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2016

The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016



04

1 05

2 07
2.1 07
2.2 08
2.3 10
2.4 10

3 11
3.1 (NCR) 11
3.2 (NEN) 12
3.3 (NVU) 13
3.4 (NNT) 15
3.5 (DD) 18

4 18

5 21

6 21
22
Contents
Abstract

1 Introduction 23

2 Assessment process 25
2.1 Defining the taxa to be included in the evaluation 25
2.2 Data collection and preliminary evaluation 26
2.3 Categories adjusting 28
2.4 Expert opinions 28

Nationally Threatened and


3 Near-threatened bird species of Taiwan
29
3.1 List of Nationally Critical bird taxa in Taiwan 29
3.2 List of Nationally Endangered bird taxa in Taiwan 30
3.3 List of Nationally Vulnerable bird taxa in Taiwan 31
3.4 List of Nationally Near-threatened bird taxa in Taiwan 33
3.5 The bird in category of Data Deficient in Taiwan 36

4 Globally Threatened bird species of Taiwan 36

5 Acknowledgements 39

6 References 39

/
Thalasseus bernsteini

Chinese Crested Tern
NCR D
/
4 2016

2016
1,* 1 1 1 1,2 1,2
1
2
* : rslin@tesri.gov.tw


(International Union for Conservation
of Nature)
627 311 (Not Applicable) 316
52 (Nationally Threatened)
(Nationally Critical) 6 (Nationally Endangered) 13
(Nationally Vulnerable) 33 31
(Nationally Near-threatened)
16.5% 9.8% 8.3% 4.9%
37 14 1 22 Not Applicable

316 311




627

6

52
13
31

33
16.5 % 9.8 %
8.3 % 4.9 %
The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016 5

1.

(taxon) ( 1) (criteria)
IUCN

(Townsend et al. 2007
IUCN 2012a)
(Townsend et al. 2007)
(Rodrigues et al. 2006)
(International Union for
Conservation of Nature, IUCN)
(Species Survival Commission) IUCN IUCN
(IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) IUCN (IUCN Red
1964 List Categories and Criteria) (IUCN
2012b) (region)
(Rodrigues et al. 2006IUCN 2016)

1. IUCN EX

EW

RE

CR

EN

VU


NT

LC

DD

NA

NE
6 2016

(IUCN 2012a)


(IUCN 2012a)
IUCN
3.1 (IUCN 2012b)



Milvus migrans
IUCN
Black Kite
(IUCN 2012a) NVU D1
/

2004 (
2004)
( 2005)
IUCN

Nisaetus nipalensis
Mountain Hawk-eagle
NEN C2a(ii)
/
The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016 7

2.

2.1
2014 (Ding et (IUCN 2012a) 1
al. 2014) 626

(Zoothera aurea) IUCN Red List
(Z. dauma) 2014 (Critically Endangered, CR)
(Leucogeranus (Endangered, EN) (Vulnerable, VU)
leucogeranus) 1908 1 627
(Nipponia nippon)( 2012) 311 (Not Applicable)
627 IUCN 316

1.

< 250

1950 10 < 250

( 10 )

0.5% < 250

( )
IUCN
(IUCN 2012a)

Saundersilarus saundersi
Saunder's Gull
NCR C1
/
8 2016

2.2
IUCN 2016) A.
(IUCN 2012b) (Rapid population reduction)B.

(Small range and fragmented, declining, or
extreme fluctuations)C.
(Small population and declining)D.
(Very small population) E.

(Quantitative analysis)

(Sub-criterion)

(Qualifiers) (logic tree)

( 2)

(Nationally Critical, NCR)

(Nationally Endanered, NEN)

(Nationally Vulneable, NVU)



(Nationally Near-threatened,
(IUCN 2012a)
NNT) IUCN
IUCN (Near Threatened, NT)
12
(IUCN Standard and Petitions Subcommittee ( 2)

2. IUCN ( ) IUCN Standard and Petitions


Subcommittee (2016)

(CR) (EN) (VU) (NT)

A. ( 10 3 )
A1 90% 70% 50% 30%

A2, A3 & A4 80% 50% 30% 20%

A1.

(a) [A3 ]
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
A2. A1

A3. A1 ( 100 )
A4. A1

The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016 9

(CR) (EN) (VU) (NT)

B.
<20,000
B1. (EOO) < 100 < 5,000 < 20,000
( )

< 2,000
B2. (AOO) < 10 < 500 < 2,000
( )

( NT )

(a) 10
=1 5 10
( )

(b) (i) (ii) (iii)


(iv) (v)

(c) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)


C.
<20,000
< 250 < 2,500 < 10,000
( )

C1. 10
3 5 10
10%
25% 20% 10%
( 100 ) ( )

C2.

a(i) 1,000
50 250 1,000
( )

a(ii) 100%
90% 95% 100%
( )

(b)

D.

D. < 50 < 250 D1. < 1,000 D1. < 2,500

D2. D2. D2.



< 20km2 < 50km2
NA NA
( 5 10
) ( )

E.
10 20
100 100

10% 5%
50% 20%
10 2016

2.3

(IUCN 2012a)

IUCN(2012a)

1. 2.2

2. ()
10 3

(sink population)

3.

4. (NNT)
(Nationaly Least Concern, NLC)

()

2.4
2.1 2.3
2016 4 6
2016 7
8 8


2.1 2.3

Acridotheres cristatellus formosanus


Crested Myna
NEN A2be
/
The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016 11

3.

6 8.3% 4.9% (Data Deficient)


13 33 1
52 31 IUCN BirdLife International Checklist 9.0
316 (BirdLife International 2016)
16.5% 9.8% 627

3.1 (NCR)

(B)/

(V) ( )
Aythya baeri
(Radde, 1863) V D CR 1

Phasianus colchicus formosanus


Elliot, 1870 B C2a(ii) LC <1

Turnix sylvaticus
(Desfontaines, 1787) B C2a(i); D LC <1

Saundersilarus saundersi
(Swinhoe, 1871) V C1 VU 1

Calidris pygmaea
(Linnaeus, 1758) V C1; D CR 1

Thalasseus bernsteini
Schlegel, 1863 B D CR 20

12 2016

3.2 (NEN)

(B)/

(V) [ ] ()
Synoicus chinensis
(Linnaeus, 1766) B B2ab(ii, iii, v); C1 LC <1

Ciconia boyciana
D
Swinhoe, 1873 V EN <1
[-1]

