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2017

The Red List of Terrestrial


Mammals of Taiwan, 2017

04

1 05

2 07
2.1 07
2.2 08
2.3 11

3 12
3.1 (NCR) 12
3.2 (NEN) 12
3.3 (NVU) 13
3.4 (NNT) 13
3.5 (DD) 14
3.6 (LC) 14

4 18

5 19

6 19
20
Contents

Abstract

1 Introduction 21

2 Assessment process 23

2.1 Defining the taxa to be included in the evaluation 23

2.2 Data collection and preliminary evaluation 24


2.3 Category adjustment 26

Assessment results of terrestrial mammal species


3 of Taiwan
27
3.1 List of Nationally Critical terrestrial mammal taxa in Taiwan 27
3.2 List of Nationally Endangered terrestrial mammal taxa in Taiwan 27
3.3 List of Nationally Vulnerable terrestrial mammal taxa in Taiwan 28
3.4 List of Nationally Near-threatened terrestrial mammal
28
taxa in Taiwan
3.5 The terrestrial mammals in category of Data Deficient in Taiwan 29
3.6 The terrestrial mammals in category of Least Concern in Taiwan 29

Globally Threatened terrestrial mammal


4 species of Taiwan
34

5 Acknowledgements 34

6 References 35

/ /
Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla Viverricula indica taivana
Formosan pangolin Formosan small Indian civet
NVU B1b(iii)c(iv) NVU B1ab(iii)
/ /
4 2017

2017
*

* : cswei@tesri.gov.tw


(International Union for Conservation of Nature, IUCN)

85 5 (Not Applicable) 80
12 (Nationally Threatened)
(Nationally Critical) 2 ( )
(Nationally Endangered) 3 ( ) (Nationally
Vulnerable) 7 (
) 5 (Nationally Near-threatened) (
)
15.0% 6.3% 4 2
( )1 ( )1
(Nationally Extinct)( )

80 5




85

2
3

12
5

7
15.0 % 6.3 %
The Red List of Terrestrial Mammals of Taiwan, 2017 5

1.

(taxon) (criteria) IUCN




(Townsend et al. 2007IUCN 2012a)
(Townsend
et al. 2007) (Rodrigues
et al. 2006)
(International Union for
Conservation of Nature, IUCN)
(Species Survival Commission) IUCN IUCN
(IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) IUCN (IUCN Red List
1964 Categories and Criteria) (IUCN 2012b)
(Rodrigues (region)
et al. 2006IUCN 2016) ( 1)

1. IUCN EX

EW

RE

CR

EN

VU


NT

LC

DD

NA

NE
6 2017

(IUCN 2012a) threatened, NT) 7 (Data


Decient, DD) 6 (Least Concern,
LC) 55 (IUCN 2016) IUCN (2016)
(IUCN 2012a)
IUCN 3.1 (IUCN 72 16
2012b) 56
56 IUCN (2016)
13 69
IUCN 81%
(IUCN 2012a)

85 IUCN
IUCN
72

(Critically Endangered, CR) 1
(Vulnerable, VU) 3 (Near-

Pteropus dasymallus formosus


Formosan ying fox
NCR A2a; B2ab(v); C1; D
/
The Red List of Terrestrial Mammals of Taiwan, 2017 7

Prionailurus bengalensis
Leopard cat
NEN B1b(iii)c(iv); C2b
/

2.

et al., 2007) (Mustela nivalis


formosana Lin et al., 2010) 85

2.1
IUCN
Wilson and Reeder (2005) (IUCN 2012a)
(2015) (Not Applicable) ( 1
Kuo et al. (2017) )
2005 80
(Mogera kanoana Kawada
8 2017

1.

Cynopterus sphinx
(Vahl, 1797) LC

Rousettus leschenaultii
(Desmarest, 1820) LC

Scotophilus sp.
--

Rattus exulans
Motokawa et al. (2001)
(Peale, 1848) LC

Cervus nippon taiouanus



Blyth, 1860 LC

2.2
IUCN C. D.
(IUCN 2012b) E.
(Sub-criterion)
(Qualiers) (logic tree)
( 2)
(Nationally Critical, NCR)
(Nationally Endangered, NEN)

(Nationally Vulnerable, NVU)



(Nationally Near-threatened,

NNT) IUCN
IUCN (Near Threatened, NT)
12 (IUCN
Standards and Petitions Subcommittee ( 2)
2016)A. B.
The Red List of Terrestrial Mammals of Taiwan, 2017 9

Mustela nivalis formosana


Formosan least weasel
NVU B1ab(iii); D2
/

2. IUCN ( ) IUCN Standards and Petitions


Subcommittee (2016)

(CR) (EN) (VU) (NT)

A. ( 10 3 )
A1 90% 70% 50% 30%

A2, A3 & A4 80% 50% 30% 20%

A1.

(a) A3
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
A2. A1

A3. A1 ( 100 )
A4. A1

10 2017

(CR) (EN) (VU) (NT)

B. ( B1 B2 )
B1. (EOO) < 100 < 5,000 < 20,000 <20,000

B2. (AOO) < 10 < 500 < 2,000 < 2,000

( NT )

(a)
=1 5 10 10

(b) (i) (ii) (iii)


(iv) (v)

(c) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)


C.
< 250 < 2,500 < 10,000 <20,000

C1 C2

C1.
3 5 10 10

25% 20% 10% 10%
( 100 )

C2.

a(i)
50 250 1,000 1,000

a(ii)
90% 95% 100% 100%

(b)

D.

D. < 50 < 250 D1. < 1,000 D1. < 2,500

D2. D2. D2.



NA NA < 20km2 < 50km2
( 5 10
)

E.
10 20
100 100

10% 5%
50% 20%
The Red List of Terrestrial Mammals of Taiwan, 2017 11

Coelops frithii formosanus


Formosan tailless leaf-nosed bat
NVU A2a; B1ac(iv); C2a(i); D1
/

2.3

10 3
(IUCN
2012a)

12 2017

3.

