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Piezoelectricity:

Basics and applications


Friday Morning Meeting, 30.07.2010
Technical Talk
Petar Jurcevic

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Overview
-A simple molecular model
-Mathematical modelling
-Some general notes
-Overview Motors
-Slip-stick motion
-Few calculation regarding Slip-stick motion motors

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Definition: Piezoelectricity
Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials to generate
an electric charge in response to applied mechanical
stress
The piezoelectric effect is revesible:

direct piezoelectric effect: charge separation due


to stress
converse piezoelectric effect: occurens of stress
and strain when electric field is applied

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A simple molecular model
- Only insulating materials
- Insulating Ferroelectrica and materials with a permanent
dipol
- In crystals: only crystals without symmetry centre
20 point groups

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A simple molecular model

Without any external stress:


-Centers of charges coincide
-charges are reciprocally
cancelled
-electrical neutral unit cell

Lecture Notes, Tomasz G. Zielinski, Warsaw, Poland

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A simple molecular model

Applied external stress:


-Internal structure is deformed
separation of charge centers
dipols are generated

Lecture Notes, Tomasz G. Zielinski, Warsaw, Poland

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A simple molecular model

Poles inside material are mutually


cancelled
Charge occurs on surface
polarization of material

Lecture Notes, Tomasz G. Zielinski, Warsaw, Poland

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Mathematical modeling
Piezoelectricity is the combination of:
The materials electrical behavior: D = E
And Hooks law: S = sT
D: electric displacement, : permittivity, E: electric field strength
S: strain, s: compliance, T: stress

The coupled strain-voltage equation:

S = sE T + dt E converse piezoelectric effect

D=T E + dT direct piezoelectric effect

Sij
dij,k = Ek piezoelectric coefficient

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Mathematical Modeling
S11 S12 S13 T11 T12 T13
S S 22 S 23 ?????
sE T23
T21 T22
21
S 31 S 32 S 33 T31 T32 T33
3 3
S sE T
1 1

S : strain of the -normal in -direction


T : stress action in -direction on plane with -normal

D 11 0 0 E1
D12 = 0 22 0 E2
D3 0 0 33 E3

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Mathematical Modeling
Piezoelectric Stress & strain are symmetric tensors:
Polarization

body
Voigt Notation
direction

11 1; 22 2; 33 3; 23 4; 13 5; 12 6

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An example
A proper voltage is applied over a free standing piezoelectric element to create a
electrical field of E=(4, 3, 2) V/m. The dimensions of the element are L=(1, 1, 5)mm.
The constants are: d31=4pm/V, d33=12pm/V, d15=0pm/V
What is the strain?

S1 0 0 d31 0 0 4E 12m/V
8E 12

S
0 d31 0 0 4E 12m/V
2


E1

4 8E 12
S 3 = 0 0 d33 E2 = 0 0 12E 12m/V 3 24E 12
=
S

S5
4
d0 d015 00

15

E3 0
0
0 0
0
0

23
0

0
S6 0 0 0 0 0 0
0

And L?

8E 15m
L = 8E 15m
120E 15m

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Real behavior
Piezoelectric ceramics show hysteresis in
polarization

And they show hysteresis in strain

http://www.americanpiezo.com/piezo_theory/, 07.28.2010
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Piezoresistive effect
- Change in resistivity due to applied mechanical stress.
- But differs from Piezoelectric effect: It changes only resistivity and does not
create an electric potential.
- Effect is mainly seen in semiconductors:

(
)
= S : Piezoresistivity, : origninal resistivity, S: strain

Mechanism:
- Change in inter-atomic spacing affects bandgaps
- Bandgaps might be shifted
- Shape might be affected -> change in effective mass

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Electrostriction
-Change in shape by applying electrical field
- Proportional to the square of the field
Sij = ijkl Ek El
2
1 Sij
ikjl = 2 Ek El

-Is not reversible


-Occurs in all dielectric materials and in all 32 point groups
Eswar Prasad, Lecture Notes
-Caused by randomly aligned electrical domains
-applied field aligns electrical domains
-opposite charges of domains attract each other
-material thickness is reduced along applied field

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Some piezoelectric materials
Naturally occuring:
-Quarz -Cane sugar -Collagen
-Topaz -DNA
-Rochelle salt -Wood
-many many others -Tendon
Man-made crystals
-Gallium orthophosphate (GaPO4), a quartz analogic crystal
-Langasite (La3Ga5SiO14), a quartz analogic crystal
Man-made ceramics
-Barium titanate(BaTiO3)-Barium titanate was the first petzoelectric ceramic discovered
-Lead zirconate titanate (Pb[ZrxTi1x]O3 0<x<1)more commonly known as
PZT, lead zirconate titanate is the most common piezoelectric ceramic in use
today
-Lithium niobate (LiNbO3)

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Applications
Sensor
-Microphones, Pick-ups
-Pressure sensor
-Force sensor
-Strain gauge
Actuators
-Loudspeaker
-Piezoelectric motors
-Nanopositioning in AFM, STM
-Acuosto-optic modulators
-Valves
High voltage and powersource
-Cigarette lighter
-Energy harvesting
-AC voltage multiplier
Frequency standart

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Piezoelectric motors
-Traveling wave motor
-Inchworm motor
-Piezo ratchet motor
-Stepping sotor using slip-stick motion

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Traveling wave motor

1996 Smart Mater. Struct. 5 361

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http://www.technohands.co.jp/en/, 07.28.2010
Inchworm Motor

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piezoelectric_motor, 07.28.2010
Piezo ratchet stepping motor

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piezoelectric_motor, 07.28.2010
ANRv51/RES

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Slip-Stick Inertial Motion
1 2: Slow rising flank of
voltage, Rod and table
move simutaneously

2 3: Fast decreasing
voltage flank, piezo
contracts fast and rod
slips through table,
inertia is overcome

Conversion of motion:
Signal is inverted in time,
not in voltage

Attocube systems AG, Technical note


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Currents
at 1000Hz slow rising flank or loading voltage: rise 1ms
fast falling flank of discharge voltage: f all 10s

CU
I=
CP,RT = 2.8F CP,LT = 0.2F

dURT = 30V dULT = 70V

Irise,RT = 84mA Irise,LT = 14mA


If all,RT = 8.4A If all,LT = 1.4A

| I |average,RT =167mA | I |average,LT =28mA

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Effects of resistive wiring
70V sawtooth signal
1F capacitance

RC time constant
= RC

Cabling capacitance of up
to 10nF has barely no
effect

Attocube systems AG, Technical note: Effects of resistive wiring

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Heat dissipation
Assumption: Ffriction=5N, Step size: 100nm 500nJ

At 1000Hz 500W

Electrical loss: P = CU 2 f tan(), 1

P = 17mW

Rotator has 2 piezos 2P, t90 30s


U 1.1J

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Absolut position encoder
Position is read out with a potentiometer

RAW depends on T
RAB depends on T

But, RAW/RAB is T independent in


equilibrium
Absolut position
http://www.markallen.com/teaching/ucsd/147a/lectures
/lecture3/1.php, 07.29.2010

Encoder has a blind spot of about 40

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Did you really pay attention?

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