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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 ; II B.Sc. (Agri.

), II Semester 2013-14

V Ai Awz zs

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

COURSE OUTLINE
13. Elements of landscape gardens
THEORY:
14. Types and styles of gardens
1. History of Floriculture and Landscape 15. Garden features
Gardening in India.
16. Garden Adornments
2. Scope and importance of ornamental 17. Indoor gardening and
crops; Industrial importance of
Ornamental plants & Commercial 18. Bonsai
flowers in India and abroad.
REFERENCES:
3. Role of ornamentals in pollution
control.
1. Advanced Commercial Floriculture S.K.
4. Classification of flower crops. Bhatacharjee & L.C. De
2. Chrysanthemum in India by M.A. Kher
5-10. Production technology of flower crops
under protected and open cultivation. 3. Commercial Floriculture by S. Prasad/ U.
Kumar
i. Rose 4. Commercial Flowers Vol.1& Vol.2 Edited
ii. Carnation by T.K. Bose, L.P. Yadav, P.Pal, P. Das. &
V.A. Parthasarathy
iii. Gerbera
5. Complete Gardening in India by
iv. Anthurium Gopalaswami Iyengar
6. Floriculture Technology, Trades and
v. Gladiolus
Trends by J. Prakash and K.R. Bhandaly
vi. Tuberose 7. Floriculture and Landscaping by T.K.
vii. Jasmine Bose, R.G. Maiti, R.S. Dhua and P.Das
8. Floriculture -At Glance by Desh Raj
viii. Chrysanthemum
9. Floriculture in India by Dr. G.S.
ix. Crossandra Randhawa and A. Mukhopadhyay
10. Pests of Floriculture crops and their control
x. Marigold
by Pulluri Ramesh
xi. China aster 11. Protected cultivation of Roses by Dr. T.
Venkatesh Reddy, & Dr. C.G. Nagaraja
11. Post harvest handling of cut flowers 12. Roses Amitabha Muchopadhyay
12. Principles and planning of landscape 13. The Rose in India by B.P. Pal
gardens.

SCHEME OF EVALUATION:
Mid Term Practical Practical External Total
ATT Assignment
Exam Record Examination
20.00 15.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 50.00 100.00

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

LECTURE-1: Special mention can be made of the tree


Kadamba (Anthocephalus cadamba; Syn. A.
HISTORY OF GARDENING IN INDIA
indicus) as it was closely associated with the
life of Lord Krishna.

The history of gardening in India is as old as its The lotus was a popular flower and was
civilization. regarded by both the Hindus and the
Buddhists as a symbol of purity. The flower
The first evidence of an ornamental plant, the grows in mud but is free from any mud-
Pipal (Ficus religiosa), comes from a seal sticking, as no dirt can stick to it.
Mohen-jo-daro of the third millennium B.C.
In the Mahabharata it is mentioned that,
Another seal from Harappa of the same period Bhima brought a lotus for his consort which
depicts a tree similar to that of a weeping had one thousand petals, glowing like sun and
willow (Salix babylonica). with sweet heavenly fragrance which could
The Aryans of the Vedic period were great prolong youth and revive beauty.
lovers of trees and flowers. The Aryans developed some wishful thinking
The lotus has been mentioned frequently in the in the form of Kalpavriksha, the wish-
Sanskrit scriptures of Vedic times. granting tree and Kalpalata, a similar
creeper.
The Atharva Veda mentions the Asvatha (Pipal)
or Ficus religiosa. The faith goes that anybody, standing
under these creepers or trees, wishing
The Rig Veda also refers to this tree when it anything from jewellary, beautiful
describes a tree with fair foliage. clothing, good food, or even beautiful
The epics of the Aryans- the Ramayana and maidens, would get the same.
the Mahabharata, believed to have been One sculpture depicting such a tree dating back
compiled during 500 B.C., mention about to the third century B.C. and now preserved in
gardens, trees and flowers. the Kolkata Museum was identified as the
In the Ramayana it has been narrated that the banyan tree.
palaces had nice gardens with numerous Another legend of that time also makes
flowers and shady groves.It is frequently interesting reading. According to the
mentioned that lakes were full of lotuses. legendary story,
Every Indian must be known about the Once Lord Vishnu was bathing in a
Asokavana where Sita was held in captivity lake on earth when a lotus bloomed
by Ravana, the demon king. This grove was and from within came out Pitamaha
composed mostly of Asoka (Saraca indica) Brahma, who claimed that the lotus
trees. was the prettiest flower one had ever
seen.
The Mahabharata the Sabhaparva of these epic,
detailed descriptions have been given of the Although Vishnu agreed that, it was a
pleasure gardens, parks and lakes around the beautiful flower; he guided Brahma to
palaces in Indraprastha. his own paradise Vaikuntha and
showed him a rose bloom as pale as
Both the epics mention the following trees and
moonbeam and full of sweet
creepers
fragrance. Brahma had to change his
Ficus benghalensis, F. religiosa, Saraca view and accept the rose as the
indica, Michelia champaca, Terminalia prettiest bloom in the universe.
arjuna, Butea monosperma, Mesua ferrea
The association of different trees with the life
(Nagkesara), Cassia fistula, Shorea
robusta (Sal), Palmyra palm (Botassus of Lord Buddha is well known.
flabellifer), Screwpine (Pandanus), The Buddha was born under the Asoka
Bignonia and Oleander. (Saraca indica) tree. The other trees

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

such as Sal (Shorea robusta) and Plaksha hundred gardens around Delhi and more
(Butea monosperma) were also there. elsewhere.
The Buddha attained his Babur was a great lover of flowers and
enlightenment under a Pipal tree, gardens. He laid out a garden at Agra, now
Spread his new teachings under shady known as Rambagh.
banyans and mango trees and Babur is credited with the introduction of
Breathed his last in a Sal (Shorea Persian rose in India.
robusta) grove. Akbar (1556-1605 A.D.) built a new capital at
The great Emperor Asoka adopted Fatehpur Sikri, complete with gardens, trees
arboriculture as one of his state policies. and flowers. He was the first Mughal to enter
Kashmir and established a garden i.e., Nasim
He encouraged the planting of avenue trees. Bagh, close to the Dal Lake. The tomb
garden of Akbar at Sikandra is an example of
His son Prince Mahendra took a sapling of the
great Bodhi tree (Ficus religiosa) and planted it the gardening art during that period.
at Anuradhapur in Sri Lanka. Jehangir (1605-1627 A.D.) was also a great
admirer of gardens and flowers and so was his
The pipal was regarded as a sacred tree even
famous wife Nur Jahan. The gardens at
before the birth of the Buddha.
Shalimar, Achhabal and Verinag in Kashmir
Vatsayana (about 300-400 A.D.) in his book were created by him. The tomb at Itimad-ud-
Kamasutra gives a glimpse of the joyful civic Daulah in Agra, in memory of his father-in-
life of that period. He narrates four kinds of law, was also his creation.
gardens:
Shah Jahan (1627-1658 A.D.) also established
1. Pramododyan - meant for the several beautiful gardens. He built the Red
enjoyment of the royal couples; Fort in Delhi which had a beautiful garden.
The gardens around Taj Mahal in Agra, in
2. Udyan - where the kings played chess,
memory of his beloved queen Mumtaz
enjoyed the dances of the maids and
Mahal was also his creation.
jokes of the court jesters;
The best garden created by Shah Jahan was
3. Brikshavatika- the garden where
the Shalimar garden in Lahore (Pakistan).
high-placed persons in the kings
court enjoyed life with Sher Shah Suri (1540-1544 A.D.), who ruled for
courtesans; and a short period after defeating Babur,
constructed the famous Grand Trunk Road
4. Nandanavana- which was dedicated
and planted avenue trees on both sides.
to Lord Krishna.
The Nawabs of Oudh also established a
Vatsayana also described the duties of a
number of gardens in their empire, especially
virtuous wife.
in Lucknow. One of these was Sikandar
It is said that a loyal and affectionate wife Bagh which was established by the last
should lay out a garden around the house. Nawab Wajid Ali Shah (1847-1856 A.D.),
which is now the National Botanical
Besides, the garden should be planted with
Research Institute.
jasmine, Tabernaemontana coronaria, China
rose, etc. The Rajput in India also established several
gardens.
A good housewife should also construct
arbours and seats in the gardens. The garden at Amber Fort near Jaipur
was started by Man Singh (1590-1615
Before the Mughals came to India there was a
A.D.) and completed by Jai Singh II
long blank in the gardening history of India,
(1699-1743 A.D.). This beautiful
with the exception of Firoz Tughlaq (1351-
garden is laid in three terraces and has
1388 A.D.) who developed about twelve
a lake.

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

IMPORTANCE AND SCOPE OF LANDSCAPE


The Mandor garden near Jodhpur is a
GARDENING IN INDIA
really beautiful garden still today and
was built by Raja Abhai Singh (1724- The role of flowers and gardens in the life of
1749 A.D.). the nation and the people is not properly
understood in India.
The city of Jaipur was founded by Jai
Singh II (1727 A.D.) who built a palace Largely, floriculture and gardening are being
in the heart of the city with beautiful neglected by the administrators and get last
gardens. priority in any process of planning or
allotment of funds.
The garden palace at Deeg was founded
by Suraj Mal with fountains, water Even whatever meager funds are allocated to
courses, and other features, it is one of floriculture; it is only this branch that is made
the most beautiful gardens ever the first target of any economy drive.
created by any Rajput king.
Though floriculture and gardening have to go a
The gardens and the palaces in Chittor, long way to develop to significant level.
the Capital of Mewar rulers were also
famous. The rulers of Bundi in The credit for giving floriculture and
Rajasthan also were fond of gardening- a good start and consequently
gardening. some status goes largely to the noted
administrator-cum scientist, Dr. M.S.
The arrival of the British in India Randhawa.
changed the whole pattern of
gardening. His work in this field was carried further by
another noted scientist and great lover of
The Mughal gardens in India were laid flowers, particularly roses, Dr. B.P. Pal.
out in symmetrical patterns, but the
English changed the style into But for the encouragement given by these two
informal patterns by laying out parks scientists, floriculture would not have reached
and gardens. the present level of achievement and gained
the status that it is having today.
Until then Indian gardens had only
scented trees and shrubs, climbers and Of course, the patronization and
bulbs, but had no flowering annuals. encouragement given to floriculture and
gardening by the late Prime Minister
The English brought with them Jawaharlal Nehru and also the late President
beautiful annuals and biennials such Dr. Zakir Hussain must also be recalled with
as phlox, carnation, verbena, dahlia, gratitude.
larkspur, etc.
Before the arrival of the English the LANDSCAPE GARDENING
Indian knew about how to make
garlands and Guldasta (bouquets), but The importance of gardening is also not
had no idea of flower arrangements understood, in India. The people should be educated
for interior decoration, which was to realize the importance of gardening, by providing
taught by the British. good parks and gardens in cities for a large population
to relax and enjoy the beauty of nature.
The greatest contribution by the British
was the establishment of botanical BIO-AESTHETIC PLANTING
gardens starting from the one The term bio-aesthetic planning, a concept of
established near Kolkata. Prof. Lancelot Hogben,
The present-day garden styles in India This means the proper utilization of the
are more or less on the pattern of the available flora and fauna in the beautification
English style. of the surroundings.
In India, the theme of bio-aesthetic planning
was propagated by Dr M.S. Randhawa who
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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

gave a practical shape to it in planning LANDSCAPE FOR POLLUTION FREE


Chandigarh City along with the famous ENVIRONMENT
architects Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret.
Air pollution is one of the most talked
The aim behind this concept is to plant problems in the present age, has reached
ornamental flowering trees all along the roads, disturbing proportions in some of the largest
in parks, house compounds, public places and cities of the world and also in some of the
also to develop national parks where non- metropolitan cities in residential areas, and
carnivorous animals and beautiful birds will proliferation of motor vehicles.
find sanctuary along with beautiful flora. This
The smoke from the coal ovens (chulas) of the
term also includes landscape gardening
residential houses, the dust and the smoke
though in a wider sense.
from the grinding mills and chimneys of the
Bio-aesthetic planning should run hand in hand factories and the exhaust fumes from the
with town planning. motor vehicles all add to the pollution of our
cities.
Our new townships should not be allowed to
grow as mushrooms in dung-heaps as our Pollution is causing an increase in the diseases
older towns are. of the respiratory tract, cancer and many other
ailments. Unless something is urgently done
The roads in town and cities should be broad,
the health of our citizens many deteriorate
planted with flowering and shade trees, and
rapidly.
there should be spacious parks along with
conservatories for harmless animals and birds. The role of open spaces such as parks and of
living plants in checking air pollution is well
The older congested cities and towns also
known.
should be retrieved from their present state by
bio-aesthetic planning. The parks are considered as the lungs of the
cities.
One way of doing this is to acquire by
compulsion the ugly areas of the The barrier of trees checks noise pollution, dust
towns in some centrally located pollution and air pollution.
pockets and to convert them into
The role of landscape gardening in human
parks.
welfare cannot be overlooked.
The displaced persons may be
Even in an under developed country as India,
accommodated in multi-storey
people do not live by bread alone.
buildings which occupy less land.
They also need some finer things of life. It is a
But many planners are against vertical
great tragedy that, most of our children in big
growth in our towns; a compromise
cities do not have any open space to play and
must be found somewhere.
to see colourful flowers, birds and butterflies.
In some of the most congested cities
such as Kolkata, Kanpur, Mumbai etc., It is the moral duty of our government, through
it may be really impossible to get land the municipalities, corporations and such
in the city proper for bio-aesthetic other bodies, to provide the citizens with
planning. spacious parks having beautiful trees and
flowers where they can relax, find peace of
In such cases garden suburbs should mind and breathe fresh air after a days hard
be developed on the outskirts of the work.
city with easily approachable by
vehicles or even bicycles. The children will also be able to play freely in
such parks. It is a common sight in congested
The real estate value of any property cities that groups of youngsters play football,
goes up if it has a compound properly cricket, or hockey in the by-lanes in the
landscaped and planted with trees. absence of playgrounds and parks.

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

LECTURE-2
The wealth of any nation is linked with the
health of its people. FLORICULTURE
Unless we can ensure the healthy development
of our citizens, especially the younger
generation, by providing them for open India has a long tradition of floriculture. As it is
breathing places through bio-aesthetic an ancient creative skill with imagination and
planning and landscape gardening, we cannot an advanced science that played a very
expect to build up a healthy society and important role in the course of human
prosperous nation. civilization and its social development.
In most part of the country, flower growing is
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE: carried out on small holdings and commercial
The art and science of analysis, planning, floriculture has assumed importance only in
design, management, preservation and rehabilitation the recent past.
of the land. This includes site planning, garden Traditionally, flowers have been grown in India
design, environmental restoration, town or urban in the open fields, where they have been
planning, park and recreation planning, regional exposed to both biotic and abiotic stresses.
planning and historic preservation. Hence, the quality is not up to the standards.
OR However, in the era of globalization, the
It is the design of outdoor and public spaces to produce has to be of International quality and
achieve environmental, socio-behavioral and/or globally competitive, as there is lot of demand
aesthetic outcomes. for different floricultural products in the
export market. The modern floriculture will
It involves the systematic investigation of meet the above demand of the present days
existing social, ecological and geological conditions consumers.
and processes in the landscape and the design of
interventions that will produce the desired outcome. Definition:
The scope of the profession includes: Floriculture can be defined as a specialized
Urban design; branch of horticulture which deals not only with the
Site planning; cultivation of flowers, foliage, climbers, trees, shrubs, cacti,
Town or urban planning; succulents, etc., but also with their marketing and
Environmental restoration; production of value-added products from them
Parks and recreation planning;
OR
Visual resource management; green
infrastructure planning and provision; Floriculture can also be defined as a discipline
Private estate and residence landscape master of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering
planning and design; and ornamental plants for gardens and floristry, comprising
All at varying scales of design, planning and the floral industry. It includes bedding plants, flowering
management. plants, foliage plants or house plants, cut greens and
cutflowers.
A practitioner in the profession of landscape
architecture is called a Landscape Architect. The floriculture business is growing in the
world at around 6-10 % per annum.
A Landscape Architect is a person involved in the
planning, design and sometimes direction of a In spite of a long tradition of floriculture,
landscape, garden, or distinct space. The India's share in the International market for
professional practice is known as Landscape these flowers is negligible (at present it is <
Architecture. 0.70 %).

Landscape architecture was not commonly During the last few years, taking an advantage
recognized in developed nations as a distinct of the incentives offered by the Government of
profession until the early twentieth century. India, a number of Floriculture units were
established in India for producing and
****** exporting flowers to the developed countries.
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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

Most of them are located near Mumbai, Pune, arrangements/decorations for bouquets
Bengaluru, Hyderabad and New Delhi and are preparation and for floral boskets, have
getting the technical know-how from Dutch as increased substantially and its share of the
well as Israeli Consultants. total trade has also improved.
Tamilnadu is the leader in floriculture followed The sale of loose flowers of Jasmine,
by Karnataka, accounting for 75% of India's Crossandra, Marigold, China Aster,
total flower production and the state is having Chrysanthemums, Berlaria and Gaillardia
the highest area under both modern and etc., are a roaring busyness in south India.
traditional flowers.
The present trend in floriculture is for
The country's first and the only Digital Flower making dry flowers, extraction of natural
Auction Centre is located in Bengaluru, colours and essential oils.
running by Karnataka Agro Industrial
There is lot of demand for good quality
Corporation (KAIC) at Hebbal.
flower seeds and ornamental planting
IMPORTANCE OF FLORICULTURE IN INDIA: materials.
Besides food and nutritional security, At present the global ornamental crop
the aesthetic value is also equally important for industry is worth about US$ 70 billion.
our daily lively hood as well as for environmental
purity. The global consumption of the flowers is
about US$ 35 billion.
Floriculture is important from the following
point of view; More than three lakhs hectare area is
1. Economic point of view under flower production in different
2. Aesthetic point of view countries of the world.
3. Social point of view Floriculture generates self employment
opportunities round the year. The
1. ECONOMIC POINT OF VIEW: employment opportunities in the field are
Floriculture is a fast emerging major varied such as.
venture in the world, especially as a i. One can join the floriculture field as
potential money-spinner for many farm/estate managers, plantation experts,
countries in world. supervisors and project coordinators and so
Many flowers and ornamental plants are on.
being grown for domestic as well as for ii. Teaching, Research and Extension scientists/
export market will provide more teachers are some other avenues of
return/unit area than any other employment in all SAUs and NARS.
agricultural/horticultural crops.
iii. Marketing of Floriculture products for different
For example in markets such as Delhi and ventures is emerging as a potential segment of
Mumbai and other metros a single spike of this field.
gladiolus and gerbera cutflower may sell
upto Rs. 3-5 in Kharif and Rs. 5-10/spike in iv. Besides, one can also work as consultant,
landscape architect etc with proper training.
Rabi/Summer.
v. One can also work as entrepreneur and offer
Gestation period of flower crop is very less
employment to others.
compared to other crops.
vi. In addition to these careers which involve
Modern-day floriculture refers to the
research and actual growing of crops.
production of high-value cutflowers such
as rose, gladiolus, carnation, mums, vii. Floriculture also provides service career
orchids, tuberose, anthurium, lilium, opportunities which include such jobs like
gerbera etc,. floral designers, grounds keepers, landscape
designers, architects and horticultural
Now days, growing of these cutflower
therapists.
crops, suited for flower
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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

to express the most sensitive, delicate and


viii. Professional qualification combined with an
loving feelings eloquently what our words
inclination towards gardening and such other
fail to express.
activities produces efficient floriculturists and
landscaping professionals all over the globe. In our society no social function is
complete without the use of flowers, floral
Presently more than 145 countries are
ornaments, bouquets or flower
involved in flower production on
arrangements they are invariably used in
commercial scale.
all social functions.
2. AESTHETIC POINT OF VIEW:
Used in social gatherings, birthday parties,
Lot of scope for landscaping and is welcoming friends or relatives and
considered as billion dollar earning honoring dignitaries. The concept of
industry in states which ultimately adds Valentines Day is fast catching up in India
the monitory value of any also.
building/property.
The arrival of new born is rejoiced with
To a Japanese flower arranger each flower flowers,
expresses one or more meaning (eg.
Ikebana). To an Indian, especially for Hindus,
flowers have a much greater significance in
The wealth of any nation is linked with the religions offerings. It has estimated that
health of its people. Unless we can ensure more than 30-40 % of the total flower
the healthy development of our citizens, productions are being consumed in Kolkata
especially for the younger generation, by city alone used for worshiping purpose.
providing them for open breathing places
Floral garlands, gajras and venis are
through bio-aesthetic planning like in
required in marriage ceremonies for
Chandigarh city and landscape gardening,
adornment of hairs by women of all ages,
we cannot expect to buildup a healthy
especially in the south India.
society and prosperous nation.
In the present modern era sicks are wished
Horticultural therapy - is the new
for speedy recovery by offering beautiful
dimension of horticultural sciences to heal
cutflowers, while the deads are bidden
the psychic debility and the science is to
farewell with flowers along with tear of
use garden, landscape plants, parts of
sorrow.
plants, growing activity as tools to work.
Flowers are very closely associated with
The bio-force of plants offer a permanent
solution to the problems of bio force of mankind from the dawn of human
civilization. There is increasing habit of
human thus, bio aesthetic horticulture is
saying with flowers. Any Indians born
emerging as a new occupational
therapeutic tool to restore the lost rhythm with flowers live with flowers and finally
and harmony back to human self or inner dies with flowers.
environment.
It is being utilized in psychiatric hospitals, SCOPE TO ENTER FLORICULTURE
general hospitals and physical INDUSTRY IN INDIA
rehabilitation centers, homes for elderly,
India is blessed with varied and dynamic
prisons and schools.
agro-climatic condition, good quality soil
The patients can achieve higher level of and water made suitable for floriculture.
personal development and satisfaction. Geographically India is well located
3. SOCIAL POINT OF VIEW: between two major markets i.e., Europe
and East Asia.
Flowers symbolize the purity, beauty,
peace, love, adoration, innocence and Winter is being very mild and hence there
passion etc. Hence, many flowers are used is lot of scope to export Indian flowers to

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

temperate countries during the winter Floriculture products posses 25-30 time
season, when the demand is in peak more foreign exchange earning ability than
because of important winter festivals like cereals or any other
Christmas, New Year Day and Valentines agricultural/horticultural products.
Day.
Floriculture is capable of attracting and
Labour cost is very low in India, nearly 10- retaining large number of progressive
15 times cheaper than that of similar farmers / entrepreneurs.
employees in the Netherlands, Israel and
Due to ample sunlight and optimum
Japan.
temperature during winter, it does not
The Government of India has identified require artificial lighting or heating for green
floriculture as Extreme Focus Thrust Area house production of cutflowers.
for export during IX plan.
The Government of India has identified
With the implementation of GATT product specific zones for selective research
agreement European nations has brought and development (Table-1) of floriculture.
down the import duty on floricultural
APEDA and GOK have established four
products, which at present is 15 %.
flower auction centers including one in
The International market is growing @ 8-10 Bengaluru, Noida (UP), Mumbai and New
% annually. The International demand is Delhi.
around Rs. 90,000 crore/ year and domestic
APEDA also has setup a marketing center at
market at 20-25 %. Hence, the scope to
Aalsmeer (The Netherlands) to promote
enter floriculture industry in India is
Indian produce.
unlimited.
Table-1: Products specific intensive
The Govt. of India has setup the
floriculture zones in India:
infrastructure for floriculture industry in
major cities like New Delhi, Mumbai, Sl.No. Zone Flower crops
Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Pune etc. 1 Area around : Rose, Carnation,
Delhi, UP and Chrysanthemum,
APEDA is giving financial assistance to Punjab Gladiolus
some extent for various activities connected 2 Area around : Rose, Carnation,
with export of floriculture products. Bengaluru Chrysanthemum,
Ornamental Foliage
Easy bank financing for hi-tech floriculture. Plants and Seeds
100 per cent export oriented units (EOUs) 3 Area around : Orchids, Anthurium
Trivendrum and Foliage Plants
are located in and around Hyderabad
4 Area around Rose, Carnation,
(Andra Pradesh), Bengaluru, Hosur,
Pune / Gladiolus, Dahlia,
Doddaballapur, Devanahalli (Karnataka) in Nashik Chrysanthemum, Aster
south and Gurgaun (Haryana) in north, and Tuberose
Lonavala and Pune (Maharashtra) in West. 5 North Eastern : Orchids, Gladiolus,
region Liliums, Gerbera, Salvia,
For 100 % EOUs the government has
including Anthurium and other
allowed to sale 50 per cent of produce in Sikkim Foliage Plants
domestic markets. 6 Area around : Lotus, Tuberose,
100 per cent tax exemption has given on Kolkata Jasmine,
Chrysanthemum and
implements / raw materials used in
Dahlia.
greenhouses.
7 Area around : Gladiolus, Lilies
The rules and regulations related to import Srinagar Carnation and Rose
and exports have been minimized. 8 Area around Gladiolus, Other
Solan, H.P. Bulbous Plants and
Singapore is the nearest International Seeds
standard flower auction centre, helpful for 9 Area around : Jasmine, Tuberose,
Indian exports. Coimbatore Chrysanthemum, Rose,
including Carnation and Orchids
Nilgiris
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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

Lack of knowledge about importing and


PROBLEMS / CONSTRAINTS FOR
exporting countries.
FLORICULTURE INDUSTRY IN INDIA
Lack of quality consciousness of the produce.
Lack of specific information on area and This affects the floriculture industry as a whole.
production of different flowers which, is a Lack of sale promotion activities in India.
handicap in planning production for domestic
and export market. Lack of market intelligence regarding leading
varieties, selling price, etc.
Lack of information on new / ruling varieties
which, continuously keep changing in the
International markets. AREA AND PRODUCTION OF FLOWERS IN THE
STATE AND THE COUNTRY
Lack of information on advanced cultivation
practices like high density planting, fertilizer and India ranks 2nd next to China with an area of 1,
irrigation management, plant protection, packing 91,000 hectare and produces 1031 thousand
and grading, etc,. metric tons of loose flowers and 66,671 lakh
cutflowers annually (2010-11).
Lack of infrastructure facilities like green
house/glass house and poly house as well as Tamil Nadu is a leader in flower production; it
cold chain. occupies 31,970 ha followed by Karnataka (25,
100 ha), West Bengal (21,940) ha and Andhra
There is no direct cargo flight from Bengaluru
Pradesh (21,400 ha).
and Pune which are main production centers,
leads to double shipment which increases the
cost besides more scope for spoilage. FLOWER FEELINGS:
The freight rates in India are high which makes Flower meanings and symbolization are the key
produce uncompetitive in the International elements for flower choice since time
markets. immemorial as they expresses the most sensitive,
There are no organized marketing co-operatives delicate and ever loving feelings eloquently what
of other bodies which can take care of our words fail to express.
floriculture trade in India. Besides the above, flower also adds meaning to
Lack of research and development in the actual life and reinforces faith in nature by
floriculture. Especially on new varieties, post- filling the whole atmosphere with its delicate
harvest techniques, advanced cultivation fragrance.
method, etc.
So it may help the flower lovers to make the right
No detailed economic feasibility studies with decision in offering the right flowers to their
reference to establishment, maintenance and cost belongings.
of production in glass house conditions /
protected cultivation. Traditional colour choice:
Pot plants are produced in soil based container These traditional colour choices mainly apply to
medium which is not allowed in most middle- roses but may also be applied to other flower types.
East and European markets. Red roses mean romantic love.
Lack of streamlined quality control mechanism Purple roses signify that the giver has fallen
and poor co-ordination between government in love with the recipient at first sight.
and private agencies involved in import and Orange roses signal desire.
export of floriculture products. Yellow roses are joy and friendship.
Exemption from import duty by importing Pink roses express our gratitude and
countries is needed as some countries like appreciation.
Columbia Mauritius etc. are exempted from such Light pink roses show feelings of
tariffs. admiration and sympathy.
Phytosanitory certificates are given only in Peach is more indefinite, as it can signify
selected cities like Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and either sympathy or gratitude.
Chennai. White roses show meaning of reverence and
Lack of appropriate planting materials and humility.
production technologies for export. @@@@

