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ABB Spore, DM, Motor & Drives, PC Wong (pakcheong.wong@sg.abb.

com)

Harmonic distortions & solutions

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 1

Harmonic Distortions

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00
0

180

360

540

720

-0.50

-1.00

-1.50

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 2

1
What are harmonics? Definition
Harmonics are the integer multiples of the fundamental frequency of any
periodical waveform are called e.g.
Acoustic waves
Electrical waves

For power networks, 50 Hz (60 Hz) is the fundamental frequency and 150
Hz (180 Hz), 250 Hz (300 Hz) etc. are higher order harmonics viz. 3rd & 5th
=> Odd Harmonics (5th, 7th..)
=> Even Harmonics (2nd , 4th .)
=> Triplen Harmonics (3rd, 9th , 15th ..)

Non-integer multiples of the fundamental frequency of any periodical


waveform are called Inter-harmonics e.g. 2.5th => 125 Hz at 50 Hz base

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 3

Harmonics representations

Distorted waveform

(Fourier Analysis)

Time domain

25%

20%

15%

10% Frequency domain


5%

0%
5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25
ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 4

2
Total Harmonic Distortion = THD
The basic formula of THD, Current :


2
Ih
h =2
THD =
I1

Example: The THD for the 25 lowest harmonic components of a


rectangular current is:

+ 14,32 + 9,1 + 7,7 + 5,9 + 5,3 + 4,4 + 42


2 2 2 2 2 2
THD = 20
100
THD = 29%

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 5

Definitions
Point of common coupling (PCC) - is the point where the harmonic
distortion is specified, e.g.
- between the plant and the utility network (see PCC1)
- between the non-linear load and other loads within an industrial
plant (see PCC 2).
Utility Network PCC 1
In-plant point of coupling (IPC)
- The point inside the customer Substation
system or installation to be Transformer
studied.
MV Bus IPC

PCC 2
Converter Input
Transformer

Other Loads Other Loads

Converter

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 6

3
Where do the harmonics come from?
Non-linear loads such as:
Variable speed drives
Uninterruptible power supplies
(UPS)
Industrial rectifiers
Welding machines
Fluorescent lighting systems
(electronic ballast)
Computers
Printers
Servers
Electronic appliances
..

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 7

The Effects of Harmonic Distortions

Harmonic Currents mainly effect the power distribution system up


to the rectifier:
Additional losses in wires and cables
Extra heating of transformers
Circuit breaker malfunctioning
Triplen harmonics increase the neutral current & voltage

Harmonic Voltage can affect other equipments connected to the


electrical system:
Erratic operation of telecommunication systems, computers, video
monitors, electronic test equipments..etc.
Resonance with power factor correction capacitors
Motor derations

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 8

4
The Effects of Harmonic Distortions

Motor Derating with supply harmonics

120
100
Derating Factor

80
60
40
20
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Harmonic Voltage Distortion (%)

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 9

The Effects of Harmonic Distortions

Excessive harmonic current


may lead to overheating (or even
burning) of network components

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 10

5
The Effects of Harmonic Distortions

Capacitor problems
Due to its lower
impedance,
capacitors are even
more susceptible to
higher order
harmonics. If not
protected from
harmonic stress, a
capacitor may fail
pretty soon

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 11

Standards and Regulations for harmonics


Purpose: To ensure that the network distortion does not
exceed permissible levels for proper operation of connected
equipments

Typical levels and tendencies :

=> THDV 5% and limit on each harmonic component

=> Derive current limits to obtain voltage limits

=> Take into account high order harmonics


(e.g. G5/4: up to H50)

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 12

6
International Standards & Regulations
IEC 61000-2-4, Rev. 2002 (worldwide)
EN 61000-2-4 (Europe)
VDE 0839 Teil 2-4 (Germany)
IEEE 519-1992 (US)
National standards
G5/3 & G5/4 (United Kingdom)
GB/T 14549-93 (China)
etc.
Utility standards
e.g. Electricit de France
Chinese standard GB/T 14549-93
Transmission Code (Spore)
Project-specific requirements

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 13

How to minimize Harmonic Distortion?


