You are on page 1of 17

Written according to the New Text book (2012-2013) published by the Maharashtra State Board

of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education, Pune.

Std. XII Sci.


Perfect Physics - II

Prof. Mrs. Jyoti D. Deshpande Prof. Umakant N. Kondapure


(M.Sc., D.H.E. (M.Sc., B.Ed., Solapur)
H.O.D., R. Jhunjhunwala College)

Salient Features:
9 Exhaustive coverage of syllabus in Question Answer Format.
9 Covers answers to all Textual Questions and numericals.
9 Covers relevant NCERT questions.
9 Simple and Lucid language.
9 Neat, Labelled and authentic diagrams.
9 Solved & Practice numericals.
9 Includes Board Question Paper of February 2013.

Target PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTD.


Mumbai, Maharashtra
Tel: 022 6551 6551
Website : www.targetpublications.org
email : mail@targetpublications.in
Std. XII Sci. Printed at:
Spark Offset
Perfect Physics - II Nerul
Navi Mumbai

Published by
Target Publications Pvt Ltd.
Target PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTD.
Shiv Mandir Sabhagriha,
Mhatre Nagar, Near LIC Colony,
Sixth Edition : March 2013 Mithagar Road,
Mulund (E),
Mumbai - 400 081
Price : ` 180/- Off.Tel: 022 6551 6551
email: mail@targetpublications.in

PREFACE
In the case of good books, the point is not how many of them you can get through, but rather how many
can get through to you.
Physics is the study of matter and energy and the interaction between them. It is an intrinsic science
providing the indepth information of light, motion, force, magnetism, mechanism, current etc. It also
reveals the magic behind the wonderful existence of natural phenomenon like planets, galaxies and stars.
Hitech gadgets, modern machinery, gigantic skyscrapers, speedy trains, superior infrastructure are some
of the marvels of physics. It not only transforms the life of one who are involved in its study but also
benefit the future generation.
In order to study such a vast science and to master it, one needs to understand and grasp each and every
concept thoroughly. For this we bring to you Std XII : PERFECT PHYSICS - II a complete and
thorough book which analyses and extensively boost confidence of the student.
Topic wise classified question and answer format of this book helps the student to understand each and
every concept thoroughly. Significant formulas, summary, laws, definitions and statements are also given
in systematic representation. Solved problems are also provided to understand the application of different
concepts and formulae. Practice problems and multiple choice question help the students, to test their
range of preparation and the amount of knowledge of each topic.
And lastly, I would like to thank all those people who have helped me in preparing this exclusive guide
for all students. There is always room for improvement and hence we welcome all suggestions and regret
any errors that may have occurred in the making of this book.

A book affects eternity; one can never tell where its influence stops.

Best of luck to all the aspirants!


Yours faithfully
Publisher
TARGET Publications

Paper Pattern
There will be one single paper of 70 Marks in Physics.
Duration of the paper will be 3 hours.
Physics paper will consist of two parts viz: Part-I and Part-II.
Each part will be of 35 Marks.
Same Answer Sheet will be used for both the parts.
Each Part will consist of 4 Questions.
The paper pattern for PartI and PartII will be as follows:

Question 1: (7 Marks)
This Question will be based on Multiple Choice Questions.
There will be 7 MCQs, each carrying one mark.
One Question will be based on calculations.
Students will have to attempt all these questions.

Question 2: (12 Marks)


This Question will contain 8 Questions, each carrying 2 marks.
Students will have to answer any 6 out of the given 8 Questions.
In this question, 4 marks will be based on calculations.

Question 3: (9 Marks)
This Question will contain 4 Questions, each carrying 3 marks.
Students will have to answer any 3 out of the given 4 Questions.
In this question, 2 marks will be based on calculations.

Question 4: (7 Marks)
This Question will contain 2 Questions, each carrying 7 marks.
Students will have to answer any 1 out of the given 2 Questions.
In this question, 2/3 marks will be based on calculations.

Distribution of Marks According to Type of Questions

Type of Questions Marks Marks with option Percentage (%)


Objectives 14 14 20
Short Answers 42 56 60
Brief Answers 14 28 20
Total 70 98 100
Marks
Maximum
Sr. No. Unit Page No. with
Marks
option

10 Wave Theory of light 1 03 04

11 Interference and Diffraction 30 04 06

12 Electrostatics 70 03 04

13 Current Electricity 107 03 04

14 Magnetic Effects of Electric Current 139 03 04

15 Magnetism 165 03 04

16 Electromagnetic Induction 181 04 06

17 Electrons and Photons 223 03 04

18 Atoms, Molecules and Nuclei 243 04 06

19 Semiconductors 278 03 04

20 Communication Systems 310 02 03

21 Board paper 2013 323 - -

Note: 1. All the Textual questions are represented by * mark.