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Flowers Flower meanings/ Symbolization /Feelings


1. Aster : Symbol of Love, Daintiness
2. Azalea : Take Care of Yourself for Me, Temperance, Fragile
Passion, Chinese Symbol of Womanhood
3. Carnation (General) : Fascination, Woman Love
4. Carnation (Pink) I'll Never Forget You
5. Carnation (Red) My Heart Aches For You, Admiration
6. Carnation (Purple) Capriciousness, Whimsical
7. Carnation (Striped) No, Refusal, Sorry I Can't Be With You, Wish I Could Be With You
8. Carnation (White) Sweet and Lovely, Innocence, Pure Love, Woman's Good Luck Gift ,You Have
9. Carnation (Yellow) Disappointed Me, Rejection
10. Chrysanthemum : You're a Wonderful Friend, Cheerfulness and Rest.
11. Chrysanthemum (White) Truth
12. Chrysanthemum (Yellow) Slighted Love
13. Daffodil : Respect, Regard, Unrequited Love, You're the Only One, The Sun is Always
Shining when I'm with You
14. Daisy : Innocence, Loyal Love, I'll Never Tell, Purity
15. Fern : Magic, Fascination, Confidence and Shelter
16. Gladiolus : Give Me a Break, I'm Really Sincere, Flower of the Gladiators
17. Hydrangea : Thank You for Understanding, Frigidity, Heartlessness
18. Ivy : Wedded Love, Fidelity, Friendship, Affection
19. Lily (White) : Virginity, Purity, Majesty, It's Heavenly to be with You
20. Lily (Yellow) I'm Walking on Air, False and Gay
21. Lily (Calla) Beauty
22. Lily (Day) Coquetry, Chinese Emblem for Mother
23. Lily (Eucharis) Maiden Charms
24. Lily (Tiger) Wealth, Pride
25. Marigold : Cruelty, Grief, Jealousy
26. Orchid : Love, Beauty, Refinement, Beautiful Lady, Chinese
Symbol for Many Children, Thoughtful, Maturity, Charm
27. Primrose : I Can't Live Without You
28. Rose (Dark Crimson) : Mourning
29. Rose (Hibiscus) Delicate Beauty
30. Rose (Leaf) You May Hope
31. Rose (Pink) Perfect Happiness, Please Believe Me
32. Rose (Red) Love, I Love You
33. Rose (Tea) I'll Remember Always
34. Rose (Thorn less) Love at First Sight
35. Rose (White) Innocence and Purity, I am Worthy of You, You're
36. Rose (White And Red) Heavenly, Secrecy and Silence
37. Rose (White-Dried) Unity, Flower Emblem of England
38. Rose (Yellow) Death is Preferable to Loss of Virtue
39. Rosebud Decrease of Love, Jealousy, Try to Care, Friendship
40. Rosebud (Red) Beauty and Youth, A Heart Innocent of Love
41. Rosebud (White) Pure and Lovely
42. Rosebud (Moss) Girlhood
43. Roses (Bouquet Confessions of Love Gratitude
44. Roses (Single Full Bloom) I Love You
45. Sweet pea : Good-bye, Departure, Thank You for a Lovely Time
46. Tulip (General) : Perfect Lover, Frame, Flower Emblem of Holland
47. Tulip (Red) Believe Me, Declaration of Love
48. Tulip (Variegated) Beautiful Eyes
49. Tulip (Yellow) There's Sunshine in Your Smile
50. Wisteria : Welcome
51. Zinnia (Magenta) : Lasting Affection

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LECTURE-3a All these floricultural products can be sold


in the International market at Singapore.
HI-TECH FLORICULTURE The varied agro climatic conditions
prevailing in the country with ample
The liberalized seed policy in late 80s sunshine can maintain regular supply of
globalization of Indian economy and any floricultural commodity throughout
economic reforms initiated in early 90s the year.
paved the way for the advent of state of
the art of protected cultivation technology Indias geographical location particularly
in India. its proximity to the developing Far East,
offers tremendous competitive advantage.
Indian horticulture which was hither to an
individual driven become corporate Keeping in view of pollution problems
driven, which could sense the potential and other aesthetic values of the flowers,
and scope the modern protected we must try to sustain our floriculture
industry.
cultivation technology can offer for
furthering the floriculture industry. Due to rapid urbanization and
multistoried flats system the local demand
As on today, Karnataka alone has more
of flowers would definitely be increased.
than 100 floriculture units surpassing all
other states (185 hi-tech units). WORLD FLORICULTURE TRADE:
EXPORT MARKET FOR INDIAN PRODUCTS: The Global trade in floriculture products
Traditional flowers like jasmine and is recorded in terms of live plants and
tuberose are being exported as fresh bulbs, cut flowers and cut foliage.
flowers to Malaysia, Singapore, Sree World imports cut flowers and foliage
Lanka and Gulf countries from India. together accounts for a share of 51 to 55 %
The international market price for Jasmine whereas, live plants and bulbs accounts
concrete and absolute oil is around for 45 to 49 %. Floriculture industry has
30,000/- and 60,000/- per kg, been the monopoly of a few countries
respectively. The exported flowers fetch (mainly Netherlands),
30 crores to 40 crores foreign Netherlands is the largest trader of
exchange annually. floricultural products, with a lions share
Extracting essential oils from flowers is of 70% followed by Columbia 12% and
another major industry in India. Israel with 6% share of the global
floriculture trade.
Damask rose is widely cultivated
CUT FLOWERS EXPORT POTENTIAL:
particularly in Azmir, Udaipur areas in
Rajasthan, Palampur and Kullu districts in The cut flowers generally grown under
Himachal Pradesh, Aligarh, Kannauj and greenhouse/polyhouses are being
Lucknow in Uttar Pradesh. exported to The Netherlands, Japan and
The rose petals are also used to prepare Germany.
rose water and gulkand. These products The international buyers are re-exporting
are being exported to UK, France, the goods which they import from various
Germany and Middle East countries. developing countries.
Tuberose flowers are used for extraction Spain, Kenya and Israel have also started
of oils and it is considered as the high exporting the flowers, accounting 2, 2 and
value concrete in the world market. 6%, respectively.
Tissue cultured plants of jasmine; scented The other countries including developing
rose etc. can also be propagated and ones have only 20% of the total export,
supplied to Taiwan, Korea and Japan.

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Indias share in the total world export Germany is the single largest market
being less than 1%. accounting for nearly 25 % of the world
The new markets for Indian flowers may imports.
be Japan, Northern America, South East
Asia and the Gulf countries. PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION OF FLOWERS
AND PLANTS:
Indias geographical location particularly
its proximity to a developing Far East The consumption of floriculture products is
offers a tremendous competitive linked to the GDP of the countries. Developed
advantage. countries with high per capita income
obviously are the major consuming markets.
Now the floriculture has become one of
the extreme focus segments for With rising income, consumption of
development of export by the Government floricultural products is on the increase both in
of India. developed and developing countries.
Developing countries have only 6% share It is estimated that, the Global demand for
in the world market. This help in floricultural products is growing @ 8-10 %.
increasing the export from India which is
In India the demand for cut flowers and pot
otherwise negligible.
plants is growing @ 20-25 %.
TOP TEN CUT FLOWERS AND POT PLANTS IN
THE WORLD TRADE ROLE OF INDIAN GOVERNMENT AND
Sl. Cut flowers Sl. Pot plants OTHER AGENCIES FOR EXPORT:
No. No.
1. Rose 1. Ficus In recent times, the Indian government
has done a lot for promotion of exports of
2. Chrysanthemum 2. Dracaena
floriculture products.
3. Tulip 3. Kalanchoe
4. Lily 4. Chrysanthemum The Government has identified
5. Carnation 5. Begonia floriculture industry as thrust focus area
for export.
6. Gerbera 6. Hedera
7. Freesia 7. Azalea The import duty on seeds, bulbs, cuttings
8. Cymbidium 8. Saintpaulia etc. has reduced to zero and that to on
goods for green house items, seed
9. Alstroemeria 9. Hydrangea
development machinery has been brought
10. Limonium 10. Spathiphyllum
down to 25%.
INDIAN SCENARIO Income tax and other tax concessions have
In India, floriculture industry comprises, been granted to new floriculture exporting
companies.
Flower trade, Production of nursery plants and
potted plants, The eighth five year plan also contains a
Seed and bulb production, Micro propagation provision of Rs. 320 million to boost
and horticulture and floriculture.
Extraction of essential oils and natural Reduction in the tariff from 55 to 10 % on
pigments. import of live plants and other plant
bulbs, root, cut flowers and other
MAJOR IMPORT MARKETS FOR FLORICULTURE ornamental foliage.
PRODUCT:
The import of flower seeds and tissue
Europe is the largest market for floricultural culture material of any plant origin is now
products. Among the major importing allowed without an import permit.
countries Germany, USA, France, U.K and
The Agricultural and Processed Food
Netherlands together accounts for nearly 64
Product Export Development Authority
% of the world imports.
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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

(APEDA) and National Horticulture


Board (NHB) have also helped for export
3. APEDA SCHEMES TO ASSIST EXPORT
promotion.
ORIENTED FLORICULTURE

INSTITUTIONAL ASSISTANCE TO 1. For development of Infrastructure and


FLORICULTURE HI-TECH PROJECTS: services @ 25% of cost of the project
and Rs. 1.5 lakhs for purchase of refer
1. NABARD Soft Loan Assistance: van.
a. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural 2. For development of post-harvest
Development (NABARD) has evolved infrastructure @ 50% of cost/ Rs. 5.0
a scheme for extending soft loan lakhs for pre cooling and cold storage
assistance to prospective units.
entrepreneurs.
3. Scheme for packing development
b. The entrepreneurs could be individual, 30% of cost; maximum Rs. 1.0 lakh.
proprietary / partnership firm, group
4. Scheme for export promotion and
of individuals, co-operative societies
market development; maximum Rs.
etc.
0.5 lakh.
2. NATIONAL HORTICULTURE BOARD
(NHB): 5. Scheme for survey, feasibility,
consultancy and data base, - 40% of
1. NHB has evolved a scheme for cost and maximum Rs. 20.0 lakhs.
development of post harvest
infrastructure during the eighth five 6. Scheme for air freight subsidy 25 %.
year plan period. 7. It has already setup cold storage and
2. Registered farmers organization, Co- cargo handling facilities which are
operative societies and corporate operational at Indiga Gandhi
sector are eligible for financial International Airport, New Delhi,
assistances. Bengaluru, Chennai and
Thiruvananthapuram.
3. Promoters have to contribute 20% of the
project cost. 40% will be provided by 4. Nationalized banks viz., State Bank of India,
NHB as soft loan @ 5% p.a. Remaining Canara Bank etc.,
cost of the project will be financed by
commercial banks.

@@@@

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

b) Purple, Lavender or Blue: Daisy, Rose,


LECTURE-3b
Carnation, Dahlia, Ageratum, China aster,
CLASSIFICATION OF FLORICULTURAL Clitoria, Delphinium, Petunia, Viola, Verbena,
PRODUCTS FOR TRADE: Tithonia, Torenia, Daisy, etc.

Floricultural products are classified as per the c) Yellow or orange: Antirrhinum, Marigold
International trade of Classification (ITC) are as Calendula, Zinnia, Gaillardia, Rose, Gladiolus,
follows. Carnation, etc.

1. Bulbs, Tubers and Tuberous roots d) Red pink: Antirrhinum, Rose, Gladiolus,
Carnation, Gerbera, Dahlia, etc.
2. Live plants: Includes trees, shrubs, bushes,
rooted cuttings and slips. 3) Based on purpose of Growing
3. Cut flowers and flower buds: fresh or a) Rockery: Ageratum, Alyssum, Brachycome,
dried, dyed, bleached etc., Phlox, Portulaca, Linum, Nemesia, Saponaria,
4. Cut foliage, branches and other parts Godetia, Euphorbia, etc.
(other than flowers or buds) of trees, b) Hanging basket: Dwarf Ageratum, Petunia,
shrubs,bushes and other plants i.e. twigs, Portulaca, Verbena, Torenia, Begonia.
grasses, shoots etc.
c) Edging of beds or path: Dwarf Ageratum,
5. Masses, lichens & grasses, fresh or dried, Alyssum, Brachycome, Dianthus, Nigella,
bleached: Portulaca, Pansy etc.
6. Dry flowers d) Fragrant flowers: Sweet Alyssum, Sweet
Sultan, Sweet pea, Stock, Phlox, Carnation,
7. Pigments (Natural colours)
Rose, Jasmine, Tuberose, etc.
8. Essential oils e) Bedding purpose: Dahlia, Marigold, Phlox,
9. Prepared/processed food products like Verbena, Carnation, Petunia, Ice Plant, Candy
gulkand, gulroghan, pankhuri etc Tuft, Balsam, Portulaca, etc.

10. Seed production of different seasonals f) Aromatic: Rose, Jasmine, Tuberose etc.,
g) For pots: Carnation, Chrysanthemum, Dahlia,
CLASSIFICATION OF FLOWERS:
Rose, Antirrhinum, Petunia, Agloenema,
1) Based on Season of growing Alocasia, Anthurium, Orchids, Aralia,
Begonia, Chlorophytum, Dracaena, etc.
a) Summer season annuals :
h) For loose flowers: Marigold, Jasmine,
Zinnia, Kochia, Portulaca, Tithonia, Gaillardia, Crossandra, Barlaria, Chrysanthemums, China
Gomphrena, Sunflower, Daisy, etc. Asters, Sunflowers, Zinnia, Gaillardia, Rose,
Dahlia, etc.
b) Rainy season annuals :
i) For Dry flowers: Statice, Helichrysum,
Balsam, Cocks comb, Celosia, Gaillardia, etc. Acroclinum, Gomphrena, Limonium,
c) Winter season annuals : Marigold, Rose, Ladys Lace, Nigella, etc.

Antirrhinum, China aster, Cornflowers, j) For Hedge purpose: Lawsonia, Duranta,


Larkspur, Sweet Sultan, Tecoma, Bougainvillea, Thevetia, Hibiscus,
Murraya, Dodonea, Acalypha, Aralia,
Phlox, Verbena, Ipatorium, Clerodendron spp, etc.
Candy tuft, Petunia, etc
k) Cut flowers/modern flowers: Rose,
Chrysanthemum, Carnation, Gerbera,
2) Based on flower colours:
Anthurium, Orchids, Gladiolus, Tuberose, etc.
a) White flowering: Antirrhinum. Alyssum,
4) Based on Nature of Growth:
Dianthus, China aster, Zinnia,
Chrysanthemum, Gladiolus, Gerbera, etc. a) Annuals: Nasturtium, Ice plant, Holly hock,
Sweet pea, Annual Chrysanthemum,
Carnation, Cornflower, Sweet Alyssum,
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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

Dahlia, Marigold, Verbena, Phlox, Pinks, 2. Dry flower industry:


Calendula, etc.
Some of the flowers are used for drying
b) Perennials: Rose, Jasmine, Crossandra, purpose and are traded as dry flowers in the flower
Anthurium, Orchids, Chrysanthemum, trade.
Berlaria, Hibiscus, Gerbera, Carnation,
Example: Helichrysum, Acroclinum, Gomphrena,
Bulbous Crops.
Marigold, Rose, Limonium/ Statice, Gerbera, Zinnia,
5) Based on Mode of propagation: China Aster, some foliage plants also.
1) Bulbous plants: Lily, Narcissus, Tulip, 3. Pigment extraction:
Tuberose
Some of the flowers are grown for extraction
2) Cormellous plants: Gladiolus, Crocus of their natural colours and used in various
3) Rhizomatous plants: Canna, Iris preparations viz, foods, poultry feeds, textile,
4) Tuberiferous plants: Dahlia pharmaceuticals, etc.

6) Based on their end use/purpose Example: Marigold, Calendula, Hibiscus, Carnation,


Bixas, Saffron, Safflower, etc.
1. Traditional flowers: They are offered in
religious and social ceremonies, used as an COMMERCIAL FLOWER INDUSTRIES IN INDIA
adornment by women, and offered for HAVING COLLABORATION WITH DUTCH
worships at home as well as in temples. 1. Bumbna major Biotech Ltd, Jambhul village
Eg. Jasmine, Rose, Mums, Marigold, pune. Collaboration with Moerheim Roses
Crossandra, Tuberose, Barlaria, Gaillardia, etc. and Trading BV., Holland with 6 million
flowers. Rs. 7.5 crores; 100% EOU
2. Non-traditional flowers: They are referred to
as cut flowers or modern flowers. Generally 2. Deccan Flora Base Ltd. with a transaction of
flowers are harvested along with a long stem/ Rs. 7.0 crores, 100% EOU of roses, 9 million cut
stalk. roses (11.25ha). Talegaun (Pune); collaboration
with Flodae B.V., Netherlands.
Eg. Hi-tech roses (Dutch roses), Gerbera,
Carnation, Chrysanthemum, Gladiolus, 3. Essar Agrotech Ltd.: Lonarala (Pune). 6
Million roses, (7 ha); Rs. 5.5 crores,
Orchids, Anthuriums, Goldenrod, Bird of collaborated with Moerhein roses a trading
Paradise, Limonium, Liatris, Stock, etc B.V., Holland.
3. Industrial Flowers/Value Added flowers: 4. Harrisons Universal Flowers Ltd.
They are used as raw material in industries for Collaborated with Universal Plants SA of
extraction of essential oil and also preparation France (Meilland groups in France)
of some edible products like gulkand, Bangalore; 6.0 crores; 2 ha.
gulroghan, pigments as natural colours and
also dry flowers. 5. Indryani Biotech: Rs. 7.14 crores, 6 million cut
flowers; near Pune, collaborated with Florax
Eg. Tuberose, Jasmine, Rose, Marigold etc,. Max of Malaysia.
INDUSTRIAL IMPORTANCE OF COMMERCIAL 6. Indo Bloom Pvt. Ltd, Bangalore.
FLOWERS IN INDIA & ABROAD: 7. Karishma Floriculture Ltd. Collaborated with
Dalsem BV of Holland at Sohana in Haryana.
Flowers are traded round the year all-over the
country and bulk of them are used in making 8. Laxmi Flori-tech Ltd: Bangalore
garlands, bouquets, venis, gajras and other (Nelamangala) with Flodae BV. Holland.
adornments. 9. Oriental Flori- tech Ltd. (by TATA Industries)
1. Perfumery Industry: in 1990 collaborated with Van Dijk Flora BV of
Holland (Pune); 4 million roses in 3.2 ha.
The extracts from fragrant flowers such as
rose, lavender, champak, Jasmine, tuberose, marigold, 10. Meghana Flori-tech Ltd, Bangalore.
etc 11. Vasavi Florex Ltd. Bengaluru

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LECTURE- 4 It is the largest traded flowers in the


world, worth 1.5 billion dollars
ROSE
globally.
The Holland alone 500 million dollars
and is growing 7-8% annually.
INTRODUCTION:
Rose is Eros (The Greek Love - God). IMPORTANT ROSE IMPORTERS AND
EXPORTERS:
It is one of the Natures Beautiful Germany is the highest importer
Creations. followed by USA, The Netherlands,
Hence, it is universally acclaimed as the France, Switzerland and U.K.
Queen of flowers called by a Whereas, the main exporter is the
Sappho a poetess about more than Netherlands followed by Columbia,
2500 years ago. Ecuador, Kenya, Israel and
Zimbabwe.
No other flower is a better symbol of
love, adoration, innocence, peace, IMPORTANCE AND USES:
friendship, affection, passion and
other virtues than the rose since The rose because of its multi-utility
thousands of years. occupies a prominent place amongst
the flower crops and is one of the
It is certainly the best known and most ancient fragrant flowers cultivated by
popular of all the cut flowers man.
throughout the world and has been
growing on this earth for many Its different types having beautiful
million years before the man himself flowers of exquisite shape, different
appeared on earth. shades, bewitching colours and most
delightful fragrance has made it an
Rose is considered as National flower of important flower for the varied uses.
England.
USES:
In India, it was referred in old Sanskrit 1) Garden display:
literature as Tarnipushpa, Atimanjula,
Simantika, etc. Shrub or bush is prepared by budding
The rose adorned not only the royal the desired cultivars on a root stock at
palaces but also the ashrams of saints. a height of 5-10 cm above the ground
level.
It has become the part and parcel of life They are planted in small groups to
being connected with all phases of our create excellent mass effect in a rose
life right from birth to death. garden.
The growing of roses in India developed They are also the most important
with the distillation of roses as garden plant in almost all every part
mentioned in Ayurveda by Charaka of the world due to its perennial
around 100 AD. growth habit.
They can be used as bush, standards,
The interest in cultivation however climbers, hedges and edges, hangers
increased considerably mainly during and in rock gardens.
the last four five decades and at
present it has become most important 2) Standard roses (Hybrid Tea roses): Also
commercial flower. called as tree roses. HT roses and floribundas
As a result of the great demand for having vigorous growth and spreading habit
modern roses (HT roses) / standard hence are budded on straight vertical stem of a
roses, many nurseries have been suitable root stock at different height from the
established in an around the big cities. ground level to make standards.

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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

Classification of Standard Roses: such as Fairy Queen and


According to height of budding the standard Magic may be selected..
roses are classified into;
6) Pot plants: Roses as pot plants in suitable
a. Full standards: The height of the budding has
containers are also commercially grown.
to be done at 100-115 cm above the ground
Miniature and dwarf Polyanthas should be
level. H T roses and few Grandifloras are
selected for the purpose. The cultivars like
suitable.
Baby darling, Cindrella, Starina, Sweet
b. Half standards: In this case the budding may Dream etc.,
be done at 45-60 cm height. Floribundas and
Polyantha roses are excellent for growing as 7) Hangers: Button roses can also be used for
half standards. growing in hanging pots / baskets.
c. Weeping standards: 150 cm or even higher the Climbing miniatures like Red Cascade and
budding may be done on drooping branches. Yellow Doll may be used.
The growing crown is look like hanging
crown. 8) Loose flowers: Used for garland making,
Example, Climbers / Rambler roses extraction of essential oils, for button holes
i.e. Coat button holes and Cora sages (a
3) CLIMBERS: The climbing and rambling roses single rose with foliage) referred as mini
can be used to cover the walls of the houses or bouquet.
fencing or pergolas, arbours and arches.
9) CUT- FLOWERS: Besides garlands,
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RAMBLER AND bouquets, buttonholes and preserves and
CLIMBER ROSES: their use for worship it makes one of the
best cut flowers. In floriculture, roses are
Rambler roses Climber roses
of foremost commercial importance and
1. Produces flowers once in a year. 1. cut-roses have
Flowers perpetually (round the highest demand
the year).
2. Produces flowers in clusters. 2. Produces singly or in groups of 2sand
throughout the world year round.
or 3s.
European countries, USA, Canada, Japan,
3. Flowers lasting for several weeks. 3. Flowering spreads
Korea, over the
Kenya, season. etc. are the
Colombia,
4. Rambler is very vigorous. 4. Medium largest
in vigor. producers of cut-roses under
5. Produces heavy crops of small flowers in 5. protected
Produces bigger flowerstructures.
than ramblers round
clusters for several weeks. the year.
10) PERFUME AND ALLIED PRODUCTS:

4) Hedges or Edges: Any rose cultivars can


be used for these purposes for protection, Rose water: Important commercial
beautification and demarcation of product obtained from rose petals, used
different features in the landscaping. as perfume, medicine and confectionary.
3.1. Hedge: Any thorny cultivars are Its important uses are, cools the body,
suitable for the purpose preferably used in eye lotions, eye drops for its
floribundas are ideal as they are vigorous soothing qualities. Drinking water. It is
types. Ex. Border Coral, Circus, Frensham sprinkled on guests at weddings, feasts &
and Rumba other social functions.
3.2. Edge: Button /miniature roses are Rose oil (Rose perfume): It is also
commonly used to form edges for obtained from rose petals, sweet
demarcation of one feature to another. Ex. fragrance; medicinal properties; used in
Carolin, Lady Reading, Magic, White Ayurveda. Bulgarian rose otto is largely
Button etc., used in perfuming soaps & cosmetics.
Used in flavoring soft drinks and
5) Rockeries: Some hardy miniature roses alcoholic liqueurs. It has antibacterial
may be grown to beautify the rock properties against Shilagella dysenteriae
garden. Hardy miniatures and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
and pompon cultivars
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ORIGIN & HISTORY:


Species suitable are:
Rosa demascena, R. borboniana, R. centifolia, R. o It is said that rose came first and man
alba & R. gallica. In India R. demascena and R. afterwards. It is estimated to be more
borboniana are cultivated for rose oil. than 30 million years old.
o According to Klougart and Fairbrother
b) Gulkand: Rose petals are also preserved
(1966), the history of man and of the
for direct consumption prepared by
rose is linked together for about 5000
beating equal proportion of petals and
years.
sugar considered as tonic and laxative.
o The rose was called Queen of flowers
R. damascene, R. chinensis, R. gallica, R.
by Sappho a poetess more than 2500
pomifera & some other scented roses like
years ago.
Edouard roses are commonly used.
o No other flower has such a remarkable
c) Pankhuri: Dried rose petals are known as written record.
pankhuri, they are occasionally used for o There is evidence that, roses reached
preparing sweetened cold drinks. Rome before Christ.
o Preparation of rose water and attar was
d) Gulroghan: The rose hair oil is prepared
also in practice even before the 17th
from rose petals by effleurage (fragrance)
century.
with wet sesamum seeds.
The rose is the perfume of the Gods, the joy of
men, it adores and graces at the blossoming of love. Rose
11) As a source of vitamins:
is the favored flower of Venus.
Rose hips are very good source of
ascorbic acid (Vit. C). Every 100 g MYTH AND LEGEND STORIES ON THE EARLY
of rose hip contains 150 mg of HISTORY AND EVOLUTION:
ascorbic acid compared with only
It is said that when Cybele became angry with
50 mg in fresh orange juice, 20 mg
Venus, she took her revenge by bringing to
in tomato and 5 mg in apples.
life something more beautiful than the
Species: R. rugosa, R. amblyotis, R.
Goddess of beauty herself and thus created
Acicularis, R. davurica, R.
the roses.
pendulina, R. glauca and R.
canina. According to Myth story the rose blooming in
The hips of R. roxburghii, R. acicularis, the Garden of Eden was white in colour and
R. rugosa, R. davurica also found to became red when Eve (Acc to Bible she is the
contain Vitamins A1, B2, K & E. first women name mentioned in Bible) saw it
and kissed it.
12) Other uses:
Another story relates that, roses which were
In Europe, roses are also used for
originally white which became red from the
preparation of pot-pourri,
blood of Venus dropped from her foot
conserves, rose vinegar and rose
wounded by a thorn while hurrying through.
petal wine.
Jams, jellies and syrups have been According to a Legendry story, once Lord
made for centuries in Bulgaria and Vishnu taking bath and Lord Brahma came
exported. Rose jam aids in out of one lotus and claimed that, lotus is the
digestion and it also has certain beautiful flower in the Universe.
curative properties. Then Vishnu took Brahma to his Paradise
In Czechoslovakia, fruits of wild Vaikunta and showed him a rose flower
roses are used for preparing hot which was very beautiful with Pale Moon
drinks like tea and a popular Beam colour and heavenly fragrance. After
wine. seeing this Brahma also agreed rose is the
In America, R. multiflora bushes most beautiful than lotus.
are being utilized as shock
absorber or crash barrier.

