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2017

02
The Red Lists of
Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017


Endemic Species Research Institute, COA, EY, R.O.C. (Taiwan)


Forestry Bureau, COA, EY, R.O.C. (Taiwan)


Authors Yen-Long Chen Te-En Lin


Ruey-Shing Lin Cheng-Hsiung Yang
2017

The Red Lists of Terrestrial
Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017

04

1 05

2 07
2.1 07
2.2 08

3 10
3.1 (NCR) 10
3.2 (NEN) 10
3.3 (NVU) 10
3.4 (NNT) 11
3.5 (DD) 11
3.6 (LC) 14

4 18

5 19

6 19
20
Contents
Abstract

1 Introduction 21

2 Assessment process 23
2.1 Defining the taxa to be included in the evaluation 23
2.2 Data collection and preliminary evaluation 24

Assessment results of terrestrial reptile


3 species of Taiwan
26
3.1 List of Nationally Critical terrestrial
26
reptile taxa in Taiwan
3.2 List of Nationally Endangered terrestrial
26
reptile taxa in Taiwan
3.3 List of Nationally Vulnerable terrestrial
26
reptile taxa in Taiwan
3.4 List of Nationally Near-threatened terrestrial
27
reptile taxa in Taiwan
3.5 The terrestrial reptile in category of
27
Data Deficient in Taiwan
3.6 The terrestrial reptile in category of
29
Least Concern in Taiwan

Globally Threatened terrestrial reptile


4 species of Taiwan
34

5 Acknowledgements 35

6 References 35

/ /
Cuora flavomarginata Plestiodon chinensis leucostictus

Yellow-margined Box Turtle White-spotted Chinese Skinks
B1b(iii,iv)c(iv) DD
/ /
4 2017

2017

1
* : dragon@tesri.gov.tw


(International Union for Conservation of
Nature)
94 5 (Not Applicable)
89 5 (Nationally Threatened)
(Nationally Critical) 1 (Nationally Endangered)
2 (Nationally Vulnerable) 2 4
(Nationally Near-threatened) 25 (Data Deficient)
55 (Least Concern)
5.6%4.5% 28.1% 7
3 1 3

94


5.6 %
55 89
25


4.5 %

4

28.1 % 5

The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 5

1.

(taxon) 2006IUCN 2016) ( 1)


(criteria) IUCN


(Townsend et al. 2007IUCN 2012a)
(Townsend et al. 2007)

(International Union
(Rodrigues et al. 2006)
for Conservation of Nature, IUCN)
(Species Survival Commission)
IUCN (IUCN Red List of IUCN
Threatened Species) 1964 IUCN (IUCN Red
List Categories and Criteria) (IUCN
(Rodrigues et al. 2012b) (region)

1. IUCN EX

EW

RE

CR

EN

VU


NT

LC

DD

NA

NE
6 2017


(IUCN 2012a)


(IUCN 2012a)
IUCN
: 3.1 (IUCN 2012b)



IUCN
(IUCN 2012a)

89
36 IUCN (IUCN 2016)





IUCN

Japalura swinhonis
Taiwan Japalure
LC
/
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 7

Hypsiscopus plumbea
Boie's Mud Snake
NVU B1b(iii,iv)c(iii)
/

2.

2.1
2016 The Reptile Database (Uetz (Critically Endangered, CR) (Endangered,
et al. 2016) EN) (Vulnerable, VU)
( 2009) 55 1 94 5 (Not
& 55 ( 2004) Applicable) 89
94
IUCN

(IUCN 2012a)
Trachemys scripta ( )
elegans Eutropis multifasciata IUCN
Anolis sagrei Iguana (IUCN 2012a)
iguana Physignathus cocincinus
5 IUCN Red List
8 2017

2.2
IUCN (Very small population) E.
(IUCN 2012b) (Quantitative analysis)
(Sub-criterion) (Qualifiers)
(logic tree) ( 1)









(Near-threatened, NT)
IUCN
12 (Nationally Critically Endangered, NCR)
(IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee (Nationally Endangered, NEN)
2016)A. (Nationally Vulnerable, NVU)
(Rapid population reduction)B.
(Small (Nationally Near-threatened,
range and fragmented, declining, or extreme NNT) IUCN
fluctuations)C. (Small (NT)
population and declining)D. ( 1)

1. IUCN ( ) IUCN Standards and Petitions


Subcommittee (2016)

(CR) (EN) (VU) (NT)

A. ( 10 3 )
A1 90% 70% 50% 30%

A2, A3 & A4 80% 50% 30% 20%

A1.

(a) A3
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
A2. A1

A3. A1 ( 100 )
A4. A1

The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 9

(CR) (EN) (VU) (NT)

B. ( B1 B2 )
B1. (EOO) < 100 < 5,000 < 20,000 <20,000

B2. (AOO) < 10 < 500 < 2,000 < 2,000

( NT )

(a)
=1 5 10 10

(b) (i) (ii) (iii)


(iv) (v)

(c) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)


C.
< 250 < 2,500 < 10,000 <20,000

C1 C2

C1.
3 5 10 10

25% 20% 10% 10%
( 100 )

C2.

a(i)
50 250 1,000 1,000

a(ii)
90% 95% 100% 100%

(b)

D.

