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Hn mc bo him tin gi nguyn tc xc nh v

nhn t nh hng
TS. V Vn Long 1

Hn mc bo him c hiu l khon tin ti a m t chc bo him tin


gi (BHTG) tr cho tt c cc khon tin gi ca mt ngi gi tin thuc i tng
c bo him ti mt t chc tham gia BHTG khi pht sinh ngha v tr tin bo
him. Vic chi tr BHTG cho ngi gi tin ti t chc nhn tin gi b mt kh nng
thanh ton l mt trong nhng hot ng bo v quyn li ca ngi gi tin.

Nguyn tc xc nh hn mc BHTG

Thng 6 nm 2009, y ban Basel v gim st ngn hng (BCBS) v Hip hi


BHTG quc t (IADI) a ph i h p xy d ng B nguyn t c c ba n pha t tri n h th ng
BHTG hiu qua (Nh ng nguyn t c c ba n) v Phng pha p a nh gia vic tun thu
ca c nguyn t c na y va o tha ng 12/2010. Hai ti liu trn (gi tt l B nguyn tc c
bn) c nhiu t chc BHTG trn th gii s dng nh kim ch nam nh gi
cht lng hot ng ca h thng BHTG, t tm ra nhng im hn ch trong
qu trnh hot ng v cch thc khc phc nhng hn ch .

Ngoi ra, B nguyn tc c bn c Qu tin t quc t (IMF) v Ngn


hng th gii (WB) s dng trong phm vi Chng trnh nh gi khu vc ti chnh
(FSAP) vi mc tiu nh gi tnh hiu qu ca h thng BHTG ti cc quc gia. L a
mt b phn trong Ba o ca o Xem xe t Sa ng ki n v ca c Tiu chu n va Quy t c m i
c hoa n t t g n y, IMF va WB cu ng kh ng i nh
se a nh gia vic tun thu ca c
Tiu chu n ny trong khun kh chng trinh Ca c ba o ca o v vic a p ng ca c tiu
chu n va quy t c (ROSC).

Khng hong ti chnh 2008 lm thay i cu trc h thng ti chnh cng


nh vai tr ca h thng BHTG trn th gii, t t ra yu cu cp nht B nguyn
tc c bn. n thng 10/2014, B nguyn tc c bn c sa i vi s tham
gia ca i din cc t chc BCBS, EC, Din n cc t chc BHTG chu u, FSB,
IMF, WB.

Nhm t c s cn bng hp l gia bo v ngi gi tin, n nh ti


chnh v k lut th trng, Nguyn tc 8 v hn mc bo him trong B nguyn tc
c bn sa i ca IADI nm 2014 v Hng dn nng cao v pht trin h thng
BHTG hiu qu thng 3/2013 a ra khuyn ngh vi cc t chc BHTG nh sau: Cc
nh hoch nh chnh sch phi xc nh r rng mc v phm vi BHTG. Hn mc
nn c gii hn, ng tin cy v bo him cho phn ln ngi gi tin nhng phi
m bo c mt t l ng k gi tr tin gi khng c bo him tun theo k
lut th trng.
Hn mc BHTG cn ph hp vi cc mc tiu chnh sch cng v cc c
im thit k c lin quan ca h thng BHTG, bao gm qu trnh tr tin bo him
v cc n lc v nhn thc cng chng.

IADI hng dn c th cch thc thit lp hn mc BHTG nh sau:

Th nht, vic xc nh hn mc tr tin ph hp c th lin quan n mt


qu trnh cn bng cc mc tiu chnh sch ca cc nc vi chi ph ca chnh sch
. iu c IADI lu trong hng dn nng cao ca mnh l hn mc tr tin
bo him phi c thit lp ph hp vi cc mc tiu chnh sch, theo phn ln
ngi gi tin tai cc ngn hng c nguy c bi x ly c bo v ton b, trong khi
phn ln gi tr cc khon tin gi co xu h ng tun theo k lut th trng. V i vic
s dng d liu v s lng ngi gi tin c bo him v t l tng gia tri tin
gi c bo him theo cc hn mc bo him khc nhau (tt c cc khon tin
gi/ngi gi tin iu kin c bo him), cc c quan c thm quyn c th
thit lp hn mc bo him bo v nhiu ngi gi tin nht c th, trong khi
li mt lng l n gi tr tin gi khng c bo him. Hn mc bo him mc tiu
c th dao ng khong 90 - 95% tng s ngi gi tin.