Nisaetus nipalensis
Hodgson, 1836 B C2a(ii) LC 1

Numenius madagascariensis
D
(Linnaeus, 1766) V EN <1
[-1]

Calidris tenuirostris
A2a
(Horsfield, 1821) V EN <1
[-1]

Tringa guttifer
C1; D
(Nordmann, 1835) V EN 1
[-1]

Tyto longimembris pithecops
Swinhoe, 1866 B C1 LC <1

Ketupa flavipes
(Hodgson, 1836) B C1 LC 2

Pitta nympha
Temminck & Schlegel, 1850 B A2b VU 20

Garrulax taewanus
Swinhoe, 1859 B A3e+4e NT 100

Acridotheres cristatellus
formosanus
B A2be LC <1
Hartert, 1912

Emberiza aureola
Pallas, 1773 V A2b; C1 EN <1

Passer cinnamomeus
(Temminck, 1836) B B2b(iii)c(ii); C2a(i) LC <1

The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016 13

3.3 (NVU)

(B)/

(V) [ ] ()
Aix galericulata
(Linnaeus, 1758) B D1 LC 1

Mareca falcata
D
Georgi, 1775 V NT <1
[-1]

Anas crecca
A2a
Linnaeus, 1758 V LC <1
[-1]

Egretta eulophotes
D
(Swinhoe, 1860) V VU 10
[-1]

Milvus migrans
(Boddaert, 1783) B D1 LC <1

Gallicrex cinerea
D
(Gmelin, 1789) B LC <1
[-1]

Hydrophasianus chirurgus
(Scopoli, 1786) B D1 LC <1

Numenius arquata
C1
(Linnaeus, 1758) V NT 2
[-1]

Limosa limosa
C1
(Linnaeus, 1758) V NT <1
[-1]

Limosa lapponica
C1
(Linnaeus, 1758) V NT <1
[-1]

Calidris canutus
A2a; C1
(Linnaeus, 1758) V NT <1
[-1]

Calidris temminckii
C1
(Leisler, 1812) LC <1
[-1]

Calidris ruficollis
A2a; C1
(Pallas, 1776) NT <1
[-1]

Calidris alpina
A2a
(Linnaeus, 1758) V LC <1
[-1]

14 2016

3.3 (NVU) ()

(B)/

(V) [ ] ()

Macropygia tenuirostris
Bonaparte, 1854 B D1 LC <1

Treron formosae formosae


Swinhoe, 1863 B D1 NT 10

Glaucidium brodiei pardalotum


Swinhoe, 1863 B C1 LC 5

Strix leptogrammica
Temminck, 1831 B D1 LC 2

Ceryle rudis
C1; D
(Linnaeus, 1758) B LC <1
[-2]

Picus canus
Gmelin, 1788 B D1 LC <1

Coracina macei
(Lesson, 1831) B D1 LC <1

Lanius schach
Linnaeus, 1758 B C1 LC <1

Oriolus chinensis
Linnaeus, 1766 B D1 LC <1

Garrulus glandarius taivanus


Gould, 1862 B C1 LC <1

Corvus torquatus
D
Lesson, 1831 B NT <1
[-1]

Sitta europaea
Linnaeus, 1758 B A2a LC <1

The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016 15

3.3 (NVU) ()

(B)/

(V) [ ] ()

Pycnonotus taivanus
Styan, 1893 B A3ce VU 100

Phylloscopus ijimae
D
(Stejneger, 1882) V VU 3
[-1]

Enicurus scouleri fortis


Hartert, 1910 B C1 LC 1

Prunella collaris fennelli


Deignan, 1964 B C1 LC 1

Emberiza sulphurata
Temminck & Schlegel, 1848 V C1; D1 VU 10

Pyrrhula erythaca owstoni


(Rothschild and Hartert, 1907) B A2a+3a; C1 LC 10

Lonchura atricapilla formosana


(Swinhoe, 1865) B C1; D1 LC <1

3.4 (NNT)

(B)/

(V) [ ] ()
Calonectris leucomelas
A2b
(Temminck, 1835) V NT ?
[-1]

Hydrobates monorhis
A2b; C1
(Swinhoe, 1867) V NT ?
[-1]

Platalea minor
Temminck & Schlegel, 1849 V D1 EN 60

Pernis ptilorhynchus
B D1
(Temminck, 1821) LC <1
V [-1]

16 2016

3.4 (NNT) ()

(B)/

(V) [ ] ()
Ictinaetus malaiensis
(Temminck, 1822) B D1 LC 3

Accipiter soloensis
A2a
(Horsfield, 1821) V LC 20
[-2]

Lewinia striata taiwanus
(Yamashina, 1932) B B2b(ii) LC 2

Haematopus ostralegus
B D
Linnaeus, 1758 NT <1
V [-2]

Pluvialis squatarola
A2b
(Linnaeus, 1758) V LC <1
[-2]

Charadrius leschenaultii
A2a; C1
Lesson, 1826 V LC <1
[-1]

Tringa brevipes
C1
(Vieillot, 1816) V NT 10
[-1]

Numenius minutus
D1
Gould, 1841 V LC <1
[-1]

Sternula albifrons
B A2a
Pallas, 1764 LC 2
V [-1]

Otus elegans botelensis
Kuroda, 1928 B B1a+2a; D1 NT 5

Strix nivicolum yamadae
Yamashina, 1936 B D1 LC 2

Halcyon smyrnensis
D
(Linnaeus, 1758) B LC 2
[-2]

Dendrocopos leucotos insularis
(Gould, 1863) B D1 LC <1

Pericrocotus solaris
Blyth, 1846 B C1 LC 5

The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016 17

3.4 (NNT) ()

(B)/

(V) [ ] ()
Terpsiphone atrocaudata
periophthalmica
B B2a LC 5
(Ogilvie-Grant, 1895)

Sittiparus castaneoventris
Gould, 1863 B B1b(v) LC 100

Parus monticolus insperatus


Swinhoe, 1866 B B1b(v) LC 5

Parus holsti
Seebohm, 1894 B A2a; B1b(v); C1 NT 100

Troglodytes troglodytes taivanus


Hartert, 1910 B B1b(i, v); C1 LC <1

Cettia acanthizoides concolor


Ogilvie-Grant, 1912 B B1b(i) LC 10

Bradypterus alishanensis
Rasmussen, Round, Dickinson &
B A2(a); B1b(i, v) LC 100
Rozendaal, 2000

Prinia crinigera striata


Swinhoe, 1859 B A2b LC <1

Alcippe formosana
(Ogilvie-Grant, 1906) B B1b(i, v) LC 100

Paradoxornis webbianus
bulomacha
B A2b LC 5
(Swinhoe, 1866)

Garrulax ruficeps
Gould, 1863 B D1 LC 100

Brachypteryx montana goodfellowi


Ogilvie-Grant, 1912 B A2a; B1b(ii, v) LC 5

Turdus poliocephalus niveiceps


(Hellmayr, 1919) B B1c(ii)+2c(i); D1 LC 2

18 2016

3.5 (DD)

(B)/

(V) ()
Ramphiculus leclancheri taiwanus
Ripley, 1962 B LC <1

4.

