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2017

03
The Red List of
Amphibians of Taiwan, 2017


Endemic Species Research Institute, COA, EY, R.O.C. (Taiwan)


Forestry Bureau, COA, EY, R.O.C. (Taiwan)


Authors Chun-Fu Lin Cheng-Hsiung Yang


Ruey-Shing Lin
2017

The Red List of Amphibians
of Taiwan, 2017

04

1 05

2 07
2.1 07
2.2 08

3 11
3.1 11
3.2 12
3.3 13

4 16

5 16

6 17
18
Contents
Abstract

1 Introduction 19

2 Assessment process 21

2.1 Defining the taxa to be included in the evaluation 21


2.2 Data collection and preliminary evaluation 21

3 The Red List of Amphibians of Taiwan 25


3.1 List of Threatened amphibian taxa in Taiwan 25
3.2 List of Near- threatened and
27
Data Deficient amphibian taxa in Taiwan
3.3 List of Least Concern amphibian taxa in Taiwan 28

Globally Threatened amphibian species of


4 Taiwan
30

5 Acknowledgements 30

6 References 31

/
Hylarana taipehensis
Taipei Grass Frog
EN B2ab (ii,iii,iv)c(ii,iii)
/

/
Babina okinavana
Harpist Frog
CR B1ab (iii)
/
4 2017

2017
*

* : spring@tesri.gov.tw


(International
Union for Conservation of Nature)
40 3 (Not Applicable)
37
(Critical Endangered) 2 (Endangered) 6
(Vulnerable) 3 11 (Threatened)
29.7% 26 3 (Near-threatened) 5
(Data Deficient) 18 (Least Concern)

2
6

40
3

3
37
18

5

29.7 %
The Red List of Amphibians of Taiwan, 2017 5

1.

(International Union for


Conservation of Nature, IUCN) 2004 IUCN
(Species Survival Commission) IUCN
(IUCN Red List of Threatened 2006
Species) 1964 2008
60 650
(Rodrigues et al. 2006
IUCN, 2016) IUCN 2008
IUCN
(32%)
(Townsend et al. 2007; IUCN 2012a) ( )
43% 25%

(Rodrigues et al. 2006) 42%

Rhacophorus arvalis
Farmland Treefrog
EN B1ab(i,iii,iv)c(iii)
/
6 2017

1%
(IUCN 2016)


2004 (
) (
) IUCN SSC
31
20082009 2016



Babina okinavana
Harpist Frog
CR B1ab(iii)
/

Hynobius arisanensis
Arisan Salamander
VU B2ab(iii)
/
The Red List of Amphibians of Taiwan, 2017 7

Rhacophorus aurantiventris
Orange Belly Treefrog
EN B2ab(iii)
/

2.

(criteria) 2.1
(categories) IUCN

: 3.1 (IUCN 2012b) IUCN

(IUCN
(American Museum of National
2012a)
History) (Amphibian

Species of the World, ASW) (Frost

2015) 40

(Lithobates catesbeianus)

(Kaloula pulchra)
(Polypedates megacephalus) 3
(Not
Applicable)
37
8 2017

2.2
IUCN (Small population and declining)D.
(IUCN 2012b) (Very small population) E.
(Quantitative analysis)
(Sub-criterion) (Qualifiers)
(logic tree) ( 1)

IUCN

( 1) 12 (IUCN
Standards and Petitions Subcommittee 2016)
A. (Rapid population (Critical Endangered, CR)
reduction)B. (Endangered, EN) (Vulnerable, VU)
(Small range and fragmented,
declining, or extreme fluctuations)C. (Near-threatened, NT)

1. IUCN EX

EW

RE


CR

EN

VU


NT

LC

DD

NA

NE
The Red List of Amphibians of Taiwan, 2017 9

1. IUCN ( ) IUCN Standards and Petitions


Subcommittee (2016)

(CR) (EN) (VU) (NT)

A. ( 10 3 )
A1 90% 70% 50% 30%

A2, A3 & A4 80% 50% 30% 20%

A1.