D. < 50 < 250 D1. < 1,000 D1. < 2,500

D2. D2. D2.



NA NA < 20km2 < 50km2
( 5 10
)

E.
10 20
100 100

10% 5%
50% 20%
10 2017

3.

1 2 55 (Least Concern)
2 5 The
4 25 Reptile Database (Uetz et al. 2016)
(Data Deficient)
89 5.6%4.5% 28.1%

3.1 (NCR) (1 )




Mauremys reevesii
(Gray, 1831) B1ab(iii,iv) EN <1

3.2 (NEN) (2 )




Hebius miyajimae
(Maki, 1931) B1ab(iii,iv) VU 100

Myrrophis chinensis
(GRAY, 1842) B1ab(iii,iv)c(iii) LC <1

3.3 (NVU) (2 )




Cuora flavomarginata
(Gray, 1863) B1b(iii,iv)c(iv) EN 20

Hypsiscopus plumbea
(Boie, 1827) B1b(iii,iv)c(iii) LC <1

The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 11

3.4 (NNT) (4 / )




Mauremys mutica mutica
Cantor, 1842 B1ab(iii,iv) EN 20

Japalura makii
Ota, 1989 B1a NE 100

Emoia atrocostata
(Lesson, 1830) B1ab(iii) NE <1

Sinonatrix percarinata suriki


(Maki, 1931) B1ab(iii) LC 100

3.5 (DD) (25 / )




Dopasia harti
(Boulenger, 1899) NE <5

Japalura luei
Ota, Chen & Shang, 1998 NE 100

Gehyra mutilata
(Wiegmann, 1834) NE <1

Gekko kikuchii
(Oshima, 1912) DD 100

Hemiphyllodactylus typus
Bleeker, 1860 NE <1

Lepidodactylus lugubris
(Dumril & Bibron, 1836) NE <1

Lepidodactylus yami
Ota, 1987 NE 100

12 2017

3.5 (DD) (25 / ) ()




Takydromus formosanus
Boulenger, 1894 NE 100

Takydromus luyeanus
Lue & Lin, 2008 NE 100

Takydromus sauteri
Van Denburgh, 1909 NE 100

Takydromus septentrionalis
(Gnther, 1864) NE <1

Takydromus viridipunctatus
Lue & Lin, 2008 NE 100

Ateuchosaurus chinensis
Gray, 1845 NE <1

Eutropis cumingi
(Brown & Alcala, 1980) NE <1

Eutropis multicarinata borealis
(Brown & Alcala, 1980) NE <1

Plestiodon chinensis chinensis
(Gray, 1838) NE <1

Plestiodon chinensis leucostictus
Hikida, 1988 NE 100

Gonyosoma frenatus
(Gray, 1853) NE <1

Oligodon ornatus
Van Denburgh, 1909 LC <5

Pareas atayal
You, Poyarkov & Lin, 2015 NE 100

Pareas formosensis
(Van Denburgh, 1909) LC 100

The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 13

3.5 (DD) (25 / ) ()




Pareas komaii
(Maki, 1931) NE 100

Plagiopholis styani
(Boulenger, 1899) LC <1

Sinonatrix annularis
(Hallowell, 1856) NE <1

Python molurus
(Linnaeus, 1758) NE <1

Hebius miyajimae
Maki's Keelback
NEN B1ab(iii,iv)
/
14 2017

3.6 (LC) (55 / )




Mauremys sinensis
(Gray, 1834) EN 20

Pelodiscus sinensis
(Wiegmann, 1835) VU <5

Japalura brevipes
Gressitt, 1936 NE 100

Japalura polygonata xanthostoma
Ota, 1991 NE 100

Japalura swinhonis
Gnther, 1864 NE 100

Gekko hokouensis
Pope, 1928 LC <5

Hemidactylus bowringii
(Gray, 1845) NE <5

Hemidactylus frenatus
Dumril & Bibron, 1836 LC <1

Hemidactylus stejnegeri
Ota & Hikida, 1989 NE 20

Takydromus hsuehshanensis
Lin & Cheng, 1981 NE 100

Takydromus kuehnei kuehnei
Van Denburgh, 1909 LC <5

Takydromus stejnegeri
Van Denburgh, 1912 NE 100

Eutropis longicaudata
(Hallowell, 1857) NE <5

Plestiodon chinensis formosensis
Van Denburgh, 1912 NE 100

The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 15

3.6 (LC) (55 / ) ()