627 37 14 1
22 Not Applicable (NA)

(B)/

(V) ()
Anser cygnoid
(Linnaeus, 1758) V NA VU <1

Anser erythropus
(Linnaeus, 1758) V NA VU <1

Anas Iuzonid
(Fraser, 1839) V NA VU <1

Aythya ferina
(Linnaeus, 1758) V NA VU <1

Aythya baeri
(Radde, 1863) V CR CR 1

Clangula hyemalis
(Linnaeus, 1758) V NA VU <1

Mergus squamatus
Gould, 1864 V NA EN <1

Podiceps auritus
(Linnaeus, 1758) V NA VU <1

Phoebastria albatrus
(Pallas, 1769) V NA VU <1

The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016 19

()

(B)/

(V) ()
Ciconia boyciana
Swinhoe, 1873 V EN EN <1

Pelecanus crispus
Bruch, 1832 V NA VU <1

Egretta eulophotes
(Swinhoe, 1860) V EN VU 10

Gorsachius goisagi
(Temminck, 1835) V NA EN <1

Platalea minor
Temminck & Schlegel, 1849 V NT EN 60

Clanga clanga
Pallas, 1811 V NA VU <1

Aquila heliaca
Savigny, 1809 V NA VU <1

Antigone vipio
Pallas, 1811 V NA VU <1

Grus monacha
Temminck, 1835 V NA VU <1

Grus japonensis
(Mller, 1776) V NA VU <1

Leucogeranus leucogeranus
(Pallas, 1773) V NA CR <1

Numenius madagascariensis
(Linnaeus, 1766) V EN EN <1

Calidris tenuirostris
(Horsfield, 1821) V EN EN <1

Calidris pygmaea
(Linnaeus, 1758) V CR CR 1

20 2016

()

(B)/

(V) ()
Tringa guttifer
(Nordmann, 1835) V CR EN 1

Synthliboramphus wumizusume
(Temminck, 1835) V NA VU <1

Saundersilarus saundersi
(Swinhoe, 1871) V CR VU 1

Larus relictus
Lnnberg, 1931 V NA VU <1

Thalasseus bernsteini
Schlegel, 1863 B CR CR 20

Pitta nympha
Temminck & Schlegel, 1850 B EN VU 20

Pycnonotus taivanus
Styan, 1893 B VU VU 100

Phylloscopus ijimae
(Stejneger, 1882) V VU VU 3

Acrocephalus sorghophilus
(Swinhoe, 1863) V NA EN <1

Acrocephalus tangorum
La Touche, 1912 V NA VU <1

Locustella pleskei
Taczanowski, 1889 V NA VU <1

Rhinomyias brunneatus
(Slater, 1897) V NA VU <1

Emberiza aureola
Pallas, 1773 V EN EN <1

Emberiza sulphurata
Temminck & Schlegel, 1848 V VU VU 10

The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016 21

5.

Bruno A. Walther

6.

2004

2005

2012

BirdLife International. 2016. BirdLife Taxonomic Checklist v9.0. < http://www.birdlife.org>. Downloaded on
20 December 2016.

Ding, T.-S., C.-S. Juan, R.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Pan, Y.-J. Tsai, J. Wu, and Y.-H. Yang. 2014. The 2014 CWBF Checklist of
the Birds of Taiwan. Chinese Wild Bird Federation, Taipei, Taiwan.

IUCN. 2012a. Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels: Version 4.0.
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2012b. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. Second edition. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland
and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>.
Downloaded on 04 September 2016.

IUCN Standard and Petitions Subcommittee. 2016. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and
Criteria. Version. 12. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 September 2016.

Rodrigues, A. S. L., J. D. Pilgrim, J. F. Lamoreux, M. Hoffmann, and T. M. Brooks. 2006. The value of the IUCN
Red List for conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21:71-76.

Townsend, A. J., P. J. de Lange, C. A. J. Duffy, C. M. Miskelly, J. Molloy, and D. A. Norton. 2007. New Zealand
Threat Classification System manual. Science & Technical Publishing, Department of Conservation,
Wellington, New Zealand.
22 2016

The Red List of Birds of Taiwan,2016


Ruey-Shing Lin1,*, Ya-Jung Lu1, Cheng-Hsiung Yang1, Tzu-Jung Tseng1, Chie-Jen Ko1,2 and Wan-Jyun Chen1,2
1 Endemic Species Research Institute, Jiji, Nantou, Taiwan
2 Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
* Corresponding author: rslin@tesri.gov.tw

Abstract
This report is the first National Red List compiled by Taiwan in accordance with the
suggested guidelines and criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
to assess all of the native bird species. A total of 627 candidate species was selected, 311 of
which did not fulfill the inclusion criteria (categorized as Not Applicable), and the remaining
316 species were subjected to subsequent evaluation. The results showed that 52 and 31 taxa
were categorized as Nationally Threatened and Nationally Near-threatened, respectively,
corresponding to 16.5% and 9.8% of the evaluated species and 8.3% and 4.9% of the total
number of bird species in Taiwan. The evaluation results were ranked on the basis of the IUCN
Red List categories, assigning six, 13 and 33 taxa as Nationally Critical, Nationally Endangered
and Nationally Vulnerable, respectively. In addition, 37 species were categorized as Globally
Threatened by IUCN, among which 14 were also categorized as Nationally Threatened, and one
was Nationally Near-threatened, while 22 were Not Applicable.