(a) A3
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
A2. A1

A3. A1 ( 100 )
A4. A1

Hylarana taipehensis
Taipei Grass Frog
EN B2ab(ii,iii,iv)c(ii,iii)
/
10 2017

(CR) (EN) (VU) (NT)

B. ( B1 B2 )
B1. (EOO) < 100 < 5,000 < 20,000 <20,000

B2. (AOO) < 10 < 500 < 2,000 < 2,000

( NT )

(a)
=1 5 10 10

(b) (i) (ii) (iii)


(iv) (v)

(c) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)


C.
< 250 < 2,500 < 10,000 <20,000

C1 C2

C1.
3 5 10 10

25% 20% 10% 10%
( 100 )

C2.

a(i)
50 250 1,000 1,000

a(ii)
90% 95% 100% 100%

(b)

D.

D. < 50 < 250 D1. < 1,000 D1. < 2,500

D2. D2. D2.



NA NA < 20km2 < 50km2
( 5 10
)

E.
10 20
100 100

10% 5%
50% 20%
The Red List of Amphibians of Taiwan, 2017 11

3.

2 (Near-threatened) 3
(Critical Endangered) 6 (Data Deficient) 5
(Endangered) 3 (Least Concern) 18
(Vulnerable) 11 (Threatened)
29.7%

3.1 ( )



%
Hynobius glacialis
Lai and Lue, 2008 CR B1ab(iii) 100

Babina okinavana
(Boettger, 1895) CR B1ab(iii) EN B1ab(iii,iv)+2ab(iii,iv) 30

Hynobius formosanus
Maki, 1922 EN B1ab(iii) EN B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) 100

Hynobius fuca
Lai and Lue, 2008 EN B1ab(ii,iii) 100

Hynobius fuca
Taiwan Lesser Salamander
EN B1ab(ii,iii)
/
12 2017

3.1 ( ) ()



%
Hynobius sonani
(Maki, 1922) EN B1ab(iii) EN B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) 100

Hylarana taipehensis
(Van Denburgh, 1909) EN B2ab(ii,iii,iv)c(ii,iii) LC 1

Rhacophorus arvalis
Lue, Lai, and Chen, 1995 EN B1ab(i,iii,iv)c(iii) EN B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) 100

Rhacophorus aurantiventris
EN B1ab(v)+2ab(v);
Lue, Lai, and Chen, 1994 EN B2ab(iii) 100
C2a(i)

Hynobius arisanensis
Maki, 1922 VU B2ab(iii) VU B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) 100

Micryletta steinegeri
(Boulenger, 1909) VU B1b(i,iii)c(iii) EN B1ab(iii) 100

Rhacophorus taipeianus
Lin and Wang, 1978 VU B1ab(i) NT 100

Hynobius sonani
Sonan's Salamander
EN B1ab(iii)
/
The Red List of Amphibians of Taiwan, 2017 13