2. Answers of Intext Questions are represented by # mark.
TARGET Publications Std. XII Sci.: Perfect Physics - II

10 Wave theory of light


b. Light is an electromagnetic wave
10.0 Introduction
which requires no material
Q.1. State the postulates of Newtons medium for its propagation. So
corpuscular theory. light can travel through a medium
Ans: Postulates of Newtons corpuscular theory: where there is no atmosphere i.e.
i. Every source of light emits large in vacuum.
number of tiny particles known as ii. Plancks quantum theory:
corpuscles in a medium surrounding
the source. a. According to Plancks quantum
ii. These corpuscles are perfectly elastic, theory, light is propagated in the
rigid and weightless. form of packets of light energy
iii. The corpuscles travel in a straight line called quanta.
with very high speeds, which are b. Each quantum of light (photon)
different in different media. has energy E = h
iv. One gets a sensation of light when the where, h = Plancks constant
corpuscles fall on the retina.
= 6.63 1034 Js
v. Different colours of light is due to
different sizes of corpuscles. = frequency of light

Q.2. State the drawbacks of Newtons 10.1 Wave theory of light


corpuscular theory. *Q.4. Give a brief account of Huygens wave
Ans: Drawbacks of Newtons corpuscular theory: theory of light. [Oct 01, 04]
i. It could not explain partial reflection Ans: Huygens wave theory of light:
and refraction at the surface of a In 1678, Dutch physicist Christian Huygen
transparent medium. proposed a theory to explain the wave nature
ii. It was unable to explain phenomenon of light. This theory is called Huygens wave
such as interference, diffraction, theory of light.
polarisation etc. Main postulates of Huygens wave theory:
iii. This theory predicted that speed of light i. Light energy from a source is
in a denser medium is more than the propagated in the form of waves: The
speed of light in a rarer medium which particles of the medium vibrate about
was experimentally proved wrong by their mean position in the form of
Focault. Hence the Newtons simple harmonic motion. Thus the
corpuscular theory was rejected. particles transfer energy from one
iv. When particles are emitted from the particle to its neighbouring particle and
source of light, the mass of the source of reach the observer.
light must decrease but several ii. In homogeneous isotropic medium the
experiments showed that there is no velocity of wave remains constant:
change in the mass of the source of light. Speed of the wave is not affected
Q.3. Explain because density and temperature of
isotropic medium is same.
i. Maxwells electromagnetic theory
iii. Different colours of light waves are due
ii. Plancksquantum theory of light. to different wavelengths of light waves:
Ans : i. Maxwells electromagnetic theory of Each wave has its own wavelength. As
light: the wavelength changes, its colour and
a. Maxwell postulated the existence frequency also changes. This is
of electromagnetic waves. indicated by change in the colour.
1
Wave Theory of Light
Std. XII Sci.: Perfect Physics - II TARGET Publications

iv. The material medium is necessary for 2. Electromagnetic nature of light was
the propagation of wave: Periodic experimentally proved by Maxwell in 1873.
disturbance is created in the medium at
one place which is propagated from that 3. Light wave is assumed to be transverse. Its
place to another place. The medium only speed in a hypothetical medium is given by
carries disturbance and handover it to E
v = where E and are elasticity and
the next particle. Hence it is assumed
that luminiferous ether (hypothetical density of the medium.
medium) is present everywhere and
even in vacuum which possess the 4. Huygens theory was not accepted
property of elasticity and inertia. immediately due to following reasons:
Q.5. State the merits of Huygens wave theory of i. If light were waves, they should bend
light. around the sharp corners in the same
Ans: Merits of Huygens wave theory of light: manner as the sound waves.
i. It gives satisfactory explanation for laws ii. If light were waves, they could not
of reflection, refraction and double travel through vacuum. This difficulty
refraction of light assuming transverse was overcome by assuming the
nature of the light waves. existence of a hypothetical medium
ii. It also explains the theory of (ether) which was assumed to fill the
interference and diffraction. whole space.
iii. It explains the phenomenon of
polarisation of light. 10.2 Wavefront and wave normal
iv. It experimentally proved that velocity of
Q.7. Explain the concept of wavefront.
light in rarer medium is greater than that
in a denser medium. Ans: Concept of wavefront:
i. According to Huygens theory, light
Q.6. State demerits of Huygens wave theory of travels in the form of waves which are
light. [Oct 01]
emitted from the source.
Ans: Demerits of Huygens wave theory of light:
i. This theory could not explain rectilinear ii. Consider a point source of light S
propagation of light. situated in air or vacuum. Light waves
ii. It could not explain Compton effect, spread out in all possible directions from
photoelectric effect, Raman effect etc. the source of light with same speed c.
iii. It could not explain properly the iii. After time t seconds, each light wave
propagation of light through vacuum. covers a distance equal to ct.
This is because ether has high elastic
constant and zero density which gives E
A
contradictory results.
iv. According to Huygens wave theory,
luminiferous ether medium exists D ct
everywhere in the universe even in S
vacuum which are treated as material
medium for propagation of light wave. C
B
However Michelsons and Morleys
theory disapproved the existence of iv. Draw a spherical surface by considering
ether medium. radius ct and S as its centre. This surface
Note: cuts waves of light at different points A,
1. According to wave theory of light, a source of B, C, D, E etc.
light sends out disturbance in all directions. v. All the points on this surface are in the
When these waves carrying energy reach the same phase. It is equiphase surface.
eye, they excite the optic nerves and the Such a surface is called spherical wave
sensation of vision is produced. surface.
2
Wave Theory of Light
TARGET Publications Std. XII Sci.: Perfect Physics - II