Subsequent Evaluation
316 Candidate
311 Not Applicable

Species

Nationally Critically Endangered


Nationally Endangered
627
Nationally Vulneralbe
6

Nationally Nationally
Threatened Near-threatened

52 Taxa
13
31 Taxa

33
Percent of
the evaluated species 16.5 % Percent of
the evaluated species 9.8 %
Percent of
the total species 8.3 % Percent of
the total species 4.9 %
The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016 23

1. Introduction

The risk of extinction faced by a species categories (Fig.1), assessment criteria as well as the
or taxon is an essential topic of conservation regional guidelines published by the IUCN have
management. Concise listings of taxa by threat been adopted by many countries as the primary
levels provide a basis for prioritizing recovery basis for listing threatened species in their own
programs and research, monitoring the adequacy territories (Townsend et al. 2007; IUCN 2012a). The
of conservation measures, gaining support for standardized assessment method of the IUCN Red
habitat protection, and facilitating resource List not only facilitates formulating and executing
allocation (Townsend et al. 2007). conservation policies worldwide, but also improves
the comprehensiveness of the assessment of the
The Species Survival Commission of the
global conservation status of plant and animal
International Union for Conservation of Nature
species (Rodrigues et al. 2006).
(IUCN) is responsible for compiling the IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. Since its first When a country or region claims that its red
publication in 1964, the list has gradually become list is compiled in accordance with the IUCN
a key reference for assessing the conditions and system, the classification process of the list must
trends of threatened species on a global scale completely follow the IUCN Red List Categories
(Rodrigues et al. 2006; IUCN 2016). Moreover, the and Criteria (IUCN 2012b). A regional-level

Fig.1. The regional IUCN Red List categories. Extinct EX

Extinct in the Wild EW

Regionally Extinct RE

Threatened categories
Extinction risk

Critically Endangered CR
Adequate data
Endangered EN

Vulneralbe VU

Evaluated
Near Threatened NT

Least Cincern LC
Eligible for Regional
Assessment
Data Deficient DD

All Species Not Applicable NA

Not Evaluated NE
24 2016

assessment pertains to any region on Earth with Fang (2004) adopted the IUCN Categories and
a clearly defined boundary, such as a continent, Criteria to evaluate some of bird species of Taiwan.
country, or state (IUCN 2012a). When the status Fang (2005) also published a Chinese and English
assessment is redirected from the global scale to guide of threatened bird species in Taiwan, paving
a local level, issues such as native or alien species, the foundation for assessing the biodiversity and
breeding or nonbreeding populations, and locally conservation status of these species. However, in
extinct species naturally emerge. (IUCN 2012a). The the past decade, biodiversity statuses in Taiwan,
present report is compiled using the IUCN Red List East Asia, and worldwide have changed drastically;
Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1 (IUCN 2012b). hence, updating the conservation status of bird
However, the assessment process and thresholds species in Taiwan is imperative. In accordance with
of the criteria might be inadequate for evaluating the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, the
species whose distribution ranges extend beyond present report compiles the up-to-date information
the defined spatial area; thus, adjustments were on native bird species in Taiwan, including the
made using the Guidelines for Application of IUCN distribution, population trends, number, and
Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels threats, to address the latest conservation status.
(IUCN 2012a).

Hydrophasianus chirurgus
Pheasant-tailed Jacana
NVU D1
/
The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016 25

2. Assessment process

The four steps for assessing the threat status of each bird species or subspecies are explained as follows:

2.1 Defining the taxa to be included in the evaluation


All of the 626 bird species in the 2014 Checklist Criteria at Regional and National Levels (IUCN
of the Birds of Taiwan (Ding et al. 2014), except 2012a) was employed to exclude candidate species
Nipponia nippon which was last recorded in with characteristics listed in Table 1. The globally
1908 (Severinghaus et al. 2012), were targeted as threatened species on the IUCN Red List, including
potential candidates for evaluation. In addition, Critically Endangered, Endangered, and Vulnerable
the present study incorporated Zoothera aurea, species, were also screened using the criteria listed
a species recently separated from Z. dauma, in Table 1. Of these species, 311 did not fulfill the
and Leucogeranus leucogeranus, a Globally inclusion criteria and were thus determined to be
Threatened species that appeared in Taiwan in Not Applicable, and the remaining 316 species
2014, yielding a total of 627 candidate species. were subjected to the preliminary evaluation.
The Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List

Table 1. Exclusion criteria for evaluation

Breeder/ Visitor Other Criteria

Alien species

Breeder Non-stable breeders and maximum breeding population size < 250

Have appeared naturally after 1950, but have not bred consecutively for 10 years and
maximum breeding population size < 250

Vagrant or have not appeared consistently for >10 years


Visitor
Regional population does not reach 0.5% of the global population, or is < 250 mature
individuals

Species was adopted as the unit of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National
classification. However, endemic subspecies Levels (IUCN 2012a). When both alien and native
were evaluated independently. When breeding conspecific populations were found to appear
and visiting (nonbreeding) populations were within the territory of Taiwan, only the native
distinguishable, they were evaluated separately population was evaluated.
according to the Guidelines for Application of
26 2016

2.2 Data collection and preliminary evaluation


After the evaluation targets were selected, a migrant population, external factors, in particular
data table was created for each targeted taxon the condition of the native breeding site, should
according to the IUCN criteria (IUCN 2012b). be examined (IUCN 2012a).
Each blank on the data table was filled with the
Every targeted species was assigned a
corresponding information to incorporate as much
preliminary threat category in accordance with the
data as possible from existing academic reports,
Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories
gray literature, databases as well as related-expert
and Criteria, Version 12 (IUCN Standard and
opinions. The data sources were also recorded,
Petitions Subcommittee 2016). The evaluation
and necessary explanations were provided.
process involved using a logic tree constituted
The geographical area of this report covers of the following criteria: A. Rapid population
the land and sea under the jurisdiction of the reduction; B. Small range and fragmented,
government of the Republic of China (widely declining, or extreme fluctuations; C. Small
known as Taiwan), including Taiwan Island and population and declining; D. Very small population;
its adjacent islands (Penghu, Lanyu, and Ludao), and E. Quantitative analysis. Each criterion also
and two groups of outlying islands near mainland contained several subcriteria and qualifiers. When a
China: Matsu islands and Kinmen islands. However, species currently cannot be assigned to Nationally
to investigate the statuses of migratory breeding Critical (NCR), Nationally Endangered (NEN), or
populations and nonbreeding populations, related Nationally Vulneable (NVU), but is likely to reach
factors outside of the targeted spatial scope (i.e., the NVU level in the near future, it can be classified
external factors) must also be considered. In other as Nationally Near-threatened (NNT). Because the
words, evaluating migratory breeding populations IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria does not
should also consider how external factors affect the provide a clear standard for Near Threatened, the
population distribution and the declining trends present report applies the aforementioned criteria
of migratory breeding species. When assessing and refers to the IUCN Red List Categories and
the past and future declining trends of passage Criteria to define NNT (Table 2).