3.2



%
Pelophylax fukienensis
(Pope, 1929) NT B1c(iii) LC 10

Rana longicrus
Stejneger, 1898 NT B1b(iii) VU B1ab(iii,v) 10

Rhacophorus prasinatus
Mou, Risch, and Lue, 1983 NT B1b(iii) NT 100

Microhyla butleri
Boulenger,1900 DD LC 1

Kurixalus berylliniris
Wu, Huang, Tsai, Lin, Jhang, and Wu, 2016 DD 100

Kurixalus eiffingeri
(Boettger, 1895) DD LC 50

Kurixalus wangi
Wu, Huang, Tsai, Lin, Jhang, and Wu, 2016 DD 100

Fejervarya cancrivora
(Gravenhorst, 1829) DD LC 1

Microhyla butleri
Butler's Narrow-mouthed Frog
DD
/
14 2017

3.3



%
Bufo bankorensis
Barbour, 1908 LC LC 100

Duttaphrynus melanostictus
(Schneider, 1799) LC LC 1

Fejervarya limnocharis
(Gravenhorst, 1829) LC LC 1

Hoplobatrachus rugulosus
(Wiegmann, 1834) LC LC 1

Limnonectes fujianensis
Ye and Fei, 1994 LC LC 10

Hyla chinensis
Gnther, 1858 LC LC 1

Microhyla fissipes
Boulenger, 1884 LC LC 1

Microhyla heymonsi
Vogt, 1911 LC LC 1

Babina adenopleura
(Boulenger, 1909) LC LC 10

Hylarana guentheri
(Boulenger, 1882) LC LC 1

Hylarana latouchii
(Boulenger, 1899) LC LC 1

Odorrana swinhoana
(Boulenger, 1903) LC LC 100

Rana sauteri
Boulenger, 1909 LC EN B1ab(iii) 100

Buergeria japonica
(Hallowell, 1861) LC LC 40

The Red List of Amphibians of Taiwan, 2017 15

3.3 ()



%
Buergeria robusta
(Boulenger, 1909) LC LC 100

Kurixalus idiootocus
(Kuramoto and Wang, 1987) LC LC 100

Polypedates braueri
(Vogt, 1911) LC 5

Rhacophorus moltrechti
Boulenger, 1908 LC LC 100

Buergeria japonica Hoplobatrachus rugulosus


Japanese Stream Treefrog Chinese Bullfrog
LC LC
/ /

Hylarana latouchii
Latouche's Frog
LC
/
16 2017

4.

37 9 7 (
CR, EN VU )1 1



%
Babina okinavana
(Boettger, 1895) CR B1ab(iii) EN B1ab(iii,iv)+2ab(iii,iv) 30

Hynobius formosanus
Maki, 1922 EN B1ab(iii) EN B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) 100

Hynobius sonani
(Maki, 1922) EN B1ab(iii) EN B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) 100

Rhacophorus arvalis
Lue, Lai, and Chen, 1995 EN B1ab(i,iii,iv)c(iii) EN B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) 100

Rhacophorus aurantiventris
EN B1ab(v)+2ab(v);
Lue, Lai, and Chen, 1994 EN B2ab(iii) 100
C2a(i)

Hynobius arisanensis
Maki, 1922 VU B2ab(iii) VU B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) 100

Micryletta steinegeri
(Boulenger, 1909) VU B1b(i,iii)c(iii) EN B1ab(iii) 100

Rana longicrus
Stejneger, 1898 NT VU B1ab(iii,v) 10

Rana sauteri
Boulenger, 1909 LC EN B1ab(iii) 100

5.


Mark Bruce Wilkie

The Red List of Amphibians of Taiwan, 2017 17

Micryletta steinegeri
Steineger's Narrow-mouthed Frog
VU B1b(i,iii)c(iii)
/

6.

Frost, D. R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (1 February 2016).
Electronic Database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html. American
Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.

IUCN. 2012a. Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels: Version 4.0.
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2012b. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. Second edition. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland
and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>.
Downloaded on 04 September 2016.

IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. 2016. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and
Criteria. Version. 12. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. Downloadable from http://
www.iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf.

Rodrigues, A. S. L., J. D. Pilgrim, J. F. Lamoreux, M. Hoffmann, and T. M. Brooks. 2006. The value of the IUCN
Red List for conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21:71-76.