2 (NCR)3 et al. 2015) (Data Decient) 4


(NEN)7 (NVU) Wilson and Reeder
12 5 (2005)
(NNT) (Kawada et al. 2007; Lin et al.
80 15.0% 6.3% 2010; Kuo et al. 2017) (2015)
(Nationally Extinct) 1 (
Neofelis nebulosa brachyura, Chiang

3.1 (NCR)

(B)/

(V) ()
Pteropus dasymallus formosus
Sclater, 1873 B A2a; B2ab(v); C1; D NT <1

Lutra lutra
(Linnaeus, 1758) B C2a(i)b; D NT <1

3.2 (NEN)

(B)/

(V) ()
Vespertilio sinensis
(Peters, 1880) B A2a; B1ab(v); C1 LC <1

Ursus thibetanus formosanus
Swinhoe, 1864 B B1ac(iv); C2a(i) VU <1

Prionailurus bengalensis
(Kerr, 1792 B B1b(iii)c(iv); C2b LC <1

The Red List of Terrestrial Mammals of Taiwan, 2017 13

3.3 (NVU)

(B)/

(V) ()
Coelops frithii formosanus
A2a; B1ac(iv);
Horikawa, 1928 B LC <1
C2a(i); D1

Myotis formosus flavus


Shamel, 1944 B A2a; B2ab(v) LC <1

Chimarrogale himalayica
(Gray, 1842) B B1ab(iii)c(iv) LC <1

Martes flavigula chrysospila


Swinhoe, 1866 B B1b(iii)c(iv) LC <1

Mustela nivalis formosana


Lin, Motokawa & Harada, 2010 B B1ab(iii); D2 LC <1

Viverricula indica taivana


Schwarz, 1911 B B1ab(iii) LC <1

Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla


Linnaeus, 1758 B B1b(iii)c(iv) CR <5

3.4 (NNT)

(B)/

(V) ()
Eothenomys melanogaster
(Milne-Edwards, 1871) B B1b(iii) LC <5

Microtus kikuchii
Kuroda, 1920 B B1b(iii) NT 100

Herpestes urva formosanus


Bechthold, 1936 B B1b(iii) LC <5

Rusa unicolor swinhoii


(Sclater, 1862) B B1c(iv) VU <1

Capricornis swinhoei
Gray, 1862 B B1c(iv) LC 100

14 2017

3.5 (DD)

(B)/

(V) ()
Harpiocephalus harpia
(Temminck, 1840) B LC <5

Hypsugo pulveratus
(Peters, 1871) ? LC <1

Myotis soror
Ruedi, Csorba, Lin & Chou, 2015 B NE 100

Chodsigoa sodalis
Thomas, 1913 B DD 100

3.6 (LC)

(B)/

(V) ()
Rhinolophus formosae
Sanborn, 1939 B NT 100

Rhinolophus monoceros
Anderson, 1905 B LC 100

Hipposideros armiger terasensis
Kishida, 1924 B LC <5

Arielulus torquatus
Csorba and Lee, 1999 B LC 100

Barbastella darjelingensis
Hodgson, 1855 B NE <10

Eptesicus serotinus horikawai
Kishida, 1924 B LC <5

Kerivoula furva
Kuo et al., 2017 B NE <10

Harpiola isodon
Kuo, Fang, Csorba & Lee, 2006 B DD ?

The Red List of Terrestrial Mammals of Taiwan, 2017 15

3.6 (LC) ()

(B)/

(V) ()
Myotis fimbriatus taiwanensis
rnbck-Christie-Linde, 1908 B LC <10

Myotis frater
Allen, 1923 B DD <5

Myotis laniger
(Peters, 1870) B LC <5

Myotis rufoniger
(Tomes, 1858) NE ?

Myotis secundus
Ruedi, Csorba, Lin & Chou, 2015 B NE 100

Murina bicolor
Kuo, Fang, Csorba & Lee, 2009 B NE 100

Murina gracilis
Kuo, Fang, Csorba & Lee, 2009 B NE 100

Murina puta
Kishida, 1924 B NT 100

Murina recondita
Kuo, Fang, Csorba & Lee, 2009 B NE 100

Pipistrellus abramus
(Temminck, 1838) B LC <5

Pipistrellus montanus
, 2007 B NE ?

Pipistrellus taiwanensis
, 2007 B NE ?

Plecotus taivanus
Yoshiyuki, 1991 B NT 100

Nyctalus plancyi velutinus


Allen, 1923 B LC <5

Scotophilus kuhlii
Leach, 1821 B LC <5

16 2017

3.6 (LC) ()

(B)/

(V) ()
Submyotodon latirostris
(Kishida, 1932) B NE 100

Miniopterus fuliginosus
Hodgson, 1835 B NE <5

Tadarida insignis
Blyth, 1862 B DD <20

Mogera insularis insularis
(Swinhoe, 1863) B LC <10

Mogera kanoana
Kawada et al., 2007 B NE 100

Anourosorex yamashinai
Kuroda, 1935 B LC 100

Crocidura rapax
Allen, 1923 B DD <20

Crocidura shantungensis
Miller, 1901 B LC <10

Crocidura tanakae
Kuroda, 1938 B LC 100

Episoriculus fumidus
(Thomas, 1913) B LC 100

Suncus murinus
(Linnaeus, 1766) B LC <5

Belomys pearsonii kaleensis
(Swinhoe, 1863) B DD <10

Callosciurus erythraeus
thaiwanensis
B LC <5
(Bonhote, 1901)

Dremomys pernyi owstoni
(Thomas, 1908) B LC <10

Petaurista alborufus lena
Thomas, 1907 B LC <10

The Red List of Terrestrial Mammals of Taiwan, 2017 17

3.6 (LC) ()