Use PWM AC Drive
SUPPLY
FAULT LEVEL MVA
Choose a drive with effective
choke filtering
SIZE MVA
TRANSFORMER
AND IMPEDANCE % Know your total system and
calculate the Harmonics

RECTIFIER TYPE DIOD Use 12-pulse Rectifier if


feasible
INDUCTOR SIZE mH
AC DRIVE
Install the Cabling and Earthing
Inverter
INVERTER TYPE PWM properly

SIZE kW Install Shunt Filters or Harmonic


Motor
AND LOAD % Traps if required
LOAD
Install external Active Filters

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 14

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Reducing Harmonics

Structural modification
Improved internal filtering (chokes)
12 or more pulse drive
Controlled active rectifier
Strengthen supply etc
External Passive Filter
Capacitor + series reactor

External Active Filter


Active harmonic filter Technology

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 15

DC Link Inductor in the Filtering Section


reduces Harmonic Distortion

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 16

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Line Current with DC Link Inductor

Line Current with DC Link Inductor is much more Sinusoidal than without Inductor
1.00

0.80
Amplitude (Volts), (Amps)

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00

-0.20

-0.40

-0.60

-0.80

-1.00

Voltage Current w/o inductor Current with


inductor

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 17

THD current vs AC or DC reactance


Line current THD vs normalized smoothing
reactance
80

70

60
The range used
50 in ABB drives

40

30 dc
ac
20
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Normalized smoothing reactance x %

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 18

9
Reducing Harmonics
Rectifier Selection

Harmonics in Line Current


6-pulse Diode 12-pulse Rectifier 24-pulse Rectifier
Rectifier

3~ 3~ 3~ Z
3

Current Waveforms

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 19

12-pulse Rectifier
30 degrees phase shift between the Supply Transformer Outputs

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 20

10
Typical 12 pulse drive & transformer

Scope of supply:-
supply:-

Phase shifting transformer KTMP12HC800


Converter ACS 800-
800-07-
07-0490-
0490-3

Typical Rating 400 kW at 400 V

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 21

IGBT Active Rectifier

Line converter and motor inverter with IGBT-power modules

LCL-filter in line side removes high order components

Power factor is unity (-1 in generator side) or can be controlled to be


capacitive

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 22

11
IGBT Active Rectifier
Low harmonics content in line current

Line current Line Current harmonics


Conventional 6 pulse Rectifier
vs.
Active Rectifier

2 40 I /I1 (%) 6 Pulse Conventional Rectifier


(
1 35 ISU Active Rectifier

I FU ( t )
9 9. 9 4 99 . 95 9 9. 9 6 99 . 97 9 9. 9 8 99 . 99
30
1 25
2 20
Current t

2 15
( 10
I A C S 6 11 ( t )
9 9. 9 4 99 . 95 9 9 . 96 99 . 97 9 9. 9 8 99 . 99
5
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
2

Time t
Harmonic overtones

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 23

Active Rectifier Drives


Wall-mounted low harmonic drive ACS800-31
5.5 - 110 kW

Cabinet-built low harmonic drive ACS800-37


45 - 2800 kW

Harmonics mitigation built in the drive

Drive equipped with an active supply unit

In-built LCL line filter

Low line harmonic content - Total current distortion


less than 5.0%

Power factor 1.0 at any load conditions

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 24

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THD Current content of AC Drives

Active Rectifier 5

24-Pulse 8 PER CENT

12-Pulse 15

PWM, Large
Inductor 40

PWM, Small
Inductor 60

PWM, No Inductor 100

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 25

Strengthen the Supply, Load 16A, Transformers 16-100kVA


Harmonic Distortion with 16A Load and 16 kVA Harmonic Distortion with 16A Load and 30 kVA
Transformer Transformer

0.3 0.18
0.16
0.25 THD-LV THD-LV
0.14
0.2 Highest-LV 0.12 Highest-LV
0.1
0.15 THD-HV THD-HV
0.08
0.1 Highest-HV 0.06 Highest-HV
Limit 5% 0.04 Limit 5%
0.05
0.02
0 0
6-Pulse No 6-Pulse 6-Pulse 12-Pulse 6-Pulse No 6-Pulse 6-Pulse 12-Pulse
Inductor Small Large Large Inductor Small Large Large
Inductor Inductor Inductor Inductor Inductor Inductor

Harmonic Distortion with 16A Load and 50 kVA Harmonic Distortion with 16A Load and 100
Transformer kVA Transformer

0.09 0.06
0.08
THD-LV 0.05 THD-LV
0.07
0.06 Highest-LV 0.04 Highest-LV
0.05
THD-HV 0.03 THD-HV
0.04
0.03 Highest-HV 0.02 Highest-HV
0.02 Limit 5% Limit 5%
0.01
0.01
0 0
6-Pulse No 6-Pulse 6-Pulse 12-Pulse 6-Pulse No 6-Pulse 6-Pulse 12-Pulse
Inductor Small Large Large Inductor Small Large Large
Inductor Inductor Inductor Inductor Inductor Inductor

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 26

13
Proper Cabling and Earthing
according to the Manufacturers Instructions reduces Harmonics

AC converter
Customer
distribution
board

Concentric Concentric Motor


protective protective 3-phase
conductor conductor
of the supply of the supply
cable cable
Earthed
protective
electrode

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 27

Tuned single arm Passive Filter

Is Is If
Ih
If Ih

Detuned - Single tuning frequency


Above Tuned Frequency harmonics absorbed
Below Tuned Frequency harmonics may be amplified
Harmonic reduction limited by KVAr and network

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 28

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Tuned multiple arm Passive Filter

If(1-3)
I I
s s Ih
If3 If2 If1 Ih

Capacitive below tuned frequency/Inductive above


Better harmonic absorption
Design with consideration to amplification of harmonics
Limited by KVAr and network

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 29

Active harmonic filter

Fundamental only idistortion


Supply Load
icompensation

PQF

1.3 1.3 1.3

-1.3 -1.3 -1.3

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 30

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How does an active filter work (1) ?