Plestiodon elegans
(Boulenger, 1887) NE <5

Scincella formosensis
(Van Denburgh, 1912) NE 100

Sphenomorphus incognitus
(Thompson, 1912) NE <5

Sphenomorphus indicus
(Gray, 1853) NE <5

Sphenomorphus taiwanensis
Chen & Lue, 1987 NE 100

Indotyphlops braminus
(Daudin, 1803) NE <1

Achalinus formosanus formosanus


Boulenger, 1908 LC 100

Achalinus niger
Maki, 1931 LC 100

Amphiesma stolatum
(Linnaeus, 1758) NE <5

Boiga kraepelini
Stejneger, 1902 LC <5

Calamaria pavimentata pavimentata


Dumril, Bibron & Dumril, 1854 LC <5

Cyclophiops major
(Gnther, 1858) LC <5

Elaphe carinata
(Gnther, 1864) NE <5

Euprepiophis mandarinus
(Cantor, 1842) LC <5

16 2017

3.6 (LC) (55 / ) ()




Hebius sauteri
(Boulenger, 1909) LC <5

Lycodon rufozonatus rufozonatus
(Cantor, 1842) NE <1

Lycodon ruhstrati ruhstrati
(Fischer, 1886) LC <5

Macropisthodon rudis rudis
Boulenger, 1906 LC <5

Oligodon formosanus
(Gnther, 1872) LC <5

Oreocryptophis porphyraceus kawakamii
(Oshima, 1911) NE <1

Orthriophis taeniurus friesi
(Werner, 1927) NE 100

Psammodynastes pulverulentus
(Boie, 1827) NE <1

Pseudoxenodon stejnegeri stejnegeri
Barbour, 1908 LC 100

Ptyas dhumnades
(Cantor, 1842) NE <5

Ptyas korros
(Schlegel, 1837) NE <5

Ptyas mucosa
(Linnaeus, 1758) NE <1

Rhabdophis swinhonis
(Gnther, 1868) LC 100

Rhabdophis tigrinus formosanus
(Maki 1931) NE 100

The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 17

3.6 (LC) (55 / ) ()




Sibynophis chinensis chinensis
(Gnther, 1889) LC <5

Xenochrophis piscator
(Schneider, 1799) NE <1

Bungarus multicinctus multicinctus


Blyth, 1861 LC <5

Naja atra
Cantor, 1842 VU <5

Sinomicrurus hatori
(Takahashi, 1930) NE 100

Sinomicrurus macclellandi swinhoei


Van Denburgh, 1912 NE 100

Sinomicrurus sauteri
(Steindachner, 1913) LC 100

Daboia siamensis
(Smith, 1917) LC <5

Deinagkistrodon acutus
(Gnther, 1888) NE <5

Ovophis makazayazaya
(Takahashi, 1922) LC <5

Protobothrops mucrosquamatus
(Cantor, 1839) LC <5

Trimeresurus gracilis
Oshima, 1920 LC 100

Trimeresurus stejnegeri stejnegeri


Schmidt, 1925 NE <5

18 2017

4. (7 / )

89 7 3
1 3 (LC)




Cuora flavomarginata
(Gray, 1863) VU EN 20

Mauremys mutica mutica
Cantor, 1842 NT EN 20

Mauremys reevesii
(Gray, 1831) CR EN <1

Mauremys sinensis
(Gray, 1834) LC EN <5

Pelodiscus sinensis
(Wiegmann, 1835) LC VU <5

Hebius miyajimae
(Maki, 1931) EN VU 100

Naja atra
Cantor, 1842 LC VU <5

Mauremys sinensis
Chinese Striped-necked Turtle
LC
/
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 19

5.


Mark Bruce Wilkie

6.

2009

200455 & 55

IUCN. 2012a. Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels: Version 4.0.
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2012b. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. Second edition. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland
and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>.
Downloaded on 04 September 2016.

IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. 2016. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and
Criteria. Version. 12. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 November 2016.

Rodrigues, A. S. L., J. D. Pilgrim, J. F. Lamoreux, M. Hoffmann, and T. M. Brooks. 2006. The value of the IUCN
Red List for conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21:71-76.

Townsend, A. J., P. J. de Lange, C. A. J. Duffy, C. M. Miskelly, J. Molloy, and D. A. Norton. 2007. New Zealand
Threat Classification System manual. Science & Technical Publishing, Department of Conservation,
Wellington, New Zealand.

Uetz, P., P. Freed, and Jir Hoek (eds.), The Reptile Database, http://www.reptile-database.org, accessed Aug
20, 2016.

Mauremys reevesii
Reeves' Turtle
NCR Blab(iii,iv)
/
20 2017

The Red List of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017


Yen-Long Chen, Te-En Lin, Ruey-Shing Lin and Cheng-Hsiung Yang
1 Endemic Species Research Institute, Jiji, Nantou, Taiwan
* Corresponding author: dragon@tesri.gov.tw

Abstract
This report is the first to adopt the categories and criteria suggested by the International
Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to evaluate terrestrial reptile species listed in the Red
List of Reptiles of Taiwan. The 94 reptile species on the red list were adopted as candidates
for evaluation. Five of the species were excluded because they were listed as not applicable
for region-based evaluations. Therefore, a total of 89 species were selected for evaluation.
The outcomes highlighted five species or subspecies as nationally threatened (NTH), one in
the nationally critically endangered (NCR) category, two in the nationally endangered (NEN)
category, and two in the nationally vulnerable (NVU) category. Four species or subspecies
were placed in the nationally near-threatened (NNT) category, 25 species or subspecies were
placed in the data deficient (DD) category, and 55 species or subspecies were placed in the
least concern (LC) category. The species in the NTH, NNT, and DD categories comprised 5.6%,
4.5%, and 28.1% of all the species evaluated. Seven species were discovered to be globally
threatened: three in the NTH category, 1 in the NNT category, and 3 in the LC category.