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roses; most popular rose. Bears


Muslims believed that, the roses were born
large & highly centered flowers.
from the sweat of the Prophet Mohammed
Eg: La France (1867) First
and hence, they show great respect to rose.
cultivar of hybrid tea group.
The Roman king Nero loved rose so much
2) Floribunda (Hybrid polyanthas): Developed in
that, he had them every where in his palace.
1924 from the cross between a
Flower petals were used by the women in
Hybrid Tea x Polyantha. They
their baths and for the decoration of special
combined the beautiful forms of
beds, feasts and graves.
the Hybrid Teas with the perpetual
Rose is also mentioned in the Bible and is
flowering habit of the Polyanthas.
believed to be known before the Bible era and
Flowering in clusters with small
was under cultivation before the birth of
size and open centre. Good for
Christ.
garden display. Eg: Wekplapep
(2000), Jumpin Jack (1998)
DISTRIBUTION:
3) Hybrid perpetuals
There are about 150 recognized and described
They are the immediate
species were identified; all are indigenous to
forerunners of Hybrid Teas. These
the temperate regions of the northern
are considered to be the offsprings
hemisphere have been reported to be
of R. chinensis, R. gallica and R.
growing.
centifolia.
In India, several species are found growing
wild mostly in the Himalayan ranges. 4) Teas: Also called Tea scented China roses they
derived their names from their
There are eleven species were reported to be
distinct aroma, believed to be feet
growing wild in India. They are, Rosa brunonii
when a chest of tea leaves are
(Himalayan Musk rose), R. eglanteria (Syn R..
opened.
foetida, Austrian rose), R. involucrate (Syn. R.
sempervirens),R. leschenaultiana (Syn. R. They known to have originated
sempervirens),R. longicuspis, R. macrophylla,R. from R. chinensis and R. gigantean
moschata (Musk rose),R. rubiginosa (Sweet (Manipur Tea rose)
briar/ Eglantine rose), R. walpoleana,R. sericea
5) Grandifloras: Mainly obtained from crosses
(Ladakh rose) and R. multiflora
between Hybrid Tea and
Floribunda type. Produces large
EVOLUTION:
number of flowers in cluster with
fine form. Eg: Montezuma (1955),
In the beginning some of the rose
Queen Elizabeth (1954), Jazor
species were hybridized in nature and
(2000).
the present day improved forms have
been evolved over centuries. 6) Polyanthas: Dwarf with small flowered polyanthas
Till the 19th century only four species of is the forerunner of Floribundas.
roses played a role in the development Blooms for several months.
of varieties cultivated at that time. 7) China roses: (R. chinensis): It is responsible for
These are nearly all the present day popular
1) Rosa gallica (Red rose) (French roses. Bears red to nearly white
rose) flowers in small clusters. Also
2) R. canina (Dog rose).
called Bengal rose or Monthly
3) R. moschata (Musk rose)
rosesPerpetually flowering types.
4) R. phoenicia (Phoenician rose) Green roses also included in this
group R. chinensis viridiflora. Eg:
CLASSES OF PRESENT DAY GARDEN ROSES:
Comtessedu cayla (1902)
8) Miniature / Button Roses: Popularly known as
1) Hybrid Tea: Originally developed from crossing
Baby roses with small leaves &
between hybrid perpetuals and Tea
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flowers. They are hardy and good between R. corymbifera and R.


for pot culture. Multiplied by gallica. Eg: Celestial, Queen of
cuttings as well as budding on root Denmark.
stocks. Eg: Baby gold star (1940),
16) Musk roses: R. moschata is the musk rose, derived
Baby Masquerade (1956), Cindrella
its name from the musky fragrance
(1952), peon (1936), etc.
of the flowers. They make good
9) Climbers and Ramblers: They bears large clusters shrub roses as well as pillar roses.
of small, single or
Eg: Eva, Felicia, Moon light, etc.
double flowers, mainly
belong to two groups.
Used for training on 17) Noisette roses: Originated from R. chinensis and R.
arches, pergolas, etc. moschata (hybrid of China rose and
a) Multiflora ramblers from R. multiflora, musk roses). Climbing in nature.
Eg: Lamarque, Marechal Niel.
Eg: Blush Rambler (1903), Crimson 18) Rugosas: (R. rugosa):Very hardy type, which do
Rambler (1890) well on the seashore.Very
vigorous and resistant to
b) Wichuriana ramblers from R. wichuriana
cold.Good for hedge, because of its
Eg: American Pilla (1902) highly thorny nature, bears large,
red or white flowers. Eg: Blanc
10) Damask roses: These are belongs to the species R.
Double de Coubert.
damascene. Originated from cross
between R. phvenicia and R. gallica.
19) Austrian briars: (R. foetida/ R. lutea): Considered
Bears clusters of very fragrant pale
to be the main source of yellows in
pink to red, double petalled
the modern rose. Eg: Austrian
flowers. Eg: Madame Hardy (1832),
copper (R. foetida bicolor), Persian
Celsiana Hebes Lip (1921)
yellow is introduced by Babar (R.
11) Bourbon roses: (Rosa borboniana): They have foetide persiana)
originated from a natural cross
between China rose and the LECTURE-5
Damask rose.
CULTIVATION:
12) Cabbage roses: These belong to the species R.
In Temperate countries, the most important
centifolia and they are also called as
period of flowering is summer.
Provence rose. Petal arrangement
is like cabbage, hence the name. In Tropical climate winter and spring, whereas,
They bear large, solitary, very
In Subtropical climate round the year
fragrant pink flowers. Eg: Demeaux
and chapeau de Napoleon (1827)
SOIL:
13) Moss Roses: They belong to cabbage rose class and
Although any soil is good for rose cultivation.
arose as budsports of the R.
However, for proper drainage, the medium
centifolias. Eg: Old pink Moss
loamy soil with sufficient organic matter is
(1845)
essential.
14) French roses: Also known as Gallica roses having
It grows well in a soil with a pH of 6.0 to 7.5. It
developed from R. Gallica. These
can sustain little acidity (5.5 to 6.5), good
are perhaps the oldest types of
aeration;
cultivated roses known. Eg: Belle
de Crecy, Cardinal de Richelieu. The land with high water table is not suitable.
15) Albas: Along with the Gallicas and the Damasks,
the Albas constitute the truly old
garden roses, originated from cross
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increase the growth of the plant as well as


CLIMATE:
quality flower production.
The most important factors are light
o It also helps in increasing the stem length and
(photoperiod, intensity and quality),
reduces the incidence of flower abortion.
temperature (aerial and root zone), humidity,
CO2, ventilation, etc.
CULTIVARS:
LIGHT INTENSITY: The beauty of roses seems to have no
o 6000-8000 ft candles or 6-8 K is good for roses limit, no end and that is the reason
and it was observed that, during winter season that, the search for a more beautiful
flower colour is better than any other season. rose will always continues.
Every year many new cultivars are
o During summer flower colour fades. added and marketed all over the
o In general rose requires bright sunshine for the world.
whole day. It should be free from shades of The success of rose culture greatly
trees and protected from the strong winds. depends upon the proper choice of
class and cultivars.
TEMPERATURE: At present there are more than 20,000
o It is another imported factor regulating growth cultivars of roses, differing widely in
and flowering of roses. form, shape, size, colour, fragrance
and flowering habit.
o It affects both quality and quantity of flowers.
o Mild temperature is very important about SELECTION OF ROSE CULTIVARS: Depends on the
15.5oC is ideal for its cultivation because of this purposes of growing, viz
reason in winter we get good crop. i. Garden display
ii. Cut flower, for decoration,
o On sunny days 25-30oC. Whereas on cloudy
sale and export for making
day it must be 18-20oC.
garlands and worshipping.
o However a maximum of 28oC in day and 15- iii. Exhibition purposes.
18oC in the night will be ideal for rose
production. 1. Garden display:
The first step in the selection of rose
HUMIDITY:
cultivation for this purpose will be the
o RH is very important with respect to pests and kind of roses, which will suit the
disease incidence especially mildews and location and fulfill the object.
black spot as they are closely associated with Form, size, shape, floriferous-ness, color
high RH in greenhouses as the high humidity and fragrance have to be taken into
results in condensation of water on flowers consideration.
and leaves. Cultivars should be resistant to insect
pests and diseases.
o About 60% RH is the most ideal for rose
production.
2. Cut flowers:
AERATION/VENTILATION:
The HT cultivars producing beautiful
o An exchange of air in greenhouse is desirable shaped blooms of long lasting quality,
for normal growth and development of roses.
Born singly on long straight stalks.
o Air circulation ensures an adequate supply of
The cultivars which open slowly and the
CO2 and O2 for physiological process
blooms last for a longer period when
occurring in the plants and also reduces the
placed in water are suitable for export
RH.
purpose. Eg. Cultivars like Passion,
CARBON DIOXIDE: First Red, Sonia Milland, Mercedes,
o In western countries an additional 1000-3000 Red Success, Miracle, Orange Gate,
ppm of CO2 are ejected into the greenhouse to
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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

Prophyta, Nobless, Somantha etc., are a. Stem cuttings:


in great demand.
Easiest and least expensive method. Each shoot
should be cut clean just below the node and lower
3. Exhibition: For this purpose certain specific
leaves are removed.
qualities are essential.
In Rose show under different classes are Cuttings may be single, double or triple-eyed
required. The most important sections are as bellow for rooting.
follows
b. Budding: is the most popular and successful
a. H.T. specimen bloom
method for multiplying roses.
b. Floribundas
c. Polyanthas Provides larger number of plants than
d. Miniature /button roses. cuttings, layering or grafting, as a
e. Fragrant roses single shoot of the desired scion
f. Climbers furnishes a number of buds for
budding.
a. H. T. Specimen bloom:
Rooted cuttings of stock or seedlings
These are major attractions in a rose
with roots are used as in grafting.
show.
T-budding, inverted T and slit method
Specimen blooms are the top quality
(I).
blooms of large sized, high centered
having sufficient number of petals Shield or T-budding is commercially
which are arranged symmetrically in practiced.
an attractive outline, forming a high On the selected rootstocks, the buds are
circle 3-6 flowers are arranged in inserted into a T-shaped incision and
specimen section.
then tied with suitable wrapping
b. Floribundas: material or polyethylene sheets /tape,
adhesive tape, binding rubber strip.
In this section the main considerations is
the floriferousness and quality of the Time of budding:
spray. The time of budding varies from place to place.
The floribundas are judged on the basis The right stage of budding is when the plants
of inflorescence. have good sap flow and the cambium tissue is
The arrangement of flowers and number highly active.
of symmetrical and well balanced The best times for budding in different regions
spray. are as follows.
They are called Spray roses. In eastern India January-March due to
c. Polyanthas: They are mostly miniature like the ideal temperature in spring
but single petals. season.
Northern India December-February.
PROPAGATION OF ROSES:
Methods: Seed propagation and vegetative In places with mild climate, all the year round,
propagation: like in Bangalore, Pune, Dharwad etc. budding
can be done almost any time.
Vegetative propagation:
Bud woods can be stored at 0oC and utilized for
1. Cutting:
budding.
Propagation of roses by cuttings normally done to
Should be preferably done 5-7cm above the
raise root stocks for grafting or budding.
ground.
Also for multiplying vigorous types of cultivars.
It takes 3-4 weeks for bud union. The ideal
Climbers, ramblers, polyanthus and miniature temperature is 10-25oC.
roses respond quite well to this method.
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Production Technology of Ornamental Crops and Landscape Gardening; HRT.202; 1+1 II B.Sc. (Agri.), II Semester 2013 -14

PREPARATION OF ROSE BEDS


ROOT STOCKS:
Preparation of soil is the key of success with
Characteristics/ qualities of good root stock:
roses.
It should produce strong fibrous root system.
It should be rich, porous and well drained.
It can be easily propagated by cuttings.
It should have vigorous growth habit, healthy The initial preparation of rose beds should
and resistant to pests, disease and frost. preferably be started during summer season
so that the soil gets exposed to hot sun and air
Plant should have uniform growth rate.
and during the monsoon it gets a chance to
It should have thick bark to hold the bud. settle down before planting.
It should be reasonably free from suckers.
Grasses any perennial weeds should be
It should support the budded plant to survive removed along with their roots, knots,
for a long tissue. rhizomes, etc. by deep digging.
It should withstand a wide range of soils and
The soil should be pulverized; gravels, stones,
climatic conditions.
brick pieces and other foreign materials
COMMON ROOT STOCKS: removed and exposed to sun for at least a
1. Rosa bourboniana (Edourad rose) Popular in week.
northern plains of India.They have straight Land should be thoroughly prepared.
and
Long stem. Pits or trenches are to be made and basal
2. R. canina inermis (Dog rose) : popularly dusting with Malathian has to be done. The
used in Europe and India, very hardy and is pit / trench should be filled with soil and FYM
an mixture (2:1).
excellent rootstock. In Trench system, trenches of about 2.5 feet
3. R. indica var.odorata : Tolerent to width and between trenches 2-3 feet with any
powdery mildew & other insects. Resistance convenient length with 1 1.5 feet depth.
to extreme soil
conditions. PLANTING :
4. R multiflora var. Inermis good for outdoor roses.
Resistant to nematodes. There are two types of planting systems are commonly
LAYOUT OF BEDS: followed in rose production, viz,
The plan of rose garden and design of
the beds should be simple and formal 1. Pit system: 45 cm3(Length x Breadth x Depth)
or informal. 2. Trench system:
60 75 cm (2-2 ft) Wide
Rose beds may be of various designs, 30-45 cm (1- ft) Depth
depending upon the preference of the Any length depending upon availability.
grower. 60-90 cm (2-3 ft path) between the
However rectangular beds are trenches.
advantageous for maintenance. SPACING: It varies from types of roses, soil to soil
The width of the bed should be such and place to place and purpose of planting.
that operations like weeding, hoeing Protected cultivation Outdoor cultivation
forking, cutting of flowers, etc. can be 60x30 cm. 75x75 cm for Hybrids
done from both the sides of the bed 30x20 cm. 60x60cm for others
without stepping in the bed. 30x30 cm.
However, from the management point of view 60 x 60
The width should be 1.2-1.6 m and the cm is ideal for outdoor cultivation.
length depends on the size of the
garden, preferably not exceeding 6m PLANTING: This operation should receive very
each. careful attention and to do this job
well there are few operations / steps

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have to be attended for preparation IRRIGATION:


of planting materials.
Adequate soil moisture is very much essential
1. Remove all immature, dead, inward throughout the vegetative and flowering
growing or diseased shoots. stages of roses,
2. Remove all the suckers growing below Water logging condition is not good for rose
the point of bud union. cultivation.
3. Reduce the possibility of loss of The frequency of irrigation depends on
moisture by removing some leaves Stage of crop growth
including dried and yellow ones. Soil texture/ type of media
4. If the rose plants are procured with Climate and
shriveled bark, immerse the plants in Type of production-field or pot culture.
water for 24 hours to plump up. Normally the lighter soil requires more
5. Before planting the plants should be frequent irrigation than heavy soils.
immersed in 0.1 % Blitox solution (i.e. In general water the rose beds once in a week
1.0 g In 1 liter of water) to lessen the or 10 days in winter and twice a week during
risk of attack of fungi. the summer season.
6. Planting should be done in thoroughly Different system of irrigation is prevalent in
prepared beds or trenches or pits. various parts of the world.
7. At the time of planting the soil should Drip irrigation is deal for roses.
not be too wet or too dry.
High concentration of salt in water is harmful
8. The plant should be planted at a proper to the rose plant which results in chlorosis; tip
depth by keeping the bud union 2.5 burning and reduction in flower yield and
5.0 cm above the soil level. stem length.
9. The gap in the hole is to be filled with
the soil which was dugout and MANURES AND FERTILIZERS:
pressed properly to anchor the plant Rose is a nutrient loving plant and all 16
firmly. essential nutrients are known to play an
10. Then the soil around the stem should be important role for its proper growth and
rammed firmly by treading over with development.
feet. This will press out air pockets in In addition to major nutrients like N, P2O5, K2O,
the soil which will help the roots Ca, Mg & S and micronutrients like Fe, Mn,
coming in contact with the soil Cu, B, Mo, Zn, etc.
particle and intake of water and
The dosage of nutrients varies from soil types
nutrients through the rootlets.
and climate as well.
11. The beds after planting thoroughly have
Basic manuring with bulky organic matter has
to be irrigated immediately.
to be done before planting.
12. The best planting time depends mainly
After establishment as well as immediately
on the climatic conditions of the
after pruning both organic and inorganic
region. In countries with severe
manures have to be applied.
winter, planting may be done either in
autumn (or) in the spring when plants Supplementary manuring should be done after
are in dormant condition and easy to the first flush of blooming is over and there is
handle. a pause for the next flush.
13. The best season is rainy & winter for It was reported that monthly application is
better establishment (June October) better for healthy growth and flowering.
14. Immediately after planting stake the The recommended fertilizers dose for rose is 10:
plants. 10: 15 g of NPK / plant after each pruning.
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Along with this 100 g of rose mixture o The weeds not only consume water and
(complex) has to be given. Normally twice a nutrients but also act as hosts for a
year i.e. after each pruning. number of diseases and pests.
First dose 15 days after pruning o Manual method is effective, if it is done
(when the new growth has started) properly and frequently.
Second dose After the first flush is o However, chemical method is
over. economical, convenient and efficient
Third dose After second flush is in eradicating weeds by one or two
over, before the spring blooming. applications.
FYM 05-10 kg / bush
Eg: 2, 4-D @ 2 kg 1600 liter per hectare
The fertilizers should be applied 20 25
(before flowering) controls broad
cm away from the stem.
leaved weeds.
Liquid fertilizers
Are also been practices through fertilizers for Nitrofan @ 9 lb a.i. / acre
spray hardening the limp stem and getting
good blooms for exhibition purpose. PRUNING:
Dissolve Potassium nitrate @ 680 g, ammonium
sulphate @ 340 g and potassium phosphate @ Pruning refers to the removal of certain portion
170 g in 96 gallon of water & applied @ 0.5 of the plant.
gallon / plant . It is an important operation for maintenance of
Micronutrients like Rose mixture / multiplex, floriferousness and
etc. are given through foliar spray To improve the quality of flowers along with
o 7.09 g Potassium sulphate vigor of roses.
o 14.17 g Ammonium sulphate
o 28.35 g Potassium nitrate in 3.79 litres of The pruning consists of two operations:
water and may be applied @ 1.36 ml / liter
of water. 1) Thinning: Thinning comprises removal of old,
weak, dry, twiggy and diseased stems and
MULCHING: branches from the point of start.
2) Shortening: Means shortening of the remaining
Mulches are used for a number of purposes on shoots, aims to cutting down the last years
rose beds or in green houses.They conserve; growth to a desirable height.
Soil moisture
Supply humus OBJECTIVES OF PRUNING:
Suppress the weeds
i. To remove the unproductive growth, because
Keep the soil somewhat cooler in rose plant bears flowers on a new shoot.
summer months ii. To ensure production of large number of
Results in improvement of growth strong and healthy shoots.
and flowering of roses. iii. To improve the flower production with
For mulching well decomposed quality.
garden compost, FYM, peat straw, iv. Pruning will force the eye bud to produce the
saw dust, ground or whole corn cobs, strongest shoot.
Black polythene sheets (0-18 mm v. It keeps the rose bush in proper shape and
thickness). size.
vi. To allow light and air to reach the centre of the
WEED CONTROL: rose bush.
vii. To facilitate various cultural operations like
o Weeds pose very serious problems in hoeing, weeding, soil scraping, sterilization,
rose cultivation. manuring so also harvesting the long and
straight stems.
viii. To rejuvenate the old plants. Cut off the old
plants from the base to get strong shoots.
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TIME OF PRUNING: While making the cut care should be taken not
The purpose of pruning will not serve, if it is to make it too high above the eye (bud) as
done at the wrong time. there may be chance of die back of shoot.
Sufficient time must be allowed for the new On the other hand if the cut is very nearer to
shoots to mature and flower. the bud, it may die due to want of sap flow.
Late pruning delays flowering as well as reduce So cut one inch above the bud.
the production considerably. It is absolutely necessary to cut the sharp end
The best time for pruning in rose is the period clean because the broken tissues, bruises or
when the activity of the rose plant is least and hanging shreds of bark will invite for
the plant is at dormant to near dormant stage. infestation of pests & diseases.
Pruning time will depends entirely on the All the cut ends should be pasted with cane
climate condition of the region. sealer (copper fungicide) against the attack of
In temperate climate it is normally done in fungus and cane boring insects.
spring.
Within a fortnight after pruning new flush of
Over a large area in India (Indo-Gangetic growth will start and within 45 days of
plains) pruning is done only once in a year. pruning new flowers are ready for harvesting.
The most usual time for pruning is during
TYPES OF PRUNING:
October-November after rains are well over
and the cold season is approaching. The intensity of pruning markedly influences
The staggering of pruning at weekly interval the growth and flowering of roses depending upon the
from September end to October end will extent and level of shortening. There are three types of
provide a regular supply of flowers pruning practiced in rose viz.
throughout the winter. 1. Light pruning :
2. Moderate pruning :
In some regions pruning is practiced twice a
3. Hard pruning :
year, i.e. in May and October for monsoon and
winter flowering, respectively.
1. Light pruning:
Dried and dead branches are trimmed
WHERE AND HOW TO PRUNE?
off.
Every rose stems has eyes (buds) alternating on Cut either at the 2nd or 3rd eye bud
opposite sides in the leaf axils (usually immediately below the flower bearing
outward and inward). stalk.
Removing of tips upto 2-3 buds and is
The basic rule in pruning is always to make the
practiced in standard roses, climbers
cut about half a centimeter above a vigorous
and ramblers.
bud that finds in the direction one desires the
new shoot to grow. 2. Moderate pruning:
Healthy shoots are pruned back to 45-
Since the rose bush has to be kept open in the
60cm from the base.
centre.
Commonly practiced in floribundas and
The cut is made at an outward growing bud in HT roses.
standard roses as well as in floribundas. 3. Hard pruning:
Where as in climbing roses the pruning is done Here keeping only three or four shoots
at a bud pointing more or less upward. of the last year growth and heading
back at about three or four eyes from
Always encourage outward bud to expose the the base.
center open. Practiced for rejuvenation of old bushes
Whichever the bud is selected the cut should be and weak plants
slightly slant. As the horizontal cut retains Pruning is done by leaving 10-30cm
moisture / sap and therefore, is liable to cause from the bud joint.
fungal growth,

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6. Defoliation:
LECTURE- 6
Under special conditions it is
SPECIAL CULTURAL PRACTICES TO IMPROVE
followed, but it has reported that
THE QUALITY OF ROSES:
removal of leaves from rose plants
1. Thinning: will increase number of blind
shoots,
Removal of the undesirable
growth like inward growth, weak It will force the plants to produce
stems, blind shoots, crowded growth and flowering during
growth. desired period.
2. De-suckering: 7. Use of growth substances:
The operation of removal of To some extent some growth
suckers from root stock i.e. the regulators like GA3 and retardants
shoots produced below the bud like CCC are used to get more
union on rootstocks is called de- number of flowers with good
suckering. quality.
3. Pinching: GA3 @ 250ppm has been found to
increase the stalk length, flower
Removal of a part of terminal
size and reduce number of blind
growing portion of stem is called
shoots.
pinching.
8. Removal of faded flowers:
It is done to reduce the plant
height and to promote auxiliary If the opened blooms are not
branching. removed intime, there is chance of
developing fruits bearing seeds.
Pinching of blind shoot is
beneficial to increase flowering. Once the hips are formed and
reach the advanced stage of
4. Disbudding:
development, growth and
Removal of undesirable buds is flowering are severally reduced
known as disbudding. during the season;
Keeping only the central bud and Cutting of faded flowers will force
removal of others cause to produce strong lateral shoots
development of a quality bloom. which will produce good quality
flowers.
It is done in standard/HT roses to
reduce number of flowers. HARVESTING:
5. Removal of young vegetative shoots: The stage at which flowers should be cut, either
for decoration or for cut flower dispatch is the
This practice is also known as de-
tight bud stage.
shooting. It is generally followed
in HT roses. When the bud shows full color but the petals
have not yet started unfolding.
Young vegetative shoots
developing from the axils of Harvesting at this stage will help the flower to
leaves of basal and lateral shoots last longer in vases or during transportation
are removed to allow only one for better retention of colour and freshness.
terminal shoots.
The optimum stage may varying slightly
It is important from the point of depending on cultivar and one has to
stalk length. experience to judge the right stage for cutting.
Because a flower bud of a red cultivar when cut
at a little early stage may fail to open later.
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Usually pre-cooling is done for 6-8


Most pink and red cultivars should be allowed
hours in winter and 8-12 hours in
to develop a stage where one of the two outer
summer.
petals begins to unfurl at the upper point.
Loose flowers used for preparing perfumes and 2. Pulsing:
various other products also for worshipping Treating of cut flowers with 2-4%
are harvested only when they are fully sucrose solution for 3-4 hours. This
opened. intern makes the cut flower very
hardy and turgid to improve the
TIME OF HARVESTING: quality of cut flowers, also have lees
neck bending.
The flowers should be cut before sunrise i.e. 3. Grades:
early morning or late in the afternoon when
The flowers which are in uniform stem
the sun is about to set so as to avoid damage
length and developing flower buds
of buds due to high temperature during the
should be grouped together at the
day.
time of cutting and kept them in
Late harvest result in short vase life of cut separate container.
flower and low oil content.
For easy handling the basal foliage and
In greenhouses for every two hours flowers can thorns may be removed up to 20 cm at
be harvested. The stem cut should always be the time of cutting of the flowers.
given above a healthy outward pointing bud
It is necessary to dispatch the flowers
with clean and sharp secateurs.
within 24-30 hours after harvesting.
It has to be cut above two five leaflet leaves.
The cutting of the stem just above the 4. Packing:
Knuckle (i.e., the point at which the shoot
The graded cut blooms have to be
originate is called Knuckle) significantly
packed in corrugated cardboard boxes
reduces the flower yield per plant compared
(CCB).
to the cutting made above the 1st or 2nd five
leaflet leaf stage. The size of the boxes varies with the
quality and quantity of roses to be
POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY: packed.
A box of 100cm length x 32.5cm width
Immediately after cutting the stem should be
and 6.5cm height will accommodate
dipped in clean water upto the neck or base of
80 roses of 65-70cm long stem.
the flower bud. The delay in keeping the cut
flowers in water will leads to air entry and The inside area of the box is lined with
results in vascular blockage. thin polythene film and very fine
1. Pre-cooling: newspaper. Moist tissue papers are
spread out end to end of the box to
In a cold storage at the temperature of
provide a cushion to blooms.
4.4 to 7.2oC the flowers have to be kept
immediately after harvesting to The blooms are generally packed in
remove latent heat which enhances bundles of 20 each and bundles are
the keeping quality of flowers tied with string or rubber band
Then they have to be dispatched to The upper portion of the each bundle
market with maintaining cold chain having flower buds and are wrapped
in a corrugated paper which is fixed
It should be transported to Airport by
with an adhesive tape or rubber sheet.
Refrigerated Van and store them in
The labeling of cultivars is made on the
cold storage at airport and directly
paper. The lower half of the bundle is
shifted to refrigerated cargo frights.
wrapped with tissue paper.

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Two bundles are placed opposite to one Uniform stem length


another all along the length of the
Tight bud and open slowly
boxes in such a way that their flower
buds will face the side of the box and Size of the flower should be
their stem end towards the center of representative of the cultivars
the boxes and at the sides there will be
cushioning have to be provided. Flower Should be free from blemishes,
bruising, injuries from diseases and
pests
After this the stem ends of two bundles
on either side are secured firmly with Flower should have more number of
a wooden stick fixed along the width petals arranged capacity
of the box. Vase life:

This wooden stick is placed over a strip


Senescence in cut roses is characterized by
of foam rubber to avoid damage of
decrease in concentration of anthocyanin,
stem.
protein and tannic acid and an increase in
most amino acids, glutamine, Maleic acid and
The inside of the box is finally covered
free ammonia in the petal tissue.
with a sheet of tissue paper before
putting the cover of the box. The advances in senescence are due to increase
in ethylene production and membrane
Labeling is done with all details includes permeability.
cultivars, colour, stem length, number
Pre-cooled and pulsed flowers stored better in
of flower/bundle, total quantity of
general. However some of the preservatives
flowers in a box and the firm etc.
like 8HQC @ 300ppm, 8HQS @ 150pm, AgNO3
@20-30ppm, citric acid @ 200ppm have been
All along the outer edges of the boxes
found to be good for prolonging the vase life
either adhesive tapes or plastic tying
of cut roses.
strips with tying machine
PESTS & DISEASES OF ROSES:
The final box will weighs about 5-6 kg.
YIELD:
PESTS : White Flies, Red Scales, Aphids, Thrips,
The yield depends as several factors Chafer Beetles, Red Spider Mites, Mealy
viz., cultivars, plant density/unit area, Bugs White Flies, Jassids (Leaf Hoppers),
flowering duration, pruning method, Digger Wasps, Nematodes (Root knot &
nutrition, other cultural operations lesion nematodes) etc. and diseases like,
adopted from time to time.
DISEASE : Die back (Diplodia rosarum +
On an overage the outdoor rose Collectotrichum sp), Powdery mildew:
cultivation produces about 60-80 (Sphaerotheca pannosa var. Rose), Black
flowers/m2/year spot: (Diplocarpon rosae), Leaf spot
(Alternaria alternata) ,Stem blight,Botrytis
Plant density has much influence on
blight (Botrytis cineria),Root fungus
total yield. Normally closure spacing
(Trichoderma viridae), Rose wilt and Rose
yields more number of flowers than
mosaic virus.
wider spacing.
INTERNATIONAL QUALITY STANDARDS OF @@@@@
ROSE CUT FLOWERS:
General requirements
Straight, strong stem capable of
holding the flowers in upright
position.