Table 2. A simplified overview of Red List criteria adopted in this study. Modified from IUCN Standard and Petitions
Subcommittee (2016)

Use any of the criteria A-E Critically Endangered Endangered Vulneralbe Near Threatened

A. Population size reduction (declines measured over the longer of 10 years or 3 generations)
A1 90% 70% 50% 30%

A2, A3 & A4 80% 50% 30% 20%

A1. Population reduction observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected in the past where the causes of the reduction are clearly
reversible AND understood AND have ceased, based on and specifying any of the following:
(a)
direct observation. [except A3]
(b)
an index of abundance appropriate to the taxon.
(c)
a decline in area of occupancy (AOO), extent of occurrence (EOO) and/or habitat quality.
(d)
actual or potential levels of exploitation.
(e)
effects of introduced taxa, hybridization, pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites.
A2. Population reduction observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected in the past where the causes of the reduction may not have
ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible.
A3. Population reduction projected, inferred or suspected to be met in the future (up to a maximum of 100 years) [(a) cannot be used
for A3]
A4. An observed, estimated, inferred, projected or suspected population reduction where the time period must include both the
past an the future (up to a max. of 100 years in future), and where the causes of reduction may not have ceased OR may not be
understood OR may not be reversible.
The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016 27

Use any of the criteria A-E Critically Endangered Endangered Vulneralbe Near Threatened

B. Geographic range in the form of either B1 (extent of occurrence) AND/OR B2 (area of occupancy)
< 20,000 km2
B1. Extent of occurrence (EOO) < 100 km2 < 5,000 km2 < 20,000 km2
(Breeding natives)

< 2,000 km2


B2. Area of occupancy (AOO) < 10 km2 < 500 km2 < 2,000 km2
(Breeding natives)

AND at least 2 of the following 3 conditions (at least one for Near-threatened category):

(a) Severely fragmented OR # 10


=1 5 10
locations (Breeding natives)

(b) Continuing decline observed, estimated, inferred or projected in any of: (i) extent of occurrence; (ii) area of occupancy; (iii) area,
extent and/or quality of habitat; (iv) number of locations or sunpopulations; (v) number of mature individuals

(c) Extreme fluctuations in any of: (i) extent of occurrence; (ii) area of occupancy; (iii) number of locations or sunpopulations; (iv)
number of mature individuals

C. Small population size and decline


< 20,000
Number of mature individuals < 250 < 2,500 < 10,000
(Breeding natives)

AND at least one of C1 or C2

C1. An observed, estimated or


10% in 10 years
projected continuing decline 25% in 3 years 20% in 5 years 10% in 10 years
or 3 generations
of at least (up to a max. of or 1 generation or 2 generations or 3 generations
(Breeding natives)
100 years in future):

C2. An observed, estimated, projected or inferred continuing decline AND at least one of the following 3 conditions:

a(i) Number of mature individuals 1000


50 250 1000
in each subpopulation (Breeding natives)

a(ii) % of mature individuals in 100%


90% 95% 100%
one subpopulation = (Breeding natives)

(b) Extreme fluctuations in the number of mature individuals

D. Very small or restricted population Either:


D. Number of mature individuals < 50 < 250 D1. < 1000 D1. < 2500

AND/OR

D2. Only applies to the VU and D2. D2.


NT category
Restricted area of occupancy
or number of locations with AOO < 20 km2 or AOO < 50 km2 or
NA NA number of locations 5 number of locations 10
a plausible future threat that
(Breeding natives)
could drive the taxon to CR
or EX in a very short time.

E. Quantitative Analysis
50% in 10 years 20% in 20 years
Indicating the probability of
or 3 generations or 5 generations 10% in 100 years 5% in 100 years
extinction in the wild to be:
(100 year max.) (100 year max.)
28 2016

2.3 Categories adjusting


After the preliminary evaluation was completed, how the regional extinction risk of a population is
affected by other populations of the same taxon outside of the targeted spatial scope should be investigated
(IUCN 2012a).

The category adjustment process was based on the suggested procedures of the IUCN (2012a):

1. The Red List Category of endemic species and endemic subspecies were retained.

2. The preliminary Red List Categoy of a breeding population of a nonendemic species or subspecies
in Taiwan and its off-islands were adjusted according to its mobility and occurrence statuses. If
the population has not interacted with other populations within 10 years or three generations, the
preliminary categorization was retained; otherwise, if the migrating population was expected to
maintain its number, and the local population was not identified as a sink population, the threat
category of the investigated group was downlisting by one-step.

3. Because the Kinmen and Matsu were close to mainland China, and the areas of these two regions
are relatively small, the preliminary categories of these populations were downlisted by two-steps.

4. When the threat level of a previously classified Naturally Threatened species was downlisted, it was
reassigned to Nationally Near-threatened or Nationally Least Concern according to the related
criteria.

Regarding nonbreeding populations (passage migrants or winter visitors), their population declining or
increasing trends in and away from Taiwan was evaluated, in addition to examining whether their breeding
counterparts outside of the targeted spatial scope can reduce their risk of extinction. If the aforementioned
criteria were inapplicable to categorize a population, the reasons were addressed in detail.

2.4 Expert opinions


Enicurus scouleri fortis The categorization results obtained through
Little Forktail the aforementioned procedures were examined
NVU C1 by experts from April to June 2016, ensuring the
/
adequacy of data collection and adding missing
information. Knowledgeable individuals from the
wider ornithological community were invited to
a workshop held in Taipei in late August, 2016 to
discuss the status of all candidate taxa. At the same
time, the draft list and data for assessment were
disseminated among the birdwatching community
to solicit comments. Finally, the updated data
were used to repeat Steps (1) (3) to revise the
categorization results and create this report.
The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016 29

3. Nationally Threatened and Near-threatened


bird species of Taiwan

The results revealed 52 Nationally Threatened Vulneable, respectively. One subspecies was
and 31 Nationally Near-threatened species or categorized as Data Deficient. The classification
subspecies, corresponding to 16.5% and 9.8% of system of the present report was based on the
the evaluated taxa and 8.3% and 4.9% of the total BirdLife International Checklist 9.0 (BirdLife
number of bird species in Taiwan. The conservation International 2016), which was also been adopted
statuses of the evaluated taxa were grouped in by the IUCN. The complete evaluation results and
accordance with the IUCN Red List Categories. the data table are available from the corresponding
There are six, 13 and 33 taxa ranked in Nationally author.
Critical, Nationally Endangered and Nationally