Townsend, A. J., P. J. de Lange, C. A. J. Duffy, C. M. Miskelly, J. Molloy, and D. A. Norton. 2007. New Zealand
Threat Classification System manual. Science & Technical Publishing, Department of Conservation,
Wellington, New Zealand.
18 2017

The Red List of Amphibians of Taiwan, 2017


Chun-Fu Lin*, Cheng-Hsiung Yang and Ruey-Shing Lin
Endemic Species Research Institute, Nantou, Taiwan
* Corresponding authorspring@tesri.gov.tw

Abstract
This report has adopted the categories and criteria suggested by the International Union
for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) for evaluating amphibians. It evaluates amphibian species
listed in the Red List of Amphibians of Taiwan and determines the current threats to amphibian
species in Taiwan. The 40 amphibian species on the red list were adopted as candidates for
evaluation. However, three of these species were excluded because they were listed as not
applicable for region-based evaluations. Therefore, 37 species were selected for preliminary
evaluation. The results indicated two species in the critically endangered (CR) category, six in
the endangered (EN) category, and three in the vulnerable (VU) category. These 11 threatened
species comprised 29.7% of all the species evaluated in this study. Among the remaining 26
species, three were in the near-threatened (NT) category, five were in the data deficient (DD)
category, and 18 were in the least concern (LC) category.

Threatened categories
Critically Endangered Near Threatened
Endangered Data Deficient
Not Applicable
3 Vulnerable Least Concern

2
6 Subsequent
Candidate Species Evaluation

40 Taxa
3

3
37 Taxa
18

5
Percent of
the Threatened species 29.7 %
The Red List of Amphibians of Taiwan, 2017 19

1. Introduction

The operating procedures introduced in the Amphibians are very sensitive to disturbances
International Union for Conservation of Nature in ecosystems. Therefore, they are crucial indicators
(IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species, which of environmental change. In 2004, the IUCN
was first published by the IUCN Species Survival completed the first evaluation of the amphibians
Commission (SSC) in 1964, have gradually become on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
the key reference for evaluating animal protection Thereafter, results have been continually updated
status and changing trends within animal species and revised. The IUCN engaged in two large-scale
around the world (Rodrigues et al. 2006; IUCN updates of its red list in 2006 and 2008 due to
2016). Moreover, the Guidelines for Application of exponential increases in the amount of amphibian
IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National data collected. At present, approximately 650
Levels later published by the IUCN has also expert scholars across 60 countries have conducted
become a regulatory standard for evaluating the subsequent evaluations to systematically
threat to native animal species in many countries determine global amphibian population declines
(Townsend et al. 2007; IUCN 2012a). These and conservation actions. According to data
evaluations not only help researchers understand on amphibians in the 2008 IUCN Red List of
the regional and national threat to animal species Threatened Species, approximately one-third (32%)
but also enhance the comprehensiveness of the of global amphibian species are either threatened
assessment of species on the red list (Rodrigues et (including critically endangered, CR; endangered,
al. 2006). EN; and vulnerable, VU) or extinct, 43% are not

Rhacophorus arvalis
Farmland Treefrog
EN B1ab(i,iii,iv)c(iii)
/
20 2017

Babina okinavana
Harpist Frog
CR B1ab(iii)
/

Rhacophorus prasinatus
Emerald Treefrog
NT
/

threatened, and there is insufficient data on the Taiwan to join the IUCN SSC amphibian expert
remaining 25% to determine the threats they face. team (joining in 2004). Together with other
Among all amphibian species, roughly 42% are in international experts they evaluated Taiwans 31
decline. Thus, it is projected that more species native amphibian species. International evaluations
will become threatened in the near future. By of many of Taiwans animal species were performed
comparison, less than 1% of all amphibian species in 2008, 2009, and 2016. Recent rapid changes
are increasing in population (IUCN 2016). in Taiwans ecosystems, ongoing publications
of new species, and taxonomic revisions have
Dr. Kuang-Yang Lue (former professor at
greatly increased the urgency for a national-level
National Taiwan Normal University) and Dr. Wen-
evaluation to review and re-evaluate the risk of
Hao Chou (researcher at National Taiwan Museum
extinction to Taiwans amphibians.
of Natural Science) were the first experts from
The Red List of Amphibians of Taiwan, 2017 21