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LECTURE- 6b: The distance between the plants in one


PROTECTED CULTIVATION OF ROSES row varies around 15-20 cm.
Accommodates 7 to 8 plants per metre
square (Depending upon cultivar and
TYPES OF GREENHOUSE REQUIRED: cultivation system).
Under mild climatic conditions (Bangalore and
Pune) roses can be successfully cultivated GROWTH REGULATION:
under Naturally Ventilated Polyhouses. Primary bending :
o Have to be takenup 5-6 weeks after planting to
However, under warm and high temperatures
build a strong frame work.
(Hyderabad and Delhi) it needs forced
Secondary bending :
ventilation system (Cool-Cell Pad) to get
o 4-5 weeks after first bending to get more
quality flowers.
number of strong shoots.
Gradual pruning :
IMPORTANT VARIETIES:
First Red Lambada Ambassidor Harvesting of flower shoot will take care of this
Noblesse Sasha Papillon operation.
Grand Gala Skyline Polo MANURING:
Confetti Ravel Lovely Red
Depends on variety, type of medium used,
Osiana Golden gate Tunike
growth stage, irrigation system etc.
CULTIVATION PRACTICES:
Well decomposed FYM have to be
BED SIZE: incorporated into the bed @ 100 t/ha.
1-1.6 m wide; 30-40m long and 15-20cm/ 30- Nutrient composition of rose plant based
40cm height on leaf analysis is 3.0 per cent N, 0.2 per
0.5-0.75m between two beds. cent P, 1.8 per cent K, 1.0 per cent Ca and
0.25 per cent Mg.
SPACING:
Nutrient requirement @ 1:0.2:1.2:0.3 NPK
30-40cm between rows; 14-18cm or 15-
& Mg
20cm between plants,
6-9 plants/m2, However, 7 plants/m2 is Fertigation requirement 170ppm N,
optimum, 34ppm P, 160ppm K, 120ppm Mg per
MEDIA: every watering.
Both soil and soil-less substrates IRRIGATION:
(rockwool, peat, sphagnum moss,
vermiculites, perlite, leaf mould, Coco The first week watering has to be done
peat, rice husk, etc.,) with sprinklers or hose pipe 5-8 times
pH 5.5-6.8 a day.
30-40cm deep well drained, porous, rich 3-4 weeks after planting drip irrigation
in organic content. may be employed for uniform
Pasteurize with steam at 70-100oC for 30 watering.
minutes or use methyl Bromide @ 25- Each plant has to be watered @ 0.75 -1.0
30g/ M2/ 10ml/cuft for 24-48 hr or liter/plant/day.
Formalin @ 7.5-10.0 l /100 M2 or
Basamid (Dazomet) @ 30-40g/ M2 DRIP IRRIGATION.

PLANTING: A drip irrigation system is


6-18 months old budded plants may be recommended; as each plant receives
planted during May-June. the equal amount of water.
The soil should be loose and humid but By supplying the water directly on the
not too wet nor muddy. potting mix, the plant itself does not
Planting may be in 2-row system. become wet (so preventing diseases).
Per compartment of 6.40 metre 6 rows
of plants can be planned.
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BASAL SHOOTS.
The dripper line of the irrigation system are
placed on the ground between the two rows,
this prevent the dripper line becoming empty Depending upon the growth and potentiality of
and keep the water temperature low and the a cultivar the number of basal shoots are
dripper line out the reach of direct sunlight. formed.
A capacity of 2 liters per hour is preferred as Per plant 2 to 3 well-formed shoots are allowed
the chance of congestion is smaller. to continue growing, if more shoots were
formed it is recommended for bending out of
By using a drip system, a wet (water) column is
these shoots.
created through which the roots grow.
This way a plant has got the use of more active
Place the drippers by planting in the jiffy pot,
leaf canopy to supply enough energy for
after 2-3 weeks when the roots are growing out
development of a heavy crop with first quality
of the jiffy pot into the potting soil replace them
flowers.
approximately 1 - 5 cm from the jiffy pot.
SPECIAL OPERATION:
CROP MAINTENANCE AFTER PLANTING:
1. Bud Capping: The flower buds are
BENDING IN ROSES: inserted with nylon a cap which helps for
increasing bud size, avoids damage in
After planting, shoots will develop quickly.
transportation and maintains the
Only after the flower bud becomes clearly microclimate in package.
visible the shoots are bend-out towards the path
and the flowers are removed, this process is HARVESTING AND YIELD:
known as bending.
Yield starts 4-5 months after planting.
Since the plants grow about 40 cm above the Harvest the flower buds at tight bud stage for
ground, it is possible to bend down the stems longer distance.
deeply. Stem length vary from 40-90cm.
Be careful not to break the shoots, the plant At harvest it often was practice to cut back to
should remain capable of transporting sugars the first 5-leaf stage.
from these areas to the new developing shoots.
Hence, it is recommended for cutting back to
The shoots should be bending down so the just above the original cutting.
grafting place or, if a cutting is used, the old top
of the cutting will become the top of the plant. The length of the remaining stem decides the
number of shoots (flower stems) which will
The flower buds on these bend-out shoots have grow back.
to be removed. This system allows the leaves to
continue their production of energy. If too much (4-6 cm) stem is left, many shoots
are formed of a poor quality. Therefore it is
When the dominating primary shoots (apical advised to cut back to 1 cm.
dominance) is removed, causing the plant to
respond by developing more basal buds. After 1 to 1.5 year the rose bush is cut back to
approximately 10 cm above the original
In the plant hormonal changes take place, which cutting, so creating a new top. Now again
promote shoot development (balance only 1-cm stem is left after harvest.
cytokinins/ auxins).
Flower yield ranges from 100-150 stems, 200-
After cutting or bending out results in an 225 and 250-350 stems per m2 in large hybrid
increased cytokine level, causing buds to break. tea, medium types and small and sprays,
The shoots formed are producing auxins, so respectively.
restoring the hormonal balance in the plant.
@@@@@@

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LECTURE - 7 Tall growing type suitable for


background planting in borders.
CHRYSANTHEMUM (Asteraceae)
(Chrysanthemum morifolium /Dendranthema Dwarf growing for flower beds and
grandiflora) pot culture (pot mums)
Loose flowers garland, veni,
worship etc.
INTRODUCTION:
Chrysanthemum is a popular commercial Long stem flowers cut flowers for
flower crop of the many countries. Bouquet, Vase etc.
It is next only to rose in value of flower trade in Chrysanthemum morifolium is also an
the world market. important source of essential oil and
The word Chrysos means golden and anthos sesquiterpenoid alcohol.
means flower. The species like Chrysanthemum
It is commonly known as Queen of East/ cinerariifolium and C. coccineum are
autumn queen/ guldaudi. also being cultivated as sources of
Japanese National Flower. pyrethrum and an important
insecticide.
ORIGIN:
Chrysanthemums are the most popular
cut flower sold in the United States.
Native to Europe and Asia
The chrysanthemum is one of the most
It originated in Europe and Asia (China).
beautiful and perhaps the oldest
Species involved in the development are flowering plants, commercially grown
C. sinense, C. indicum, C.japonicum, C. in different parts of the world.
ornatum.
It is important both as cut flower and as
potted plant in the international
IMPORTANCE AND USES market.
In India too, chrysanthemum occupies In Dutch cut flower auction,
a place of pride both as a commercial chrysanthemum ranks 2nd after rose.
crop and as a popular exhibition
flower. CLASSIFICATION
It has a wide range of type, size and The species of the genus Chrysanthemum are
colour and also forms. annual, perennial herbs, sometimes partly
woody.
Short day plant Photo sensitive (10
hours day light) The genus Chrysanthemum belongs to the
family Compositae / Asteraceae.
The erect and tall growing cultivars
are suitable for background planting
Class 1. Single
in borders or for cut flowers.
Ray florets in a single row at right angles to
The cultivars with the dwarf and
the stem.
compact growing habit, on the other
hand, are suitable for front row Disc is flat to slightly round and may be of
plantation or pot culture. contrasting colours, e.g., Potomac.
Class 2. Semi-double
The decorative and fluffy bloomed
Ray florets in more than one row at right angles to
small-flowered cultivars are ideal for
the stem but may curve downward at the tips.
garland making and hair decoration.
Disc as in class 1.
The extra large-bloomed cultivars for
their exhibition value. Class 3. Anemone

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Ray florets narrow to broad, gracefully


Ray florets variable, from flattened, broad and
overlapping in either a regular or in an irregular
equal in length to reflexing, pointed at tip and
manner and reflexed.
unequal in length.
e.g., Coronation Pink.
Disc florets are numerous tube-like and elongated
so as to form a prominent disc which may range Based on the size, shape of flower, arrangements of
from flat to hemispherical in form. florets and purpose used, the chrysanthemums are
classified into several groups.
Class 4. Pompon i) Small flowered types.
ii) Large flowered types
Bloom globular, somewhat flat in young stage or iii) Classification based on plant growth
small button type. iv) Based on usage.
Ray florets broad, incurved, smooth and firm with
good substance. I. SMALL FLOWERED

Class 5. Incurve 1. Singles The petals are arranged in one


or not more than five rows with
Breadth and depth should be equal to produce a prominent central disc.
globular bloom.
2. Anemones Prominent centrally raised
Ray florets narrow to broad, smooth and incurve hemispherical cushiony disc florets
in a regular to an irregular manner without surrounded by short rounded or flat or
producing an open centre, e.g., Snow Ball, twisted or quilled ray florets. Ex. Golden
Mountaineer, Nob Hill. sands, White sands.
3. Korean single Small flowers with a
An Irregular Incurve chrysanthemum, or prominent central disc, ray florets are flat,
ogiku in Japanese, meaning "big chrysanthemum". number of whorls or ray florets are five
The size of this flower is around 20cm (about 8 and less than five. Ex: Cardinal, Gul-e-
inches). Sahir, Chairman.

Class 6. Reflexing incurve 4. Korean double The number of whorls of


ray florets are more than five and the
Ray florets usually broad and smooth. Breadth central disc is open. Ex: Flirt, Man
and depth nearly equal to form a globular bloom, Bhawan.
sometimes flattened, may be less compact than 5. Spoon The outer ray florets are tubular
incurve. with a spatula or spoon like opening at the
All mature florets not completely incurving and tips. Ex: Anokha.
not all completely reflexed.
The lower florets sometimes reflexing to give a 6. Decorative Fully double flowers with
skirted effect, e.g., Dream Castle, Indianapolis. flat petals and central disc is generally
absent or not seen, ray florets are longer.
Class 7. Decorative Ex: Aretic, Elegance, Blue chip, Dolly.
Ray florets from short and broad to narrow, long 7. Quilled Small flowers, ray florets are
and pointed, they generally reflex, although upper tubular. Ex: Golden crystal, Snow crystal.
florets may tend to incurve.
Blooms more flattened than globular, 8. Button Very compact, small flowers,
produce numerous flowers. Ex: Golden
e.g., Otome Pink, Princess Anne.
dust.
Class 8. Reflex 9. Pompon The flowers small, freely
Bloom globular with equal depth and breadth and opened, compact, hemispherical or ball
a full centre, or somewhat flattened. shape, the central disc is concealed or
absent, florets neatly arranged. Ex:
Apsara, Jayanthi, Lameo, Dandy, Eve.

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i) Disbudded inflorescence
II. LARGE FLOWERED TYPES ii) Spray inflorescence
Loose flowers
1. Incurved regular The outer ray florets
Potted/bed plants
curve upwards and inwards towards the
disc florets to forma globular shape. Ex:
SPECIES AND CULTIVARS
Snow ball, Sonar Bangla, Chandrama.
The number of species under the genus
2. Incurve irregular The outer ray florets
Chrysanthemum varied from 100-200.
incurve loosely and irregularly and do not
from a ball as in case of regular. Some important species are: n=9 (2n=18 to 90)
1. Chrysanthemum boreale :Abura
3. Refluxed The outer ray florets curved
Giku
outwards and downward away from the
2. C. carinatum : Tricolor chrysanthemum
centre so that only their upper surface is
3. C.coronarium:Garland chrysanthemum
seen. Ex: Cresta, City Beauty, Golden
4. C.cinerariifolium:Dalmatian pyrethrum
Rule, Day dream, Peach blossom, Sweet
5. C. rubellum sturdy species used for
Heart.
breeding of hardy cultivars.
4. Intermediate The inner florets incurved 6. C. satsumense : Satsuma-nogiku
and outer florets are refluxed, they are 7. C. sinensis- One of the sourses of
intermediate in shape to incurved and todays florists mums.
refluxed. Ex: John Reid, Lady Hope town. 8. C. sibiricum is one of the parents for
Korean hybrids.
5. Spider The outer ray florets are large,
9. C. coccineunm :Painted daisy
elongated, tubular and curved to form a
10. C. indicum : Chinese/ Japanese mums
hook or coil like structure at the tip of the
11. C. morifolium : Florists chrysamthemum
petals. Ex: Rupasi Bangla, Mahatma
C. morifolium is a hybrid species
Ganthi.
and is the result of repeated cycles of
6. Quill The outer ray florets are inter-specific crossing among
elongated, straight and tubular like a quill elemental species extending over a
with tips open but not flattened. period of 2500 years.
7. Exhibition - The outer florets are refluxed Plants are perennial.
and inner florets incurred, the ray florets CULTIVARS
are generally twisted, irregularly More than 15000 cultivars are listed in Japan
overlapped each other and looks alone.
attractive. The National Chrysanthemum Society of
Britain lists over 6000 cultivars.
8. Ball type Ray florets are straight and
radiated in all directions to give a In India also more than 500 cultivars.
complete ball shape.
PROPAGATION
III. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON PLANT Chrysanthemum can be propagated
GROWTH both by vegetative and sexual
methods.
1. Standards plants with single flower, Maintain the purity of cultivar seeds
other buds are removed if arise from are used to develop hybrids.
the laterals and produce big flower.
2. Spray The main apex bud is removed VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION
and lateral buds are allowed. 1. SUCKERS:
3. Pot mums Small flowered mums with Suckers arise from the underground stem and
6-9 height are beautiful in decorating these are separated and planted in prepared
the places. nursery beds during January for stock plants.
IV. BASED ON USAGE.
Regular pinching is performed in these plants
Cut flowers
for vigorous and profuse branching.
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LAND PREPARATION:
Some of these stock plants are used for
preparation of cuttings. Chrysanthemum requires well prepared soil
for proper growth and development.
The first pinching is performed in April,
The field should be ploughed 2 to3 times
followed by monthly pinching up to June.
before preparing the beds and leveled well.
After 3rd pinching in June, cuttings are taken A basal dose of well decomposed FYM should
from these mother plants. be applied @ 5kg/meter square.
2. CUTTINGS Addition of peat or organic matter improves
the soil structure & helps in the development
Terminal Cuttings:
of the plant.
Cuttings of 5-7 cm in length are taken Proper soil sterilization with carbendazim
form healthy stock plants in June. should be done before planting to avoid soil
The cuttings are prepared removing borne diseases.
basal leaves and reducing the leaf area
of remaining leaves to half. CLIMATIC REQUIREMENT
The basal portions (less than half inch) Light and temperature are the two
of cuttings are dipped rooting important environmental factors
hormone (1000 ppm solution of IBA) influencing the growth and flowering.
for better rooting. As far as light is concerned, both
Sometimes the lower portion of photoperiod and the intensity have
cuttings is treated with some copper profound effects on growth and
fungicide to avoid fungal growth. flowering of chrysanthemum.
These rooted cuttings are ready for It is a short-day plant normally initiates
planting in the field. and flowers during September to
December under South Indian conditions.
3. Micro propagation Hence, planting during April-May is
4. Grafting recommended.

Among these, propagation through cutting is


the most common and popular method. PLANTING DENSITY
The best plant population was 32
CULTIVATION: cuttings/m2.
For cv. Chandrama, a large flowered
SOIL REQUIREMENT cultivar, spacing of 30 x 30 cm.
Chrysanthemum with a shallow but The suckers or slips are planted at a
fibrous root system is sensitive to water- spacing of 30 x 20 cm on one side of
logging and prone to attack by diseases, the ridges.
such as root rot and wilt due to lack of
aeration. PLANTING:
Clay and clay loam soils retain too much
May-June planting resulted in well
of moisture and thereby hinder proper
developed plants with good flowers.
aeration, resulting in rotting of roots.
Cut flower production was the highest
Sandy soils drain too quickly and require
from May plantings.
frequent irrigation and also suffer from
loss of nutrients due to leaching. 90,000 to 1, 10,000 suckers or slips
obtained from 15 cents of the previous
Sandy loam soils are ideal for
crops are required to plant one hectare.
chrysanthemum growing.
Before planting, the roots of the suckers
pH ranging between 6.2 and 6.7
or slips are dipped in wet Cerasan or
Agallol 0.1% to protect against wilt.

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The field has to be ploughed thrice


during March and beds or ridges and Recommend doses for various centers
furrows are formed. centers N P K
Karnataka 200 200 200
AFTER CARE Ludhiana 400 400 200
IRRIGATION PINCHING
The plants need adequate water during
Pinching is one of most important
active vegetative growth when new leaves
operations in chrysanthemum culture.
are being formed.
After the formation of flower buds no The operation of removal of terminal
further leaf is formed and less amount of growing portion of stem pinching
water is needed. reduces plant height and promotes
axillary branches.
Hence, chrysanthemum are to be irrigated
twice a week in the first two weeks and Time and severity of pinching depend on
subsequent by at weekly intervals. the type of chrysanthemum and the
Chrysanthemum roots are very sensitive desired objectives.
to water logging but tolerate water stress After planting, the growth is mostly
appreciable. upward with very little branching.
Different systems of irrigation are
To arrest such tall growth, a simple
prevalent in various part of the world.
procedure called pinching is used. It is
These include overhead mist spray lines. also called stopping.
Sprinkler and self-travelling sprayers.
Only soft vegetative shoot tips 1.5 to 3 cm
long are removed.
MANURING AND FERTILIZATION
Pinching is most essential for small
Chrysanthemum is a heavy feeder and
flowered chrysanthemum.
requires large amount of both Nitrogen and
Potassium. First pinching is done when the plants
Nitrogen is required at early stage and the reach a height of 15-20 cm with 3-4 pairs
plants need P throughout the growth period. of leaves.
As the buds appear, the proportion of K A second pinching may be necessary if
should be increased and N should be reduced. the plants make straggly and lean
Chrysanthemums are heavy feeders and hence growth.
they are to be adequately manured. Pinching increases the number of
25 t of FYM along with 250,120, 25 kg flowering stems in each plant; it can
NPK/ha. indirectly control flowering date and
Half of the N and the entire quantity of P and bloom quality; and the number of stems
K are to be applied basal by just before to a plant can easily be controlled.
planting. Two types of pinching are performed:
The other half of N is to be applied 30 days
(a) Soft pinching: By this pinching
after planting the suckers.
the top soft tips of the shoot
The same dose can be repeated if a ratoon crop along with 2-3 open leaves
is raised and hoeing should be done once in a are removed;
month.
(b) Hard pinching: It means removing
Micronutrient application
a longer portion upto hard
Coated fertilizers shoot.
Liquid feeding
Foliar feeding

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STAKING OF PLANTS
Single pinching is done, if two flowers are
Staking is necessary to keep plants erect
desired, whereas double pinching is done
and to maintain proper shape of plants
for four flowers.
and bloom.
In spray chrysanthemum numerous small Stakes are prepared mostly from bamboo
to medium sized flowers are produced, sticks.
therefore, two pinchings are required to WEED CONTROL:
encourage lateral growth. Weeding and hoeing are generally done
manually as and when required, normally 8-
As a general rule rooted cuttings are
10 times yearly.
pinched two weeks after planting or
approximately 100 days before full bloom. GREEN HOUSE CULTIVATION

DISBUDDING AND DE-SHOOTING ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS


1. Light: Chrysanthemum flowering is very much
These operations are mostly performed influenced by the quantum and quality of
for large flowering of decorative type light. Most of the cultivars require shorter
chrysanthemums. days for flower bud initiation and
Many of the standard type varieties are development. Under long days they tend
disbudded in which the largest terminal to remain vegetative.
bud is reserved and all auxiliary buds are
removed. 2. Temperature: Based on temperature requirements
Disbudding of spray varieties is very easy chrysanthemum cultivars are classified into
because in this case only the large apical three.
bud is removed and the auxiliary buds i) Thermo-zero cultivars which flower at any
are allowed to develop temperature between 10-27oC but most
For taking three blooms per plant, three constantly at 16oC night temperature.
lateral strong shoots are allowed to grow
and others are removed. ii) Thermo-positive cultivars in which continuous
Lateral buds and side shoots are removed low temperature between 10-13oC inhibit or
at their early stage of growth from time to delay flower bud initiation and at 27oC there
time. will be rapid initiation but delayed flowering.
For taking one bloom per plant no iii) Thermo-negative cultivars in which bud
pinching is done. initiation occurs at low temperature delay bud
Only the main stem is allowed to grow. development.
Removal of undesirable lateral buds and
The effect of night temperature is more
shoots are done.
pronounced than day temperature and
Dis-shooting is practiced to reduce the
night temperature of 16-20o C was found
number of branches for improving the
optimum for most of the cultivars.
size and form of the flower.
DE-SUCKERING High temperature may cause floral
During the vegetative growth phase, distortion and low temperature may
plants grow upward. some time cause discoloration of the
New suckers continue to develop from flower.
base of plants. 3. Relative humidity: The chrysanthemum requires a
moderate humid condition of 70 to 90 per cent and
For proper and vigorous growth of
plants, suckers are removed from time to hence it should be preferably grown in places there
time. will not be any rains during flowering time.
It is practiced to allow single stem to
GROWTH REGULATORS:
develop up to a certain height.
Crop growth regulation and flowering can be
Without de-suckering the main plant will
modified or controlled by use of growth
loose vigour and becomes weak.
regulators.

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Flower quality and yield can be improved by The lower leaves are stripped off up to 15-20
the use of regulators. cm and bundled in units of 5 stems and
The plant starts flowering from 3rd months secured with a rubber band.
onwards. GA3 50 ppm can be sprayed at 30, PACKING
45 and 60 days after planting to increase the Most often standard chrysanthemum are
yield. placed in sleeves and packed in display boxes
PESTS AND DISEASES measuring 91 x 43 x 15cm.
Aphids, thrips, leaf miners and mites They are placed in the boxes according to the
are the common insects attacking grades.
chrysanthemum. For bulk packing of the spray
DISEASES chrysanthemums, 10, 15 or 20 stems are placed
Cercospora leaf spot, Alternaria leaf in sleeves according to the grades.
spot, Fusarium stem rot and Powdery Six sleeves, three at each end, are generally
mildew are the common diseases
packed in each box, measuring 80 x 50 x 23cm.
attacking chrysanthemums.
HARVEST AND YIELD: STORAGE
Decorative types are harvested when the Chrysanthemum cut flowers can be wrapped in
petals in the centre of the topmost flower plastics and stored dry for 6 to 8 weeks at a
is almost fully developed. temperature of 0.5oC.
In standards, harvesting is generally done Temperature for truck shipments across the
when outer ray florets ceases to further country ranged between 2o and 4oC.
develop.
The stems in the buckets (after grading) are
Pot-mums are sent to the market with
given a cut using sharp blade and pre cooled
half to fully opened flowers.
at 1C minimum of 2 hours before packing.
Spray mums are generally harvested at
the two thirds to three-fourths open Chrysanthemum can be stored for 3-6 weeks
stage; standard mums at the three-fourths period at 0-3C.
to full open stage of development.
Yield start from 3-4 months after VASE LIFE
planting. The use of proper preservative solution
Main crop duration 6 months. throughout the period of post-harvest handing
Ratoon crop 4 months. Total duration is very important to prolong the life of cut
(6+4) 10 months. flowers.
YIELD Dipping of the stem for a very short period (5
1. Main crop : 9-10t/ha. seconds) in 1200-4800 ppm silver nitrate or
2. Ratoon crop : 4-5 t/ha. soaking the stems in 1000 ppm silver nitrate
3. Sprays- 1, 00,000 stems can be obtained from for 10 minutes.
one ha. Addition of 2 % sucrose to silver nitrate was
POSTHARVEST TECHNOLOGY found beneficial.
GRADING It increased the vase-life from 12 days to 20
Chrysanthemums are graded based on the stem days.
length, flower appearance, number of flowers, EXPORT STANDARDS FOR CHRYSANTHEMUM:
stem straightness, colour and freshness of Parameter Standard Spray Dwarf
flowers. Stem Length 88-100 cm 75-88 cm 25-38 cm
Standard chrysanthemum is graded into Blue, Weight 30g/stem (90cm) 30g/stem (85 cm)
Red, Green and Yellow, whereas spray types 15g/stem(30 cm)
are graded into Gold, Silver and Bronze based # of flowers Only 1 flower 10 flowers 10-12 flowers
on the quality parameters. With 5 buds with 5-8 buds
In Dutch market, spray chrysanthemums are
graded into extra grade and shorter grade.

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LECTURE- 8 Flowers also have medicinal properties.


CARNATION Used as cardio tonic, diaphoretic and
(Caryophyllaceae; Dianthus caryophyllus L.) alexiteric.
It is also used for perfume extraction in
INTRODUCTION: France.

ORIGIN AND HISTORY:


Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) belonging
to the family Caryophyllaceae. ETYMOLOGY:
It is one of the important cut flower crops in the Some scholars believe that the name
International flower market. "Carnation" comes from "Coronation"
It is more preferred to other cut flowers due to or "Corone" (flower garlands), as it
its was one of the flowers used in Greek
ceremonial crowns.
Large array of colours,
Others say in Latin Carnation, from
Excellent keeping quality, Caro (genetive "Carnis") (flesh),
Wide range of forms which refers to the original colour of
the flower, or incarnation, which
Ability to with stand long distance of
transportation, refers to the incarnation of God made
flesh.
As well as remarkable ability to
ORIGIN:
rehydrate after continuous shipping.
Native of the Eurasia
Carnations in general are grown only under It is native to the Mediterranean
protected cultivation of carnation.
region but its exact range is unknown
It is commonly called as Carnation, Divine due to extensive cultivation for the
flower, Clove pink, Gilly Flower. last 2000 years.
Dianthus in Greek dios, divine;
IMPORTANCE AND USES
anthos, flower which means 'Flower
One of the top ten cut flower crops in the of Zeus' or Divine flower.
International flower market. The cultivar William Sim produced
Apart from cut flower it is being used for in 1938 by William Sim of USA.
bedding, pots, rock gardens, window boxes From the red flowering William Sim
and edging. there have been mutations to all the
It gives a unique softness in the rock possible colours and several
gardens. variegated forms.
SPECIES:
Popular in flower arrangements for
decorating homes. There are about 250 species of Dianthus of
which only a few are under commercial cultivation.
Cultivated in Italy, Spain, Colombia, Kenya,
They are as follows,
Sri Lanka, Canary Islands, France, Holland,
Germany and USA. Major species
D. caryophyllus
They are in large demand in Valentines D. barbatus
Day, Easter and Mothers day and during
D. chinensis
Christmas.
In India the major carnation producing
centers are located in and around
Bengaluru, Pune, Delhi, Trivandrum,
Andhra Pradesh and HP.
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EC of 1.2 at the start of the crop and


TYPES OF CARNATION 1.5 at the generative period is ideal.
Perpetuals:
Plants can be grown in a perlite / rock
They are hybrids involving
wool mixture at 3:1 or 1:1.
many Dianthus species.
Plants are not hardy and Soil mixture : 50 % sand, 30% loam
flower all round the year. and 20% clay
Flower stalks are long and Media have to be sterilized with
hence suitable for cut flowers. methyl bromide@ 25-30g /
They produce better quality formaldehyde @ 3-7% (7.5 to 10.0
flowers and withstand long l/100/sq.mt or Basamid (Dazomet)
transportation. @30-40g/m2
They are grouped into
standards or Sim and sprays. Bed size : 30 cm height ; 1.05 m wide ;
length varies as per the length of the
1. Standard types: protected structure.
Produces single large Spacing between beds : 30 cm
blooms with longer
flower stalks. CLIMATE:
2. Spray types:
Light is the most important factor, which
The miniature or spray
influences growth of the plant. About 21.51
type produces many
lux is considered to be the minimum natural
flowers of smaller size.
light intensity required for adequate
Better adapted to warm photosynthesis of carnations.
climate than standard Mild climate with a temperature ranging from
types. 5-180C is considered to be the ideal for the
crop.
SOIL/GROWING MEDIA AND Day temperature : 28oC (20 -25 0C)
PREPARATION OF BEDS Night temperature : 16-18oC (10 -15 0C)
Quantitative Long Day plant (long days
Soil should be ploughed upto 80-100 cm
promote flowering)
deep.
Critical photoperiod : 13 hours
Addition of calcium carbonate or and light intensity is10 15 foot candle.
dolomite limestone to corrects severe Co2 enrichment in greenhouse: upto 500-1000
acid condition and also supplies ppm improves the flower quality.
calcium and magnesium for plant RH : 50 -60 %;
nutrition. (Beginning: 80-85%; at full growth: 60-
Addition of sulphur or use of acid 65 %)
forming fertilizers will inturn reduces High day & night temperature during
the soil pH if it is on the higher side. flowering leads to
Abnormal flower opening
A rich sandy loam or loamy soil is Calyx splitting
considered to be the most ideal for
successful production of carnation.