3.1 List of Nationally Critical bird taxa in Taiwan

Criteria Global Red List Proportion (%)


Taxon name Breeder/ Visitor
[Category adjusting] Category of Global Population

Aythya baeri
(Radde, 1863) V D CR 1
Baer's Pochard

Phasianus colchicus formosanus


Elliot, 1870 B C2a(ii) LC <1
Common Pheasant

Turnix sylvaticus
(Desfontaines, 1787) B C2a(i); D LC <1
Common Buttonquail

Saundersilarus saundersi
(Swinhoe, 1871) V C1 VU 1
Saunders's Gull

Calidris pygmaea
(Linnaeus, 1758) V C1; D CR 1
Spoon-billed Sandpiper

Thalasseus bernsteini
Schlegel, 1863 B D CR 20
Chinese Crested Tern
30 2016

3.2 List of Nationally Endangered bird taxa in Taiwan

Criteria Global Red List Proportion (%)


Taxon name Breeder/ Visitor
[Category adjusting] Category of Global Population

Synoicus chinensis
(Linnaeus, 1766) B B2ab(ii, iii, v); C1 LC <1
Asian Blue Quail

Ciconia boyciana
D
Swinhoe, 1873 V EN <1
[-1]
Oriental Stork

Nisaetus nipalensis
Hodgson, 1836 B C2a(ii) LC 1
Mountain Hawk-eagle

Numenius madagascariensis
D
(Linnaeus, 1766) V EN <1
[-1]
Far Eastern Curlew

Calidris tenuirostris
A2a
(Horsfield, 1821) V EN <1
[-1]
Great Knot

Tringa guttifer
C1; D
(Nordmann, 1835) V EN 1
[-1]
Spotted Greenshank

Tyto longimembris pithecops


Swinhoe, 1866 B C1 LC <1
Eastern Grass-owl

Ketupa flavipes
(Hodgson, 1836) B C1 LC 2
Tawny Fish-owl

Pitta nympha
Temminck & Schlegel, 1850 B A2b VU 20
Fairy Pitta

Garrulax taewanus
Swinhoe, 1859 B A3e+4e NT 100
Taiwan Hwamei

Acridotheres cristatellus
formosanus
B A2be LC <1
Hartert, 1912
Crested Myna

Emberiza aureola
Pallas, 1773 V A2b; C1 EN <1
Yellow-breasted Bunting

Passer cinnamomeus
(Temminck, 1836) B B2b(iii)c(ii); C2a(i) LC <1
Russet Sparrow
The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016 31

3.3 List of Nationally Vulnerable bird taxa in Taiwan

Criteria Global Red List Proportion (%)


Taxon name Breeder/ Visitor
[Category adjusting] Category of Global Population

Aix galericulata
(Linnaeus, 1758) B D1 LC 1
Mandarin Duck

Mareca falcata
D
Georgi, 1775 V NT <1
[-1]
Falcated Duck

Anas crecca
A2a
Linnaeus, 1758 V LC <1
[-1]
Common Teal

Egretta eulophotes
D
(Swinhoe, 1860) V VU 10
[-1]
Chinese Egret

Milvus migrans
(Boddaert, 1783) B D1 LC <1
Black Kite

Gallicrex cinerea
D
(Gmelin, 1789) B LC <1
[-1]
Watercock

Hydrophasianus chirurgus
(Scopoli, 1786) B D1 LC <1
Pheasant-tailed Jacana

Numenius arquata
C1
(Linnaeus, 1758) V NT 2
[-1]
Eurasian Curlew

Limosa limosa
C1
(Linnaeus, 1758) V NT <1
[-1]
Black-tailed Godwit

Limosa lapponica
C1
(Linnaeus, 1758) V NT <1
[-1]
Bar-tailed Godwit

Calidris canutus
A2a;C1
(Linnaeus, 1758) V NT <1
[-1]
Red Knot

Calidris temminckii
C1
(Leisler, 1812) V LC <1
[-1]
Temminck's Stint

Calidris ruficollis
A2a; C1
(Pallas, 1776) V NT <1
[-1]
Red-necked Stint

Calidris alpina
A2a
(Linnaeus, 1758) V LC <1
[-1]
Dunlin
32 2016

3.3 List of Nationally Vulnerable bird taxa in Taiwan (cont.)

Criteria Global Red List Proportion (%)


Taxon name Breeder/ Visitor
[Category adjusting] Category of Global Population

Macropygia tenuirostris
Bonaparte, 1854 B D1 LC <1
Philippine Cuckoo-dove

Treron formosae formosae


Swinhoe, 1863 B D1 NT 10
Taiwan Green-pigeon

Glaucidium brodiei pardalotum


Swinhoe, 1863 B C1 LC 5
Collared Owlet

Strix leptogrammica
Temminck, 1831 B D1 LC 2
Brown Wood-owl

Ceryle rudis
C1;D
(Linnaeus, 1758) B LC <1
[-2]
Pied Kingsher

Picus canus
Gmelin, 1788 B D1 LC <1
Grey-faced Woodpecker

Coracina macei
(Lesson, 1831) B D1 LC <1
Large Cuckooshrike

Lanius schach
Linnaeus, 1758 B C1 LC <1
Long-tailed Shrike

Oriolus chinensis
Linnaeus, 1766 B D1 LC <1
Black-naped Oriole

Garrulus glandarius taivanus


Gould, 1862 B C1 LC <1
Eurasian Jay

Corvus torquatus
D
Lesson, 1831 B NT <1
[-1]
Collared Crow

Sitta europaea
Linnaeus, 1758 B A2a LC <1
Wood Nuthatch

Pycnonotus taivanus
Styan, 1893 B A3ce VU 100
Taiwan Bulbul

Phylloscopus ijimae
D
(Stejneger, 1882) V VU 3
[-1]
Izu Leaf-warbler
The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016 33

3.3 List of Nationally Vulnerable bird taxa in Taiwan (cont.)

Criteria Global Red List Proportion (%)


Taxon name Breeder/ Visitor
[Category adjusting] Category of Global Population

Enicurus scouleri fortis


Hartert, 1910 B C1 LC 1
Little Forktail

Prunella collaris fennelli


Deignan, 1964 B C1 LC 1
Alpine Accentor

Emberiza sulphurata
Temminck & Schlegel, 1848 V C1; D1 VU 10
Yellow Bunting

Pyrrhula erythaca owstoni


(Rothschild and Hartert, 1907) B A2a+3a; C1 LC 10
Grey-headed Bullnch

Lonchura atricapilla formosana


(Swinhoe, 1865) B C1; D1 LC <1
Chestnut Munia

3.4 List of Nationally Near-threatened bird taxa in Taiwan

Criteria Global Red List Proportion (%)