LINE REACTOR
OUTPUT FILTER
PWM REACTORS

DC ENERGY PWM
+ INVERTER
STORAGE - (IGBT-based)

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 31

Active Harmonic Filter


Functions
Smart harmonic control & monitoring
target individual harmonics, auto-filtering /
programmable, multiple filtering, high
filtering efficiency, safety, communication,
Non over-loadable
Very fast response to load change
Self adjustment to network change
Standard off the shelf no need detailed
harmonic study, selectable from catalogue,
easy & flexible installation, easy & quick
commissioning
Smaller, lighter, lower losses and less noise
Free options load balancing, flicker
reduction, PF improvement
Cautions
Advisable to operate in air-con room
High investment in MV system
ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 32
transformer coupling

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AHF Current Site Measurement, for a Fan load

Transformer current
[A]
1000

750

500

250

-250

-500

-750

-1000
0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 Time [s]

Filter stopped

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 33

Summary

Many options exist to attenuate harmonics

They have advantages and disadvantages, and all show cost implications

The best solution will depend on the total loading, the supply to site, and
the standing distortions.

The possibilities are:-

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 34

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Summary

1. Improve filtering on the drive


Limited attenuation
Add AC or DC chokes
Most AC Drives has chokes as standard

2. Use passive filtering


Tuned LC filter
Requires reactive power to compensate
Diode rectifier provides very limited reactive power
Limits harmonic absorption
Must not be allowed to run to leading power factor
Filter can be overloaded
ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 35

Summary

3. Use multi-pulse rectifier


Passive solution
Requires transformer,
More economical when used with step down to avoid oversizing of
LV system and losses of 2 transformers.
Minimum size limitations

4. Use electronic solution


Integrated in inverter with active rectifier
Integrated into LV system
AHF can be retrofitted to existing LV systems

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 36

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Summary

6 Pulse
No chokes
100 % load
Manufacturing cost 100%
Fund 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th

100 % 63 % 54 % 10 % 6.1 % 6.7 % 4.8 %

With chokes
100 % load Manufacturing cost 120%
Fund 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th

100 % 30 % 12 % 8.9 % 5.6 % 4.4 % 4.1 %

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 37

Summary

12 Pulse
Polygon Transformer
100 % load
Manufacturing cost 200%
Fund 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th

100 % 11 % 5.8 % 6.2 % 4.7 % 1.7 % 1.4 %

Double wound Transformer


100 % load Manufacturing cost 210%
Fund 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th

100 % 3.6 % 2.6 % 7.5 % 5.2 % 1.2 % 1.3 %

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 38

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Summary

24 Pulse

Manufacturing cost 250%


Fund 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th

100 % 4.0 % 2.7 % 1.0 % 0.7 % 1.4 % 1.4 %

Active Rectifier
Manufacturing cost 250%

Fund 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th

100 % 2.6 % 3.4 % 3.0 % 0.1 % 2.1 % 2.2 %

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 39

Summary

Filter Solutions
Single arm tuned
Not normally used for new installations
Costs
Increase
Multi arm tuned
Most suited to DC drives

Active
Most suited to multiple small drives

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 40

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Comparison of solutions

Example 1

6 x 30 kW Drives - 5 Duty 1 Standby

6 x 6 Pulse drives plus 1 x AHF 100 %


6 x Active Rectifier AC Drive 125 %

Example 2

4 x 132 kW Drives - 3 Duty 1 Standby

4 x 6 Pulse drives plus 1 x AHF 100 %


4 x 12 Pulse drives 75 %
4 x Active Rectifier AC Drive 82 %

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 41

Comparison of solutions

Example 3

3 x 250 kW Drives - 2 Duty 1 Standby

3 x 6 Pulse drives plus 1 x AHF 100 %


3 x 12 Pulse drives 95 %
3 x Active Rectifier AC Drive 96 %

Example 2

3 x 500 kW Drives - 2 Duty 1 Standby

3 x 6 Pulse drives plus 1 x AHF 100 %


3 x 12 Pulse drives plus 1 x AHF 95 %
3 x Active Rectifier AC Drive 97 %

ABB Group
April 12, 2010 | Slide 42

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