(B)/

(V) ()
Petaurista philippensis grandis
(Swinhoe, 1863) B LC <5

Tamiops maritimus formosanus


(Bonhote, 1900) B LC <5

Apodemus agrarius
(Pallas, 1771) B LC <1

Apodemus semotus
Thomas, 1908 B LC 100

Bandicota indica
(Bechstein, 1800) B LC <5

Micromys minutus
(Pallas, 1771) B LC <1

Mus caroli
Bonhote, 1902 B LC <5

Mus musculus
Linnaeus, 1758 B LC <1

Niviventer coninga
(Swinhoe, 1864) B LC 100

Niviventer culturatus
(Thomas, 1917) B NT 100

Rattus losea
(Swinhoe, 1871) B LC <5

Rattus norvegicus
(Berkenhout, 1769) B LC <1

Rattus tanezumi
Temminck, 1844 B LC <5

Melogale moschata subaurantiaca


(Swinhoe, 1863) B LC <5

Mustela sibirica taivana


Thomas, 1913 B LC <1

18 2017

3.6 (LC) ()

(B)/

(V) ()
Paguma larvata taivana
Swinhoe, 1863 B LC <5

Muntiacus reevesi micrurus
(Sclater, 1875) B LC <5

Sus scrofa taivanus
(Swinhoe, 1863) B LC <1

Macaca cyclopis
(Swinhoe, 1863) B LC 100

Lepus sinensis formosus
Thomas, 1908 B LC <5

4.
80 4 IUCN (2016)
2 ( EN VU )1 (NT)1
(RE)

(B)/

(V) ( )
Ursus thibetanus formosanus
Swinhoe, 1864 B EN VU <1

Neofelis nebulosa brachyura
(Swinhoe, 1863) B RE VU 0

Rusa unicolor swinhoii
(Sclater, 1862) B NT VU <1

Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla
Linnaeus, 1758 B VU CR <5

The Red List of Terrestrial Mammals of Taiwan, 2017 19

5.

Mark Bruce Wilkie

6.
2015 ( )

Chiang, P.-J., K. J.-C. Pei, M. Vaughan, C.-F. Li, M.-T. Chen, J.-N. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, L.-K. Lin, and Y.-C. Lai. 2015. Is
the clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa extinct in Taiwan, and could it be reintroduced? An assessment
of prey and habitat. Oryx 49:261269.

IUCN. 2012a. Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels: Version 4.0.
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2012b. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. Second edition. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland
and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>.
Downloaded on 01 December 2016.

IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. 2016. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and
Criteria. Version. 12. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. Downloadable from http://
www.iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf.

Kawada, S. I., A. Shinohara, S. Kobayashi, M. Harada, S. I. Oda, and L.-K. Lin. 2007. Revision of the mole
genus Mogera (Mammalia: Lipotyphla: Talpidae) from Taiwan. Systematics & Biodiversity 5:223-240.

Kuo, H.-C., P. Soisook, Y.-Y. Ho, G. Csorba, C.-N. Wang, and S. J. Rossiter. 2017. A taxonomic revision of the
Kerivoula hardwickii complex (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) with the description of a new species. Acta
Chiropterologica 19:19-39.

Lin, L.-K., M. Motokawa, and M. Harada. 2010. A new subspecies of the least weasel Mustela nivalis (Mammalia,
Carnivora) from Taiwan. Mammal study 35:191-200.

Motokawa, M., K.-H. Lu, M. Harada, and L.-K. Lin. 2001. New records of the Polynesian rat Rattus exulans
(Mammalia: Rodentia) from Taiwan and the Ryukyus. Zoological Studies 40:299-304.

Rodrigues, A. S. L., J. D. Pilgrim, J. F. Lamoreux, M. Hoffmann, and T. M. Brooks. 2006. The value of the IUCN
Red List for conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21:71-76.

Townsend, A. J., P. J. de Lange, C. A. J. Duffy, C. M. Miskelly, J. Molloy, and D. A. Norton. 2007. New Zealand
Threat Classication System manual. Science & Technical Publishing, Department of Conservation,
Wellington, New Zealand.

Wilson, D. E. and D. M. Reeder. 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference.
Third edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
20 2017

The Red List of Terrestrial Mammals of Taiwan, 2017


Hsi-Chi Cheng, Lin-Wen Changchien, Ruey-Shing Lin, Cheng-Hsiung Yang, and Shih-Wei Chang*
Endemic Species Research Institute, Jiji, Nantou, Taiwan
*Corresponding author: cswei@tesri.gov.tw

Abstract
In this report, all wild terrestrial mammals in Taiwan were assessed in accordance with the
categories and criteria recommended by the International Union for Conservation of Nature to
compile a national red list of threatened species. A total of 85 terrestrial mammals were included
in the candidate assessment list, five of which were determined to be not applicable to regional
assessment, and the remaining 80 species underwent evaluation. The results indicated that in
Taiwan, 12 terrestrial mammals are nationally threatened, of which two (i.e., Pteropus dasymallus
formosus and Lutra lutra) are nationally critical, three (i.e., Vespertilio sinensis, Ursus thibetanus
formosanus and Prionailurus bengalensis) are nationally endangered, and seven (i.e., Coelops
frithii formosanus, Myotis formosus flavus, Chimarrogale himalayica, Martes flavigula chrysospila,
Mustela nivalis formosana, Viverricula indica taivana, and Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla) are
nationally vulnerable. Additionally, five species (i.e., Eothenomys melanogaster, Microtus kikuchii,
Herpestes urva formosanus, Rusa unicolor swinhoii, and Capricornis swinhoei) are nationally
near-threatened. Nationally threatened and near-threatened terrestrial mammal species account
for 15.0% and 6.3% the total assessed species, respectively. Four globally threatened terrestrial
mammals were found in Taiwan, of which two (i.e., Ursus thibetanus formosanus and Manis
pentadactyla pentadactyla) are nationally threatened, one (i.e., Rusa unicolor swinhoii) is nationally
near-threatened, and one ( i.e., Neofelis nebulosa brachyura) is nationally extinct.