Bn cnh , cn c mt s yu t khc c th nh hng n vic la chn


hn mc bo him, chng hn nh ngun qu sn c, giai on pht trin kinh t,
mi lin kt vi cc nc lng ging, hoc s tn ti ca nhiu h thng BHTG trong
mt quc gia.

Tnh hp l ca hn mc bo him c th c xc nh trong bi cnh ca


mng an ton tng th. Nu mc qu thp, nhng ngi gi tin tng i nh c
th rt tin t khi xy ra s c i vi ngn hng ca h. Nu hn mc l qu cao,
nhng ngi gi tin qui m ln s khng quan tm n ri ro ca ngn hng, do
khng duy tr c k lut th trng v cc ngn hng s chp nhn nhng hot
ng c ri ro cao hn, gy nn ri ro o c. Trong c hai trng hp , khun kh
x l ngn hng hiu qu v gim st vng mnh c th gip hn ch mt s tc
ng tiu cc ca hn mc.

Th hai, c quan c thm quyn c lng gi tr tin gi c nguy c ri ro v


kh nng v. Cc phng php c lng c th mang tnh k thut (chng hn
nh gi tr chu ri ro hoc xc sut v ngn hng) hoc trc tip hn (nh bo
him c mt s lng no cc ngn hng c quy m nh v va).

Th ba, sau khi xc nh s tin ti a ca cc khon tin gi c nguy c ri


ro, cc c quan c thm quyn phi xc nh xem c mt c ch cp vn ng tin
cy chi tr khng. Nu cn, cc c quan c thm quyn s pht trin c ch cp
vn m bo ngun chi tr sn c. Hu ht cc cu trc xy dng qu bao gm
s kt hp gia c ch cp vn trc, cp vn sau v cp vn d phng khn cp.
Theo c ch cp vn trc, quy m ph hp ca qu v cc mc ph cn thit
xy dng qu theo thi gian phi c xc nh. Theo c ch cp vn sau, vic xy
dng qu m bo cn c tnh thanh khon. Tt c cc c ch cp vn cn phi tnh
n cc k hoch cp vn d phng khn cp.

Nu ngun qu khng c sn hoc qu nh i vi mt t nc, hn mc


bo him cn phi gim xung hoc thu hp li. Gim hn mc bo him hoc phm
vi bo him c th lm gim cc yu cu gp vn. Tuy nhin, han m c bo him thp
hn cng c th dn n nguy c cao hn v vic rt ti n ha ng loat ca ngi gi
tin khi xy ra khng hong ngn hng.

Ngoi ra, han m c bo him thc t hiu qu c th gia m theo thi gian v
phi c xem xt thng xuyn. Theo thi gian, lm pht c th lm gim gi tr
thc ca hn mc BHTG, cu phn v quy m ca cc khon tin gi c th thay i
v cc cng c ti n g i mi c th c cung cp. Do o , vic nh gi mc ph
hp ca phm vi v han mc ba o hi m nh k l cn thit.

Cc yu t nh hng n hn mc BHTG

Trong bo co tho lun v hn mc BHTG ca IADI ban hnh thng 8/2008,


cc nh hoch nh chnh sch nghin cu cch xc nh hn mc BHTG bng mt
bin php thng nht v ph hp vi cc quc gia trn th gii. Bng cch s dng
cc yu t ng nht nh iu kin kinh t v m v h thng ti chnh trong nc,
lm pht, t gi hi oi, t l tng trng GDP, GDP bnh qun trn u ngi, phn
phi thu nhp, c cu tin gi ti cc t chc thnh vin, gim thiu chnh lch hn
mc BHTG cc h thng BHTG khc nhau, c bit nhng nc ln cn. Mt s
yu t khc nh mi trng chnh tr, h thng ngn hng, thi gian hot ng ca
h thng BHTG v mc nhn thc ca cng chng cng c tc ng n hn mc
BHTG.