2. Assessment process

This report adopts the evaluation criteria and 2.1 Defining the taxa to be included in the
categories listed in the IUCN Red List Categories
evaluation
and Criteria Version 3.1 (IUCN 2012b). Issues
concerning native and invasive species were The scope of the evaluation comprised all the
investigated using the Guidelines for Application amphibian species in Taiwan. The categorization
of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National criteria and scientific names of the species were
Levels (IUCN 2012a), and a preliminary evaluation based on Amphibian Species of the World (ASW)
was performed on the species listed in the Red List published by the American Museum of National
of Amphibians of Taiwan. The evaluation outcomes History (Frost 2015). Forty amphibian species were
were used to calculate the population ratio of considered as candidates for evaluation. Among
every taxon between Taiwan and the world to these, Lithobates catesbeianus, Kaloula pulchra,
highlight the risk of extinction measured according and Polypedates megacephalus were invasive
to various levels. The evaluation methods and species and listed as not applicable for region-
procedures are described herein. based evaluations. Therefore, 37 species were
selected for evaluation.

Rhacophorus aurantiventris
Orange Belly Treefrog
EN B2ab(iii)
/
22 2017

2.2 Data Collection and Preliminary Evaluation


After the species for evaluation were fragmented, declining, or extreme fluctuations;
confirmed, the IUCN Red List Categories and C. Small population and declining; D. Very small
Criteria (IUCN 2012b) was used to create a population; and E. Quantitative analysis) and
datasheet for each taxon. Relevant data from numerous subcriteria and qualifiers (Table 1). Each
academic papers, research reports, databases, and taxon was analyzed against each criterion and
expert opinions were entered into the datasheet listed as threatened if they satisfied one or more
and necessary explanations were recorded. of the criteria. The taxa were then listed under the
appropriate categories, and corresponding criteria
Each taxon was evaluated in accordance
and sub-criteria were listed under each taxon. Taxa
with the Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List
that did not belong to the CR, EN, or VU categories
Categories and Criteria Version 12 published by
but approximated or may potentially reach the VU
the IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee
category were listed in the near-threatened (NT)
in 2016. The evaluation items were compiled
category.
into a logic tree comprising five major criteria (A.
Rapid population reduction; B. Small range and

Fig.1. Regional/National IUCN Red List Categories Extinct EX

Extinct in the Wild EW

Regionally Extinct RE

Threatened categories

Extinction risk
Critically Endangered CR
Adequate data
Endangered EN

Vulnerable VU

Evaluated
Near Threatened NT

Least Concern LC
Eligible for Regional
Assessment
Data Deficient DD

All Species Not Applicable NA

Not Evaluated NE
The Red List of Amphibians of Taiwan, 2017 23

Table 1. Summary of IUCN Red List Threatened (CR, EN, VU) and Near-threatened Categories and Criteria. Revised
from the Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria Version 12 published by the IUCN
Standards and Petitions Subcommittee in 2016.

Use any of the criteria A-E Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near Threatened

A. Population size reduction (declines measured over the longer of 10 years or 3 generations)
A1 90% 70% 50% 30%

A2, A3 & A4 80% 50% 30% 20%

A1. Population reduction observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected in the past where the causes of the reduction are clearly
reversible AND understood AND have ceased, based on and specifying any of the following:
(a)
direct observation. [except A3]
(b)
an index of abundance appropriate to the taxon.
(c)
a decline in area of occupancy (AOO), extent of occurrence (EOO) and/or habitat quality.
(d)
actual or potential levels of exploitation.
(e)
effects of introduced taxa, hybridization, pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites.
A2. Population reduction observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected in the past where the causes of the reduction may not have
ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible.
A3. Population reduction projected, inferred or suspected to be met in the future (up to a maximum of 100 years) [(a) cannot be used
for A3]
A4. An observed, estimated, inferred, projected or suspected population reduction where the time period must include both the
past and the future (up to a max. of 100 years in future), and where the causes of reduction may not have ceased OR may not be
understood OR may not be reversible.