Subsequent Evaluation
80 Candidate
5 Not Applicable

Species

Nationally Critical
Nationally Endangered
85
Nationally Vulnerable
2
3
Nationally Nationally
Threatened Near-threatened

12 Taxa
5Taxa

7
Percent of
the evaluated species 15.0 % Percent of
the evaluated species 6.3 %
The Red List of Terrestrial Mammals of Taiwan, 2017 21

1. Introduction

The risk of species or taxon extinction is critical Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels
in conservation management. Compiling a list of have also become key references for numerous
species by threat level is a key step in prioritizing countries in evaluating and listing their nationally
rehabilitation projects, research, monitoring, and threatened species (Townsend et al. 2007; IUCN
other conservation measures. Moreover, the list 2012a). This standardized assessment method
can also serve as a primary tool for obtaining facilitated legislation and law implementation
social supporting in habitat protection as well in numerous countries and further improved
as supporting decision-making for resource the comprehensiveness of the global red list of
deployment (Townsend et al. 2007). threatened species (Rodrigues et al. 2006).

Since it was first published in 1964, the If a country or region claims that its red list was
International Union for Conservation of Nature generated in accordance with the IUCN system,
(IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species, which the assessment must be conducted unbiasedly
was compiled by the IUCN Species Survival according to the IUCN Red List Categories and
Commission, has become the principal reference Criteria (IUCN 2012b). A region refers to any
for assessing trends in the conservation status spatial scope on Earth that can be clearly defined,
of species worldwide (Rodrigues et al. 2006; such as a continent, country, state, or province
IUCN 2016). Its categories of conservation (IUCN 2012a). When the scope of threatened
status (Fig. 1), assessment criteria, and the later taxa assessment is reduced from the global to a
published Guidelines for Application of IUCN regional level, distinctions between indigenous

Fig.1. The regional IUCN Red List categories. Extinct EX

Extinct in the Wild EW

Regionally Extinct RE

Threatened categories
Extinction risk

Critically Endangered CR
Adequate data
Endangered EN

Vulnerable VU

Evaluated
Near Threatened NT

Least Concern LC
Eligible for Regional
Assessment
Data Deficient DD

All Species Not Applicable NA

Not Evaluated NE
22 2017

Myotis formosus flavus


Hodgsons myotis
NVU A2a; B2ab(v)
/

and introduced species and between breeding species was classified as critically endangered
and nonbreeding species naturally emerge. (CR), three as vulnerable (VU), seven as near-
Moreover, regional phenomena in which previously threatened (NT), six as data deficient (DD), and
native species have become extinct may also be 55 as least concern (LC). IUCN (2016) performed
identified (IUCN 2012a). This study adopted the the risk assessment of species under threat on
IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria V. 3.1 as the a global scale, with species as a unit. Therefore,
assessment categories and criteria (IUCN 2012b). of the 72 species, the global assessment of 16
However, because of discrepancies in spatial endemic species is identical to the regional
scale, if the aforementioned standard criteria are assessment of Taiwan; however, the assessment
applied to evaluate species that occupy an area of the remaining 56 species is not limited to the
exceeding the evaluated scope, the thresholds Taiwan region. Adding the 56 species to the 13
set in the assessment process and criteria may species not included on the IUCN Red List (2016)
be inappropriate. Therefore, corresponding yielded 69 species, which account for 81% of
adjustments must be made. The Guidelines for Taiwans terrestrial mammals, showing that for
Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional most terrestrial mammals in Taiwan, regional Red
and National Levels provide suggestions on the Listbased assessment remains lacking. Therefore,
adjustments (IUCN 2012a). this study collected various data, including the
distribution, population trends, number, and
Of the existing 85 terrestrial mammals in
causes of threats of all wild terrestrial mammals in
Taiwan, 72 were evaluated in the IUCN Global
Taiwan, to assess their current threat status.
Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN 2016). One
The Red List of Terrestrial Mammals of Taiwan, 2017 23

2. Assessment process

The following section summarizes the process and method adopted to assess the threatened statuses of
all terrestrial mammals in Taiwan:

2.1 Defining the taxa to be included in the evaluation


The candidate assessment list of terrestrial candidate list of 85 terrestrial mammal species
mammals was compiled on the basis of the to be assessed. According to the recommended
Mammal Species of the World (Wilson and Reeder process in the Guidelines for Application of IUCN
2005). Additionally, the part on the order Chiroptera Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels
was generated according to the latest version of (IUCN 2012a), species that were deemed Not
the bat species list (Cheng et al. 2015) and the new Applicable in regional assessment (Table 1) were
species of Kerivoula recently identified by Kuo et excluded. All remaining terrestrial mammals that
al. (2017). Two newly described mammal species appeared within Taiwans territory were included
in Taiwan, namely Mogera kanoana (Kawada et in the official assessment list. A total of 80 species
al. 2007) and Mustela nivalis formosana (Lin et al. underwent the assessment process.
2010), were also added to the list, resulting in a

Table 1. Not Applicable species in this report

Global Red List


Taxon Reason(s) for inapplicability in regional assessment
Category

Cynopterus sphinx Only one record of appearance was documented on


(Vahl, 1797) LC Kinmen Island. Uncertain whether a long-term resident
Short-nosed fruit bat population exists.

Rousettus leschenaultii Only one record of appearance was documented on


(Desmarest, 1820) LC Green Island. Uncertain whether a long-term residence
Fulvous fruit bat population exists.