The ideal soil pH is between 6.0 to 7.0

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Vitrification in carnation
PROPAGATION: A problem will encounter during the

Carnation may be propagated by both In-vitro culture of carnation due to the
sexual and asexual methods. formation of abnormal leaves and
VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION stem with thickened and translucent
CUTTING structures.
Using soft terminal cuttings is the Shoots with such abnormal leaves
common method of multiplication usually turn brown and failed to root
used by commercial growers in the rooting medium.
throughout the world. Vitrification in carnation tissues, by
Cuttings of 10-15 cm with 3-4 nodes transfer from solid to liquid medium
weighing around 10g are ideal for was accompanied by decreased lignin
multiplication. content.
Rooting hormone such as IBA at
500ppm is used prior to planting of PLANTING AND AFTERCARE:
cuttings for rooting.
Terminal cuttings give rise to good Carnation plants are planted in different
plants. Cuttings can be stored at 0oC spacing normally, 30-45 plants per sqm is
before planting for several weeks. considered to be ideal.
Cuttings are spaced at 5 cm apart and Different spacings 15x8cm, 15x15cm, 15x20cm
intermittent misting should be used and 15x10cm, are followed. Alternate normal
for good rooting. method of transplanting wherein the plants
Cuttings normally develop good root are planted firmly to soil, carnation,
system within 21 days. Shallow planting is followed. Deep planting
The rooting medium should be sterilized should be avoided.
before planting. Shading should be given in the beginning of the
Drenching with fungicide is ideal to crop for few days.
control fungal problem during Care should be taken to maintain the humidity
rooting. to prevent plants from drying.
LAYERING SPECIAL CULTURAL PRACTICES:
Layering is done in pots or directly in
SUPPORT MATERIAL:
the ground.
The layering generally roots earlier Carnation crop has the tendency to bend
than the cuttings. unless supported properly. Hence the crop
Ground layering was found to be needs support while growing.
most suitable method. Good support material is metallic wire woven
GRAFTING with nylon mesh.
65 to 70 % success At every two meters the wire should be
Union was completed in 15 days. supported with poles.
The poles at both the ends of bed should be
MICRO-PROPAGATION
strong.
Almost all parts of the plant may be
used as explants in carnation except Metallic wire is tied around the bed along the
length with the support from supporting
the root.
poles.
Across the bed, nylon wires are woven like
net.
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DISBUDDING:
For an optimum support, an increasing width
of the meshes can be used bottom net can be of Disbudding refers to removal of side buds so
7.5x7.5cm /10x10cm, then two nets of that the central/terminal bud receives
12.5x12.5cm and the upper most can be maximum food for the full development.
15x15cm.
1. FOR STANDARDS
4 5 layers of nets are to be laid before
planting. Removal of lateral buds.
For every 2.5 to 3.0 m wires to be supported Main flower bud alone left.
with poles.
2. FOR SPRAYS
First net should be fixed at 12 cm above soil.
Place remaining nets over first net 15 cm apart. Terminal or main buds are removed to
encourage more number of side
shoots.
PINCHING:
Best time for disbudding when
Pinching refers to breaking out tip of budding apical bud is 15 mm in diameter.
and encouraging growth of side shoots.
Essential for Standards. MANURING:

4-6 well grown laterals are allowed. No inorganic fertilizers in first 3 weeks after
planting
At six pairs of leaf first pinching has to be
done. Fertilizer application of 40g N, 20g P and 10g
K, in addition to 5kg of well decomposed FYM
First pinching done 3 -4 weeks after planting. /m2 will increase the yield of flowers. OR
Depending upon the need of crop spread it is 250 : 80 : 200 : 125 : 400 g / m2 / yr N,
classified into, P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg application in 24 splits once
Single, in 15 days.
One and half and
Double pinches. IRRIGATION:
1. SINGLE PINCH
Over watering and poor drainage causes root
Ideal time for pinching is morning. death and stunted growth.
When the plant attains 6 nodes, the Water logging would cause deprival of
first pinch is given. oxygen to plants.
The growing medium should be evenly moist.
5 -7 cm of apical portion has to be
pinched off. For proper establishing of the cuttings misting
is require
This would give rise to 4-6 lateral
Drip irrigation can be followed after 3-4 weeks
shoots.
of planting
2. ONE AND HALF PINCH Water requirement : 4 -5 l / m2/ day
After single pinched shoots flower, Optimum moisture : 300 -500 tension
half of side shoots are pinched off.
2-3 of these lateral shoots are pinched PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDER
again.
CALYX SPLITTING:
3. DOUBLE PINCH
Cultivars with too many petals are susceptible
All the lateral shoots are pinched off.
to calyx splitting.
i.e., 3 - 4 weeks after first pinch
Pinching is done at 4 well developed Due to fluctuation in temperature and
pairs of leaves environmental conditions also influences calyx
splitting.
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MEASURES At large bud / tight bud / cross bud


stage
Selection of cultivars that are less prone to
splitting, Petals are visible at this stage
SPRAYS:
Regulation of temperature and maintenance of
optimal fertilizer level can minimize this When at least 2-3 top flowers have
disorder. opened & other buds show colour

This can also be reduced by placing a rubber TIME OF HARVEST:


band or 6mm wide clear plastic tape is used 15 20 weeks after single pinching
around the calyx of the flowers which have
YIELD:
just start opening. This operation is referred as
Calyx banding. On an average 10-20 flowers / plant/year or
150-300 flowers / m2/ year
PLANT PROTECTION:
PEST AND DISEASES Yearly production of 300-400 flower/m2 is
ideal and economical.
Aphids: Aphids suck the sap from leaves of growing
plants and can be most series insect pest After planting normally it takes 110-120 days
of carnation. They also transmit to come to peak flowering.
carnation rings spot and carnation
mosaic virus diseases. They are POST HARVEST OPERATIONS:
controlled by spraying of metasystox (2
Harvested flowers are bunched together based
ml/l), Malathion (2ml/l), endosulfan
on their physical measurements like length of
(2ml/l) or rogor (2ml/l).
stem, diameter of flower etc.
Thrips: They suck sap from leaves causing distortion.
For a good post harvest life, flower stems have
Spraying of rogor (1ml/l) or sumithion
to be trimmed at the base and should be
(3.5ml/l) or Malathion (2ml/l) controls
immediately placed in a bucket of preservative
thrips.
solution (Acidic pH 4.5) with 2-5 % sucrose
Red Spider Mite Spraying with Kelthane (2.5ml/l) or and biocides for 2 to 4 hours.
Wettable sulphur 3g/lit controls mite Carnation flowers can be stored for 2-4 weeks
effectively. before marketing.
Nematodes - can be eliminated by growing plants in Flowers have to be packed in cartons lined
fumigated soil. Application of furadan, with polyethylene be pre-cooled without lid.
aldicarb or nemaphox controls The plastic is then loosely folded on top of the
nematode infestation. stems and the lid is closed.
These cartons are stored in cool chambers
HARVEST AND POST HARVEST:
designed to maintain 00C with good air
After planting normally it takes 110-120 days to circulation and a constant RH of 90-95 %.
come to peak flowering.
Floral preservatives like, 8-HQS or 8-HQC @
STANDARDS: 200-600 ppm; STS (Silver Thio-sulphate) @ 0.2-
Carnation flowers mature in 4-5 4mM; Cytokinin @ 10-100 ppm; Sugar @ 0.5-
months period. 2% and Citric acid @50-100 ppm.
Standard cultivars are harvested at
''Paint Brush'' stage with half-open @@@@@@@
flowers, or almost fully open flowers.

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One or two rows of ray florets on the


LECTURE -9 a
periphery of the disc and the rest are disc
GERBERA florets in the single types.
(Gerbera jamesonii) In the double type, more than two rows of
florets are present
They are further divided into
INTRODUCTION:
Standard,
Gerbera is commonly known as Transvaal Spider and
Daisy, Barberton Daisy or African Daisy.
Mini depending on the size and shape

It is an important commercial flower crop of the flowers.
grown throughout the world in a wide range PROPAGATION
of climatic conditions. SEEDS;
It is ideal for beds, borders, pots ad rock Gerbera is propagated by seed, by cuttings of
gardens. side shoots and suckers.
The flowers available in a wide range of colors Seed is set if cross-pollinated.
and lend themselves beautifully to different Sowing of seed may be done in almost any
floral arrangements. season.
Used as cut flowers and the cut blooms have Seeds germinate in 15 to 20oC within two
long vase life. weeks; otherwise it may take up to 30 days.
Plants from seeds will bloom in the second
ORIGIN AND HISTORY: year and produce good flowers from the third
The genus Gerbera was named in honor of a year onwards.
German naturalist, Traugott Gerber.
VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION:
This is native to South Africa and Asiatic
regions. Side shoots, with some amount of heel, is
utilized for.
In India they are distributed in the temperate
Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an Divisions/ suckers, cuttings are also used.
altitude of 1300 to 3200 meters.
MICRO-PROPAGATION:
Gerbera jamesonii is native to Natal and
Transvaal and Gerbera viridifolia from Cape. Following are the plant parts used as
explants for micro propagation.
Gerbera species of Indian origin are Gerbera
anandria, G. kunzeana, G.languinosa, G. Shoot tips, Leaf mid-rib, Capitulum,
macrophylla, G. nivea, G. ovalifolia and G. Flower heads, Inflorescence and Buds
piloselloides. Murashige and Skoog (MS) media
Gerbera belongs to the family Compositae. with modification is successfully used
45 species have been identified, native to as culture media.
tropical Asia and Africa. SOIL AND CLIMATE
SPECIES AND CULTIVARS: CLIMATE:
The genus Gerbera consists of about 40 species. The optimum day and night temperature is
Gerbera jamesonii is the only cultivated species.
27oC and 14oC respectively
For flower initiation is 23oC and for leaf
CLASSIFICATION
unfolding it is 25 - 27oC
There are single and double types of Sunny or semi-shady locations are good for
gerbera. gerbera cultivation.

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SOIL: BED PREPARATION:


To be successful in Gerbera cultivation, the soil
selection is very important. The main factors to be In general, Gerberas are grown on raised beds
considered are as follows; to assist in easier movement and better
Soil pH should be between 5.5 to 6.5 or it drainage. The dimensions of the bed should
should be maintained at this level to get be as follows:
maximum efficiency in absorption of Bed height : 1.5 ft (45cm)
nutrients.
Bed Width : 2 ft (60 cm)
The salinity level of soil should not be more Pathways between beds : 1 ft (30 cm)
than 1 ms/cm. Therefore, as soon as you
The beds for planting should be highly
select the sire, get the soil analyzed to decide
porous, well drained and airy.
its further reclamation.
Gravel/sand can be added at the bottom
Gerbera are deep rooted plants and the roots
for better drainage.
go as deep as 50 to 70cm.
Organic manure is recommended to
The soil should be highly porous and well improve soil texture and to provide
drained to have better root growth and better
nutrition gradually.
penetration of roots.
The soil should be loose all the time.
Organic manure and soil should be
DISINFECTION OF SOIL: mixed thoroughly for optimum
Before plantation of Gerbera, soil disinfection is results.
absolutely necessary. In particular, the The soil should not be very compact
fungus Phytophthora is a menace to Gerbera. after watering.
The various methods of sterilization are; The upper layer of soil and FYM should
be properly mixed.
1. Steam: Not economically feasible for
While bed preparation, add Single Super
Indian conditions.
Phosphate (0:16:0) @ 2.5 kg per 100
2. Sun: Cover the soil with plastic for 6-8 sqft for better root establishment and
weeks. Sunrays will heat up the soil, Magnesium Sulphate @ 0.5 kg per 100
which will kill most fungi. sqft to take care of deficiency of Mg.
3. Chemical sterilization:
@@@@
Use of formalin @ 7.5-10 lit/100sqm. LECTURE 9b
This pure chemical should be diluted 10 times PROTECTED CULTIVATION OF GERBERA
in water and then sprayed/drenched on beds.
Cover the beds with plastic sheets for 7 days. The height of the greenhouse/shade
house should be minimum 5-6.5 m; so
Then flush the soil approximately with 100
there is proper air circulation.
liters of water per sqm to drain the traces.
Sufficient ventilation space is required on
After sterilizing, subsequent washing out of the
top and sides.
soil.
To protect the plants in the monsoons
It is advised to wait for 2 weeks before
provision for covering the top with
plantation.
polythene or plastic sheet is advised.
Other chemicals that can be used are,
Methyl Bromide : @ 25 30g/sqm To control light intensity and solar
Basamid (Dazomet) : @ 30 40g/sqm radiation, while shade net (50-70%) is
used. Approximately 400w/m2 light
intensity is required on the plant level.
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Immediately after plantation, irrigate the plant


The ideal temperature for Gerbera flower
with overhead irrigation for four weeks to
bud initiation is 23oC and for leaf
enable uniform root development. Thereafter
unfolding is 25-27oC. The flowering of
gradually change to drip irrigation. Drip
Gerbera is harmed at below 12oC (Bud
irrigation is mainly for correct doses and
initiation will stop) and above 35oC
fertilizer application.
(Frequency of flowers will be very low &
absorption of buds will take place). Generally, one dripper per plant is required.
The aim is to provide sufficient irrigation in
The optimum humidity inside the
the 2nd year for extra foliage.
greenhouse/shade house should be 70-
75%, which will maintain the health of the The water requirement of Gerbera plant may be
plants. approximately 700 ml per plant per day. In
hot summer foggers can be utilized to
PLANTING: maintain the humidity of the air.
Before irrigation observe the soil column and
While planting Gerbera plants, the crown of visually check the soil moisture content. Then
plants should be 1-2 cm above soil level. decide on the quantity of irrigation required.
As the root system establishes the plants are It varies with seasons; however the frequency
pulled down. is the same.
Therefore, the crown must be above the ground Always water the plants before 12 noon.
level at planting and also throughout the life
Until the first flowers are produced, watering
cycle. can be done as overhead irrigation. Thereafter
Plant the seedlings without disturbing the root- irrigation is through drippers.
ball.
The R.H. of air should not exceed 90 92%, as it
Generally, two- three rows may be planted on will lead to deformity of flowers.
one bed at 37.5 to 40cm distance between the
As a thumb rule, the soil should be moderately
rows and 30cm distance between the plants in
moist-however never having excessive water.
one row.
Row Row =37.5- 40 cm FERTILIZATION:
Plant Plant =30.0cm
6 to 7 plants can be accommodated per sq m. Irrigate and fertilize frequently in small
quantities for optimum results. However,
Rake the soil surrounding the plant every
always take care to fulfill the crop
fortnight for aeration. requirement.
After plantation, maintain the humidity at 80
Micronutrients should be given weekly or
90% for 4 -6 weeks to avoid desiccation of
fortnightly as per the deficiency symptoms
plants. (preferably chelated source).
Gerbera can also be cultivated in pots as bench
Always analyze the soil once in 2-3 months to
system of planting.
decide specific nutrient schedule.
IRRIGATION: As a layman, whenever you enter the
greenhouse the plants should look very
Water quality should be as follows healthy and glossy.
o pH 6.5 7.0 25-75 t/ha of well decomposed organic manure
o EC 0.5 1 ms/cm is required.

Avoid excessive watering to gerbera 150:137:190 g NPK/m2 (40:40:40 g, three months


at monthly interval)
To lower the pH of water, add acids in the
water tank and then irrigate the plants. For the first three months after planting,
application of 20:20:20:N:P:K @ 1.5 g/l of
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water every two days during the vegetative Always add 7 10 ml commercial
stage encourages better foliage. bleach/Sodium Hypochlorite solutions in one
Once flowering commences. litre water i.e. 1% solution.
It has a maximum vase life of 7 to 8 days.
o N:P:K 15:8:35 at the rate of 1.5 g/l
water/day. Frequent re-cutting of stem ends is suggested.
The flowers are relatively insensitive to
o Boron deficiency causes base of young
ethylene.
leaves to turn black coloured.
A good flower has stalk length of 45 55cm,
Zinc deficiency symptoms can be identified and diameter of flower is 10 12cm.
with the C-shaped leaf structure caused by
Gerbera Cups - The packaging solution to
chlorosis on one half of the leaf blade which
ceases to expand, while the other half of the protect the gerbera flower
leaf is normal.
DISEASES/ PESTS:
CROPPING PATTERN AND HARVESTING OF
FLOWERS: Aphids, Greenhouse Whitefly, Leaf Miner,
Mites, Thrips,
Gerbera is a 24-30 months crop.
Crown Rot: Caused by Phytophthora
The first flowers are produced 7-8 weeks after cryptogea results in wilting disease of
plantation. Gerbera, Crown of the plant becomes
Harvesting is done when the two outer rows black.
of the disc florets are fully expanded and Root knot Nematode: Yellowing of leaves;
perpendicular to the stalk. nodules on roots.
The average yield is 240 flowers per sqm (6-7 Botrytis: Occurs especially when the
plants/sqm). relative humidity of the air is more than
The flowers are harvested when 2 3 whorls 92% for two hours in the morning gray
of stamens have entirely been developed; this spots on the flower petals rot in the heart
will decide the vase life of flowers. of flower.

Pluck the flowers in the morning or late in the NEVER APPLY THE FOLLOWING CHEMICALS
evening or during the day when temperature ON GERBERA:
is low.
Pluck the flower from the plant rather than Trade Name Consistent
cutting them. Hostathion Triazophos
Tilt Propiconazole
POST HARVEST HANDLING OF FLOWERS Topaz Penconazable
Cut the heel of the stem by giving an angular Contaf Hexconazole
cut. Cypermethrin
Spark
Pack the flowers in a box with following +Triazophos
dimensions. Polytrin Profenophos
Immediately after harvesting, flowers put in Metalaxyl 8% + Mancozeb
water and kept for four hours at 7 to 8oC Ridomil
64%
The cut flowers can be stored dry at 2oC in
moisture proof retentive boxes for two days Flower bent Loss of cell turgidity and
If stored wet at 4 to 5oC, the flowers can be under nutrition (lack of
kept for 5 to 7 days. Calcium)

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V Ai Awz zs
Pre-harvest stem break High root 9. Copper : Chlorosis in younger leaves;
pressure and high humidity flower develops bad.
in the air. 10. Molybdenum: Chlorosis on the edges of leaves.
Premature wilting of Gerbera flower 11. Boron : Bases of younger leaves are
Cloudy weather followed by bright sun black colored.
or carbohydrate depletion.
Double-faced Gerbera flower A Control measure
physiological disorder caused by
imbalance of nutrients. Chelated sources (like Microsole, Tracel, Micnelf)
Too much growth too little flower buds. of these microelements as a foliar spray
Non-uniform flower blooming @@@@
Physical injury to flower stem/pest
damage/phytotoxicity.
Short stem length High salinity level,
moisture stress, low soil temp.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS:

1. Nitrogen : General yellowing starts on


older leaves and them moves
gradually upward because
nitrogen is translocated out of
older leaves to the new growth
under deficiency.
2. Phosphorus : Brownish discoloration along
the vein on underside of old
leaves.
3. Potassium : Marginal necrosis of old
leaves.
4. Calcium : Extreme yellowing of young
leaves
5. Magnesium : Interveinal chlorosis on older
leaves and leaves get thick and
crispy.
6. Iron : Interveinal chlorosis on young
leaves. Serious deficiency
results in a yellowish-white
coloring.
7. Zinc : Chlorosis, one half of leaf
blade ceases to expand and
develop while other halt is
normal i.e., C shaped leaf
structure.
8. Manganese : Leaves turn yellowish, starting
with younger ones; veins
remain green, heavy chlorosis
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LECTURE- 10
GLADIOLI ORIGIN AND
(Gladiolus spp. Iridaceae) DISTRIBUTION:
There are around 200
INTRODUCTION: species scattered
throughout Tropical and South Africa and
Mediterranean region.
It is said to be the Queen of bulbous
flower crops and commonly known as It is said to be in cultivation since 1578. It was
Sword Lily or Corn flag. first introduced into France & soon after, it
spread to England, Germany, Holland &
The name gladiolus was originally coined
North America.
by Pliny the Elder.
No species is known to be native of India.
Gladiolus (Tournefort.) L. takes its name
from the Latin word Gladius meaning a In India it was introduced during British
sword, because of sword- like shape of period.
its foliage.
TAXONOMY:
IMPORTANCE AND USES:
Gladiolus L. belongs to the family Iridaceae.
Gladiolus is an important florist crop, Basic chromosome number is n=15.
most popular as cut flower in the Ploidy in the genus ranges from diploid
domestic and International market. (2n=30) to dodecaploid (2n=180)
In Netherlands, it ranks next only to tulip The modern garden gladiolus is a complex of
in commercial importance at least 12 species and most of the cvrs are
tetraploids (2n=60) & highly heterozygous,
It is relatively easy to grow and also they will not breed true to the type if grown
suitable for bedding and exhibition. from seeds.
The fascinating spikes bear a large SPECIES:
number of florets which exhibit varying
sizes and forms; with smooth, ruffled, There are about 226 recorded species
deeply crinkled or laciniated tepals. scattered in Republic of South Africa.

The flower spikes are used in flower The genus Gladiolus has further been
arrangements, in bouquets and for indoor divided into four sections.
decoration.
Section I: Euglandiolus which includes 100
Grandiflorus and Primulinus types look species.
very attractive in mixed flower borders.
Section II: Habea includes 12 spp.
Spikes of gladiolus have good keeping
Section III: Schweiggeria, includes only
quality and can be transported to long
two species.
distances.
Section IV: Homoglossum, includes 5-6
Its flowers open in acropetal succession,
species.
one by one and spike lasts for 1 to 3
weeks in ordinary vase water, depending
upon the season and variety.

Gladiolus natalensis, G. cardinalis, G.


communis, G. callianthus, G. arneus,
recurvus, G. tristis
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CLASSES OF GLADOIOLUS: Second ploughing is done followed by


rolling for a fine tilt hand remove weeds
On the basis of floret size, gladiolus has been and stubbles thoroughly before planting.
put into 5 classes, the description of which is as
follows: PROPAGATION:
Class Designation Floret size (cm) Seeds:
100 Miniature < 6.4 Gladiolus can be propagated through
200 Small or miniature 6.4 to < 8.9 (i) Corms
300 Decorative 8.9 to < 11.4 (ii) Cormels
400 Standard or Large 11.4 to 14.0 (iii) Seeds and
500 Giant > 14.0 (iv) Tissue culture
(i) Through Corms
CLIMATIC REQUIREMENT: Propagation of gladiolus through corms is a
Gladioli require full exposure to sunlight commercially used method.
for better crop, otherwise blasting may A single corm produces on an average of 1 to
occur or plants may remain blind. 3 flowers along with daughter corms in a
season depending upon its size and the
The long day conditions of 12 to 14 h
variety.
photoperiod increase number of florets,
spike length and percentage of 10-50 cormels can be obtained from a single
flowering. corm.

Low light intensity causes failure in (ii) Through Cormels


flowering.
Cormels from corms are used as
High light intensity without proper planting material.
temperature also affects growth
The multiplication of gladiolus
adversely.
through cormels is an inexpensive
Corm storage at 3 to 7oC is good for and rapid method which enables
better growth and flower production. build up of large stocks with
minimum cost.
SOIL REQUIREMENT:
The cormels also tend to escape
Gladioli can be grown in a wide range of diseases of viruses even if the
soils. parent corm is infected.
The soil should have proper drainage TIME OF PLANTING OF CORMS:
facilities.
North Western Plains October (first fortnight)
It should also contain sufficient organic Staggered planting can, however, be done at
matter. 10-15 day intervals from mid-August to mid-
The soil should be sandy-loam and December to get continued supply of spikes
slightly acidic with pH 5 to 8. over a longer period and to match the market
demand.
LAND PREPARATION:
In temperate climates, the corms are planted
Preferably, the bed size should be 6 x 2 after the winter, i.e. in March and April when
meters. frosts are over and climate becomes warm.
The first ploughing is done to a depth of PLANTING OF CORMS:
30cm two month before planting and left
as such for another 2-3 weeks.
Only the non-dormant corms should be
planted.

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The stems should be tied with strings to


The emergence of root buds at the base of
thin but strong supports
the corms shows that the corms are ready
for planting.
WEED CONTROL:
The corms should be suitably treated
with fungicides before planting.
Pro-emergence herbicides reported for
gladiolus are diuron (0.9 kg/ha) (or)
When planting, the lower portion of the linuron (3.0 kg/ha)
corm should be placed on the soil such
that the bud at the top lies straight above.
Post-emergence herbicides, 2, 4-D @ 1.5-
3.0 kg/ha has been found to reduce weed
It is done to make sure that the stem population.
grows erect and does not show crooked NUTRITION:
growth.
Commonly a 12:12:18 N:P:K compound
At planting time, the soil should contain fertilizer is applied prior to planting at 1
sufficient moisture to facilitate uniform ton per hectare.
sprouting of corms.
Gladiolus can be damaged by fluorine
The depth of planting depends more on and phosphatic fertilizers containing
the size of the planting materials. The fluorine should not be used.
medium and smaller sized corms are
generally planted upto 7 cm deep while The crop can be top dressed as required
large or jumbo corms to a depth up to 15 with calcium nitrate at an application
cm. rate of 200-300 kg per hectare.

Planting is carried out during October in


plains and March-April in hills. HARVESTING OF SPIKES AND POST
HARVEST OPERATIONS:
The row to row distance is normally 40
cm while plant-to-plant is 15 cm. Harvesting of Spikes:

The requirement of the corms per hectare Gladiolus takes 60-120 days to produce
is roughly 1, 50,000-2, 00,000. spikes.

IRRIGATION: The spikes of gladiolus generally exhibit


vase life of about 7-15 days.
Gladiolus requires water in plenty but
The spikes should be harvested in the
does not grow well under water-logged
morning or evening hours when
conditions.
temperatures are mild.
Frequency of irrigation depends upon the Spikes should preferably be cut with
soil type, weather conditions and rainfall. sharp knives or secateurs.
Normally in sandy soils, the crop should While harvesting, at least four basal
be irrigated at 7-10 day intervals, whereas leaves should be retained on the plant to
in heavy soils, at less frequent intervals. ensure proper development of corms and
cormels.
Irrigation should be withheld at least 4-6
weeks before lifting of corms. The stage at which the spike is to be cut
should depend upon the transportation
STAKING: distance, consumer requirement and
Especially large-flowered varieties of prevailing temperature conditions.
gladioli grown outdoors are susceptible
to lodging, hence need staking.