Hylarana taipehensis
Taipei Grass Frog
EN B2ab(ii,iii,iv)c(ii,iii)
/
24 2017

Use any of the criteria A-E Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near Threatened

B. Geographic range in the form of either B1 (extent of occurrence) AND/OR B2 (area of occupancy)
B1. Extent of occurrence (EOO) < 100 km2 < 5,000 km2 < 20,000 km2 < 20,000 km2

B2. Area of occupancy (AOO) < 10 km2 < 500 km2 < 2,000 km2 < 2,000 km2

AND at least 2 of the following 3 conditions (at least one for Near-threatened category):

(a) Severely fragmented OR #


=1 5 10 10
locations

(b) Continuing decline observed, estimated, inferred or projected in any of: (i) extent of occurrence; (ii) area of occupancy; (iii) area,
extent and/or quality of habitat; (iv) number of locations or subpopulations; (v) number of mature individuals

(c) Extreme fluctuations in any of: (i) extent of occurrence; (ii) area of occupancy; (iii) number of locations or subpopulations; (iv)
number of mature individuals

C. Small population size and decline


Number of mature individuals < 250 < 2,500 < 10,000 < 20,000

AND at least one of C1 or C2

C1. An observed, estimated or


projected continuing decline 25% in 3 years 20% in 5 years 10% in 10 years 10% in 10 years
of at least (up to a max. of or 1 generation or 2 generations or 3 generations or 3 generations
100 years in future):

C2. An observed, estimated, projected or inferred continuing decline AND at least one of the following 3 conditions:

a(i) Number of mature individuals


50 250 1000 1000
in each subpopulation

a(ii) % of mature individuals in


90% 95% 100% 100%
one subpopulation =

(b) Extreme fluctuations in the number of mature individuals

D. Very small or restricted population Either:


D. Number of mature individuals < 50 < 250 D1. < 1000 D1. < 2500

AND/OR

D2. Only applies to the VU and D2. D2.


NT category
Restricted area of occupancy
or number of locations with NA NA AOO < 20 km2 or AOO < 50 km2 or
a plausible futrue threat that number of locations 5 number of locations 10
could drive the taxon to CR
or EX in a very short time.

E. Quantitative Analysis
50% in 10 years 20% in 20 years
Indicating the probability of
or 3 generations or 5 generations 10% in 100 years 5% in 100 years
extinction in the wild to be:
(100 year max.) (100 year max.)
The Red List of Amphibians of Taiwan, 2017 25

3. The Red List of Amphibians of Taiwan

The outcomes revealed that among the evaluated in this report. In addition, three species
amphibian species in Taiwan, two were in the CR were in the NT category, five were in the DD
category, six were in the EN category, and three category, and 18 were in the LC category. The
were in the VU category. These 11 threatened evaluation data and outcomes summarized in this
species comprised 29.7% of all the species report are available from the corresponding author.

3.1 List of Threatened Amphibian Taxa in Taiwan (Incl., CR, EN, and VU)

Taiwanese Red List Taiwanese Red List Proportion (%) of


Taxon name
Category Category Global population

Hynobius glacialis
Lai and Lue, 2008 CR B1ab(iii) 100
Nanhu Salamander

Babina okinavana
(Boettger, 1895) CR B1ab(iii) EN B1ab(iii,iv)+2ab(iii,iv) 30
Harpist Frog

Hynobius formosanus
Maki, 1922 EN B1ab(iii) EN B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) 100
Formosan Salamander

Hynobius fuca
Lai and Lue, 2008 EN B1ab(ii,iii) 100
Taiwan Lesser Salamander

Rhacophorus aurantiventris
Orange Belly Treefrog
EN B2ab(iii)
/
26 2017

3.1 List of Threatened Amphibian Taxa in Taiwan (Incl., CR, EN, and VU) (cont.)

Taiwanese Red List Taiwanese Red List Proportion (%) of


Taxon name
Category Category Global population

Hynobius sonani
(Maki, 1922) EN B1ab(iii) EN B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) 100
Sonan's Salamander