Scotophilus sp. Only one record of appearance was documented on


--
Greater chestnut bat Kinmen Island. Its taxonomic status remains undetermined.

Rattus exulans
Newly exotic species recorded by Motokawa et al. (2001).
(Peale, 1848) LC
Only recorded in Hualien County to date.
Pacic rat

Cervus nippon taiouanus The original population in the wild has gone extinct. The
Blyth, 1860 LC existing wild population is descended from artificially bred
Formosan sika individuals that were released into the wild.
24 2017

2.2 Data collection and preliminary evaluation


After the subjects of evaluation were identified, IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (V. 12, IUCN
an information table of each assessed taxon Standards and Petitions Subcommittee 2016). The
was prepared in accordance with the IUCN Red assessment process was conducted according
List Categories and Criteria (IUCN 2012b). All to a logic tree comprising five criteria and their
columns in the table were filled with information sub-criteria and qualifiers (Table 2), which are (A)
to incorporate as much data as possible from Population size reduction; (B) Geographic range
published studies, research reports, databases as size, and fragmentation, decline or fluctuations; (C)
well as expert opinions. In addition to the statistics, Small population size and decline; (D) Very small or
data sources were specified and explained if restricted population; and (E) Quantitative analysis
necessary. of extinction risk. Species that did not meet the
criteria for nationally critical (NCR), nationally
The spatial scope evaluated in this report was
endangered (NEN), or nationally vulnerable (NVU)
the terrestrial area where the Republic of China
categories after assessment, but were found close
exerts substantial dominance, namely Taiwan
to or showing the potential to reach the NVU
Island and its outlying islands and island groups
category were categorized as nationally near-
such as Penghu, Orchid Island, Green Island,
threatened (NNT). Because the IUCN Red List
Kinmen, and Matsu; the latter two islet groups are
Categories and Criteria did not provide a specific
geographically proximate to China.
definition for the near-threatened category, this
Each assessed taxon was evaluated in report set the criteria for NNT with reference to the
accordance with the Guidelines for Using the preceding principle (Table 2).

Table 2. A simplified overview of Red List criteria adopted in this study. Modified from IUCN Standards and Petitions
Subcommittee (2016)

Use any of the criteria A-E Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near Threatened

A. Population size reduction (declines measured over the longer of 10 years or 3 generations)
A1 90% 70% 50% 30%

A2, A3 & A4 80% 50% 30% 20%

A1. Population reduction observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected in the past where the causes of the reduction are clearly
reversible AND understood AND have ceased, based on and specifying any of the following:
(a)
direct observation. [except A3]
(b)
an index of abundance appropriate to the taxon.
(c)
a decline in area of occupancy (AOO), extent of occurrence (EOO) and/or habitat quality.
(d)
actual or potential levels of exploitation.
(e)
effects of introduced taxa, hybridization, pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites.
A2. Population reduction observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected in the past where the causes of the reduction may not have
ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible.
A3. Population reduction projected, inferred or suspected to be met in the future (up to a maximum of 100 years) [(a) cannot be used
for A3]
A4. An observed, estimated, inferred, projected or suspected population reduction where the time period must include both the
past and the future (up to a max. of 100 years in future), and where the causes of reduction may not have ceased OR may not be
understood OR may not be reversible.
The Red List of Terrestrial Mammals of Taiwan, 2017 25

Use any of the criteria A-E Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near Threatened

B. Geographic range in the form of either B1 (extent of occurrence) AND/OR B2 (area of occupancy)
B1. Extent of occurrence (EOO) < 100 km2 < 5,000 km2 < 20,000 km2 < 20,000 km2

B2. Area of occupancy (AOO) < 10 km2 < 500 km2 < 2,000 km2 < 2,000 km2

AND at least 2 of the following 3 conditions (at least one for Near-threatened category):

(a) Severely fragmented OR #


=1 5 10 10
locations

(b) Continuing decline observed, estimated, inferred or projected in any of: (i) extent of occurrence; (ii) area of occupancy; (iii) area,
extent and/or quality of habitat; (iv) number of locations or subpopulations; (v) number of mature individuals

(c) Extreme fluctuations in any of: (i) extent of occurrence; (ii) area of occupancy; (iii) number of locations or subpopulations; (iv)
number of mature individuals

C. Small population size and decline


Number of mature individuals < 250 < 2,500 < 10,000 < 20,000

AND at least one of C1 or C2

C1. An observed, estimated or


projected continuing decline 25% in 3 years 20% in 5 years 10% in 10 years 10% in 10 years
of at least (up to a max. of or 1 generation or 2 generations or 3 generations or 3 generations
100 years in future):

C2. An observed, estimated, projected or inferred continuing decline AND at least one of the following 3 conditions:

a(i) Number of mature individuals


50 250 1000 1000
in each subpopulation

a(ii) % of mature individuals in


90% 95% 100% 100%
one subpopulation =

(b) Extreme fluctuations in the number of mature individuals

D. Very small or restricted population Either:


D. Number of mature individuals < 50 < 250 D1. < 1000 D1. < 2500

AND/OR

D2. Only applies to the VU and D2. D2.


NT category
Restricted area of occupancy
or number of locations with NA NA AOO < 20 km2 or AOO < 50 km2 or
a plausible futrue threat that number of locations 5 number of locations 10
could drive the taxon to CR
or EX in a very short time.