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o It helps to break dormancy of


HARVESTING AND STORAGE OF CORMS:
corms raised under warmer
It generally takes 6-8 weeks after climates,
harvesting of spikes fro the corms to o It helps to overcome warm and
become mature and ready for lifting. dry conditions of summer
Plant growth stops at this stage. months that intervene between
lifting or corms and their
Irrigations should normally be withheld
planting in the subsequent
at least 2-3 weeks before harvesting of
season, and
corms.
o It prevents premature sprouting
In India, lifting of corms is carried out of corms.
manually with small garden forks or
khurpas.
After lifting the corms from the soil, the @@@@@
upper leafy portions should be removed
by twisting and breaking the stalk.
The old withering mother corms attached
to the bottom of the newly-formed corms
should also be removed similarly with
the thumb.
The cormels should also be separated
simultaneously and handled separately.
The corms usually get damaged or
bruised during harvesting and cleaning
operations.
The corms should be cleaned, dipped for
30 min in 0.3% Captan 50 WP and shade-
dried at an aerated place for about 15
days.
Corms are then packed in crates or in net
bags and cold-stored at 3-7oC.
From cold storage, these corms should be
taken out one month prior to planting
and kept at ambient conditions at an
aerated place.
The corms or cormels of different
cultivars must be handled separately and
labeling properly so that they do not get
mixed up.
Before planting, these are once again
dipped for one hour in 0.3% Captan
solution
STORAGE OF CORMS:
Storage of corms at low temperature (4-
5oC) is an established commercial
practice.
It serves three main purposes:

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LECTURE -11 Some portions of the flowers are also used for
the production of perfumed hair oil and
JASMINE
attar.
(Jasminum spp.)
The world famous jasmine oil is extracted from
the flowers of the Spanish jasmine (J.
grandiflorum). Nearly 50% of worlds famous
INTRODUCTION: jasmine oil is produced from France and the
Jasmine (Jasminum spp.) is one of the oldest rest is contributed by Belgium, Netherlands,
Italy, Turkey, Morocco and Tunisia.
fragrant flowers.
The jasmine oil is considered unique as it
Jasmine being one of the
blends well with other floral extracts to make
important commercial high grade perfumes and cosmetics.
flower crops is cultivated
ORIGIN N HISTORY
in India.
Among the large number of species existing
It belongs to the family
only three species have attained importance in
Oleaceae. commercial cultivation.
As many as forty species of their genus are
The Arabian or Tuscan jasmine (J. sambac) -
known to be in India. native of the East Indies.
Important Species are The Royal jasmine or common white jasmine
1. Jasminum auriculatum : Vasantha Mallige or Poet's jasmine (J. officinale) -Persian origin.
2. Jasminum grandiflorum : The Spanish jasmine or Catalonion jasmine (J.
Jajimallige/Jathimalli (or) Pitchi (or) grandiflorum)
Spanish Jasmine Cooke (1905) stated that J officinale is a native
3. Jasminum sambac : Gundu mallige of Kashmir.
/Malligai / Arabian jasmine / Adorn in central Asia, Afghanistan, Iran,
Tuscan jasmine Nepal etc.
4. Jasminum pubescens (multiflorum) - In India it is being grown in 8000 hectare area.
Kakada India exports to Sri Lanka, Singapore,
Malaysia and Gulf countries
USES AND IMPORTANCE: Historic evidences show that even 200-500
They are mainly grown as climbers, shrubs and years ago, the jasmines were extensively used
rarely as pot plants. for hair ornamentation by the women in
China.
Jasmine flowers, known for their fragrance are
used for making garland.
DISTRIBUTION
Garlands are being used for personal adorning by
Though jasmines are distributed in tropical
women and in religious offerings.
and subtropical countries of the world,
Flowers and buds used, bouquets, vent/veni
preparation. No. of species are centered around India,
China and Malaysia
Production of perfumed oils and attars.
Among these, about 40 species are reported to
The world famous jasmine oil is extracted from
Spanish jasmine (J. grandiflorum). occur in India. Some of the important are as
follows,
The essential oil extracted from the flowers is of
high value as starting material for the perfume 1. J. auriculatum India
industry. 2. J. grandiflorm Subtropical Himalayan
There is tremendous scope for the development region
of jasmine essential oil industry for export. 3. J. sambac India
4. J. mulfiflorum India

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COMMERCIALLY IMPORTANT SPECIES: Since jasmine is commercially grown in India


under open field conditions, the ideal
1. Jasminum auriculatum (Vasantha mallige) requirements for successful cultivation of
Shrubby in nature these plants are mild winter, warm summer,
Leaves are shiny, with auricles moderate rainfall and sunny days.
Flowers white, sweet scented
Corolla lobes elliptic, carpels solitary PROPAGATION AND PLANTING MATERIAL:
and globose
Fruits black. Flowers -perfumes. Jasmines are commercially propagated by
Cultivars- Parimullai, CO 1 and CO 2 cuttings and layering.
2. Jasminum grandiflorum (Spanish jasmine) J. auriculatum - Semi-hard wood
Woody bush
J. grandiflorum - Terminal cutting
Leaves : Pinnate with 3-5 leaflets of equal
size J. sambac - Terminal and Semi-
Flower: White, pinkish at the base, very hardwood cuttings.
much fragrant and commercially
Growth regulators. IAA (or) IBA treated at
Used for essential oil extraction.
1000 ppm for terminal cuttings and 2500 ppm
Cultivars- CO 1, CO 2 and Arka surabhi. for semi-hard wood cuttings.
3. Jasminum sambac (Gundu mallige)
The treatment is quick dip method of the basal
cut end before planting in the medium.
Evergreen twine. Leaves cordite to
oblong, acute or obtuse, waved, Best rooting medium is sand: Vermiculate:
almost sessile, rather thin; moss at 1:1:1 ratio.
Flowers white, fragrant usually in
small, 3-forked cymes. PLANT SPACING, DENSITY AND SEASON:
Almost continuous.
Species Spacing Density(P Season
Variety florepleno: shows a double-
lants/ha)
flowered form.
J.auriculatum June to
Cvs : Ramanathapuram, Gundumalli, 1.5 x 1.5 m 4400
November
Khoya and Arka Aradhana,
J.grandiflorum 2.0 x 1.5 m 3350 - do -
Ramabanam madanban, Single mogra,
1.25 x 1.25 m
Double mogra, Soojimalli, J.sambac 6400 - do -
Kasthurimalli
PLANTING:
4. J. multiflorum (Kakada)
Straggly, downy shrub, leaves-
Land with proper drainage, irrigation facilities
corodate, mucronate, hairy beneath;
and sunny location are essential.
Flowers white, large, mild fragrant,
petal 6-9, lanceolate.
Pits of 45 cm3 are dug at least one month
before planting and exposed to sunlight.
Round the year flowering
A few days before planting, pits are filled with
CULTURAL REQUIREMENTS: 2 parts of FYM and one part each of fresh
SOIL AND CLIMATE: earth and coarse sand.
Jasmine prefers mild tropical climate. Pits are to be watered to settle the mixture.
Loamy (or) Red loamy and well drained garden Well rooted, healthy and strong plants are
soil is the best suited. planted one in each pit.

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NUTRITION: It also influences growth, flower bud


Jasmine responds to intensive manuring. initiation, differentiation and ultimately the
flower production.
Too much of manuring encourages vegetative
growth and hampers quality and quantity of
PRUNING PERIOD:
blooms.
J. sambac - Last week of November
Quantity(g/ J. grandiflorum - Last week of December
plant) J. auriculatum - Last week of January
Species
P2 K2 Method Pruning is done at a height of 45-50 cm
N
O5 O from the ground level.
J. auriculatum 60 120 120 Six split doses at
bimonthly WEEDING:
interval
J. grandiflorum 100 150 100 In two split doses Commonly done manually but is expensive.
first June-July Chemical weed control is effective and
and second dose economical.
at December Spraying with Oryzalin 1 or 2 applications is
after pruning effective.
J. sambac 60 120 120 Two split doses Mulching also reduce weed population.
first at June-
July and second HARVESTING:
at November
after pruning Jasmine gives economic yield only from the
NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENT: third year and upto 12-15 years and then starts
FOLIAR NUTRITION: declining in their yield.
Spraying of zinc 0.25% and magnesium 0.5% The stage of harvest depends on the purpose
before flowering increases the yield of flowers. of flowers to be harvested.
Spray Feso4 at 5g/lit. at monthly intervals For fresh flowers, fully developed unopened
until the chlorotic symptoms disappear. flower buds are picked in the early morning,
while for extraction of concrete only fully
IRRIGATION: opened fresh picked flowers are required.
Plants are irrigated by flooding once in a Picking of flowers after 11am will
week. considerably reduce the yield and quality of
Sufficient amount of moisture in the soil is the concrete.
necessary for proper growth and flowering. Pluckers collect the flowers in a bag.
Jasmines can be irrigated once in ten days Care should be taken to see that the flowers
depending on the soil and climatic conditions. are not badly handled.
Wrinkled and damaged during harvest and
PRUNING:
transit will affect fresh flowers and concrete
NEED FOR PRUNING:
recovery will be affected and the entire
In jasmine, flowering habit is terminal and product may be unmarketable.
axillary.
So increasing the number of shoots is the main
criterion to increase the yield, for this pruning
is an essential operation.

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GRADING:
There are no standard grades available for EXTRACTION OF JASMINE CONCRETE:
jasmine.
Jasmine concrete obtained from Jasminum
The flowers may be graded according to the
grandiflorum (Jathi Malli/Pitchi) is a wax like
corolla tube length, bud size, shape and
substance containing the natural flower
freshness.
perfume together with some plant waxes,
albumin and colouring matter.
PACKING:
The natural perfume is available in very small
Packing should be functional, economical and quantity (0.25%) in jasmine flowers in the form
attractive besides being acceptable in markets.
of volatile oil.
Harvested flower should be given cold The usual and simple method of steam
treatment before packing. distillation for the extraction of the volatile oil
Corrugated cardboard boxes are the proper could not be adopted in this case as jasmines
packing materials for distant market. do not yield the perfume oil on steam
The growers also use small bags made out of distillation.
fertilizer bag material to bring flowers of Hence, the solvent extraction method is
jasmine to the market. practiced in which the principle is that the
Wholesalers pack flowers in bamboo baskets. odoriferous substances of the flower are
allowed to be absorbed by a highly volatile
They are packed so as to maintain some
solvent and then the solvent is evaporated
moisture and air circulation in the baskets.
leaving the odoriferous principles.
Water is sprinkled on the newspapers
covering the inside of the basket.
FLOWERS:
The top is covered with paper again and
closed with a bamboo basket cover or gunny For extraction of concrete, only freshly picked
stack which is stitched at the edges. fully opened flowers are required.
YIELD: Jathimalli flowers open in the evening between
Flower and concrete yield in jasmines vary 5-7 p.m.
considerably according to the species and
The fully opened flowers have to be picked in
cultivars and management practices.
the early morning preferably before 9.30 a.m.,
The flower yield and concrete recovery in
three important species of jasmine are: Delay in picking flowers after 9.30 a.m. results
in gradual reduction of concrete yield.
Species Flower Concrete Shelf Picking the flowers after 11.00 a.m. will
yield recovery (%) life of considerably reduce the yield and quality of
(kg/ha) flowers concrete especially in the hot climate.
J.auriculatum 4636 0.28 to 0.36 28-30
Therefore, it is essential to pick the fully opened
(13.44 to 28.24 hrs
9022 flowers in the morning before it becomes hot.
kg/ha)
J.grandiflorum 4329 0.25 to 0.32 24 hrs The flowers should be harvested and
(13.85 to 29.42 transported in clean baskets or cloth bags.
10144 kg/ha)
The flowers should be picked in such a way
J. sambac 739 0.14 to 0.19 28-30
that at the time of picking, the sweat, dirt etc.,
(1.18 to 15.44 hrs
8129 of the picking personal do not contaminate
kg/ha)

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them. The contamination will reflect in the The complete extraction of the perfume from the
quality of the concrete. flowers can also be ensured by slowly rotating
the container having the flowers and solvent for
While picking and transporting care should be
about 20 minutes in the rotary type of extractor.
taken not to damage the flowers.

The damaged flowers yield concrete with more EVAPORATION:


percentage of unwanted wax and other plant
After the complete extraction of the perfume
materials.
from the flowers, the solvent is filtered and
The flowers harvested should be stored in a concentrated by evaporation at a constant
cool atmosphere and processed within a temperature of 750C.
maximum period of two hours. At this temperature, the solvent evaporates
leaving the perfume and other plant waxes.
PROCESSING: The vapour of the solvent is condensed into
Processing of jasmine flowers involves two liquid again for recycling.
steps.
The concentrated liquid containing perfume,
1. Dissolving the perfume material by treating the wax, pigments and the solvent is distilled in a
flowers with the solvent. vacuum distillation unit where the complete
2. Removal of the solvent from the perfume removal of the solvent takes place, leaving the
material by evaporation. floral concrete in the form of molten wax.
Based on the above principle, Tamil Nadu
TREATMENT OF FLOWERS WITH SOLVENT: Agricultural University, Coimbatore has
The fully opened flowers are treated with the designed a pilot plant for extraction of floral
solvent so that all the odoriferous material in the concrete.
flowers gets dissolved in the solvent. It has essentially four steps viz.,
In this process, the solvent penetrates the (1) Extractor
flowers and dissolves the waxes, albumin and (2) Evaporator
colouring matter also, which have to be (3) Condenser And
removed later to get pure perfume oil. (4) Vacuum Distillation Unit.
EXTRACTOR:
In solvent extraction process, the most
important factor is the quality of solvent used. The extractor used is a rotary type.
Though there is no solvent possessing all the It has a capacity to treat 3 kg of flowers at a
qualities, the commercial food grade hexane has time.
found to satisfy many of the requirements of
For every kg of flowers, 2 liters of solvent is
good solvent and hence used in large scale for
added and the extractor is closed tightly and
the extraction of floral concrete throughout the rotated slowly for 25 minutes at the rate of 3
world. rotations per minute.
Food grade hexane available in the market has
After five minutes, the flowers are allowed to
to be purified before using it as solvent. stand in the solvent for another 20 minutes.
Food grade hexane is treated with liquid
During the process, the solvent absorbs the
paraffin at 5% and distilled at 700C. The residue
perfume of the flower.
which is not evaporating at 700C is rejected as
impurities. After mixing, the solvent is drawn through the
drain cock at the bottom of the extractor, and
The purified hexane is a colourless liquid with a
filtered through a fine filter to remove the dust,
boiling point ranging from 600C to 800C.
dirt etc.
The flowers are treated with purified hexane at
2 liters per kg of flower for about 30 minutes.
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transferred to vacuum distillation unit where


By opening the drain cock all the free solvent
the complete removal of the solvent is effected,
may come out but still a small quantity of
and the concrete is left in the still in the form
perfume laden solvent may be sticking to the
of molten wax.
spent flowers in the extractor.
Here also the still should not be heated directly.
To draw this small quantity of solvent the spent
The heating should be done on a water bath.
flowers are gently pressed. It must be noted
that the flowers should never be squeezed to Since vacuum has been created into the still, the
remove the solvent completely. solvent evaporates quickly at lower temperature
which is condensed in the condenser and
EVAPORATOR: collected for recycling.
The perfume laden solvent is led into the The heating should be continued till the last
evaporator. traces of hexane are removed.
The evaporator is a wide mouthed circular The operation can be stopped when there is no
bowel made in stainless steel with a capacity to condensation of hexane vapour in the
condenser.
hold 25 litres of solvent.
It has an air tight lid with a hole at the centre for After the complete removal of the solvent, a
the outlet of the solvent vapour. semi-solid was like brown substance is left in
the still which is the jasmine concrete of
The evaporator is heated over a water bath at a
commerce.
constant temperature of 750C.
The water bath is heated electrically by 2000 The material when it is hot is transferred to the
container in which it has to be stored, when
watt heating elements and the temperature is
cooled it solidifies and transfer to other
kept 750C by thermostatic control. containers may be difficult.
Temperature control is essential as high
The concrete can be stored in glass or
temperature and prolonged heating at
aluminium containers.
atmospheric pressure will spoil the quality and
appearance of the concrete. CONCRETE:
The evaporator should never be directly heated. It is a wax like substance containing the natural
It should be heated either over a water bath or flower perfume together with some plant
by steam circulation. waxes, albumin and colouring matter.
As the temperature rises in the evaporator, the The natural perfume is available in very small
hexane evaporates and the vapour escapes quantity (0.25%) in jasmine flowers in the form
through the hole in the lid which is led into the of volatile oil.
condenser through a stainless steel pipe.
PROCESSING PROTOCOL:
CONDENSER: TWO STEPS
The condenser also is made of stainless steel I. Dissolving the perfume material by
and it contains several (12) small pipes fitted treating the flowers with solvent.
parallely through which solvent vapour is II. Removal of the solvent from the perfume
passed.
material by evaporation.
By circulating cold water in the condenser
continuously the solvent vapour is condensed
EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED:
and it is collected for recycling.
The heating of the evaporator is continued till 1. Extractor (Rotary type of 3 kg
about 90% of the solvent is recovered by capacity)
condensation which may take about 30 hours. 2. Evaporator (wide mouthed circular
The remaining 10% of the solvent containing all stainless steel bowel of 25 litre
the aromatic oil and waxy material is capacity with air tight lid + hole at
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the center for the outlet of solvent LECTURE -12


vapour) MARIGOLD
3. Condenser (Stainless steel with 12 (Tagetes spp., Asteraceae)
small pipes fitted parallelly for
solvent vapour passing and IMPORTANCE:
circulating cold water to condense
the solvent). Marigold has gained
popularity amongst
4. Vacuum distillation unit.
gardeners and
flower dealers on
STEP I SOLVENT TREATMENT: account of its easy
culture and wide
Flowers are soaked in Food Grade Hexane (Having adaptability.
Boiling point of 70oC). Free flowering and short duration.

Mixing Hexane 2 litres / kg of flowers for 30 minutes Wide spectrum of colour, shape, size and good
keeping quality.
Rotate the container slowly for 20 minutes in the Marigold is also known as Friendship Flower
rotary type of extractor. in the United States.

Perfume substance along with wax and pigments In language of flowers, marigold, in general,
dissolved in Hexane. means anxiety but despair or grief, in
particular.
STEP II EVAPORATION: African marigold represents vulgar minds
whereas,
Perfume laden solvent is led into the evaporator French marigold is a symbol of jealousy.
Evaporation at a constant temperature of 75oC USES:

Vapour of the solvent condemned into liquid for Used for garland, veni and other
recycling decorations.
The long stemmed flowers used for vase
Liquid (Perfume, wax & pigments) is distilled in a
arrangements.
vacuum distillation unit for complete removal of
solvent in the still It is highly suitable as bedding plant, in
an herbaceous border, also as shrubbery
Floral concrete settled in the still in the form of molten in landscaping.
wax French marigold is ideal for rockery,
edging, hanging baskets and window
Cooled and Stored in glass (or) aluminum containers boxes.
Have medicinal properties to cure boils
and carbuncles.
Floral extract is used as a blood purifier
and cure for bleeding piles.
Good remedy for eye diseases and ulcers.
Some species of Tagetes are used for
essential oil extraction.
The Pigments (Xanthophylls) are used as
a natural colour to intensify yellow
colour of egg yolk and broiler skin, flesh
and also for fish.
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Xanthophylls are the major carotenoid Flowers are small, either single or double
fraction in the flower petals. The flower colour varies from yellow to
Lutein accounts for 80 90% of total mahogany red.
xanthophylls content. In India the cultivation of T. erecta and T.
patula are dominant.
Used for colouring the food stuffs, textile
industries and pharmaceuticals.
GENETICS AND BREEDING
Tagetes patula contain essential oil which
can readily be extracted by steam Genetics:
distillation. Towner 1961 compiled the species of Tagetes
The oil has a pronounced odour and acts based on their chromosome number is as follows
as a repellent to flies. Diploid species - 2n :
Trap crop -It is highly effective in Tagetes erecta - 24
reducing the population of nematodes Tetraploid species - 4n : T.
under control and also attracts the fruit patula - 48
borers in many vegetables, fruits and
ornamental plants. MALE STERILITY:

ORIGIN AND HISTORY There are two types of male sterility is observed by
Goldsmith during 1968 in marigold viz.,
The name Tagetes was given after 1. Apetalous
Tages, a demigod, known for his beauty. 2. Double flowered.
African marigold was first introduced into Apetalous male sterility is more preferred to full
Spain early in the 16th century and double flowers.
became popular in Southern Europe Because the second one is prone to break down
under the name, Rose of the Indies. This and it gives few disc florets at later stages
plant was reintroduced into Europe in which, may be due to the age of the plant or
1535 under the name, Flos Africonus by environmental factors.
Emperor Charles V. Apetalous flowers are less attractive to
pollinating insects.
It continued to be so called until well upto Male sterility is governed by recessive gene and
the 18th century, although it was correctly is incorporated into seed parent.
figured as Plantas tagetes indica in Fuchs It is maintained by crossing the heterozygous
Herbal of 1547 (Genders, 1971). plants with the sterile ones.
It is native of central and Southern
America, especially Mexico. BREEDING:
SPECIES
There are about 33 species of the genus Self incompatible and cross pollinated crop.
Tagetes. Some of the important are as follows The ratio of CP to SP is 35:65

1. Tagetes erecta (African marigold): CULTIVATION:


Plant is hardy, annual, upto 90 cm tall, CLIMATIC REQUIREMENT:
erect and branched. Marigold requires mild climate for
luxuriant growth and profuse flowering.
Flowers are single to fully double and
large sized with globular heads. It ceases to grow at high temperature
thereby flower quantity and quality is
Flower varies from lemon yellow to adversely affected.
yellow, golden yellow or orange. During severe winter including frost
plants and flowers are killed and
2. Tagetes patula (French marigold):
blackened.
A hardy annual, about 30 cm tall, bushy Sowing and planting is carried out
type. during rainy season, winter and summer
Foliage is dark green with reddish stem. season.
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Hence, flowers of marigold can be had About 10 cm long cuttings are made and
almost throughout the year. treated with seradix No.1.
The cuttings are planted in the sand to
SOIL REQUIREMENT: strike roots easily and plants thus raised
Marigold can be successfully cultivated are used for bedding and pot planting.
on a wide variety of soils.
However, a soil that is deep fertile and TRANSPLANTING OF SEEDLINGS:
sandy loam, friable having well water Marigold seedlings will be easily
holding capacity, well drained and near established after transplanting in the field
to neutral in reaction without much mortality.
pH of 7.0-7.5 is most desirable. At the time of transplanting, seedlings of
one month old with 3-4 true leaves have
PREPARATION OF SOIL: to be selected for proper establishment
Land should be well prepared by and higher yield.
ploughing 2-3 times and 50 tones of well Aged seedling should not be selected.
decomposed farmyard manure should be Transplant should be done early in the
well mixed. morning or late in the evening. One side
Beds of convenient size are made to of the ridges formed.
facilitate irrigation and other cultural After transplanting, a light irrigation has
operations. to be given.

PROPAGATION: SPACING:
Marigold is propagated by both In general Tagetes erecta requires wider
methods i.e., spacing than T. patula. However a wide
1. Seeds range is practiced all over the country for
2. Cuttings. higher yield. They are as follows,
BY SEEDS: Tagetes erecta Tagetes patula
Crop raised from seeds is taller than the 1) 40 x 40cm 1) 20 x 20cm
vegetatively propagated one and 2) 45 x 30cm 2) 30 x 30cm
vigorous and heavy bloomer; thus, it is 3) 60 x 45cm
preferred over cuttings.
For better seed germination, optimum MANURES AND FERTILIZERS:
temperature range between 18 to 30oC
is required. To get highest flower yield, 100 kg N, 100
Seed rate of 1.5 kg is required for one kg P2O5 and 100 kg K2O should be mixed
hectare area. at the time of preparation of land.
Seeds of marigold can be sown in pots, Remaining 100 kg N per ha should be
seed boxes or on flat or raised nursery applied in 2 splits @ 30 and 40 days after
beds. transplanted.
Nursery beds of 3 x 1 m size are
WEEDING:
thoroughly prepared and mixed with 10
kg of well decomposed farmyard
3-4 manual weeding are required
during the entire growth period.
manure per sq m
IRRIGATION:
BY CUTTINGS: It takes about 55-60 days to complete
This method is commonly followed for vegetative growth and to enter into
reproductive phase.
maintaining the purity of varieties.
Normally, the presence of adventitious Season of planting determines the
roots along the stem helps in the frequency of irrigation.
establishment of cuttings. If rainfall is normal and well
distributed, irrigation is not frequently
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required, but if the rain is scanty PESTS


irrigation is needed frequently.
1. Red spider mite : Spray Kelthane @ 2ml/l
From April to June, frequent irrigation
2. Hairy caterpillar: Spray Endosulfan or Ekolux
at the interval of 4-5 days is required.
@ 2ml/l
PINCHING: 3. Leaf hopper : Spray wits Melathian or Rogar
@ 2ml/l
In tall varieties of Tagetes erecta, 4. Japanese Beetle
emergence of side branches and their 5. Tarnished plant bug,
flowering is influenced by the presence of
6. Slugs
apical dominance.
Due to which the plants of marigold
grow straight upwards to their final HARVESTING AND YIELD:
height and develop into terminal flower
bud. Marigold flower should be plucked when
However the apical portion of the shoot they attain the full size depending upon
is removed at the early stage to get more the variety.
number of axillaries which in turn Plucking of flowers should be done in
produces more flowers. cool hours of the day i.e, either in the
Pinching the plants at 40 days after morning or evening.
transplanting enabled the plants to yield Field should be irrigated before
more flowers. harvesting so that, flowers keep well for
longer period after plucking.
FLOWERING
Plucked flowers should be covered with
In summer season crop, - commences
moist gunny bags if kept overnight
by the middle of May with maximum
before taking to market.
intensity in the month of June and
continues till the onset of rains. Productivity of plants increases
Rainy season crop - by the middle of considerably by regular plucking of
September and the flowering will flowers.
continue till December.
Flowering in winter crop - by the YIELD
middle of January and will continue
No. of flowers Fresh flower
till March.
(Million/ha) (t/ha)
PESTS AND DISEASES: 1) African marigold 1.5 2.5 11 18
2) French marigold 6.0 8.0 8 12
Diseases (Fungal): Causal organism
Measures Marigold Flower Polysaccharide (MFP):

1. Damping off (Rhizoctonia solani) Seed MFP can be extracted from the meal with warm
treatment with capton @ 0.5% (50-55oC) water.
2. Collor rot: (Rhizoctonia solani): Seed Petals were separated from the rest of the
treatment with capton @ 0.5%. flower and extracted in a soxhlet apparatus
Phytophthora sp. Pythium sp. Sclerotium rolfsi with methanol.
3. Leaf spot (Alternaria tagetica) Spray with Blitox
@ 0.4% or Cercospora spp. Bavistin @ 0.1% @@@@@
4. Blight (Colletotrichum capsia) DM 45 @ 0.2%
5. Inflorescence blight (Alternaria zinnac) DM 45 @
0.2% or Bavistin @ 0.1%
6. Powdery mildew (Oidium sp.) Spray with
calixin, sulfex @ 0.2% (WS) @ 0.2%
Viral diseases: Marigold is infected by CMV, Aster
yellow virus
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LECTURE-13 The tuberose flower oil of commerce is one of