Taxon name Breeder/ Visitor
[Category adjusting] Category of Global Population

Calonectris leucomelas
A2b
(Temminck, 1835) V NT ?
[-1]
Streaked Shearwater

Hydrobates monorhis
A2b; C1
(Swinhoe, 1867) V NT ?
[-1]
Swinhoe's Storm-petrel

Platalea minor
Temminck & Schlegel, 1849 V D1 EN 60
Black-faced Spoonbill

Pernis ptilorhynchus
B D1
(Temminck, 1821) LC <1
V [-1]
Oriental Honey-buzzard

Ictinaetus malaiensis
(Temminck, 1822) B D1 LC 3
Black Eagle

Accipiter soloensis
A2a
(Horsfield, 1821) V LC 20
[-2]
Chinese Sparrowhawk

Lewinia striata taiwanus


(Yamashina, 1932) B B2b(ii) LC 2
Slaty-breasted Rail
34 2016

3.4 List of Nationally Near-threatened bird taxa in Taiwan (cont.)

Criteria Global Red List Proportion (%)


Taxon name Breeder/ Visitor
[Category adjusting] Category of Global Population

Haematopus ostralegus
B D
Linnaeus, 1758 NT <1
V [-2]
Eurasian Oystercatcher

Pluvialis squatarola
A2b
(Linnaeus, 1758) V LC <1
[-2]
Grey Plover

Charadrius leschenaultii
A2a; C1
Lesson, 1826 V LC <1
[-1]
Greater Sandplover

Tringa brevipes
C1
(Vieillot, 1816) V NT 10
[-1]
Grey-tailed Tattler

Numenius minutus
D
Gould, 1841 V LC <1
[-1]
Little Curlew

Sternula albifrons
B A2a
Pallas, 1764 LC 2
V [-1]
Little Tern

Otus elegans botelensis


Kuroda, 1928 B B1a+2a; D1 NT 5
Ryukyu Scops-owl

Strix nivicolum yamadae


Yamashina, 1936 B D1 LC 2
Himalayan Owl

Halcyon smyrnensis
D
(Linnaeus, 1758) B LC 2
[-2]
White-breasted Kingsher

Dendrocopos leucotos insularis


(Gould, 1863) B D1 LC <1
White-backed Woodpecker

Pericrocotus solaris
Blyth, 1846 B C1 LC 5
Grey-chinned Minivet

Terpsiphone atrocaudata
periophthalmica
B B2a LC 5
(Ogilvie-Grant, 1895)
Japanese Paradise-ycatcher

Sittiparus castaneoventris
Gould, 1863 B B1b(v) LC 100
Chestnut-bellied Tit
The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016 35

3.4 List of Nationally Near-threatened bird taxa in Taiwan (cont.)

Criteria Global Red List Proportion (%)


Taxon name Breeder/ Visitor
[Category adjusting] Category of Global Population

Parus monticolus insperatus


Swinhoe, 1866 B B1b(v) LC 5
Green-backed Tit

Parus holsti
Seebohm, 1894 B A2a; B1b(v); C1 NT 100
Yellow Tit

Troglodytes troglodytes taivanus


Hartert, 1910 B B1b(i, v); C1 LC <1
Winter Wren

Cettia acanthizoides concolor


Ogilvie-Grant, 1912 B B1b(i) LC 10
Yellowish-bellied Bush-warbler

Bradypterus alishanensis
Rasmussen, Round, Dickinson &
B A2(a); B1b(i, v) LC 100
Rozendaal, 2000
Taiwan Bush-warbler

Prinia crinigera striata


(Swinhoe, 1859) B A2b LC <1
Striated Prinia

Alcippe formosana
(Ogilvie-Grant, 1906) B B1b(i,v) LC 100
Taiwan Fulvetta

Paradoxornis webbianus bulomacha


(Swinhoe, 1866) B A2b LC 5
Vinous-throated Parrotbill

Garrulax ruficeps
Gould, 1863 B D1 LC 100
Rufous-crowned Laughingthrush

Brachypteryx montana
goodfellowi
B A2a; B1b(ii,v) LC 5
Ogilvie-Grant, 1912
White-browed Shortwing

Turdus poliocephalus niveiceps


(Hellmayr, 1919) B B1c(ii)+2c(i); D1 LC 2
Island Thrush
36 2016

3.5 The bird in category of Data Deficient in Taiwan

Global Red List Proportion (%)


Taxon name Breeder/ Visitor Criteria
Category of Global Population

Ramphiculus leclancheri taiwanus


Ripley, 1962 B LC <1
Black-chinned Fruit-dove

4. Globally Threatened bird species of Taiwan

Of the 627 candidate species, 37 species were listed as Globally Threatened by IUCN in 2016 (IUCN
2016). Of them, 14 were Nationally Threatened and one was Nationally Near-threatened. Another 22 species
were vagrant or rare in Taiwan and categorized as Not Applicable.

National Red List Global Red List Proportion (%)


Taxon name Breeder/ Visitor
Category Category of Global Population

Anser cygnoid
(Linnaeus, 1758) V NA VU <1
Swan Goose

Anser erythropus
(Linnaeus, 1758) V NA VU <1
Lesser White-fronted Goose

Anas Iuzonid
(Fraser, 1839) V NA VU <1
Philippine Duck

Aythya ferina
(Linnaeus, 1758) V NA VU <1
Common Pochard

Aythya baeri
(Radde, 1863) V CR CR 1
Baer's Pochard

Clangula hyemalis
(Linnaeus, 1758) V NA VU <1
Long-tailed Duck

Mergus squamatus
Gould, 1864 V NA EN <1
Scaly-sided Merganser

Podiceps auritus
(Linnaeus, 1758) V NA VU <1
Horned Grebe

Phoebastria albatrus
(Pallas, 1769) V NA VU <1
Short-tailed Albatross
The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016 37

Globally Threatened bird species of Taiwan (cont.)