Ngoi ra, bo co nh hng cc nh hoch nh chnh sch nn cn nhc


cc tiu ch khc nh hng n hn mc BHTG nh cc yu t th ch v vn ha
gm: mi trng ti chnh, pht trin, khun kh php l, hnh vi vn ha v nim tin
ca ngi gi tin. Nhn chung, cc yu t nh hng n hn mc BHTG phi k
n:

Lm pht: Khi nn kinh t c lm pht cao, nh hng ti mc thu nhp thc


t ca ngi dn, ng thi lm gim gi tr thc t ca ng ni t. Nh vy, lm
pht cao lm gim ng k gi tr thc ca hn mc. iu ny, ng ngha vi
vic t chc BHTG trong tnh hung ny nn c s iu chnh hn mc kp thi
m bo c nim tin cng chng v an ton h thng ngn hng.

GDP bnh qun u ngi: y l ch s quan trng ca nn kinh t, n xc


nh mi quc gia trong giai on pht trin no v y cng l khon tin thu nhp
chnh ng ca ngi dn, ngi gi tin cn c bo v theo php lut, trong
chnh sch BHTG ng vai tr quyt nh. ng thi, n cng nm trong tiu ch m
IADI khuyn ngh i vi cc t chc BHTG khi xy dng hn mc cn lu . Khi
GDP bnh qun u ngi tng, hn mc BHTG cn c iu chnh tng bo v
quyn li ca s ng ngi gi tin.

Theo s liu thng k ca WB, hn mc BHTG tng mnh trong giai on xy


ra khng hong ti chnh 2008. Tnh n cui nm 2013, t l hn mc BHTG gp
5,3 ln trn GDP bnh qun u ngi ti cc nc c mc thu nhp cao, gp 6,3
ln ti cc nc c thu nhp trung bnh cao v gp 5 ln ti cc nc c thu nhp
thp.

Nim tin ngi gi tin: Trong giai on tin gi t c mi lin h vi cc yu


t ngn hng cng nh phn ng ngi gi tin cha c nhn thc v BHTG v
hn mc BHTG, th nim tin ngi gi tin cha c nh hng nhiu ti vic a ra
chnh sch hn mc ca t chc BHTG. Tuy nhin, hin nay, khi m nhn thc ca
cng chng v ti chnh ngn hng cng nh BHTG ngy cng c nng cao, ngi
dn ngy cng c iu kin tip cn vi thng tin mt cch nhanh chng, th nim tin
ngi gi tin c tm quan trng ln khi t chc BHTG quyt nh a ra mt chnh
sch hn mc.

Trong giai on kinh t pht trin khng n nh, suy thoi, h thng ngn hng
gp kh khn, th nim tin ngi gi tin ng vai tr quan trng trong vic n nh
tnh hnh ti chnh ngn hng. Nu nim tin y b lung lay hay suy gim, iu s
ko theo nhng tc hi to ln i vi h thng ngn hng vn suy yu nh tnh
trng rt tin hng lot. V vy, lc ny hn mc BHTG c tc dng cng c nim tin
ngi gi tin, gip h an tm, bnh tnh v s an ton cc khon tin ca h ti cc
ngn hng trong h thng.

Do , cc t chc BHTG nn t chc cc cuc kho st nim tin cng chng


mt cch thng xuyn ly lm c s khi a ra bt k quyt nh no lin
quan n chnh sch hn mc ca mnh.

Tin gi c bo him: Tin gi c coi l ngun vn huy ng qua h


thng ngn hng ng vai tr to vn cho nn kinh t. V vy, vic bo v ngun vn
quan trng ny l v cng cp thit v h thng BHTG ng vai tr quan trng thng
qua chnh sch hn mc BHTG.