TUBEROSE the most sought after and expensive raw
(Polianthes tuberosa L.; Amaryllidaceae) materials in perfumery.
The fresh flowers give a concrete yield of 0.08
INTRODUCTION: to 0.11 %, of which nearly 18 to 23%
constitutes the alcohol-soluble 'absolute'.
Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa
L.), belonging to the family, The essential oil is used in only the highest
Amaryllidaceae, grade perfumes. Sometimes, the oil is used
in flavouring candy, beverages and baked
It is essentially a florist's flower
food.
and one of the leading
commercial crops because of
ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION:
its multifarious uses.
The predominant characteristics of this crop The tuberose is a native of Mexico.
are its lingering, delightful fragrance and It is grown largely in the southern states of
excellent keeping quality. America, Italy, France, Morocco, South Africa,
Taiwan, Egypt and many other tropical and
It has a great economic potential for cut
subtropical areas in the world.
flowers trade and essential oil industry.
The word tuberose is derived from tuberose.
Due to their great demand it is being
This plant is being the tuberous hyacinth and
cultivated in most part of the tropical and
distinguishes from the bulbous hyacinth.
subtropical countries.
In India, tuberose is cultivated on a commercial
IMPORTANT AND USES scale in Ranaghat, Kolaghat and Panskura in
West Bengal,
The flowers remain fresh for pretty long time
and stands long distance transport. Devanahalli, Tumkur and Mysore in Karnataka;

They are used for making artistic garlands, East Godavari, Guntur, Chittoor and Krishna
floral ornaments, bouquets and buttonholes. districts of Andhra Pradesh;

The long flower spikes are excellent cut Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu and
flowers for table decoration. Pune and Thane in Maharashtra.
The variegated ones with beautiful golden
stripes on foliage margins are very attractive SPECIES AND
and suitable for garden display. VARIETIES:

The fleshy, white, tubular flowers emit a There are about fifteen species under the
strong odour and hence are cultivated on a genus Polianthes, of which twelve species
large scale in some parts of the world for the have been reported from Mexico and Central
extraction of highly valued natural flower oil, America.
the tuberose oil.
Of these, nine species have white flowers, one
The tuberose oil contains methyl benzoate, is white and red and two are red.
methyl anthranilate, benzyl alcohol, benzyl
Except Polianthes tuberosa L., all the others are
benzoate, butryic acid, phenyl acetic acid,
found growing wild.
methyl salicylate, eugenol, geraniol, nerol
both free and as acetates, farnesol, methyl
vanillin and piperomel. Polianthes tuberosa L.:
An erect herb, 60-120 cm high with stout and
The leaves, flowers, bulbs and roots are short bulbs
reported to contain sterols, triterpenes,
Leaves basal, 6-9 in number, 30-45 cm long,
carbohydrates, saponins and traces of
alkaloids. about 1.3 cm wide, linear, bright green,
reddish near the base,
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Flowers funnel shaped, waxy white, the DESCRIPTION OF COMMERCIAL CULTIVARS:


tube bent only near the base, filaments Tuberose cultivars are classified into
attached on upper part of corolla, three types, based on the number of
Fragrant, in long terminal racemes. rows of petals.
(i) SINGLE FLOWERED:
There are three types of tuberoses named on
the basis of the number of rows of petals Ex., Rajat Rekha, Calcutta Single,
they bear. They are, Shringar, Single Mexican etc.,
Cultivars having flowers with one
o Single,
row of corolla segments.
o Semi-double, Flowers are extensively used for
o Double and variegated, essential oil extraction and also for
The single type has the most fragrance. loose flowers.
Single types are more fragrant than
The flowers are pure white and are popular
double.
among the growers for the production of
essential oil. Also the per cent seed setting is high
in single.
Calcutta Single and Single Mexican the single
Its floral buds are greenish white.
varieties, are being grown in Tamil Nadu.
Flowers are pure white with only one
Suvasini a single type variety has been row of corolla segment.
released by the IIHR, Bangalore.
Concrete content has been observed
Rajat Rekha single flowered mutant has to be 0.08 to 0.11 per cent.
been released by the National Botanical Loose flowers are used for making
Research Institute (NBRI), Lucknow.
floral ornaments.
The 'Semi-double' type bears white flowers
with two to three rows of corolla segments.
(ii) SEMI DOUBLE FLOWERED:
The 'Double' type has more than three rows
Flowers with 2-3 rows of corolla
of corolla segments and is white in colour.
segments on straight spikes used for
The flowers tinged with red in the 'Double'
cut flowers also
type are known as 'Pearl'.
E.g. Cv. Semi Double bears white
o Pearl Double is high flower yielder with flowers with two to three rows of
quality. corolla.
o Swarna Rekha is another double
mutant, has been released by the NBRI, (III) DOUBLE FLOWERED:
Lucknow. The leaf-margin is streaked Varieties: Swarna Rekha, Suvasini
with golden-yellow. Flowers with more than three rows of corolla
o There are some streaked leaf-forms, segments on long and sturdy spikes used as
known as 'variegated', cut flower as well as loose flower and for
o In others the flowers have little tinge of extraction of essential oil.
red in the bud-stage, which turns to Concrete recovery has been found to be
white when fully open. 0.06%.
o Other varieties include 'Albinos' and Flower colour white and also tinged with
'Excelsior' pinkish red.
The double type of tuberose is previously
known as pearl.

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It does not open well and is not August.


commercially viable as the single Tuberoses can be planted all year round in
cultivar. Bangalore, but a higher flower-yield is
obtained from the April-May planting.
SOIL AND CLIMATIC REQUIREMENT: To obtain flowers almost throughout the year,
SOIL: sequential planting can be practiced.
Tuberose can be grown on wide variety of soils
from light, sandy loam to a clay loam.
The soil should be at least 45 cm deep, well LAND PREPARATION:
drained, friable, rich in organic mater and The land is ploughed deep, twice, to a depth of
nutrients with plenty of moisture in it. 45 cm.
The soil should have a pH range from 6.5 to 7.5 The first ploughing is done in January and the
with good aeration. second about a month before planting.
The crop can be grown even in high saline-
At the time of the second ploughing apply FYM
alkaline soils with better agronomical @ 20-50 t/ha and incorporate into the soil.
practices.
Then the soil is brought to a fine tilth by
It is observed that the vegetative growth and
breaking the clods and removing the weeds.
flowering are affected by increasing the levels
of NaCI and very a low concentration of The field is laid out into plots of convenient
sizes with irrigation channels, ridges and
CaCI2.
furrows at the recommended spacing.

CLIMATE: CULTIVATION:
The crop is best suited for cultivation in tropical PROPAGATION:
to subtropical and temperate climates.
Tuberoses are propagated by bulbs, bulblets
The crop is reported to flower profusely and seeds.
throughout the year, if the climate is mild and
Multiplication by bulb-segments and in vitro
free from extremes of high and low
micro propagation from scale stem-sections
temperature.
is also possible.
A temperature range from 20-30C is
Propagation by bulbs is the most common
considered ideal for this crop.
method practiced for the commercial
If the temperature is above 40C, the spike multiplication of tuberoses.
length and quality of the flowers are affected.
The bulbs remain dormant during the winter
Very low temperature and frost will damage months in places where the temperature is
the plants and flowers. low and,
Tuberoses grow well in a sunny situation. If early planting is desired, the dormancy can
be successfully broken by dipping the bulbs
Although the plant is photosensitive, exposure
in 4% Thiourea solution for one hour.
to a day-length of about 16 hours appreciably
promotes vegetative growth and enhances the Ethylene chlorohydrins can also be used for
emergence of the first flower-spike by 10 days. breaking the dormancy.
The length of the flower-spike also increases The bulbs are separated from the clumps by
under long days. rubbing off the loose scales and the long
roots should also be removed.
SEASN OF PLANTING:
Spindle-shaped bulbs with a diameter of 2.6
Tuberoses are generally planted in February-
to 3 cm size are used for planting.
March in the plains and April-May in the hills.
However, if the bulbs are very large they may
The bulbs can also be planted during July-
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be cut into 2-3 vertical sections, each IRRIGATION:


containing a bud and part of the basal plate. Irrigation is given immediately after planting.
Each of these sections is treated with copper Subsequently, the crop is irrigated at 5-7 days
fungicide and planted vertically with their intervals depending upon weather conditions.
tips just showing above the surface. In the summer months, irrigation is recom-
About 8 to 9 tons of bulbs are required to mended twice a week.
plant an area of one hectare.
INTERCULTURE:
PLANTING:
In order to keep the plots free of weeds and to
The density of planting markedly influences avoid the exposure of bulbs, the plots are
the yield and quality of the flowers. weeded and earthed-up once a month.
The planting distance varies with the soil and Earthing-up enables the spikes to grow erect,
climatic conditions. despite strong winds and rains.
About 1, 00,000 to 2, 00,000 bulbs are required The application of Atrazine (@ 3 kg/ha) as a
for planting one hectare of land. pre-emergent weedicide keeps the plots weed-
free.
A spacing of 15 x 20 cm (Maharashtra), 25 x 25
cm (West Bengal), 30 x 30 cm (Lucknow), 30 x A pre-emergent treatment of Gramaxone (@ 3
22.5 cm (Bangalore) and 20 x 20 cm (for other kg/ha) followed by three post- emergent
part of South India) have been recommended sprayings at intervals of 110 days in between
for this crop. the rows also keeps the crop weed free.
While planting, the bulbs are planted at the Mulching the plots with strips of black
recommended plant-spacing, 3.5 cm deep on polythene, dried grass and chopped straw is
the sides of the ridges. effective in controlling weeds.
The plots are irrigated immediately after The flower-spikes should be supported by
planting. stakes after about 2 1/2 months of planting.

FERTILIZER APPLICATION: PESTS OF TUBEROSE:


100 kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O /ha is Tuberoses are hardy crops and are not much
recommended for tuberose production. affected by attacks of insects, pests and
diseases.
For achieving increased essential oil content in
flowers and for the maximum recovery of Aphids and grasshoppers are found to feed on
concrete, a fertilizer dose of 80 kg N, 60 kg flower buds and leaves.
P2O5 and 40 kg K2O/ha has been They can be controlled by a 0.1 % spray of
recommended. Malathion or Rogor at an interval of 15 days.
Of the full recommended dose of fertilizers, The flowers also get deformed by thrips attack.
half the N, the full dose of P and K has to be The control measure suggested is to spray
applied at the time of planting and the Nuvacron (0.1 %) or the application of Thimet
remaining half of N is given as a top-dressing to the soil.
after 45 days of planting.
Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and
Apart from N, P and K, calcium, magnesium, greasy streak nematode (Aphelencoides besseyi)
sulphur, iron, zinc, manganese, aluminium, are reported to cause damage to the crop,
boron and copper have also been found to which is characterized by the stunted growth
influence the growth and flowering in of the plants. The leaf size is reduced and the
tuberoses. flowers look sickly and, ultimately, the roots
rot. The application of Thimet or Furadan (20
kg/ha) to the soil has been recommended for
control.
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DISEASES OF TUBEROSE: The stem portion of the bundle has to be


wrapped with news paper.
The fungi, Scelerotium rolfsii, deposits
prominent, coarse, mycelial masses on the leaf To avoid damage of the flowers and buds, the
surface or near the soil-level. Later, the whole bundle may be wrapped with soft,
infested spots exhibit a light-green colour due
white tissue paper or polythene.
to rotting which extend and cover the whole
leaf. Drenching the soil around the stem with Bundles have to be packed in card- board boxes
Brassicol @ 1 % and the soil with 0.3% has for long distance transportation.
been recommended for control.
The fungi, Alternaria polyantha, causes leaf-spot STORAGE OF FLOWERS
disease, which is characterized by the The fresh flowers can be stored at 10oC.
appearance of brown spots with faint
concentric rings on the mid-rib. Bordeaux EXTRACTION OF ESSENTIAL OIL
mixture (0.4%), Zineb (0.5%) or Ziram spray
will effectively control the disease. About 150 kg of flowers are required to
produce 1 kg of the brown, semi-solid absolute
The other diseases reported are leaf-spot and
of Enfleurage.
blight caused by Botrytis elliptica, rust and
powdery mildew, which are not serious. The extracted flowers will contain some natural
Suitable fungicides may be administered to perfume and are treated with petroleum ether
control them when the damage is noticed. to obtain the absolute of chassis as a valuable
by-product (yield 1.2-1.5%).
HARVESTING AND YIELD:
In recent years, the process of Enfleurage has
Flowers are ready for harvest in about 3 to 3 1/
2
been partly replaced by solvent extraction,
months of planting. which requires much less labour though the
yield of the absolute reduces considerably.
August-September is the peak period of
The extraction of the tuberose flowers with
flowering. petroleum ether yields 0.08-0.11 % of concrete,
Depending on the purpose, harvesting is done which gives 18-23% of absolute on treatment
with alcohol and contains 3% steam distillate.
by cutting the fully-opened spikes from the
base or single flowers are harvested as they The concrete yield is about 17-18 kglha which
open by day; the picking of individual flowers gives 3.5 kg absolute and 0.8 kg distillable oil.
should be completed by 8.00 a.m.
RATOON CROPPING:
The flowers have a shelf-life of 3 days.
After harvesting the main crop, the flower
Flowers yield up to 17-18 t/ha can be expected stalks are headed back (cut to the base) and
from a well-maintained crop. the plots are manured and irrigated.
About 3-4 ratoon crops can be taken from a
single planting.
HANDLING AND PACKING OF FLOWERS

Loose flowers are transported in poly bags to LIFTING, CURING AND STORAGE OF BULBS:
the nearby whole sale market.
Bulbs reach maturity at the cessation
The flower spikes are graded according to spike of flowering when the leaves become
length, length of the flowering zone and yellow and dry during winter
quality of individual flowers (February-March) in North India.

Bunched in round bundles each having about At this stage, irrigation is withheld
and the soil is allowed to dry.
50-100 spikes

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The leaves are cut off at the ground


level and the bulbs are dug out.
After digging, the bulbs are lifted out
and the adhering earth shaken off
neatly and thoroughly.
The offsets are then separated out by
hand, which are used as seed-stock for
the next season.
The bulbs are the graded based on the
size into mature (> 1.5 cm diameter)
and immature (< 1.5 cm diameter).
Cleaned and graded bulbs are placed
on sheaves to dry or cure.
To hasten curing, artificial heat of 27o
to 35o C may be applied.
The bulbs must be stirred or have
their position changed every few days
to prevent fungal attack and rotting.
An ambient air temperature of at least
18oC for four to six weeks or exactly
six weeks at 30oC stimulates the yield
of commercial sized bulbs.
Longer storage at 30oC advances
flower spike yield but the quality of
spike deteriorates and the bulb
number decreases.
@@@@@

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It can be grown by small and marginal farmers.


LECTURE-14
CHINA ASTER Good seed setting and no dormancy.
[Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees]
ORIGIN AND HISTORY:

The genus Callistephus derives its name from


INTRODUCTION: two Greek words kalistos means most
beautiful and stephos means a crown
China aster belongs to the referring to the flowers.
family Asteraceae Cassini described the China aster as Callistephus
Native to China. hortensis. Linnaeus as Aster chinensis and Nees
The genus Callistephus has subsequently changed this name to Callistephus
chinensis.
only a single species known as chinensis.
It was introduced in Europe during 1731 and
USES: then spread to different part of the world.

China aster is one of the most popular of all The first change in the flower type was the
the garden annuals grown throughout the development of the central florets, which led
world. to quelled flowers.

Used for flower arrangement and religious The German developed the German aster or
offerings. double cultivar.
Used commercially as cut flowers for interior Comet types introduced in 1886 replaced the
decorations. quelled types.
Introduction of new branching types in 1893in
It is best flower in bouquets and other flower
arrangements. the USA.

Popular as pot plant. It is also used in garden


decoration as an herbaceous border. CLIMATE AND GROWING SEASONS:

The dwarf Pompon and Lilliput types can be China aster is normally a winter season
grown in window boxes and herbaceous flowering annual.
borders The day temperature of 10-12oC is
favorable to develop large size flowers.
IMPORTANCE
The colour is well developed in the
Popularity is increasing in and around cities temperature range of 20-30oC during day
due to its short duration and bewitching and 15-17o C during night with relative
colors. humidity 50-60%.
In India it is widely grown in Karnataka, It needs sufficient sun light for both better
Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Maharashtra. growth and flowering.
Its accounting for 6 % of the total area and 8.8 It needs limited rains, 500-700mm spread
% of the total flower production in Karnataka over from June to September, followed by
state. provision of frequent but light irrigations.
It can be grown in various agro climate zones. Heavy and torrential rains cause fungal
disease like leaf spot and wilt.
It is also suitable for growing as intercrop in
coconut gardens and orchards also.
LOCATION AND SOIL:
Cheaply available cut flower.
It can be mixed with other cut flowers for China aster prefers to grow in an open
making bouquets. sunny location.

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The crop is susceptible to more water After sowing, the beds should be watered
logging; hence well drained red loamy gently with a rose can.
soils are required.
The pH should be around 6.8-7.5. TRANSPLANTING:
Heavy soils with high calcium content are Aster seedlings are usually transplanted
not suitable. when they have developed about three to
four leaves.
GROWING SEASON:
Area Growing season Seedlings at too early or late stages should
be avoided and usually seedlings are
1. Bengaluru ( KNK) Through out the year
ready for transplanting within 30 - 45
May June
days.
September- October
(with irrigation facility) The seedlings are hardened sufficiently
2. Pune (MHR) June July before planting.
October- November
The transplanting should be done
3. West Bengal First week of October
preferably during early morning or
4. Delhi ( like places) August, September
evenings to avoid bright sunlight.

CULTIVATION: After planting the soil around the


PROPAGATION: seedlings is to be firmed and watered
China aster is propagated through seeds. thoroughly.
A seed rate of 625 750 g/ha is sufficient.
The seeds will not have dormancy and FIELD PREPARATION AND SPACING:
germinate in a week at about 21oC. The field should be ploughed thoroughly
The seeds loose viability at a faster rate if and brought to a fine tilth.
stored in ordinary containers for a longer About 10-15 tones of well-decomposed
time, therefore it is advisable to use only farmyard manure may be incorporated in
fresh seeds. the soil at the time of soil preparation.
Normally the seeds germinate at a In areas receiving high rainfall the
temperature range of 10-35 C. The seedlings should be planted on ridges to
optimum being 21oC + 4oC avoid chances of Fusarium wilt.
NURSERY: A general spacing of 30 x 30 cm may be
Generally sowing should be staggered by optimum for recommendation.
10 15 days, so that one can get flowers
for longer time and also can avoid glut in FERTILIZER REQUIREMENTS:
the market. Application of manure and fertilizers in
Seeds can be sown in seed pans for required quantities is important for proper
obtaining seedlings for garden use and in growth, yield and quality of flowers.
small quantities.
For commercial cultivation, seed is sown The deficiency of nitrogen causes
in raised beds measuring120x60x10cms dwarfing of the plants resulting in small
(LxBxH). sized plants and flowers.
The seeds are sown thinly to avoid lanky Phosphorus deficiency causes delayed
tall seedlings. flowering.
The seeds are sown at 10 -12cms apart and
covered with a mixture of soil and FYM.
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Individual flowers are harvested for


The recommended fertilizer dose
decoration and worship purpose whereas
is180:120:60 kg NPK/ha.
flowers along with stalk or the whole
Of which 90 kg nitrogen, full dose of P & plant just above the ground are cut for cut
K has to be applied at the time of flower purpose.
preparation of land. YIELD:
Remaining 90 kg/ha nitrogen has to be Flower yield depends upon season of
applied as top dressing at 40 days after planting and cultural practices adopted.
transplanting.
On an average a fresh flower yield of
IRRIGATION: 20-22 tons per ha during rainy season,
Irrigation requirement depends upon the 15.0 to 17.5 t per ha in winter and 10.0-
weather, type of soil and season of the 12.0 t/ha in summer can be obtained.
crop grown. @@@@@@
Since China aster is a shallow rooted crop,
it needs continuous soil moisture
throughout the entire period of crop
growth.
It requires irrigation at intervals of 7 to 10
days.

PINCHING:
Pinching of main shoot at one month after
transplanting promotes growth and
flowering.
Pinching delays first flowering by 8-12
days.

USE OF GROWTH REGULATORS:

In China aster, the number of flowers per


plant and the duration of flowering were
increased by spraying GA3 at 200 or
300ppm.
Foliar spry with MH delays flowering.

HARVESTING AND
POST HARVEST HANDLING:

Flowers are ready for harvesting in 10-12


weeks after transplanting.

Harvesting plays an important role in


determining the flower quality.

China aster is harvested in two different


ways.

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The preferred colours in Dutch markets are


LECTURE-15
orange and red followed by white and pink.
ANTHURIUM
Germany is the single largest importer of Dutch
Anthuriums followed by Italy and France.

INTRODUCTION Mauritius is the second largest producer and


exporter of Anthuriums.
Anthurium is an evergreen, tropical herbaceous
During the last ten years, the Anthurium
plant cultivated for its
flowers from Hawaii are exported to the main
colourful spathe and
land United States of America or to Japan.
unusual attractive foliage.
Anthurium is also produced commercially in
Originating in American
Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Thailand, Sri
tropics,
Lanka, Singapore and Taiwan.
The genus Anthurium has 600
In India, Anthurium cultivation, which was
species, which are
mainly a hobby, is transformed into a
distributed worldwide.
commercial business by enterprising coffee
Among the number of species available, the and tea planters, who were initially
most popular and economically important responsible for bringing many exotic varieties
species are Anthurium andreanum and A. into India.
Scherzerianum, which posses attractive long-
The coastal belts of south India, Eastern and
lasting inflorescence.
Western Ghats and North-East hilly regions
Several other species like A. Magnificium, A. are potential area where Anthurium cultivation
Digitatum, A. Crystallinum, A. Watermaliense, can be taken up on a large scale.
A. Clarinervium and A. Hookeri are grown for
Bestowed with natural wealth, the coffee belt
their excellent foliage.
along the Coorg district in Karnataka as many
The Anthurium belongs to family Araceae. as 100 Anthurium growers, who have formed
an Anthurium club to promote and safeguard
Derives its name from Greek language Anthos
the interest of Anthurium cultivation.
means flower and Oura means tail
indicating the flower with a tail. The Coorg Anthuriums are presently marketed
ANTHURIUM PRODUCTION WORLD in nearly cities like Bangalore, Mangalore,
SCENARIO Mysore, Goa, etc., from where they reach
other flower markets in Delhi, Mumbai and
Anthurium ranked eleventh in the global flower Kolkata.
trade is next only to orchids among the
tropical flowers. Anthurium cultivation on commercial scale is
also concentrated around Pune, Nashik,
Until 1970, Hawaii was the worlds leading Mumbai, Trivendrum, Cochin, etc. Sensing the
producer and exporter of Anthurium flowers. potential of this crop, corporate houses are
In the last ten years, the Hawaiian Anthurium also enthused to cultivate exotic varieties
industry has declined because of bacterial imported mostly from Hawaii or the
blight. Netherlands.
PLANT MORPHOLOGY
This is one of the major problems the
Anthurium growers face worldwide. Anthurium andreanum a perennial with
creeping, climbing or arborescent stem s
Presently, the Netherlands is the worlds
with lots of aerial roots.
leading producer and exporter.
The attractive colourful plant that is
The Dutch production is concentrated during
traded is actually a modification of the
May to October because of bright light
leaf, which is botanically called spathe.
intensity during these months.

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Sizes range from 12x11cm to 20x18cm.


A cylindrical fleshy spadix originates
from the same junction and produces a Colour range includes red, orange, pink, Coral,
number of bisexual flowers (150-250 white and green.
flowers) which are arranged in
concentric whorls. 2. OBAKE:
The female part of the flower matures
first (protogynous), which can be Popular for their two-tone
noticed by nectar like secretions in the coloration usually a bi-
form of shining droplets on the flowers. colour pattern of green and
The anthers dehisce at a later stage a major spathe colour.
forcing the flowers to cross pollinate. Some varieties will lose their green colour in
summer resulting in solid coloured spathe.
AVAILABLE GERMPLASM Sizes vary from 8x7cm miniatures 28x23cm
The genus Anthurium can be categorized into large varieties.
two distinct groups
o Flowering types and 3. TULIP:
o Foliage types. They have up right cup
shaped spathe with a
FLOWERING TYPE
straight and erect spadix.
Anthurium andreanum, A. seherzerianum, A.
The spathe size ranges
omaturm, etc. from 10x6cm.
FOLIAGE TYPE Tulip types are mostly
A. Clarinervium, A. corrugatum, A.crystallinum, hybrids with more than one species as their
A. digitatum parents.
A. holtanianum, A. leuconerum A. magnificum, A.
pentaphyllum
A. pedetoradiatum, A. olfersianum, A. hookeri, A. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
veitchii
Anthurium passes through two distinctive
A. warocqueanum, A. watermaliense etc.
Besides these coloured varieties there are many growth phases,
varieties that are bicoloured. o A juvenile phase and
Such bicoloured varieties are known as Obakes
o A generative phase.
in trade.
Examples of obakes include; The juvenile phases where only vegetative
Madona (Cream obake) growth is observed and characterized by the
Farao (bright orange with green borders) presence of vegetative buds in the axils of the
Lamboda (white-green obake) and Fla leaf.
rose (Peach) The juvenile phase is relatively long and the
TYPES OF ANTHURIUM plants remain vegetative for 12-18 months.

There are three basic types of Anthurium The plants enter the generative phase
flowers characterized by the transformation of
vegetative buds to floral buds in the leaf axils.
1. STANDARD:
The sequence of a new leaf and emergence of
They have the most common flower is more or less maintained from then
heart shape, the spathe lobes onwards.
often overlap.
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GROWING ENVIRONMENT below it, so that the light levels at the plant
growth can be modified depending upon the
Diurnal temperature, light and humidity play a ambient light conditions.
major role in the growth and flowering of Anthurium can be shaded with saran or with
Anthuriums. UV stabilized agro shade nets for providing
DIURNAL TEMPERATURE uniform shading.
The shade nets can be operated manually by
For a luxuriant growth the cultivated
closely watching the external light intensity.
Anthurium (A. andreanum and A.
scherzerianum) required 18.3oC during night RELATIVE HUMIDITY
whereas
Anthurium thrives well in areas having high
A higher night temperature of 21.2 to 23.9 oC is relative humidity levels, which are common in
essential for initiation of flowering. coastal areas of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra
Anthurium cannot tolerate freezing Pradesh and Maharashtra, high rainfall areas
temperature. At the same time Anthuriums do of Western, Eastern Ghats and North Eastern
not prefer temperatures above 35 oC. hilly regions.
If the temperature exceeds 35 degree centigrade The optimum relative humidity levels range
coupled with low relative humidity leaf
from 50 to 85% and at humidity levels less
scorching is common.
than 50%, the vegetative growth is slower and
LIGHT
the flower development is poor.
Anthurium is basically a shade loving plant. FLORAL DEVELOPMENT
During summer where the light intensity is The elongation of the stem bearing the
more, Anthurium plants are provided with 75
spadix begins about one month after
to 80% shade allowing only 20-25% of light to expansion of the subtending leaf.
reach the plants.
This is subtending by a showy leaf-like
The range of light intensity that suits structure called a spathe.
Anthurium cultivation is 20,000 to 25,000 lux.
The cycle of the leaf and flower emergence
Higher light intensity coupled with low varies with the season.
relative humidity and poor shading often
results in scorching of young leaves and 3 to 8 flowers per plant per year can be
immature flower buds. expected.

In places with moderate climate where the The Anthurium flower is a spadix or
light intensity is not so high, the plants can be inflorescence spike, cylindrical in shape,
provided with 65 to 75% shade. bearing up to 250-300 inconspicuous
bisexual flowers arranged in a series of
SHADING
spirals.
Anthuriums are tropical plants, requiring high
The spadix and spathe are borne on a
temperature and relative humidity.
leafless stem or peduncle.
Anthuriums have a moderate to low light
requirement and require 75 to 80% shade. Commercial flower harvesting takes place
when approximately three quarters of the
To ensure the highest possible production
stigmas along the spadix have become
during winter the shading should be removed
receptive.
at the onset of winter.
In commercial practice it is advisable to have
50% shade net on the top and a 25% shade net
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Provision can be made for installing overhead


GROWING STRUCTURES
sprinkler/misters/fogging systems by
Depending upon the area of cultivation, the running GI wires from one end to another
growing structures can be modified to suit the end.
local climatic conditions.
CLIMATE CONTROLLED GREEN HOUSES
Commercial scale Anthurium cultivation can be
The capital investment and the level of
taken up in

o Low cost polyhouses,


o Shade houses or

o Climate controlled green houses.