E. Quantitative Analysis
50% in 10 years 20% in 20 years
Indicating the probability of
or 3 generations or 5 generations 10% in 100 years 5% in 100 years
extinction in the wild to be:
(100 year max.) (100 year max.)
26 2017

Ursus thibetanus formosanus


Formosan black bear
NEN B1ac(iv); C2a(i)
/

2.3 Category adjustment


After the preliminary assessment is completed Taiwans terrestrial wild mammal species have had
according to the integrated information, the effect contact with individuals from populations outside
of other populations of the same taxon residing of Taiwan within 10 years or three generations.
outside of the evaluated area on the regional Apart from certain possible exceptions, most
extinction probability of an assessed taxon species reproduce and reside in Taiwan perennially.
should be considered (IUCN 2012a). However, Therefore, no category adjustment for the species
most terrestrial mammals on most islands of the evaluation results of the present report was
Taiwan region cannot easily cross seas or oceans conducted.
to migrate. No evidence has shown that any of
The Red List of Terrestrial Mammals of Taiwan, 2017 27

3. Assessment results of terrestrial mammal


species of Taiwan

The assessment results revealed that two brachyura) (Chiang et al. 2015); and four species
species were categorized as nationally critical were deemed data deficient (DD). The scientific
(NCR), three as nationally endangered (NEN), and names of taxa basically follow those provided by
seven as nationally vulnerable (NVU) for a total of Wilson and Reeder (2005); those of some recently
12 nationally threatened species. Moreover, five described species or subspecies either follow
species were determined to be nationally near- the names used in the studies in which they were
threatened (NNT). Nationally threatened and first published (Kawada et al. 2007; Lin et al. 2010;
nationally near-threatened species accounted Kuo et al. 2017) or in the bat species list (Cheng
for 15.0% and 6.3% of the 80 assessed species of et al. 2015). The assessment data of all terrestrial
terrestrial mammals, respectively. Additionally, one mammals in this report can be accessed by
species was considered to be nationally extinct contacting the corresponding author.
(the Formosan clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa

3.1 List of Nationally Critical terrestrial mammal taxa in Taiwan

Global Red List Proportion (%) of Global


Taxon Breeder/Visitor Criteria
Category population (species)

Pteropus dasymallus formosus


Sclater, 1873 B A2a; B2ab(v); C1; D NT <1
Formosan ying fox

Lutra lutra
(Linnaeus, 1758) B C2a(i)b; D NT <1
European otter

3.2 List of Nationally Endangered terrestrial mammal taxa in Taiwan

Global Red List Proportion (%) of Global


Taxon Breeder/Visitor Criteria
Category population (species)

Vespertilio sinensis
(Peters, 1880) B A2a; B1ab(v); C1 LC <1
Asian particolored bat

Ursus thibetanus formosanus


Swinhoe, 1864 B B1ac(iv); C2a(i) VU <1
Formosan black bear

Prionailurus bengalensis
(Kerr, 1792 B B1b(iii)c(iv); C2b LC <1
Leopard cat
28 2017

3.3 List of Nationally Vulnerable terrestrial mammal taxa in Taiwan

Global Red Proportion (%) of Global


Taxon Breeder/Visitor Criteria
List Category population (species)

Coelops frithii formosanus


A2a; B1ac(iv);
Horikawa, 1928 B LC <1
C2a(i); D1
Formosan tailless leaf-nosed bat

Myotis formosus flavus


Shamel, 1944 B A2a; B2ab(v) LC <1
Hodgsons myotis

Chimarrogale himalayica
(Gray, 1842) B B1ab(iii)c(iv) LC <1
Himalayan water shrew

Martes flavigula chrysospila


Swinhoe, 1866 B B1b(iii)c(iv) LC <1
Formosan yellow-throated marten

Mustela nivalis formosana


Lin, Motokawa & Harada, 2010 B B1ab(iii); D2 LC <1
Formosan least weasel

Viverricula indica taivana


Schwarz, 1911 B B1ab(iii) LC <1
Formosan small Indian civet

Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla


Linnaeus, 1758 B B1b(iii)c(iv) CR <5
Formosan pangolin

3.4 List of Nationally Near-threatened terrestrial mammal taxa in Taiwan

Global Red Proportion (%) of Global


Taxon Breeder/Visitor Criteria
List Category population (species)

Eothenomys melanogaster
(Milne-Edwards, 1871) B B1b(iii) LC <5
Pere David's red-backed vole

Microtus kikuchii
Kuroda, 1920 B B1b(iii) NT 100
Taiwan vole

Herpestes urva formosanus


Bechthold, 1936 B B1b(iii) LC <5
Formosan crab-eating mongoose

Rusa unicolor swinhoii


(Sclater, 1862) B B1c(iv) VU <1
Formosan sambar

Capricornis swinhoei
Gray, 1862 B B1c(iv) LC 100
Formosan serow
The Red List of Terrestrial Mammals of Taiwan, 2017 29

3.5 The terrestrial mammals in category of Data Deficient in Taiwan

Global Red Proportion (%) of Global


Taxon Breeder/Visitor Criteria
List Category population (species)

Harpiocephalus harpia
(Temminck, 1840) B LC <5
Lesser hairy-winged bat

Hypsugo pulveratus
(Peters, 1871) ? LC <1
Chinese pipistrelle

Myotis soror
Ruedi, Csorba, Lin & Chou, 2015 B NE 100
Reddish whiskered bat

Chodsigoa sodalis
Thomas, 1913 B DD 100
Lesser Taiwanese shrew

3.6 The terrestrial mammals in category of Least Concern in Taiwan

Global Red Proportion (%) of Global


Taxon Breeder/Visitor Criteria
List Category population (species)

Rhinolophus formosae
Sanborn, 1939 B NT 100
Formosan greater horseshoe bat

Rhinolophus monoceros
Anderson, 1905 B LC 100
Formosan lesser horseshoe bat

Hipposideros armiger terasensis


Kishida, 1924 B LC <5
Formosan leaf-nosed bat

Arielulus torquatus
Csorba and Lee, 1999 B LC 100
Yellow-necked sprite

Barbastella darjelingensis
Hodgson, 1855 B NE <10
Eastern barbastelle

Eptesicus serotinus horikawai


Kishida, 1924 B LC <5
Horikawa's brown bat

Kerivoula furva
Kuo et al., 2017 B NE <10
Dark wolly bat

Harpiola isodon
Kuo, Fang, Csorba & Lee, 2006 B DD ?
Golden-tipped tube-nosed bat
30 2017