*Q.8. Define ii. Plane wavefront:


i. Wavefront A wavefront originating from a point
ii. Wave normal source of light at infinite distance is
iii. Wave surface called plane wavefront.
Example: The light from the Sun
Ans: i. Wavefront: reaches the surface of the Earth in the
A locus of all the points of the medium form of plane wavefront.
to which waves reach simultaneously so
that all the points are in the same phase
is called wavefront.
Ray of light
ii. Wave normal: (Wave normal)
A perpendicular drawn to the surface of Source at
a wavefront at any point of a wavefront infinity
in the direction of propagation of light Plane wavefront
waves is called a wave normal.
P iii. Cylindrical wavefront:
P N1 A wavefront originating from a linear
P source (slit) of light at a finite distance
wavefront
is called cylindrical wavefront.
S N2 Example: A tube light emits cylindrical
Q wave normal wavefront.
Q
Q N3

In the figure curve PQ, PQ and P Q


represent wavefront. SN1, SN2 and SN3 Ray of light
represent wave normal. (Wave normal)

iii. Wave surface:


The surface of sphere with source as Cylindrical wavefront
centre and distance travelled by light Q.10. State the main characteristics of wavefront.
wave as radius where each wave arrive Ans: Characteristics of wavefront:
simultaneously is called wave surface. i. Wavefronts travel with the speed of light
in all directions in an isotropic medium.
Q.9. State different types of wavefronts with
examples. ii. The phase difference between any two
Ans: Depending upon the source of light, points in the same phase on the two
wavefronts are classified into three types. consecutive wavefront is 2. So, if the
i. Spherical wavefront: phase at one crest is 2 then phase at
A wavefront originating from a point next consecutive crest = 4 and so on.
source of light at finite distance is
called spherical wavefront. iii. It always travels in the forward
Example: Candle flame produces direction. During the propagation of
spherical wavefront spherical wavefront from a source, wave
P2 become weaker. It is so because same
P1 energy is distributed over circumference
P
of larger circles of increasing radii.
S iv. In an isotropic medium, it travels with
Q Q1 Q2
different velocities in different
R
R1 directions due to different densities of
R2 the medium.
Spherical wavefront
3
Wave Theory of Light
Std. XII Sci.: Perfect Physics - II TARGET Publications

Q.11. State the main characteristics of wave 10.4 Construction of plane and spherical wavefront
normal.
Q.14.What is the shape of the wavefront in each
Ans: Characteristics of wave normal:
of the following cases? (NCERT)
i. It gives the direction of propagation of i. Light diverging from a point source.
wave.
ii. Light emerging out of a convex lens
ii. It is perpendicular to wavefront. when a point source is placed at its focus.
iii. In a homogeneous isotropic medium Ans: i. Spherical wavefront.
wave normal is same as direction of ray ii. Plane wavefront.
of light.
iv. It is drawn from the point of generation *Q.15.Explain the Huygens construction of plane
of wavefront. wavefront. [Oct 99]
10.3 Huygens principle OR
Using Huygens principle explain the
*Q.12.State Huygens principle. [Oct 99, 04, 08] propagation of a plane wavefront. [Feb 06]
Ans: It is the geometrical construction to determine Ans: Huygens construction of plane wavefront:
new position of a wavefront at later instant
i. A plane wavefront is formed when point
from its position at any instant.
of observation is very far away from the
Statement: primary source.
i. Every point on the primary wavefront ii. Let PQR represents a plane wavefront at
acts as a secondary source of light and any instant. According to Huygens
sends out secondary waves(wavelets) in principle, all the points on this
all possible directions. wavefront will act as secondary source
ii. The new secondary wavelets are more of light sending out secondary wavelets
effective in the forward direction only in the forward direction.
(i.e. direction of propagation of wave iii. Draw hemispheres with P, Q, R. as
front). centres and ct as radius. The surface of
iii. The resultant wavefront at any position tangency of all such hemispheres is
is given by the tangent to all the P1Q1R1. at instant t. It is a new
secondary wavelets at that instant. wavefront at time t.
iv. The plane wavefront is propagated as a
Q.13. Distinguish between primary source of light plane wave in homogeneous isotropic
and secondary source of light. medium. They are parallel to each other.
Ans:
No. Primary source Secondary source
of light of light
i. It is a real source It is a fictitious ct
P P1 N1
of light. source of light.
ii. It sends out It sends out
primary waves in secondary waves ct
all possible only in the forward Q Q1 N2
directions. direction.
iii. Primary wave is Secondary wave is
effective at every effective only at ct
point on its the point where it R R1 N3
surface. touches the
envelope.
iv. Primary source is Secondary source PQR: Plane wavefront at any instant,
situated in air. is situated on a P1Q1R1 : Plane wavefront after time t,
wavefront. PP1N1, QQ1N2, RR1N3 : wave normals at PQR