Least Concern

5
Data Deficient
Not Applicable
Near Threatened
Nationally Threatened
Candidate
Species

94 Subsequent
Evaluation

Percent of
the NTH species 5.6 % 55 89 Taxa
25

Percent of
the NNT species 4.5 %
4
Percent of
28.1 % 5
the DD species
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 21

1. Introduction

Taxa at risk of extinction are the key focus categories (Fig 1), assessment criteria as well as the
of conservation management. Lists compiled regional guidelines published by the IUCN have
based on threat level are crucial references for been adopted by many countries as the primary
the prioritization of restoration projects, research, basis for listing threatened species in their own
monitoring, and conservation measures. These lists territories (Townsend et al. 2007; IUCN 2012a).
are also essential tools to garner societal support Standardized evaluation methods not only help
for habitat conservation and to formulate decisions countries form and enforce laws but also enhance
concerning the allocation of supplementary the comprehensiveness of the assessment of
resources (Townsend et al. 2007). species on the red list (Rodrigues et al. 2006).

The Species Survival Commission of the Countries that establish national and regional
International Union for Conservation of Nature red lists based on the IUCN system inevitably
(IUCN) is responsible for compiling the IUCN conduct relevant evaluations based on the
Red List of Threatened Species. Since its first IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (IUCN
publication in 1964, the list has gradually become 2012b). A region is any clearly defined space on
a key reference for assessing the conditions and the planet, such as a stretch of land, a country,
trends of threatened species on a global scale or a province (IUCN 2012a). When the status
(Rodrigues et al. 2006; IUCN 2016). Moreover, the assessment is redirected from the global scale to

Fig.1. The regional IUCN Red List categories. Extinct EX

Extinct in the Wild EW

Regionally Extinct RE

Threatened categories
Extinction risk

Critically Endangered CR
Adequate data
Endangered EN

Vulnerable VU

Evaluated
Near Threatened NT

Least Concern LC
Eligible for Regional
Assessment
Data Deficient DD

All Species Not Applicable NA

Not Evaluated NE
22 2017

a local level, issues such as native or alien species, Among the 89 terrestrial reptiles native
breeding or nonbreeding populations, and locally to Taiwan, 36 appear on the IUCN Red List
extinct species naturally emerge (IUCN 2012a). of Threatened Species (IUCN 2016), which is
This report adopts the evaluation criteria and approximately 40% of the native species. However,
categories listed in the IUCN Red List Categories the diversity of species in Taiwan, East Asia, and
and Criteria:Version 3.1 (IUCN 2012b). However, the world is currently undergoing a drastic change.
when these criteria are applied to species Therefore, the threat to Taiwanese reptile species
that are not found only in the defined spatial should be assessed and updated. This study
area, the evaluation procedures and standard determined the distribution of native terrestrial
thresholds may become inappropriate and require reptile species in Taiwan, examined potential
adjustment. Adjustment suggestions are proposed population trends and sizes, identified why these
in the Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List species were threatened, and adopted IUCN
Criteria at Regional and National Levels (IUCN categories and criteria to evaluate the latest threat
2012a). conditions of various reptile species.

Deinagkistrodon acutus
Chinese Moccasin
LC
/
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 23

2. Assessment process

The method and procedures used to evaluate the threat levels of various Taiwanese terrestrial reptile
species and subspecies are described herein.:

2.1 Defining the Taxa to Be Included in the Evaluation


Based on the 2016 Reptile Database (Uetz (VU) (Table 1). Among the 94 species, 5 were listed
et al., 2016), Colored Illustrations of Amphibians as not applicable for region-based evaluations.
and Reptiles of Taiwan (Hsiang et al., 2009), and Therefore, 89 species were selected for evaluation.
Big Surprises Concerning Snakes: Fifty-Five
Species was adopted as the unit of
Surprising Themes and Fifty-Five Kinds of Snakes
classification. However, endemic subspecies were
in Taiwan (Tu 2004), 94 terrestrial reptiles from all
evaluated independently. Moreover, breeding and
over Taiwan were adopted as the candidates for
visiting (migration without mating) populations
evaluation. The evaluation procedures suggested
that were clearly distinguishable were evaluated
in the Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List
separately, as suggested in the Guidelines for
Criteria at Regional and National Levels (IUCN
Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional
2012a) were used to exclude invasive species,
and National Levels (IUCN 2012a). Only the native
including the Trachemys scripta elegans, Eutropis
population were evaluated when both native and
multifasciata , Anolis sagrei, Iguana iguana, and
invasive populations were located in the same
Physignathus cocincinus. The IUCN characterizes
region.
the global threat to its red list species as critically
endangered (CR), endangered (EN), or vulnerable