Hylarana taipehensis
(Van Denburgh, 1909) EN B2ab(ii,iii,iv)c(ii,iii) LC 1
Taipei Grass Frog

Rhacophorus arvalis
Lue, Lai, and Chen, 1995 EN B1ab(i,iii,iv)c(iii) EN B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) 100
Farmland Treefrog

Rhacophorus aurantiventris
Lue, Lai, and Chen, 1994 EN B2ab(iii) EN B1ab(v)+2ab(v); C2a(i) 100
Orange Belly Treefrog

Hynobius arisanensis
Maki, 1922 VU B2ab(iii) VU B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) 100
Arisan Salamander

Micryletta steinegeri
(Boulenger, 1909) VU B1b(i,iii)c(iii) EN B1ab(iii) 100
Steineger's Narrow-mouthed Frog

Rhacophorus taipeianus
Lin and Wang, 1978 VU B1ab(i) NT 100
Taipei Treefrog

Hynobius sonani
Sonan's Salamander
EN B1ab(iii)
/
The Red List of Amphibians of Taiwan, 2017 27

3.2 List of Near-Threatened and Data Deficient Amphibian Taxa in Taiwan

Taiwanese Red List Taiwanese Red List Proportion (%) of


Taxon name
Category Category Global population

Pelophylax fukienensis
(Pope, 1929) NT B1c(iii) LC 10
Fukien Gold-striped Pond Frog

Rana longicrus
Stejneger, 1898 NT B1b(iii) VU B1ab(iii,v) 10
Long-legged Frog

Rhacophorus prasinatus
Mou, Risch, and Lue, 1983 NT B1b(iii) NT 100
Emerald Treefrog

Microhyla butleri
Boulenger,1900 DD LC 1
Butler's Narrow-mouthed Frog

Kurixalus berylliniris
Wu, Huang, Tsai, Lin, Jhang, and Wu, 2016 DD 100
Emerald-eyed Treefrog

Kurixalus eiffingeri
(Boettger, 1895) DD LC 50
Eifnger's Treefrog

Kurixalus wangi
Wu, Huang, Tsai, Lin, Jhang, and Wu, 2016 DD 100
Wang's Treefrog

Fejervarya cancrivora
(Gravenhorst, 1829) DD LC 1
Mangrove Frog

Pelophylax fukienensis
Fukien Gold-striped Pond Frog
NT
/
28 2017

3.3 List of Least Concern Amphibian Taxa in Taiwan

Taiwanese Red List Taiwanese Red List Proportion (%) of


Taxon name
Category Category Global population

Bufo bankorensis
Barbour, 1908 LC LC 100
Bankor Toad

Duttaphrynus melanostictus
(Schneider, 1799) LC LC 1
Black-spectacled Toad

Fejervarya limnocharis
(Gravenhorst, 1829) LC LC 1
Rice Field Frog

Hoplobatrachus rugulosus
(Wiegmann, 1834) LC LC 1
Chinese Bullfrog

Limnonectes fujianensis
Ye and Fei, 1994 LC LC 10
Fujian Large-headed Frog

Hyla chinensis
Gnther, 1858 LC LC 1
Chinese Tree Frog

Microhyla fissipes
Boulenger, 1884 LC LC 1
Ornate Narrow-mouthed Frog

Microhyla heymonsi
Vogt, 1911 LC LC 1
Heymon's Narrow-mouthed Frog

Babina adenopleura
(Boulenger, 1909) LC LC 10
Olive Frog

Hylarana guentheri
(Boulenger, 1882) LC LC 1
Guenther's Frog

Hylarana latouchii
(Boulenger, 1899) LC LC 1
Latouche's Frog

Odorrana swinhoana
(Boulenger, 1903) LC LC 100
Swinhoe's Brown Frog

Rana sauteri
Boulenger, 1909 LC EN B1ab(iii) 100
Sauter's Brown Frog
The Red List of Amphibians of Taiwan, 2017 29