4
Wave Theory of Light
TARGET Publications Std. XII Sci.: Perfect Physics - II

v. PP1N1, QQ1N2, RR1N3 are the wave vii. These wave normals show the direction
normals at P, Q, R. These wave normals of propagation of spherical wavefront.
show the direction of propagation of viii. The new wavefront P1Q1R1 is parallel to
plane wavefront. PQR at every instant.
vi. The new wavefront P1Q1R1 is parallel to
Note:
primary wavefront PQR. The intensity of secondary waves varies from
maximum in forward direction to zero in backward
*Q.16. Explain the Huygens construction of
direction. This indicates that secondary waves are
spherical wavefront.
effective only in forward direction.
Ans: Huygens construction of spherical wavefront:
i. Spherical wavefront is formed when 10.5 Reflection at a plane surface
source of light is at a finite distance
*Q.17 With the help of a neat diagram, explain the
from point of observation. reflection of light from a plane reflecting
ii. Let S be the point source of light in air. surface on the basis of wave theory of light.
PQR represents spherical wavefront at any OR
instant. The wavefront PQR acts as a
On the basis of wave theory of light explain
primary wave which is propagated in air.
the laws of reflection. [Oct 96]
N1 Ans: Reflection of plane wavefront from plane
ct P1 reflecting surface:
According to laws of reflection:
P
i. The incident rays, reflected rays and
ct normal to the reflecting surface at the
S Q Q1 N2 point of incidence, all lie in the same
plane.
R ct ii. The incident rays and the reflected rays
lie on opposite sides of normal.
R1 iii. The angle of incidence is equal to angle
N3 of reflection. i.e. i = r.
PQR : Primary wavefront,
P1Q1R1 : Secondary wavefront after time t, Explanation: B
SPN1, SQN2, SRN3 : Wave normals at P, Q, R
T N
M
iii. According to Huygens principle, all the
points on PQR will act as secondary A Q
source of light and send secondary
wavelets with same velocity c in air. R
iv. To find out new wavefront at later P
instant t, draw hemispheres with
P, Q, R. as centres and ct as radius i r ir
in the forward direction.
X Y
v. The surface tangential of all such A1 B1
hemispheres is an envelope at that Reflection of light
instant t. Such a surface is passing
XY : Plane reflecting surface
through the points P1, Q1, R1. on the
hemispheres and touching all the AB : Plane wavefront
hemispheres. This surface is the new RB1 : Reflecting wavefront
wavefront at that instant t. A1M, B1N : Normal to the plane
vi. SPN1, SQN2, SRN3 are the wave AA1M = BB1N = i = Angle of incidence
normals at P, Q, R. TA1M = QB1N = r = Angle of reflection
5
Wave Theory of Light
Std. XII Sci.: Perfect Physics - II TARGET Publications

i. Let a plane wavefront AB is advancing Note:


obliquely towards plane reflecting surface 1. Frequency, wavelength and speed of light
XY. AA1 and BB1 are incident rays. does not change after reflection.
ii. When A reaches XY at A1, then ray at 2. If reflection takes place from a denser medium
B reaches point P and it has to cover
distance PB1 to reach the reflecting then phase changes by radian.
surface XY. Q.18. Draw neat labelled ray diagram of
iii. Let t be the time required to cover reflection of light from a plane reflecting
distance PB1. During this time interval surface using plane wavefront.
secondary wavelets are emitted from A1 [Mar 96, Oct 99, 04]
and will spread over a hemisphere of Ans: Refer Q.17 (diagram)
radius A1R.
Distance covered by secondary waves to 10.6 Refraction at plane surface
reach from A1 to R in time t is same as *Q.19.Explain refraction of light on the basis of
the distance covered by primary waves wave theory. Hence prove laws of
to reach from P to B1. refraction. [Mar 96, Oct 08]
Thus A1R = PB1 = ct. OR
Prove the laws of refraction on the basis of
iv. All other rays between AA1 and BB1 wave theory light.
will reach XY after A1 and before B1. [Feb 02, 03, 05, Oct 03, 05, 06]
Hence they also emit secondary Ans: Laws of refraction:
wavelets of decreasing radii.
i. Ratio of velocity of light in rarer medium
v. The surface touching all such to velocity of light in denser medium is a
hemispheres is RB1 which is reflected constant called refractive index of denser
wavefront bounded by reflected rays medium w.r.t. rarer medium.
A1R and B1Q. ii. The incident rays, refracted rays and
normal lie in the same plane.
vi. Draw A1M XY and B1N XY.
iii. Incident ray and refracted ray lie on
Thus, angle of incidence is opposite sides of normal.
AA1M =BB1 N = i and Angle of Explanation:
reflection is MA1R = NB1Q = r . Phenomenon of refraction can be explained on
RA1B1 = 90 r the basis of wave theory of light.
B
PB1A1 = 90 i M
vii. In A1RB1 and A1PB1 M1
A1RB1 A1PB1 P
A
A1R = PB1 (Reflected waves travel equal
distance in same medium in equal time). i air (1)
i
i
A1B1 = A1B1 (common side) X A1 r Y
B1
A1RB1 A1PB1 glass (2)
r r
R
R1AB1 = PB1A1
N1
90 r = 90 i N R1
i=r Refraction of light
viii. Also from the figure it is clear that XY : plane refracting surface
incident ray, reflected ray and normal lie AB : incident plane wavefront
in the same plane. B1R : refracted wavefront
AA1, BB1 : incident rays
ix. This explains laws of reflection of light A1 R, B1R1 : refracted rays
from plane reflecting surface on the AA1M = BB1M1 = i : angle of incidence
basis of Huygens wave theory. RA1N = R1B1N1 = r : angle of refraction