Emoia atrocostata
Mangrove Skink
NNT
/
24 2017

2.2 Data collection and preliminary evaluation


After the species for evaluation were Small range and fragmented, declining, or extreme
confirmed, a data table was created for each fluctuations; C. Small population and declining; D.
targeted species according to the IUCN criteria Very small population; and E. Quantitative analysis)
(IUCN 2012b). Relevant data from academic and numerous sub-criteria and qualifiers (Table 1).
papers, research reports, databases, and expert Each taxon was analyzed against each criterion and
opinions were entered into the datasheet and listed as endangered if they satisfied one or more
necessary explanations were recorded. of the criteria. The taxa were then listed under the
appropriate categories, and corresponding criteria
The spatial scope evaluated in this report was
and sub-criteria were listed under each taxon. Taxa
the terrestrial area where the Republic of China that did not belong to the CR, EN, or VU categories
exerts substantial dominance, namely Taiwan but approximated or may potentially reach the
Island and its outlying islands and island groups VU level were listed in the near-threatened (NT)
such as Penghu, Orchid Island, Green Island, category. Taxa that did not belong to the NCR,
Kinmen, and Matsu; the latter two islet groups are NEN, or NVU (nationally CR, EN, or VU) categories
geographically proximate to China. but approximated or may potentially reach the
NVU level were listed in the nationally near-
Each taxon was evaluated in accordance threatened (NNT) category. Because the IUCN Red
with the Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List List Categories and Criteria does not provide a
Categories and Criteria Version 12 (IUCN Standards clear standard for NNT, the aforementioned criteria
and Petitions Subcommittee 2016). The evaluation established in this report were used to create the
items were compiled into a logic tree comprising NNT criteria (Table 1).
five major criteria (A. Rapid population reduction; B.

Table 1. A simplified overview of Red List criteria adopted in this study. Modified from IUCN Standards and Petitions
Subcommittee (2016)

Use any of the criteria A-E Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near Threatened

A. Population size reduction (declines measured over the longer of 10 years or 3 generations)
A1 90% 70% 50% 30%

A2, A3 & A4 80% 50% 30% 20%

A1. Population reduction observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected in the past where the causes of the reduction are clearly
reversible AND understood AND have ceased, based on and specifying any of the following:
(a)
direct observation. [except A3]
(b)
an index of abundance appropriate to the taxon.
(c)
a decline in area of occupancy (AOO), extent of occurrence (EOO) and/or habitat quality.
(d)
actual or potential levels of exploitation.
(e)
effects of introduced taxa, hybridization, pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites.
A2. Population reduction observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected in the past where the causes of the reduction may not have
ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible.
A3. Population reduction projected, inferred or suspected to be met in the future (up to a maximum of 100 years) [(a) cannot be used
for A3]
A4. An observed, estimated, inferred, projected or suspected population reduction where the time period must include both the
past and the future (up to a max. of 100 years in future), and where the causes of reduction may not have ceased OR may not be
understood OR may not be reversible.
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 25

Use any of the criteria A-E Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near Threatened

B. Geographic range in the form of either B1 (extent of occurrence) AND/OR B2 (area of occupancy)
B1. Extent of occurrence (EOO) < 100 km2 < 5,000 km2 < 20,000 km2 < 20,000 km2

B2. Area of occupancy (AOO) < 10 km2 < 500 km2 < 2,000 km2 < 2,000 km2

AND at least 2 of the following 3 conditions (at least one for Near-threatened category):

(a) Severely fragmented OR #


=1 5 10 10
locations

(b) Continuing decline observed, estimated, inferred or projected in any of: (i) extent of occurrence; (ii) area of occupancy; (iii) area,
extent and/or quality of habitat; (iv) number of locations or subpopulations; (v) number of mature individuals

(c) Extreme fluctuations in any of: (i) extent of occurrence; (ii) area of occupancy; (iii) number of locations or subpopulations; (iv)
number of mature individuals

C. Small population size and decline


Number of mature individuals < 250 < 2,500 < 10,000 < 20,000

AND at least one of C1 or C2

C1. An observed, estimated or


projected continuing decline 25% in 3 years 20% in 5 years 10% in 10 years 10% in 10 years
of at least (up to a max. of or 1 generation or 2 generations or 3 generations or 3 generations
100 years in future):

C2. An observed, estimated, projected or inferred continuing decline AND at least one of the following 3 conditions:

a(i) Number of mature individuals


50 250 1000 1000
in each subpopulation

a(ii) % of mature individuals in


90% 95% 100% 100%
one subpopulation =

(b) Extreme fluctuations in the number of mature individuals

D. Very small or restricted population Either:


D. Number of mature individuals < 50 < 250 D1. < 1000 D1. < 2500

AND/OR

D2. Only applies to the VU and D2. D2.