Khi xc nh hn mc, ngoi vic xem xt n nhng yu t kinh t v m nh


lm pht, GDP bnh qun u ngi, th yu t v tin gi nh t l s ngi gi tin
c bo him ton b hay s tin gi c bo him ton b/Tng s d ngi gi
tin cng c IADI a vo Hng dn nng cao v pht trin h thng BHTG
hiu qu - Hn mc BHTG. Nh vy, s bin ng ca c cu tin gi c bo
him cng nh hng ti vic xc nh hn mc ca cc t chc BHTG.

Khi c cu tin gi thay i v bin ng theo chiu hng tng ln v mt


gi tr ca tin gi, khuyn khch gia tng tin gi cho pht trin kinh t, va thc
hin nhim v bo v quyn li ca s ng ngi gi tin thuc i tng c
bo him, th vic cc t chc BHTG iu chnh tng gi tr danh ngha ca hn mc
BHTG l hp l v cn thit.

Ri ro h thng: Ngoi cc yu t trn, ri ro h thng cng nh hng ti


vic xc nh hn mc. i vi cc quc gia c h thng ngn hng v nng lc qun
tr iu hnh km, cha theo kp cc chun mc quc t, iu ny dn ti cc ngn
hng ni a gp kh khn, chu s cnh tranh gay gt t pha cc ngn hng nc
ngoi. Trong bi cnh kinh t kh khn, bt n v nhiu mt, th vic cc chnh sch
ti chnh - ngn hng km hiu qu, qun tr hot ng ngn hng (nh qun l v
s dng vn) yu km s lm tng cao cc ri ro v tn dng, k hn i vi h thng
ngn hng. Tt c nhng yu t ny lm ri ro h thng tng cao. Trong trng hp
, iu chnh hn mc BHTG chnh l mt gii php cn thit thit lp li s n
nh.

Thc tin chnh sch hn mc BHTG ti Vit Nam

Ngh nh 89/1999/N-CP v BHTG quy nh s tin bo him c tr cho


tt c cc khon tin gi (gm c gc v li) ca mt c nhn ti mt t chc tham
gia BHTG, ti a l 30 triu ng Vit Nam.

Sau 5 nm hot ng, n nm 2005, ti Ngh nh 109/2005/N-CP sa i,


b sung mt s iu ca Ngh nh 89/1999/N-CP, Chnh ph nng hn mc
BHTG ln 50 triu ng ph hp vi tnh hnh kinh t - x hi.

Lut BHTG c ban hnh vo thng 6/2012 v c hiu lc t 01/01/2013 quy


nh v hn mc BHTG: Hn mc tr tin bo him l s tin ti a m t chc
BHTG tr cho tt c cc khon tin gi c bo him ca mt ngi ti mt t chc
tham gia BHTG khi pht sinh ngha v tr tin bo him. Nh vy, hn mc BHTG
ti Vit Nam c xc nh theo ngi gi tin ti mt t chc tham gia BHTG. Lut
BHTG cng quy nh Th tng Chnh ph quy nh hn mc tr tin bo him theo
ngh ca Ngn hng Nh nc Vit Nam trong tng thi k.

Trong 10 nm qua, tnh hnh kinh t v m nh lm pht, GDP bnh qun u


ngi, t gi, li sut c nhiu thay i. Hot ng ca h thng ngn hng cng nh
tnh hnh s d tin gi c bo him ca ngi gi tin c nhng thay i ng
k; trong khi , hn mc BHTG vn cha c s thay i ph hp. V vy, trn c
s cc nguyn tc v nhn t nh hng n hn mc BHTG, th vic xem xt, nh
gi tnh ph hp ca hn mc BHTG hin nay l rt cn thit nhm pht huy vai tr
ca chnh sch BHTG trong vic bo v tt nht quyn v li ch hp php ca ngi
gi tin, nng cao nim tin cng chng, gp phn m bo s n nh ca cc t
chc tn dng v m bo pht trin an ton hot ng ngn hng.