6
Wave Theory of Light
TARGET Publications Std. XII Sci.: Perfect Physics - II

i. Let XY be the plane refracting surface iv. In A1 RB1


separating two media air and glass of
A1R c t
refractive indices 1 and 2. sin r = = 2 .(vi)
A1B1 A1B1
ii. A plane wavefront AB is advancing
obliquely towards XY from air. It is v. Dividing equation (v) by (vi), we have
bounded by rays AA1 and BB1 which sin i c1t / A1B1 ct
are incident rays. = = 1
sin r c 2 t / A1B1 c 2 t
iii. When A reaches at A1 then B will
sin i c1
be at P. It still has to cover distance = .(vii)
PB1 to reach XY. sin r c 2
iv. According to Huygens principle, c1 2 1
secondary wavelets will originate from Also = = 2 .(viii)
c 2 1
A1 and it will spread over a hemisphere
in glass. Where 12 = R.I. of glass w.r.t air.
v. All the rays between AA1 and BB1 will vi. From the explanation, it is clear that
reach XY and spread over the incident rays AA1, BB1, refracted rays
hemispheres of increasing radii in glass. A1R, B1R1 and normal MN and M1N1 lie
The surface of tangency of all such on the same plane XY. Also incident ray
hemispheres is RB1. This gives rise to AA1 and refracted ray A1R lie opposite
refracted wavefront B1R in glass. side of normal MN. Hence laws of
refraction can be explained.
vi. A1R and B1R1 are refracted rays.
vii. Let c1 and c2 be the velocities of light in Q.20. Show that velocity of light in rarer medium
air and glass respectively.
is greater than velocity in denser medium.
viii. At any instant of time t distance covered
[Oct 08]
by incident wavefront from P to B1 = PB1
= c1t Ans : i. To show velocity of light in rarer
medium is greater than velocity in
Distance covered by secondary wave
denser medium, we have to prove
from A1 to R = A1R = c2t.
c1 > c2.
Proof of laws of refraction:
From figure
i. From fig.
i > r
AA1M + MA1P = 90 (i)
sin i > sin r
and
sin i
MA1P + PA1B1 = 90 (ii) >1
sin r
From equations (i) and (ii)
2
AA1M = PA1B1 = i >1
1
ii. Similarly,
NA1R = N1B1R1 = r c1 2
ii. Since , =
We have c 2 1
N1B1R1 + N1B1R = 90 (iii) 2
But >1
and 1
N1B1R + A1B1R = 90 (iv) c1
>1
From equations (iii) and (iv) c2
N1B1R1 = A1B1R = r c1 > c2
iii. In A1PB1 Hence velocity of light in rarer medium
sin i = PB1 = c1t .(v) is greater than velocity in denser
A1B1 A1B1 medium.
7
Wave Theory of Light
Std. XII Sci.: Perfect Physics - II TARGET Publications
S1 S2
Q.21. Define wave number. Write down its unit
and dimension. B
Ans: i. Definition: A
Wave number is defined as number of
waves per unit distance. Fig. (a)
OR S1 S2
Reciprocal of wavelength of the light is
called wave number. B
A
It is given by
1
=
Fig. (b)
S1
ii. Unit: m1 in SI system and cm1 in CGS
S2
system.
B
iii. Dimension: [M0L1T0] A
Note:
1. During refraction, speed and wavelength of Fig. (c)
light changes but frequency remains same.
2. Change in wavelength is due to change in speed iv. Instead of transverse vibration, if we
of light as it travels from one medium to another. produce longitudinal vibration then it will
pass through slit without change in
3. More the denser medium less is the wavelength.
amplitude of vibrations even the slits may
4. Phase of light does not change during refraction.
parallel or at right angles to each other.
10.7 Polarisation v. From the above experiment it is
concluded that transverse vibrations can
*Q.22.What do you mean by polarisation? Explain pass through the slits only in certain
the concept of polarisation by considering conditions. i.e. vibrations are restricted
transverse wave on a rope. [Oct 09] in certain plane. This phenomenon is
Ans: Polarisation: called polarisation.
The phenomenon of restriction of the vibration Note:
of light waves in a particular plane
1. There is no effect of position of slit on the
perpendicular to direction of wave motion is
propagation of longitudinal waves. This means
called polarisation of light.
longitudinal wave cannot be polarised.
Concept of Polarisation:
2. There is effect of position of slit on the
i. Consider two slits S1 and S2 which are
propagation of transverse waves. This means
kept parallel to each other. A string AB
transverse waves can be polarised. So,
is passed through both the slits. One end
polarisation is the property of transverse
of the string A is in our hand and the
waves only.
other end B is fixed to a rigid support as
shown in fig. (a). Q.23. Explain in brief the transverse nature of light.
ii. Now, A is given a jerk up and down so Ans: Explanation of transverse nature of light:
that transverse wave is formed in the i. Consider a tourmaline crystal C1 with its
string. It is observed that, transverse crystallographic axis perpendicular to
wave pass through both the parallel slits the direction of propagation of light.
without loss in amplitude of vibrations
ii. Ordinary light (unpolarised light) is
as shown in fig. (b).
made to incident on crystal C1 as shown
iii. Now the slit S2 is kept perpendicular to slit
in fig. (a).
S1. In this case transverse wave travels up
to slit S2 but there are no vibrations in the iii. The components of electric field vector
string through S2 as shown in fig. (c). This which are in the plane of paper pass
means slit S2 does not allow the transverse through the crystal and the components
wave to pass through it. of electric field vector which are
In this case amplitude of vibrations perpendicular to plane of paper are
reduces to zero. blocked.
8
Wave Theory of Light
Std. XII Sci.: Perfect Physics - II TARGET Publications