3.3 List of Least Concern Amphibian Taxa in Taiwan (cont.)

Taiwanese Red List Taiwanese Red List Proportion (%) of


Taxon name
Category Category Global population

Buergeria japonica
(Hallowell, 1861) LC LC 40
Japanese Stream Treefrog

Buergeria robusta
(Boulenger, 1909) LC LC 100
Strong Stream Treefrog

Kurixalus idiootocus
(Kuramoto and Wang, 1987) LC LC 100
Mientien Treefrog

Polypedates braueri
(Vogt, 1911) LC 5
Brauer's Treefrog

Rhacophorus moltrechti
Boulenger, 1908 LC LC 100
Moltrecht's Green Treefrog

Bufo bankorensis
Bankor Toad
LC
/
30 2017

4. Globally Threatened Amphibian Species of Taiwan


A total of 37 amphibian species were adopted as candidates for evaluation. Nine are globally threatened
species, seven are threatened in Taiwan (CR, EN, and VU), one is near-threatened, and one is least concern.

Taiwanese Red List Proportion (%) of


Taxon name Global Red List Category
Category Global population

Babina okinavana
(Boettger, 1895) CR B1ab(iii) EN B1ab(iii,iv)+2ab(iii,iv) 30
Olive Frog

Hynobius formosanus
Maki, 1922 EN B1ab(iii) EN B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) 100
Formosan Salamander

Hynobius sonani
(Maki, 1922) EN B1ab(iii) EN B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) 100
Sonan's Salamander

Rhacophorus arvalis
Lue, Lai, and Chen, 1995 EN B1ab(i,iii,iv)c(iii) EN B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) 100
Farmland Treefrog

Rhacophorus aurantiventris
Lue, Lai, and Chen, 1994 EN B2ab(iii) EN B1ab(v)+2ab(v); C2a(i) 100
Orange Belly Treefrog

Hynobius arisanensis
Maki, 1922 VU B2ab(iii) VU B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) 100
Arisan Salamander

Micryletta steinegeri
(Boulenger, 1909) VU B1b(i,iii)c(iii) EN B1ab(iii) 100
Steineger's Narrow-mouthed Frog

Rana longicrus
Stejneger, 1898 NT VU B1ab(iii,v) 10
Long-legged Frog

Rana sauteri
Boulenger, 1909 LC EN B1ab(iii) 100
Sauter's Brown Frog

5. Acknowledgements
We would like to extend our sincerest gratitude to Yuan-Long Chen for participating in discussions
concerning the evaluation process and providing many revision suggestions; Da-Chaun Yeh and Sin Chen for
assisting in the collection and collation of the evaluation data; and many experts and scholars consulted for
their provision of information and suggestions throughout the evaluation process. We also thank Mark Bruce
Wilkie for his help editing the English.
The Red List of Amphibians of Taiwan, 2017 31

Rhacophorus prasinatus
Emerald Treefrog
NT
/

6. References
Frost, D. R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (1 February 2016).
Electronic Database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html. American
Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.

IUCN. 2012a. Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels: Version 4.0.
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2012b. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. Second edition. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland
and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>.
Downloaded on 04 September 2016.

IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. 2016. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and
Criteria. Version. 12. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. Downloadable from http://
www.iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf.

Rodrigues, A. S. L., J. D. Pilgrim, J. F. Lamoreux, M. Hoffmann, and T. M. Brooks. 2006. The value of the IUCN
Red List for conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21:71-76.

Townsend, A. J., P. J. de Lange, C. A. J. Duffy, C. M. Miskelly, J. Molloy, and D. A. Norton. 2007. New Zealand
Threat Classification System manual. Science & Technical Publishing, Department of Conservation,
Wellington, New Zealand.
2017
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Japanese Stream Treefrog
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