NT category
Restricted area of occupancy
or number of locations with NA NA AOO < 20 km2 or AOO < 50 km2 or
a plausible futrue threat that number of locations 5 number of locations 10
could drive the taxon to CR
or EX in a very short time.

E. Quantitative Analysis
50% in 10 years 20% in 20 years
Indicating the probability of
or 3 generations or 5 generations 10% in 100 years 5% in 100 years
extinction in the wild to be:
(100 year max.) (100 year max.)
26 2017

3. Assessment results of terrestrial reptile


species of Taiwan

The outcomes highlighted five species or categories comprised 5.6%, 4.5% and 28.1%. The
subspecies as nationally threatened: one in the remaining 55 species or subspecies were in the LC
NCR category, two in the NEN category, and two category. The scientific and common names of the
in the NVU category. Four species or subspecies taxa were obtained from the Reptile Database (Uetz
were placed in the NNT category and 25 species or et al., 2016). The evaluation data and outcomes
subspecies were placed in the DD category. Thus, summarized in this report are available from the
of the 89 species evaluated, the NTH, NNT, and DD corresponding author.

3.1 Nationally Critically Endangered Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in Taiwan (One Specie)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Mauremys reevesii
(Gray, 1831) B1ab(iii,iv) EN <1
Reeves' Turtle

3.2 Nationally Endangered Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in Taiwan (Two Species)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Hebius miyajimae
(Maki, 1931) B1ab(iii,iv) VU 100
Maki's Keelback

Myrrophis chinensis
(GRAY, 1842) B1ab(iii,iv)c(iii) LC <1
Chinese Mud Snake

3.3 Nationally Vulnerable Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in Taiwan (Two Species)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Cuora flavomarginata
(Gray, 1863) B1b(iii,iv)c(iv) EN 20
Yellow-margined Box Turtle

Hypsiscopus plumbea
(Boie, 1827) B1b(iii,iv)c(iii) LC <1
Boie's Mud Snake
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 27

3.4 Nationally Near-Threatened Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in Taiwan (Four Species/Subspecies)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Mauremys mutica mutica


Cantor, 1842 B1ab(iii,iv) EN 20
Yellow Pond Turtle

Japalura makii
Ota, 1989 B1a NE 100
Ota's Japalure

Emoia atrocostata
(Lesson, 1830) B1ab(iii) NE <1
Mangrove Skink

Sinonatrix percarinata suriki


(Maki 1931) B1ab(iii) LC 100
Eastern Water Snake

3.5 Taiwan Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in the Data Deficient Category (25 Species/Subspecies)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Dopasia harti
(Boulenger, 1899) NE <5
Hart's Glass Lizard

Japalura luei
Ota, Chen & Shang, 1998 NE 100
Lue's Japalura

Gehyra mutilata
(Wiegmann, 1834) NE <1
Four-clawed Gecko

Gekko kikuchii
(Oshima, 1912) DD 100
Botel Gecko

Hemiphyllodactylus typus
Bleeker, 1860 NE <1
Tree Gecko

Lepidodactylus lugubris
(Dumril & Bibron, 1836) NE <1
Mourning Gecko

Lepidodactylus yami
Ota, 1987 NE 100
Lanyu Scaly-toed Gecko
28 2017

3.5 Taiwan Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in the Data Deficient Category (25 Species/Subspecies)
(cont.)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Takydromus formosanus
Boulenger, 1894 NE 100
Formosa Grass Lizard

Takydromus luyeanus
Lue & Lin, 2008 NE 100
Luyea Grass Lizard

Takydromus sauteri
Van Denburgh, 1909 NE 100
Koshun Grass Lizard

Takydromus septentrionalis
(Gnther, 1864) NE <1
China Grass Lizard

Takydromus viridipunctatus
Lue & Lin, 2008 NE 100
Grass Lizard

Ateuchosaurus chinensis
Gray, 1845 NE <1
Chinese Short-limbed skink

Eutropis cumingi
(Brown & Alcala, 1980) NE <1
Cuming's Mabuya

Eutropis multicarinata borealis


(Brown & Alcala, 1980) NE <1
Multi-keeled Mabuya

Plestiodon chinensis chinensis


(Gray, 1838) NE <1
Chinese Blue-tailed Skink

Plestiodon chinensis leucostictus


Hikida, 1988 NE 100
White-spotted Chinese Skink

Gonyosoma frenatus
(Gray, 1853) NE <1
Gray-bellied Green Rat Snake

Oligodon ornatus
Van Denburgh, 1909 LC <5
Ornate Kukri Snake

Pareas atayal
You, Poyarkov & Lin, 2015 NE 100
Atayal Slug-eating Snake
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 29

3.5 Taiwan Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in the Data Deficient Category (25 Species/Subspecies)
(cont.)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Pareas formosensis
(Van Denburgh, 1909) LC 100
Formosa Slug Snake