23. The angle between the original direction of 31. In case of refraction of light for normal
incident ray and reflected ray is incidence, there is no deviation because
(A) angle of deviation due to reflection (A) i = 90 then r = 0
(B) angle of emergence (B) i = 0 then r = 0
(C) angle of reflection (C) i = 0 then r = 90
(D) angle of refraction
(D) i = 90 then r = 90
24. When wavefront strikes a reflecting surface,
(A) it comes to rest 32. Which of the following is correct?
sin i c
(B) it penetrate the reflecting surface (A) 12 = (B) 12 = 2
(C) the surface bends sin r c1
(D) the points on the surface becomes 1 1 1 sin r
source of secondary wavelets (C) 2 = (D) 2 =
2 sin i
25. A rays of light of frequency 4 1014 Hz is
refracted through glass of R.I 1.5. 33. A monochromatic beam of light is refracted
into water and then into glass. If a, w and g
If c = 3 108 m/sec in air, the percentage
are its wavelengths in air, water and glass
change in the wavelength from air to glass is
respectively, then
(A) 50% (B) 25%
(A) a = w = g
(C) 20% (D) 33%
(B) a > w > g
26. The frequency of a beam of light in air is (C) a < w < g
8 1014 Hz. The wave number of the beam of
(D) a >w or g & w = g
light in air is
(A) 1.67 106 m1 (B) 2.67 106 m1 34. The velocity of light in vacuum is 3 108 m/s.
1
(C) 3.67 10 m 6
(D) 4.67 106 m1 Determine the velocity, wavelength and
frequency of, green light of wavelength 5270
27. A ray of light is made to pass from vacuum
A.U. in glass. Refractive index of glass is 1.5.
into a medium of refractive index . Angle of
(A) 2 108 m/s, 3513 AU, 5.7 1014 Hz
incidence is twice the angle of refraction.
Angle of incidence is given by (B) 3 108 m/s, 4513 AU, 6.7 1014 Hz
2 (C) 4 108 m/s, 8900 AU, 7.7 1014 Hz

