-Hsiung Yang
Published by Endemic Species Research Institute, COA, EY, R.O.C.(Taiwan)
Forestry Bureau, COA, EY, R.O.C.(Taiwan)

Address No. 1, Ming-Shen East Road, Jiji Township, Nantou County, 55244, Taiwan

Art Designed by Dawn Cultural Enterprise 1
Address No. 326, Sec. 3, Jiankang Road, Anping District, Tainan City, 708, Taiwan 2
Telphone 06-2933266 封底照片 / 3
4
Published Date July, 2017 1 Japalura swinhonis
ISBN 978-986-05-1347-9 斯文豪氏攀蜥 Taiwan Japalure
GPN 1010601060 LC
Price NT100
林德恩 / 攝
This report is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
International License, and may on a non-exclusive basis be reproduced
without fee provided the credit is clear and visible.
2 Takydromus sauteri
梭德氏草蜥 Koshun Grass Lizard
DD
林德恩 / 攝

3 Mauremys mutica mutica
柴棺龜 Yellow Pond Turtle
NNT
陳元龍 / 攝
引用方式 陳元龍、林德恩、林瑞興、楊正雄。2017。
2017 臺灣陸域爬行類紅皮書名錄。 4 Deinagkistrodon acutus
行政院農業委員會特有生物研究保育中心,行政院農業委員會林 百步蛇 Chinese Moccasin
務局。南投。
LC
Citation Chen, Y.-L., T.-E. Lin, R.-S. Lin, and C.-H. Yang. 2017. The Red Lists of
陳元龍 / 攝
Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017.
Endemic Species Research Institute and Forestry Bureau,
Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, Nantou, Taiwan.
臺灣紅皮書名錄系列
Red Lists of Taiwan Ser ies 02

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