3.6 The terrestrial mammals in category of Least Concern in Taiwan (cont.)

Global Red Proportion (%) of Global


Taxon Breeder/Visitor Criteria
List Category population (species)

Myotis fimbriatus taiwanensis


rnbck-Christie-Linde, 1908 B LC <10
Taiwan hairy-legged myotis

Myotis frater
Allen, 1923 B DD <5
Long-tailed whiskered bat

Myotis laniger
(Peters, 1870) B LC <5
Chinese water myotis

Myotis rufoniger
(Tomes, 1858) B NE ?
Red and black myotis

Myotis secundus
Ruedi, Csorba, Lin & Chou, 2015 B NE 100
Taiwan long-toed myotis

Murina bicolor
Kuo, Fang, Csorba & Lee, 2009 B NE 100
Yellow-chested tube-nosed bat

Murina gracilis
Kuo, Fang, Csorba & Lee, 2009 B NE 100
Taiwan little tube-nosed bat

Murina puta
Kishida, 1924 B NT 100
Taiwan tube-nosed bat

Murina recondita
Kuo, Fang, Csorba & Lee, 2009 B NE 100
Faint-golden little tube-nosed bat

Pipistrellus abramus
(Temminck, 1838) B LC <5
Japanese pipistrelle

Pipistrellus montanus
Wu, 2007 B NE ?
Mountain pipistrelle

Pipistrellus taiwanensis
Wu, 2007 B NE ?
Taiwanese pipistrelle

Plecotus taivanus
Yoshiyuki, 1991 B NT 100
Taiwan long-eared bat
The Red List of Terrestrial Mammals of Taiwan, 2017 31

3.6 The terrestrial mammals in category of Least Concern in Taiwan (cont.)

Global Red Proportion (%) of Global


Taxon Breeder/Visitor Criteria
List Category population (species)

Nyctalus plancyi velutinus


Allen, 1923 B LC <5
Chinese noctule

Scotophilus kuhlii
Leach, 1821 B LC <5
Chestnut bat

Submyotodon latirostris
(Kishida, 1932) B NE 100
Taiwan broad-muzzled mouse-eared bat

Miniopterus fuliginosus
Hodgson, 1835 B NE <5
Eastern bent-winged bat

Tadarida insignis
Blyth, 1862 B DD <20
Oriental free-tailed bat

Mogera insularis insularis


(Swinhoe, 1863) B LC <10
Formosan mole

Mogera kanoana
Kawada et al., 2007 B NE 100
Kano's mole

Anourosorex yamashinai
Kuroda, 1935 B LC 100
Formosan mole-shrew

Crocidura rapax
Allen, 1923 B DD <20
Long-tailed white-toothed shrew

Crocidura shantungensis
Miller, 1901 B LC <10
Asian lesser white-toothed shrew

Crocidura tanakae
Kuroda, 1938 B LC 100
Taiwanese grey shrew

Episoriculus fumidus
(Thomas, 1913) B LC 100
Taiwan long-tailed shrew

Suncus murinus
(Linnaeus, 1766) B LC <5
Asian house shrew
32 2017

3.6 The terrestrial mammals in category of Least Concern in Taiwan (cont.)

Global Red Proportion (%) of Global


Taxon Breeder/Visitor Criteria
List Category population (species)

Belomys pearsonii kaleensis


(Swinhoe, 1863) B DD <10
Formosan hairy-eared ying squirrel

Callosciurus erythraeus thaiwanensis


(Bonhote, 1901) B LC <5
Formosan red-bellied squirrel

Dremomys pernyi owstoni


(Thomas, 1908) B LC <10
Formosan long-nosed squirrel

Petaurista alborufus lena


Thomas, 1907 B LC <10
Formosan white-faced ying squirrel

Petaurista philippensis grandis


(Swinhoe, 1863) B LC <5
Formosan giant ying squirrel

Tamiops maritimus formosanus


(Bonhote, 1900) B LC <5
Formosan striped squirrel

Apodemus agrarius
(Pallas, 1771) B LC <1
Striped eld mouse

Apodemus semotus
Thomas, 1908 B LC 100
Taiwan eld mouse

Bandicota indica
(Bechstein, 1800) B LC <5
Greater bandicoot rat

Micromys minutus
(Pallas, 1771) B LC <1
Harvest mouse

Mus caroli
Bonhote, 1902 B LC <5
Ryukyu mouse

Mus musculus
Linnaeus, 1758 B LC <1
House mouse
The Red List of Terrestrial Mammals of Taiwan, 2017 33

3.6 The terrestrial mammals in category of Least Concern in Taiwan (cont.)

Global Red Proportion (%) of Global


Taxon Breeder/Visitor Criteria
List Category population (species)

Niviventer coninga
(Swinhoe, 1864) B LC 100
Taiwan spiny niviventer

Niviventer culturatus
(Thomas, 1917) B NT 100
Taiwan soft-furred niviventer

Rattus losea
(Swinhoe, 1871) B LC <5
Losea rat

Rattus norvegicus
(Berkenhout, 1769) B LC <1
Brown rat

Rattus tanezumi
Temminck, 1844 B LC <5
Oriental house rat

Melogale moschata subaurantiaca


(Swinhoe, 1863) B LC <5
Formosan ferret-badger

Mustela sibirica taivana


Thomas, 1913 B LC <1
Formosan weasel

Paguma larvata taivana


Swinhoe, 1863 B LC <5
Formosan masked palm civet

Muntiacus reevesi micrurus


(Sclater, 1875) B LC <5
Formosan Reeve's muntjac

Sus scrofa taivanus


(Swinhoe, 1863) B LC <1
Formosan wild boar

Macaca cyclopis
(Swinhoe, 1863) B LC 100
Formosan macaque

Lepus sinensis formosus


Thomas, 1908 B LC <5
Formosan hare
34 2017

4. Globally Threatened terrestrial mammal species of Taiwan


Of the 80 terrestrial mammals assessed in this report, four are categorized as globally threatened by
IUCN (2016). Of them, two were nationally threatened species (including EN and VU), one was nationally
near-threatened (NT), and one was considered regionally extinct (RE) in Taiwan.