Pareas komaii
(Maki, 1931) NE 100
Komai's Slug Snake

Plagiopholis styani
(Boulenger, 1899) LC <1
Chinese Mountain Snake

Sinonatrix annularis
(Hallowell, 1856) NE <1
Ringed Water Snake

Python molurus
(Linnaeus, 1758) NE <1
Indian Rock Python

3.6 Taiwan Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in the Category of Least Concern (55 Species/Subspecies)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Mauremys sinensis
(Gray, 1834) EN 20
Chinese Striped-necked Turtle

Pelodiscus sinensis
(Wiegmann, 1835) VU <5
Chinese Softshelled Turtle

Japalura brevipes
Gressitt, 1936 NE 100
Short-legged Japalure

Japalura polygonata xanthostoma


Ota, 1991 NE 100
Ryukyu Japalure

Japalura swinhonis
Gnther, 1864 NE 100
Taiwan Japalure

Gekko hokouensis
Pope, 1928 LC <5
Kwangsi Gecko
30 2017

3.6 Taiwan Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in the Category of Least Concern (55 Species/Subspecies)
(cont.)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Hemidactylus bowringii
(Gray, 1845) NE <5
Sikkimese Dark-spotted Gecko

Hemidactylus frenatus
Dumril & Bibron, 1836 LC <1
Common House Gecko

Hemidactylus stejnegeri
Ota & Hikida, 1989 NE 20
Stejneger's Leaftoed Gecko

Takydromus hsuehshanensis
Lin & Cheng, 1981 NE 100
Hsuehshan's Grass Lizard

Takydromus kuehnei kuehnei


Van Denburgh, 1909 LC <5
Kuhne's Grass Lizard

Takydromus stejnegeri
Van Denburgh, 1912 NE 100
Stejneger's Grass Lizard

Eutropis longicaudata
(Hallowell, 1857) NE <5
Longtail Mabuya

Plestiodon chinensis formosensis


Van Denburgh, 1912 NE 100
Formosan Chinese Skink

Plestiodon elegans
(Boulenger, 1887) NE <5
Shanghai Elegant Skink

Scincella formosensis
(Van Denburgh, 1912) NE 100
Van Denburgh's Ground Skink

Sphenomorphus incognitus
(Thompson, 1912) NE <5
Taiwan Smooth Skink

Sphenomorphus indicus
(Gray, 1853) NE <5
Indian Forest Skink

Sphenomorphus taiwanensis
Chen & Lue, 1987 NE 100
Taiwan Alpine Skink
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 31

3.6 Taiwan Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in the Category of Least Concern (55 Species/Subspecies)
(cont.)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Indotyphlops braminus
(Daudin, 1803) NE <1
Brahminy Blindsnake

Achalinus formosanus formosanus


Boulenger, 1908 LC 100
Formosa Odd-scaled Snake

Achalinus niger
Maki, 1931 LC 100
Black Odd-scaled Snake

Amphiesma stolatum
(Linnaeus, 1758) NE <5
Buff Striped Keelback

Boiga kraepelini
Stejneger, 1902 LC <5
Square-headed Cat Snake

Calamaria pavimentata pavimentata


Dumril, Bibron & Dumril, 1854 LC <5
Brown Reed Snake

Cyclophiops major
(Gnther, 1858) LC <5
Greater Green Snake

Elaphe carinata
(Gnther, 1864) NE <5
Taiwan Stink Snake

Euprepiophis mandarinus
(Cantor, 1842) LC <5
Mandarin Ratsnake

Hebius sauteri
(Boulenger, 1909) LC <5
Sauter's Keelback

Lycodon rufozonatus rufozonatus


(Cantor, 1842) NE <1
Red-banded Snake

Lycodon ruhstrati ruhstrati


(Fischer, 1886) LC <5
Rushstrat's Wolf Snake

Macropisthodon rudis rudis


Boulenger, 1906 LC <5
False Habu
32 2017

3.6 Taiwan Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in the Category of Least Concern (55 Species/Subspecies)
(cont.)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Oligodon formosanus
(Gnther, 1872) LC <5
Formosa Kukri Snake

Oreocryptophis porphyraceus kawakamii


(Oshima, 1911) NE <1
Red Bamboo Snake

Orthriophis taeniurus friesi


(Werner, 1927) NE 100
Taiwan Beauty Snake

Psammodynastes pulverulentus
(Boie, 1827) NE <1
Common Mock Viper

Pseudoxenodon stejnegeri stejnegeri


Barbour, 1908 LC 100
Stejneger's Bamboo Snake

Ptyas dhumnades
(Cantor, 1842) NE <5
Keel-backed Rat Snake

Ptyas korros
(Schlegel, 1837) NE <5
Indo-Chinese Rat Snake

Ptyas mucosa
(Linnaeus, 1758) NE <1
Oriental Ratsnake

Rhabdophis swinhonis
(Gnther, 1868) LC 100
Taiwan Keelback

Rhabdophis tigrinus formosanus


(Maki 1931) NE 100
Formosan Tiger Keelback

Sibynophis chinensis chinensis


(Gnther, 1889) LC <1
Chinese Many-tooth Snake

Xenochrophis piscator
(Schneider, 1799) NE <1
Asiatic Water Snakes

Bungarus multicinctus multicinctus


Blyth, 1861 LC <5
Many-banded Krait
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 33