(A) sin1 (B) 2 cos1 (D) 5 108 m/s, 7000 AU, 8.7 1014 Hz
2
35. Monochromatic light of wavelength 6870 A.U
(C) 2 cos1 (D) 2 sin1 is refracted through water surface. Determine
2 2 its wavelength and frequency in water, if its
28. The velocity of light in air is c. Its velocity in frequency in air is 4.4 1014 Hz. Refractive
a medium of refractive index 1.4 will be index of water is 1.33.
c (A) 7100 A.U, 3 1014 Hz
(A) c (B) (B) 4933 A.U, 4 1014 Hz
1.4
(C) c 1.4 (D) c + 1.4 (C) 6565 A.U, 6 1014 Hz
(D) 5165 A.U, 4.4 1014 Hz
29. The refractive index of glass is 1.68 and that
of an oil is 1.2. When a light ray passes from 36. A monochromatic light of wavelength 4310
oil to glass, its velocity will change by a factor A.U is incident on the surface of a glass slab
(A) 1/1.2 (B) 1.68 1.2 of R.I 1.6. Determine the wavelength and
frequency of light in glass, if its frequency in
1 1
(C) (D) air is 5.8 1014 Hz.
1.4 1.68 1.2
(A) 5993 A.U, 2 1014 Hz
30. The laws of refraction of light are valid for (B) 4693 A.U, 4 1014 Hz
(A) plane mirror (B) concave mirror (C) 3000 A.U, 7 1014 Hz
(C) convex mirror (D) glass lens (D) 2694 A.U, 5.8 1014 Hz
26
Wave Theory of Light
TARGET Publications Std. XII Sci.: Perfect Physics - II

37. A light wave has a frequency of 4 1014 Hz 45. An unpolarised beam of transverse waves is
and a wavelength of 5 107m in a medium. one whose vibrations
The refractive index of the medium is (A) are confined to a single plane
(A) 1.5 (B) 1.33 (B) occur in all directions
(C) 1.0 (D) 0.66 (C) have not passed through a polarised disc
(D) occur in all directions perpendicular to
38. Time taken by the sun light to pass through their direction of motion
window of thickness 4 mm, whose refractive
index is 1.5, is 46. The transverse nature of light is shown by
(A) 2 101 sec (B) 2 108 sec (A) interference of light
(C) 2 1011 sec (D) 2 1011 sec (B) refraction of light
(C) polarisation of light
39. A rocket is going away from the earth at a
(D) dispersion of light
speed 0.2c, where c = speed of light. It emits a
signal of frequency 4 107. What will be the 47. The polarisation of an electromagnetic wave is
frequency observed by an observer on the determined by
earth? (A) the electric field only
(A) 4 106 Hz (B) 3.2 107 Hz (B) the magnetic field only
(C) 3 106 Hz (D) 5 107 Hz (C) both the electric and magnetic fields
(D) the direction of propagation of
40. The R.I of glass is 3/2 and refractive index of electromagnetic waves
water is 4/3. If the speed of light in water is
48. The plane of vibration and the plane of
2.25 108 m/s what will be speed of light in
polarisation of a beam of light
glass?
(A) are identical to each other
(A) 2.25 108 m/s (B) 2 108 m/s (B) are orthogonal to each light
(C) 3 108 m/s (D) 2.98 108 m/s (C) make an angle, which depends on the
colour of the light
41. When light travels from air to water its speed
(D) rotate with respect of each other along
is retarded by [W = 4/3] the path of the beam
3 4
(A) 107 m/s (B) 107 m/s 49. Polaroids used to control the intensity of light
4 3
coming through windows of
(C) 2.25 108 m/s (D) 7.5 107 m/s (A) trains and aeroplanes
42. The ratio of velocity of light in glass to water (B) nicol prism
if R.I of glass and water with respect to air is (C) biprism
3/2 and 4/3 respectively will be (D) ammeter
(A) 9 /8 (B) 8/9
50. Which of the following phenomenon is used
(C) 3/4 (D) 2/3 to test and measure the optical activity of
43. The number of waves of electromagnetic crystal like quartz?
radiation of wavelengths 5000 in a path of 4 (A) Interference (B) Polarisation
cm in vacuum is (C) Diffraction (D) Refraction
(A) 7.5 104 (B) 8 104 51. Unpolarised light consists of electric field
(C) 9 106 (D) 10 106 vectors in
(A) any one plane
44. One cannot see through fog because (B) plane of paper
(A) fog absorbs light (C) perpendicular to plane of paper
(B) light is scattered by the droplets in fog (D) all possible planes
(C) light suffers total reflection at the 52. Waves that cannot be polarised are
droplets in fog (A) radio waves (B) X-rays
(D) the refractive index of fog is infinity (C) visible light (D) sound waves
27
Wave Theory of Light
Std. XII Sci.: Perfect Physics - II TARGET Publications