National Red List Global Red List Proportion (%)


Taxon name Breeder/ Visitor
Category Category of Global Population

Ciconia boyciana
Swinhoe, 1873 V EN EN <1
Oriental Stork

Pelecanus crispus
Bruch, 1832 V NA VU <1
Dalmatian Pelican

Egretta eulophotes
(Swinhoe, 1860) V EN VU 10
Chinese Egret

Gorsachius goisagi
(Temminck, 1835) V NA EN <1
Japanese Night-heron

Platalea minor
Temminck & Schlegel, 1849 V NT EN 60
Black-faced Spoonbill

Clanga clanga
Pallas, 1811 V NA VU <1
Greater Spotted Eagle

Aquila heliaca
Savigny, 1809 V NA VU <1
Eastern Imperial Eagle

Antigone vipio
Pallas, 1811 V NA VU <1
White-naped Crane

Grus monacha
Temminck, 1835 V NA VU <1
Hooded Crane

Grus japonensis
(Mller, 1776) V NA VU <1
Red-crowned Crane

Leucogeranus leucogeranus
(Pallas, 1773) V NA CR <1
Siberian Crane

Numenius madagascariensis
(Linnaeus, 1766) V EN EN <1
Far Eastern Curlew

Calidris tenuirostris
(Horsfield, 1821) V EN EN <1
Great Knot

Calidris pygmaea
(Linnaeus, 1758) V CR CR 1
Spoon-billed Sandpiper
38 2016

Globally Threatened bird species of Taiwan (cont.)

National Red List Global Red List Proportion (%)


Taxon name Breeder/ Visitor
Category Category of Global Population

Tringa guttifer
(Nordmann, 1835) V CR EN 1
Spotted Greenshank

Synthliboramphus wumizusume
(Temminck, 1835) V NA VU <1
Japanese Murrelet

Saundersilarus saundersi
(Swinhoe, 1871) V CR VU 1
Saunders's Gull

Larus relictus
Lnnberg, 1931 V NA VU <1
Relict Gull

Thalasseus bernsteini
Schlegel, 1863 B CR CR 20
Chinese Crested Tern

Pitta nympha
Temminck & Schlegel, 1850 B EN VU 20
Fairy Pitta

Pycnonotus taivanus
Styan, 1893 B VU VU 100
Taiwan Bulbul

Phylloscopus ijimae
(Stejneger, 1882) V VU VU 3
Izu Leaf-warbler

Acrocephalus sorghophilus
(Swinhoe, 1863) V NA EN <1
Streaked Reed-warbler

Acrocephalus tangorum
La Touche, 1912 V NA VU <1
Manchurian Reed-warbler

Locustella pleskei
Taczanowski, 1889 V NA VU <1
Pleske's Grasshopper-warbler

Rhinomyias brunneatus
(Slater, 1897) V NA VU <1
Brown-chested Jungle-ycatcher

Emberiza aureola
Pallas, 1773 V EN EN <1
Yellow-breasted Bunting

Emberiza sulphurata
Temminck & Schlegel, 1848 V VU VU 10
Yellow Bunting
The Red List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016 39

5. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank W.-C. Lin, C.-C. Lin, S.-Y. Huang, T.-G. Chien, M.-T. Ni, T. Lo, C.-Y. Yang
and W.-K. Chao for their assistance with the compiling of the data for the initial assessment. We thank T.-
S. Ding, W.-H. Fang, C.-C. Sa, W.-H. Lin, W.-L. Lin, C.-H. Hong, F.-S. Hsu, J.-S. Tsai, and C.-Y. Chiang for
reviewing the results of the initial assessments. We like to thank S.-H. Wu, J.-L. Wu, W.-L. Lin, X.-Y. Hong,
Y.-L. Chen, J.-W. Zeng, Y.-C. Yang, J.-E. Xie as well as many experts and birdwatchers for providing helpful
comments and suggestions. We also thank Bruno A. Walther for his help editing the English.

6. References
BirdLife International. 2016. BirdLife Taxonomic Checklist v9.0. < http://www.birdlife.org>. Downloaded on
20 December 2016.

Ding, T.-S., C.-S. Juan, R.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Pan, Y.-J. Tsai, J. Wu, and Y.-H. Yang. 2014. The 2014 CWBF Checklist of
the Birds of Taiwan. Chinese Wild Bird Federation, Taipei, Taiwan.

Fang, W.-H. 2004. Threatened birds of Taiwan. Chinese Wild Bird Society, Taipei, Taiwan. (in Chinese)

Fang, W.-H. 2005. A guide to threatened birds of Taiwan. Owl, Taipei, Taiwan. (in Chinese)

IUCN. 2012a. Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels: Version 4.0.
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2012b. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. Second edition. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland
and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>.
Downloaded on 04 September 2016.

IUCN Standard and Petitions Subcommittee. 2016. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and
Criteria. Version. 12. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 November 2016.

Rodrigues, A. S. L., J. D. Pilgrim, J. F. Lamoreux, M. Hoffmann, and T. M. Brooks. 2006. The value of the IUCN
Red List for conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21:71-76.

Severinghaus, L. L., T.-S. Ding, W.-H. Fang, W.-H. Lin, M.-C. Tsai, and C.-W. Yen. 2012. The avifauna of Taiwan,
Second edition. Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, Taipei, Taiwan. (in Chinese)

Townsend, A. J., P. J. de Lange, C. A. J. Duffy, C. M. Miskelly, J. Molloy, and D. A. Norton. 2007. New Zealand
Threat Classification System manual. Science & Technical Publishing, Department of Conservation,
Wellington, New Zealand.
2016
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20162016






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Citation Lin, R.-S., Y.-J. Lu, C.-H. Yang, T.-J. Tseng, C.-J. Ko, and W.-J. Chen. 2016. The Red
List of Birds of Taiwan, 2016. Endemic Species Research Institute and Forestry
Bureau, Council of Agricuture, ExecutiveYuan, Nantou, Taiwan.

Publisher Kuo-Yun Fang, Hwa-Ching Lin


Authors Ruey-Shing Lin, Ya-Jung Lu, Cheng-Hsiung Yang,
1
Tzu-Jung Tseng, Chie-Jen Ko and Wan-Jyun Chen
2
Published by Endemic Species Research Institute, COA, EY, R.O.C.(Taiwan)
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Forestry Bureau, COA, EY, R.O.C.(Taiwan) 4
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Published Date December, 2016 Fairy Pitta
ISBN 978-986-05-1406-3 NEN A2b
GPN 1010502982 /
Price NT100
This report is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
3 Hydrophasianus chirurgus
License, and may on a non-exclusive basis be reproduced without fee provided the
credit is clear and visible.
Pheasant-tailed Jacana
NVU D1
/

4 Acridotheres cristatellus formosanus


Crested Myna
NEN A2be
/