3.6 Taiwan Terrestrial Reptile Taxa in the Category of Least Concern (55 Species/Subspecies)
(cont.)

Proportion (%)
Taxon name Criteria Global Red List Category
of Global Population

Naja atra
Cantor, 1842 VU <5
Chinese Cobra

Sinomicrurus hatori
(Takahashi, 1930) NE 100
Hatori's Chinese Coral Snake

Sinomicrurus macclellandi swinhoei


Van Denburgh, 1912 NE 100
MacClelland's Coral Snake

Sinomicrurus sauteri
(Steindachner, 1913) LC 100
Oriental Coral Snake

Daboia siamensis
(Smith, 1917) LC <5
Eastern Russell's Viper

Deinagkistrodon acutus
(Gnther, 1888) NE <5
Chinese Moccasin

Ovophis makazayazaya
(Takahashi, 1922) LC <5
Taiwan Mountain Pitviper

Protobothrops mucrosquamatus
(Cantor, 1839) LC <5
Brown Spotted Pitviper

Trimeresurus gracilis
Oshima, 1920 LC 100
Taiwan Pit Viper

Trimeresurus stejnegeri stejnegeri


Schmidt, 1925 NE <5
Chinese Green Tree Viper

Japalura makii
Ota's Japalure
NNT
/
34 2017

4. Globally Threatened Terrestrial Reptile Taxa of Taiwan


(Seven Species/Subspecies)
A total of 89 terrestrial reptile species were adopted as candidates for evaluation, among which seven
were globally threatened: three in the NTH category, one in the NNT category, and three in the LC category.

National Red List Proportion (%)


Taxon name Global Red List Category
Category of Global Population

Cuora flavomarginata
(Gray, 1863) VU EN 20
Yellow-margined Box Turtle

Mauremys mutica mutica


Cantor, 1842 NT EN 20
Yellow pond Turtle

Mauremys reevesii
(Gray, 1831) CR EN <1
Reeves' Turtle

Mauremys sinensis
(Gray, 1834) LC EN <5
Chinese Striped-necked Turtle

Pelodiscus sinensis
(Wiegmann, 1835) LC VU <5
Chinese Softshelled Turtle

Hebius miyajimae
(Maki, 1931) EN VU 100
Maki's Keelback

Naja atra
Cantor, 1842 LC VU <5
Chinese Cobra

Takydromus sauteri
Koshun Grass Lizard
DD
/
The Red Lists of Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017 35

5. Acknowledgements
We would like to extend our sincerest gratitude to Chun-Fu Lin for providing revision suggestions. We
would also like to thank Yi-Lun Lin, Yu-Kai Chen, Chih-Yun Chen, and Su-Wei Fan for their assistance in the
collection and collation of the evaluation data. We also thank Mark Bruce Wilkie for his help editing the
English.

6. References
Hsiang, K. S., Lee, P. H., and Yang, Y. R., 2009. Colored Illustrations of Amphibians and Reptiles of Taiwan.
Owl Publishing House: Taipei. (in Chinese)

Tu, M. C., 2004. Big Surprises Concerning Snakes: Fifty-Five Surprising Themes and Fifty-Five Kinds of Snakes
in Taiwan. Yuan-Liou Publishing Co., Ltd.: Taipei. (in Chinese)

IUCN. 2012a. Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels: Version 4.0.
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2012b. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. Second edition. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland
and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>.
Downloaded on 04 September 2016.

IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. 2016. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and
Criteria. Version. 12. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 November 2016.

Rodrigues, A. S. L., J. D. Pilgrim, J. F. Lamoreux, M. Hoffmann, and T. M. Brooks. 2006. The value of the IUCN
Red List for conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21:71-76.

Townsend, A. J., P. J. de Lange, C. A. J. Duffy, C. M. Miskelly, J. Molloy, and D. A. Norton. 2007. New Zealand
Threat Classification System manual. Science & Technical Publishing, Department of Conservation,
Wellington, New Zealand.

Uetz, P., P. Freed, and Jir Hoek (eds.), The Reptile Database, http://www.reptile-database.org, accessed Aug
20, 2016.
2017
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Authors Yen-Long Chen, Te-En Lin, Ruey-Shing Lin and Cheng-Hsiung Yang
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2 Takydromus sauteri
Koshun Grass Lizard
DD
/

3 Mauremys mutica mutica


Yellow Pond Turtle
NNT
/
2017
2017 4 Deinagkistrodon acutus
Chinese Moccasin

LC
Citation Chen, Y.-L., T.-E. Lin, R.-S. Lin, and C.-H. Yang. 2017. The Red Lists of
/
Terrestrial Reptiles of Taiwan, 2017.
Endemic Species Research Institute and Forestry Bureau,
Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, Nantou, Taiwan.

Red Lists of Taiwan Ser ies 02