53. A ray of light strikes a glass plate at an angle 60. It is believed that the universe is expanding
of 60. If reflected and refracted rays are and hence the distant stars are receding from
perpendicular to each other, the R.I. of glass is us. Light from such a star will show
1 3 (A) shift in frequency towards longer
(A) (B) wavelengths
2 2
(C) 2/3 (D) 1.732 (B) shift in frequency towards shorter
wavelength
54. When unpolarised light is passed through (C) no shift in frequency but a decrease in
crossed polaroids then light passes through intensity
first polaroid is
(D) a shift in frequency sometimes towards
(A) also passes through second polaroid
longer and sometimes towards shorter
(B) blocked by second polaroid wavelengths
(C) partially passes through second polaroid
(D) passes with greater intensity 61. Angle of polarisation for a transparent
medium
55. The critical angle does not depend upon
(A) wavelength (A) does not depend of wave length of light
(B) refractive index (B) increases as wavelength increases
(C) temperature (C) decreases as wavelength increases
(D) frequency (D) changes irregularly with increase in
wavelength
56. When unpolarised light is incident on a plane
glass at Brewsters angle, then which of the 62. The refractive index of certain glass is 1.5 for
following statements is correct? yellow light of wavelength 591 nm in air. The
(A) Reflected and refracted rays are wavelength of the light in the glass will be
completely polarised with their planes of (A) 591 am (B) 394 nm
polarisation parallel to each other (C) 886.5 nm (D) 295.5 nm
(B) Reflected and refracted rays are
completely polarised with their planes of 63. A ray of light strikes a glass plate at an angle
polarisation perpendicular to each other of 60. If the reflected and refracted rays are
(C) Reflected light is plane polarised but perpendicular to each other, the index of
transmitted light is partially polarised. refraction of glass is
(D) Reflected light is partially polarised but 1 3
refracted light is plane polarised (A) (B)
2 2
57. Refractive index of material is equal to (C) 3/2 (D) 1.732
tangent of polarising angle. It is called
(A) Lamberts law 64. The angle between polariser and analyser is
(B) Braggs law 30. The ratio of intensity of incident light and
(C) Brewsters law transmitted by the analyser is
(D) Malus law (A) 3 : 4 (B) 4 : 3
58. When a light wave suffers reflection at the (C) 3 :2 (D) 2 : 3
interface from air to glass, the change in phase
65. For a given medium, the polarising angle is
of reflected wave is equal to
60. The critical angle for this medium
(A) 0 (B)
(A) 4723 (B) 6010
(C) /2 (D) 2
(C) 2330 (D) 3516
59. According to Brewsters law, at polarising
angle the reflected and refracted rays are 66. The angle of incidence is 60 and the angle of
(A) parallel to each other refraction is 30. The polarising angle for the
(B) antiparallel to each other same medium is
(C) perpendicular to each other (A) 55 (B) 45
(D) at 40 to each other (C) 30 (D) 60
28
Wave Theory of Light
TARGET Publications Std. XII Sci.: Perfect Physics - II

67. In a doubly refracting crystal, optic axis is a Section C


direction along which
1. 2.143 108 m/s, 1.25 108 m/s, 1.714
(A) plane polarised light does not suffer
deviation 2. 35 16, 2 108 m/s
(B) any beam of light does not suffer 3. 16 22, 2 108 m/s
deviation
(C) double refraction does not take place 4. 2500
(D) O-ray and E-ray undergo maximum 5. 2667 A.U
deviation
6. 2.25 108 m/s, 4500 1010 m, 5 1014 Hz
68. Dichroism is the property where 7. 24 44, 2 108 m/s
(A) unequal absorption of O-ray and E-ray 8. 35 16
takes place
(B) equal absorption of O-ray and E-ray Section D
takes place 1. (B) 2. (D) 3. (C) 4. (C)
(C) plane of polarisation rotates 5. (A) 6. (B) 7. (D) 8. (B)
9. (A) 10. (B) 11. (A) 12. (D)
(D) unequal reflection of O-ray and E-ray
13. (B) 14. (B) 15. (A) 16. (B)
takes place
17. (B) 18. (C) 19. (D) 20 (B)
69. Which of the following polaroid is formed by 21. (C) 22. (C) 23. (A) 24. (D)
stretching polyvinyl alcohol by the stress? 25. (D) 26. (B) 27. (C) 28. (B)
(A) P-polaroid (B) H-polaroid 29. (C) 30. (D) 31. (B) 32. (A)
33. (B) 34. (A) 35. (D) 36. (D)
(C) K-polaroid (D) N-polaroid
37. (A) 38. (C) 39. (B) 40. (B)
ANSWERS 41. (D) 42. (B) 43. (B) 44. (B)
45. (D) 46. (C) 47. (A) 48. (B)
Section A 49. (A) 50. (B) 51. (D) 52. (D)
53. (D) 54. (B) 55. (D) 56. (C)
1. 4.5 105 m1
57. (C) 58. (B) 59. (C) 60. (A)
2. 1.5
61. (C) 62. (B) 63. (D) 64. (B)
3. 1.847 65. (D) 66. (D) 67. (C) 68. (A)
4. 6150 69. (B)
5. 53 3
6. 5857
7. 30
8. 67 33
9. 1.54
10. 180 km h1
11. i. 1.67 ii. 1.33
iii. 1.25
12. 6.66 1014 Hz, 2903
13. 2 108 m/s, 2.25 108 m/s, 1.125
14. 1.245
15. 37, 1.327
16. 0.41
29
Wave Theory of Light