National Red Global Red List Proportion (%) of Global


Taxon Breeder/Visitor
List Category Category population (species)

Ursus thibetanus formosanus


Swinhoe, 1864 B EN VU <1
Formosan black bear

Neofelis nebulosa brachyura


(Swinhoe, 1863) B RE VU 0
Formosan clouded leopard

Rusa unicolor swinhoii


(Sclater, 1862) B NT VU <1
Formosan sambar

Manis pentadactyla
pentadactyla
B VU CR <5
Linnaeus, 1758
Formosan pangolin

5. Acknowledgements
The authors express their sincere thanks to Dr. Hau-Jie Shiu, who assisted in analyzing the species
geographic range, and Shan-Li Hsu, Chia-Hsien Liu, Kuang-Lung Huang, Chiun-Hsiang Chang, Cheng-Han
Chou, and Yu-Chi Ho, who assisted in assessment data collection and arrangement. We also thank Mark
Bruce Wilkie for his help editing the English.

Lutra lutra
European otter
NCR C2a(i)b; D
/
The Red List of Terrestrial Mammals of Taiwan, 2017 35

6. References
Cheng, H.-C., Y.-P. Fang, and C.-H. Chou. 2015. A photographic guide to the bats of Taiwan. Second edition.
Endemic Species Research Institute, Jiji, Nantou, Taiwan.

Chiang, P.-J., K. J.-C. Pei, M. Vaughan, C.-F. Li, M.-T. Chen, J.-N. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, L.-K. Lin, and Y.-C. Lai. 2015. Is
the clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa extinct in Taiwan, and could it be reintroduced? An assessment
of prey and habitat. Oryx 49:261269.

IUCN. 2012a. Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels: Version 4.0.
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2012b. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. Second edition. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland
and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>.
Downloaded on 01 December 2016.

IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. 2016. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and
Criteria. Version. 12. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. Downloadable from http://
www.iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf.

Kawada, S. I., A. Shinohara, S. Kobayashi, M. Harada, S. I. Oda, and L.-K. Lin. 2007. Revision of the mole
genus Mogera (Mammalia: Lipotyphla: Talpidae) from Taiwan. Systematics & Biodiversity 5:223-240.

Kuo, H.-C., P. Soisook, Y.-Y. Ho, G. Csorba, C.-N. Wang, and S. J. Rossiter. 2017. A taxonomic revision of the
Kerivoula hardwickii complex (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) with the description of a new species. Acta
Chiropterologica 19:19-39.

Lin, L.-K., M. Motokawa, and M. Harada. 2010. A new subspecies of the least weasel Mustela nivalis (Mammalia,
Carnivora) from Taiwan. Mammal study 35:191-200.

Motokawa, M., K.-H. Lu, M. Harada, and L.-K. Lin. 2001. New records of the Polynesian rat Rattus exulans
(Mammalia: Rodentia) from Taiwan and the Ryukyus. Zoological Studies 40:299-304.

Rodrigues, A. S. L., J. D. Pilgrim, J. F. Lamoreux, M. Hoffmann, and T. M. Brooks. 2006. The value of the IUCN
Red List for conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21:71-76.

Townsend, A. J., P. J. de Lange, C. A. J. Duffy, C. M. Miskelly, J. Molloy, and D. A. Norton. 2007. New Zealand
Threat Classication System manual. Science & Technical Publishing, Department of Conservation,
Wellington, New Zealand.

Wilson, D. E. and D. M. Reeder. 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference.
Third edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
2017
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55244 1


708 326
06-2933266

2017 7
ISBN 978-986-05-3050-6
GPN 1010601061
100
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
License

Publisher Kuo-Yun Fang, Hwa-Ching Lin


Authors Hsi-Chi Cheng, Lin-Wen Changchien, Ruey-Shing Lin, Cheng-Hsiung Yang,
and Shih-Wei Chang

Published by Endemic Species Research Institute, COA, EY, ROC. (Taiwan)


Forestry Bureau, COA, EY, ROC. (Taiwan)

Address No. 1, Ming-Shen East Road, Jiji Township, Nantou County, 55244, Taiwan 1
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Address No. 326, Sec. 3, Jiankang Road, Anping District, Tainan City, 708, Taiwan 1 Coelops frithii formosanus
Telphone 06-2933266 Formosan tailless leaf-nosed bat
Published Date July, 2017
NVU A2a; B1ac(iv); C2a(i); D1
ISBN 978-986-05-3050-6 /
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Price NT100 2 Prionailurus bengalensis
This report is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Leopard cat
International License, and may on a non-exclusive basis be reproduced NEN B1b(iii)c(iv); C2b
without fee provided the credit is clear and visible.
/

3 Mustela nivalis formosana


Formosan least weasel
NVU B1ab(iii); D2
/

4 Vespertilio sinensis
20172017 Asian particolored bat

NEN A2a; B1ab(v); C1

/
Citation Cheng, H.-C., L.-W. Changchien, R.-S. Lin, C.-H. Yang, and S.-W. Chang.
2017. The Red List of Terrestrial Mammals of Taiwan, 2017. Endemic Species
Research Institute and Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive
Yuan, Nantou, Taiwan.

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