LOW COST POLY HOUSES

In areas where the relative humidity


levels are low and the temperature
levels are high, low cost poly houses
are more suitable for commercial
cultivation of Anthuriums.
By creating a protected climate by
cladding UV stabilized polythene, the
relative humidity levels can be easily
maintained and by providing top or
side ventilation, the hot air can be
easily expelled. sophistication is more in climate controlled
Inside the poly house, the top portion green houses than the previous two structures.
can be provided with layers of two
shade nets (50% and 25%). Climate controlled green houses can be
adopted for growing Anthuriums in areas
If the light intensity is very high a thin
where conditions of growing are not so
film of calcium chloride or lime can be
sprayed on the external surface of the congenial or
poly house to reduce the incoming To produce top quality blooms exclusively for
radiation.
export markets.
SHADE HOUSES
Unless it is warranted it is not advisable to go
In many of the commercial Anthurium growing for such capital intensive structures.
areas, shade houses are the most popular
structures because of the simplicity of PHYSIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS
construction and low cost. 1) Excess light
The shade houses can be constructed by taking
Symptoms Leaves appear bleached in the
the support of existing tree trunks if the
Anthuriums are grown in multistoried centers and may have brown tips.
plantation cropping. Control Increase shade so as to reduce light
level to 1800-2500 foot-candles.
In open areas wooden, granite or pillars can be
erected at regular intervals connected by GI 2) Over fertilization
wires as a mesh on top.
Symptoms Lower leaves become yellow and
Shade net can be covered on the top to provide develop brown tips, which gradually enlarge.
the required shade 75%, (ie., 50 +25%, shade
nets).
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Control Reduce fertilization and leach soils India has a rich wealth of coconut plantations
thoroughly. Check roots for damage and throughout southern India, the byproducts of
possibility of secondary infection by fungus or which can be exploited for Anthurium.
bacteria.
The coconut waste generated from the
3) Lack of flowering industry and in the trade can be collected and
washed repeatedly to wash of the excess salts
Symptoms Mature plants produce many
especially sodium chloride.
leaves but few flowers. No flowers on the
lateral shoots. The coconut waste is allowed to decompose
Control Increase light level to 1800-2500 foot- by using microbial (Pleurotus sp.) inoculation
candles. Maintain higher light intensity as to the stock of coconut husk/coco-coir/coir
long as leaves do not develop symptoms dust.
mentioned in 1) above.
CULTIVATION:
GROWING MEDIA
A). IN POTS
Anthurium requires a highly organic, well
Anthurium especially the miniature type, A.
aerated medium with good water retention. scherzerianum and its hybrids have to be
However, the secret of success for commercial grown in pots to use them as potted plants.
cultivation is to have good drainage in the
When young the plants can be planted in
medium used. smaller pots (4) and as they grow they can be
An ideal medium for pots or ground potting shifted to bigger pots (6 to 10 diameter).
should have the following properties;
Depending on the plant size, the pots have to
Good water holding Must provide good
be arranged in such a way that the foliage
capacity. anchorage.
does not overlap with the leaves of adjacent
pots.
High porosity. Should have optimum pH
(5.0) and EC (0.6m B). IN BEDS
mhos/cm2)
When planting
Good aeration. Good structure and texture. is done in soil,
Low salt concentration (especially Na2, Cl and Ca2+ the plants
ions).
have to be
Various natural derivatives, which
grown in 1.00
satisfy the above conditions, were tried to grow
meter wide
Anthuriums commercially. The range of media
raised beds
that were used so far includes;
with gentle slope, which facilitates good
Sugarcane bagasse Saw dust
drainage.
Coffee leaf mould Tree bark
The beds have to be raised approximately 30cm
Spent ground coffee Chicken manure
in height which gets compressed due to
Coffee husk Ground nut shells frequent irrigation and other cultural
Cured coffee pulp Peat practices.
Coffee parchment Wood shavings The beds are prepared by digging about 2 feet
Rock wool Brick, gravel, rubble etc deep and filling the pits with the chosen
growing medium.
In many Anthurium growing countries,
The dug out soil is thoroughly mixed with
coconut husk and coco-peat have become the
chosen growing medium and is used as top
most popular media for Anthurium cultivation.
layer to create the raised beds.

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The mixing of soil with the medium, which is IRRIGATION


otherwise loose and friable, prevents runoff of
Anthurium requires generous watering and
the medium.
should be irrigated at least twice a day in
PLANTING summer months.

Avoid planting In field grown plantations besides ground level


during seasons with irrigation, the plants can also be watered using
high temperature overhead sprinklers.
and high rainfall.
Irrigation can be accomplished by flooding
Make sure the beds or by installing micro-sprinklers at the
bed/medium is plant level.
evenly moist but not
NUTRITION
wet.
Anthuriums prefer smaller doses of fertilizers at
Provide an initial fertilizer dose having frequent intervals rather than larger doses in
increased potassium and lower calcium levels. longer intervals.
Dip the roots in a fungicide solution before For pot cultivation it is advisable to apply 5g of
planting (@ 0.1% Bavistin). any complex fertilizer in 500ml of water (1%)
once in a month.
Plant them in rows in cross wise pattern.
Anthuriums can also efficiently take up
Plant at an optimum depth (15cm deep so that nutrients thorough foliage.
new aerial roots appear above the planting
Foliar application of 0.1% urea at monthly
surface. intervals is found to be beneficial.
Do not prune the leaves immediately after Adequate levels of calcium and magnesium are
planting, allow the plants to establish and cut also necessary for optimum yield.
down to three to four leaves. Deficiency of calcium often results in color
PLANTING DENSITY break in the spathes. Application of 5g of
CaNo3 at monthly intervals stabilizes the
Depending upon the varieties, Anthurium is spathe color.
also planted at a distance of ,
On average Anthuriums require two liters of
30 cm x 30 cm (accommodates 6 to 7 plants/m2) water/m. sq. per day when supplied through
/30 cm x 60 cm/45 cm x 60 cm. online drippers.
One gram of fertilizer per every one liter of
The optimum spacing for commercial
water is found to be suitable for good growth
cultivation of Anthurium is 45 x 45cm, which of Anthurium.
accommodates 5 plants/m2.
After fertilizer application thorough watering is
A closer planting of 30cm apart is also essential @ two liters of plain water/m2 to
recommended to accommodate 7 to 10 prevent accumulation of excess salts in the
plants/m2 (61,750 plants/ha). root zone, which otherwise lead to scorching
of roots and leaves.
At higher plant densities though Anthuriums
In high rainfall areas the nutrients get washed
produce more, dense planting restricts air away in the rain water, slow releasing
circulation and interferes with spray fertilizers like osmocote, neem coated urea etc.
penetration. Hence, disease and pest are preferred in such areas.
management becomes difficult.
In commercial plantations, fertilizers are
applied to the plants through ground level
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sprinklers or through the Drip irrigation auxins (IBA & NAA) hastens the sprouting
system. and rooting.
Depending on the nutrient status of the Vegetative propagation by terminal cuttings
medium, the following combinations of and stem sections are very slow.
nutrients are supplied through irrigation
water by many commercial growers. 2. BY SUCKERS

PROPAGATION: The highly condensed underground stem often


BY SEEDS produces shoots at the plant base.

Conventionally Anthuriums are propagated by Such multiple shoots may be with or without
seeds. roots and they can be separated from mother
plant and planted in individual pots.
Anthurium can be very easily grown by seeds,
but it is an extremely slow process. The suckering capacity can be improved by
The berries (fruit of Anthurium) pop out exogenous application of growth regulators
extremely slow process. like BAP (@75 ppm) at monthly interval.

The seed (sometimes two) is enveloped by Anthurium starts producing suckers once they
juicy, mucilaginous pulp which depending attain an age of 12-16 months.
needs to be removed completely before
sowing. 3. TISSUE CULTURE
The time required from pollination to the Anthuriums are highly amenable for in-vitro
maturity of the seeds is about 6-7 months. propagation using different parts as explants.
Seeds cannot be stored and this should be sown
HARVESTING
immediately.
Anthurium flowers are harvested when the
The flowering starts after two years.
spathe is completely unfurls and the spadix is
Seed propagated cultivars are poor in well developed.
uniformity.
Development of true flowers on the spadix is
In fact, there may be a great variation in flower also used as a criterion for harvesting the
production, colour and shape. blooms.
Depending upon the type of medium used the When one third of the flowers on the spadix
seeds will germinate in 10 to 40 days. mature, change of colour can be observed that
The seedlings can be transferred to individual moves from base to tip of spadix at that stage
pots when they attain 3-4 leaf stage. the flowers are harvested.
Harvesting has to be done during cooler parts
of the day i.e. early morning or late evening.
1. THROUGH CUTTINGS
The flowers are cut below leaving 2cm stem on
Anthurium can be vegetatively propagated the plant & kept in the bucket containing
through cuttings obtained from fully grown water.
plants. Flowers are graded according to the length of
Since, the vegetative growth is slow; the plants the stalk and diameter of the spathe
require at least 3-4 years to elongate and to The flower stalk length varies from 25 to 50cm.
produce 5-6 nodes and internodes.
Depending upon the cultural practices,
Cuttings can be made by cutting just below the planting density and variety, 5 to 10 flowers
node, so that each cutting has single eye or can be obtained per plant per year.
bud in it. An average yield of 2,25, 000 blooms of
The buds sprout in 20-30 days from the cuttings exportable quality can be obtained per
treated with growth hormones especially, the hectares per year.

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Average price of Anthurium in Europe is US STORAGE AND VASE LIFE


$1.50 per flower.
Anthurium can be easily stored at 13oC for
In the India cities, prices vary from Rs.15 to 2-3 weeks.
Rs.30 per flower in florist shops, while
The flowers, which are harvested when th
growers get Rs.6 to Rs.10 per flower.
of the length of the spadix colour changes,
We can expect 5-7 flowers per year per plant for last longer than the other flowers which are
first one and half year to two years and harvested either early or late.
10 to 12 flowers per plant per year after 2 years The average vase life depends upon life of
of planting. flowers ranges between 12-24 days
Generally, some varieties are high productive & depending upon the cultivars.
some are low productive.
6-8 months after planting we can harvest the POST HARVEST QUALITY REQUIREMENT
flowers. o The size, shape, colour and texture of the
Besides flowers, Anthurium leaves can be sold spathe gets prior consideration.
in the international market. o A heart-shaped symmetrical spathe with
overlapping or fused lobes is desirable.
POST HARVEST HANDLING o The spathe should be free from any kind of
damages and infestation.
1. PACKING
o Straight and sturdy flower stems with
Dutch packing puts few Anthuriums in a shorter internodes are preferred.
box to make sure that the Anthurium
spathes do not bruise. PEST AND DISEASES
Within each box flowers are of a uniform
grade and generally of the same colour. PESTS:

Individual flowers are packed with water o The plants are occasionally infested by
aphids, scale insects, mites, thrips, mole
vials filled with water with preservative
cricket and beetles.
solution.
o Dimethoate (0.3 per cent) is effective to
Flowers are packed so as not to touch each
control aphids.
other or the ends of the box.
Scale insects attack leaves and stems and
White foam rubber cushions are used to
weaken the plants by sucking the plant
support the spadix.
sap.Malathion (0.1 per cent) spray controls
If flowers are layered, 4cm thick plastic them
sheeting is inserted between the layers.
White cellulose shredding is used around DISEASE:
the ends, particularly in the winter, when Bacterial Diseases
foam peanuts or other white foam pieces Soft rot (Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora),
may be included in the box for insulation. Xanthomonas blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv.
Dieffenbachiae),
PACKAGING Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides),
Anthurium packaging is into boxes of white Phytophthora leaf spot,
surfaced corrugated cardboard, Flower blight, and
The lids which have been printed with 3-colour Root rot (Phytophthora parasitica)
logos and lettering. Nematode:
European Carton Sizes-100x20x10cm, 100 x 40 x Burrowing nematode decline (Radopholus similis)
12 cm and 100 x 40 x 14.5 cm
In Hawaii standard master cartons are 43 x 23 x
11 inches and contain smaller boxes inside,
called trays.

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LECTURE-16 PRE-HARVEST FACTORS INFLUENCING POST-


HARVEST LIFE:
POST HARVEST TECHNIQUES OF CUT
FLOWERS Pre-harvest conditions under which the crop is
grown influences on the post-harvest life of
IMPORTANCE OF POST HARVEST HANDLING OF flowers.
FLOWERS:
Selection of the variety,
The quality of flowers, which reaches the final
consumer, depends on the pre-harvest and Environmental factors like light, temperature,
post-harvest handling. relative humidity
Nutrition, irrigation, diseases and pests,
Quality is the pillar for creating value and
pollution, etc
customer satisfaction
RIGHT TIME, METHOD AND STAGE OF
The flowers are highly perishable need utmost
HARVEST FOR DIFFERENT COMMERCIAL
care.
FLOWERS
When flowers are detached from the plant, they
Right time, method and stage of harvesting
deprived of food, water, minerals and
influence the vase life of flowers.
hormones.
Harvest early in morning or in the late evening
It is estimated that about 30% of flowers perish when temperatures are mild to avoid faster
during handling.
respiration rate to excessive water loss.
Therefore it is important to study post-harvest Flowers are fully turgid due to low
handling of flowers to keep flowers in good transpiration at night (rose, chrysanthemum,
quality. gerbera).
INHERENT FACTORS INFLUENCING POST- Evening harvest is advocated because of higher
HARVEST LIFE:
sugar level in the stem due to high rates of
Keeping quality of flowers vary from species photosynthesis during day time.
and cultivars, this may be due to genetic or
Immediately after harvest the flowers should
inherent factors like differences in anatomical,
be put in water or preservative solutions.
physiological, physical, biochemical and genetic
make up. Right method of harvest includes cutting
flower stem with sharp knives or secateurs;
Keeping quality of flowers also depends on,
Avoid crushing of stem, giving slanting cut to
Carbohydrate reserves,
hard wood stems so as to expose maximum
Osmotic concentration, surface area to ensure rapid water absorption.
Pressure potential of petal cells, Cutting stem length at specific lengths
depending on crop market, purpose, etc,.
Stomatal functioning,
Harvesting at an optimum maturity stage is
Difference in number of thick walled supporting
important and stage of harvest varies from
cells in the xylem element and phloem fibre,
crop to crop and varieties.
Presence or absence of a complete ring of
secondary thickening in flower peduncles,
Differences in the diffusive resistance of leaves
in the field.
Lignifications,
Level of plant hormones and
Susceptibility to disease and insects.

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OPTIMUM STAGES OF HARVESTING FOR IMPORTANT FLOWERS:

Sl. No. Flowers Purpose Stage of Harvest


1 Rose Cut flower 1-2 petals beginning to unfold. At tight bud stage.
2 Jasmine Loose flower Matured, unopened bud stage
Oil extraction Fully opened flowers
3 Anthurium Cut flower Spadix almost fully developed 1/3rd of flowers on spadix
mature. Change of colour from base to top.
4 Chrysanthemum Standard When outer florets fully expanded
Spray Flowers open but before shedding of pollens
Pompons and Centre of the oldest flower fully open
decorative
Anemones Open but before central disc florets begin to elongate.
5 Carnation Standard Paint brush stage when flowers are half open
Spray At least two flowers fully open
6 Gerbera Cut flower Flowers open but outer two rows show shedding of pollens
(fully mature)
7 Gladiolus Cut flower 1-5 florets show colour
8 China Aster Cut flower Fully opened flower with long stalk
Loose flower Fully opened with short or no stem
and oil
extraction
9 Tuberose Cut flower When few flowers open at the base
Loose flower When all the flowers are fully opened
and oil
extraction
Why immediately after harvesting of flower the stalk
Temperature, Relative humidity, Light,
ends should be kept in water?
Ethylene
Cut stem is a living entity, deprived of
natural source of water further, Pathogens are import factors determine the
storage life of flowers.
The flowering buds require water for
opening. Flowers should be of good quality free from
injury, pest and diseases otherwise prone to
The turgidity of the floral parts and cut ethylene production and infection with
stem depends on water absorption by the pathogens.
stem, to meet water loss through
transpiration, Harvested at optimum stage,

To avoid plugging of xylem vessels Stored at cool temperature (1-4oc)


caused due to micro organisms and High relative humidity (90-95%) and
To avoid air bubbles block in the xylem maintenance of storage room in hygienic
vessels. conditions are important.

The physical blockage of xylem vessels CONDITIONING AND PRE-COOLING OF CUT


leads to decrease in water uptake by the FLOWERS:
stem tending towards senescence. Conditioning referred to placing of stem cut
FACTORS AFFECTING STORAGE LIFE OF ends in water immediately after harvest to
FLOWERS: avoid water stress;

Quality of flowers, Generally conditioning is done by placing stem


ends immersed in warm water at room
Stage of harvest, temperature for short duration and overnight
in the cold room.
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For sub-tropical flowers like gladiolus, Strelitzia


Pre-cooling referred to subjecting flowers
and anemone is 2-8o C.
under cold storage conditions immediately
after harvest to brings down the respiration 2. Controlled atmosphere storage (CA):
rate and field heat and ultimately to enhance
Low temperature storage in gas tight
the vase life and quality of cut flowers.
chambers under decreased levels of oxygen (O2)
The pre-cooling temperature varies with the and increased levels of carbon dioxide (CO2).
species and cultivars.
CO2 levels higher than 4% and O2 level lower
PRE-COOLING TEMPERATURE FOR CERTAIN than 0.4 per cent causes injury and anaerobic
FLOWERS: conditions respectively.

Pre- Pre- Different types of flowers cannot be store in the


same room at the same time since the O2 and
cooling cooling
Crop Crop CO2 required for storage vary for different
temp. temp. flowers and it is the one major limitation in CA
(o C) (o C) storage.
Rose 1-3 Cymbidium 0.5-4
3. Modified Atmosphere storage (MA):
Anthurium 13 Gladiolus 4-5
Gerbera 4 Bird of 7-8 Less precise form of CA storage, the dry storage
of flowers in sealed bags leads to reduction in
Paradise
O2 and increase in CO2 levels due to respiration
Dendrobium 5-7 of the tissue.
Carnation 0.5-1
Build up of very high level of CO2 may cause
Chrysanthemum 0.5-4 damage to flowers.
METHODS OF STORAGE OF CUT FLOWERS? Flowers stored in partially permeable materials
are beneficial.
There are 3-4 general methods of storage of flowers,
they 4. Hypobaric or Low pressure storage (LPS):
1. Refrigerated storage: Most widely used method Storage at low atmosphere pressure under
of storage of cut flowers. There are two types refrigerated conditions, continuous ventilation
(a) Wet storage and (b) dry storage. and high relative humidity.
Wet storage : Rapid loss of water from tissues is major
disadvantage and cost of installation is also
Flowers stored with their bases dipped in water
high.
or preservative solution,
Good for short duration, day to day handling, The optimum storage temperature and duration of
storage varies with flower type. The
Stored at a temperature at 2-4oC. recommended commercial storage conditions
Dry storage : for important flowers at 90-95% RH is as
follows.
Flowers sealed in plastic bags are stored to Maximum
prevent loss of moisture. Storage
storage
Storage Crop temperature
More laborious but hold the flowers for longer period
(oC)
duration. (days)
Dry Carnation 0-1 16-24
Pre-cooling and pulsing before dry storage is Chrysanthemum 0.5-1 21
important. Gerbera 2.00 2
Stored at 0.5 to 1.0 o C is ideal for most flowers, Gladiolus 4-5 5-7
Rose 0.5-2 7
For tropical flowers like anthurium, cattleya and
poinsettia is 10-15o C and

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Wet Anthurium 13 14-28 BUNCHING / BUNDLING


Carnation 0.5-1 21-28
Dendrobium 5-7 10-14 Flowers immediately after harvest, are made
4 4-7 into bunches of 5, 10, 12 or 20 stems and
Gerbera
Gladiolus 4-5 7 loosely tied with rubber hand at the base and
Tuberose 7-10 3-5 close to the bunched head.
Rose 2-3 5-7 Bunching should be done carefully to avoid
bruising.
GRADING AND ITS METHODS FOLLOWED FOR
IMPORTANT FLOWERS: Remove lower leaves, uniform fresh basal cut is
given manually or mechanical.
Grading refers to categorization of flowers on
the basis of their quality. Bunching helps for easy packing and handling.

Each bunch should be of same size, weight and Flowers such as gerbera, orchids, anthurium,
quality before marketing them. and standard chrysanthemum are packed
individually.
Mostly grading is done on the basis of
appearance, harvesting maturity, blemishes or Dendrobium and anthurium are kept moist by
injuries due to disease, attack of insects or putting them in specially designed vials filled
pests, colour and size of the bud, straightness, with water or in moist wool.
strength and length of the stem. The bunches are held in polyethylene sleeves or
The flowers should look fresh, harvested at the buds are wrapped in corrugated paper to
right maturity, free from pests and diseases; protect them from mechanical damage.
PACKING METHODS FOR CUT FLOWERS:
Stem should be straight, free from side shoots
and should be strong enough to hold the The method of packing depends on crop,
flower erect. flower, method of transport and market.
The foliage should be free from physiological
The principle of packing is to keep the flowers
disorders such as bent neck (in roses), tip
bending (in gladiolus), stem break (in gerbera) for long time and retain quality by lowering
and calyx splitting (in carnation) etc. the rate of transpiration and cell division
during transportation and storage.
There are no uniform common standards for
flowers in the world; many countries have The ideal packing should be air tight, moisture
developed their own grading systems based proof and strong enough to withstand
upon the market requirements. handling, transport and staking.
GERBERA
Corrugated fiber board boxes possessing
isothermic properties, light in weight and
reusable are generally suitable.
The dimension of packing boxes depends on
stem length, type of flower, efficient
utilization of space in the cargo, refrigerated
trucks, etc.

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BOX SIZES, WHICH ARE COMMONLY USED FOR TYPES OF PACKAGING


PACKING FLOWERS ARE:
Primary packaging
Flower Length Width Height Weight - container that
(cm) (cm) (cm) (kg) directly holds the
Carnation 100 40 20 13 product
Chrysanthemum 80 50 23 15 Eg.,
Gladiolus 120 50 15 15 Wrapping materials (paper,
Rose 100 40 30 17 polythene),vases, bouquests, carton, crates, etc
Large size 50 kg returnable boxes holding 1000 Secondary packaging - any outer wrapping
to 2000 stems are being increasingly used by
that help to store, transport, inform, display
large exporters.
and protect the product
Wet packing for orchids, anthuriums,
polyethylene foil cover for gerbera, Eg. CFBs, decorated carton, gift boxes, etc
chrysanthemum and anthuriums, special Tertiary packaging - grouping of products for
packing for exotic flowers and orchids are
storage and transportation.
taken up.
The packed boxes are cooled by forced air Eg. Pallet Boxes, CFBs, cartons,
cooling method where vents on boxes (4-5%) plastic/wooden boxes
are provided to pass cool air inside the box on
LABELING:
flowers wrapped with polyethylene foil.
The packed boxes should be labeled,
Refrigerated storage and hypobaric storage are
also used to store boxes. o Crop,
o Variety,
PACKAGING:
o Colour
o Grade or standard,
o Grower identification
o Date of harvest
1. Protection o Quantity etc.

Mechanical TRANSPORT:
Injuries (Cuts,
bruises, mechanical, The flowers are usually transported by air and
punctures, abrasions) by refrigerated vans.
Unfavourable environment. For short distance and local markets, transport
through rail or non-refrigerated insulated
Exposure to harmful gases.
trucks can be used.
Enables transport.
The flowers such as gladiolus, snapdragon,
2. Preservation antirrhinum and freesia which show bending
of tips should be hold vertically during
Quality and shelf life (prevents moisture transport.
loss)
PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING FLOWER
3. Presentation SENESCENCE:
Display of Info about the product/ Loss of dry matter due to hydrolysis of
communication & advertizing, trade mark macromolecules such as starch, sugars,
proteins and nucleic acid.
Market penetration & competitiveness
Break down of starch into sugars which are
Value Addition - silent salesman transported to the flowers.
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MEANS TO EXTEND VASE LIFE OF CUT


Release of ammonia due to break down of
proteins causes bluing of petals. FLOWERS:

Change in membrane permeability results in Harvest high quality flowers.


leakage of pigments, mineral ions and total Cleaning.
electrolytes leading to death of tissues.
Pulsing, spray, dipping or gazing treatments.
Peak respiration rate at bud opening and
during senescence period. Preservatives, sucrose, surfactants, plant
growth regulators, ethylene inhibitors.
Changes in vascular system break down of
vessel cells and appearance of globular bodies. Cooling chain from packing to consumer.
Vase solution (sucrose, preservatives).
GENERAL POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR
IMPROVEMENT OF VASE LIFE OF CUT
FLOWERS: VASE LIFE OF CUT FLOWERS:
1. Ensure that the flowers are harvested at right 1. China aster : 5 to 10 days.
stage.
2. Birds of Paradise : 1 to 2 weeks.
2. Use always clean tools to cut the flowers. 3. Carnation : 03 weeks.
3. Immediately after harvesting and after 4. Chrysanthemum : 1 to 2 weeks.
transport place stem end in water or hydrating
5. Gladiolus : 6-12 days
solution (citric acid 300ppm).
6. Lily : 4 to 14 days.
4. Discard damaged, bruised flowers and leaves
7. Orchid : 3 to 4 weeks
from the stem to prevent ethylene production
and infection with pathogens. 8. Rose (HT Rose) : 7 to 10 days.
9. Spray Rose : 7 to 10 days.
5. Use always clean vases, change vase water
daily. 10. Tuberose : 7 to 10 days.
6. Remove basal leaves submerged in vase
solution and give basal re-cut to avoid @@@@@@
microbial growth and plugging of xylem.
7. Flowers like dahlia and narcissus release
milky fluid and mucilaginous substances
which spoil vase solution. Therefore, keep
them in water for 24 hours before using along
with other flowers.
8. Adding sucrose and biocide to vase solution
increases vase life of cut flowers.
9. Keep vases away from source of heat, fan and
near windows

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Crop Grading method/s


ROSE Based on stem length,
Long stemmed graded from 40-90 cm with difference of 10 cm,
Short stemmed from 40-65 with 5 cm difference.
Leaves dark green, healthy, free from dust, residue pest and disease.
Buds should not be bull head, too opened, too tight, bent neck, and strong stem.
GLADIOLUS Generally based on stem length,
Number of florets per spike,
Long spikes with more florets fetch better price.
Stem straight,
Colour of florets,
Optimum stage of openness of florets, etc.
According to North American Gladiolus Council (NAGC), USA
Minimum No. of florets
Grade Spike length (cm)
1.Fancy (Grade A) 107 16
2.Special (Grade B) 96-107 14
3.Standard (Grade C) 81-96 12
4.Utility (Grade D) <81 10
CARNATION Based on the degree of bud opening
Flower diameter
Stem length, strongest of stem etc.
According to Society of American Florists, USA
Minimum flower Minimum stem length
Grade
Diameter (mm) (cm)
Blue Tight 50 55
(Fancy) Fairly tight 20
Open 75
Tight 44
Red (Standard) Fairly tight 56 43
Open 69
Tight <50
Fairy tight < 50
Green (short) Fairy tight < 50 30
CHRYSANTHE Generally based on stem length and flower size,
MUM Long stem and large sized flowers fetch better price.
According to Society of American Florists, USA

Minimum flower Minimum stem length


Grade
diameter (cm) (cm)
1. Blue (fancy) 14.0 76
2. Red (special) 12.1 76
3. Green (short) 10.2 61
GERBERA Based on straight, strong, length of stem (40cm minimum),
Flowers uniform in size, not less than 7 cm.

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ANTHURIUM Generally, based on spathe size,


Straightness of stem, freshness, colour etc.
According to USA and Holland based on
Grade Size of the spathe
Holland (inches) USA (cm)
1. Extra large >6 >15
2. Large 5-6 13-15
3. Medium 4-5 10-13
4. Small 3-4 8-10
5. Miniature/Tiny <3 <8
TUBEROSE Based on stalk length,
number of florets per spike,
weight of spike,
Straight and strongness, uniform length and uniform stage of development.

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LECTURE-17 friendly alternative to fresh flowers.


These can be offered in hospitals and
DRY FLOWER TECHNOLOGY
pollen allergic people.
2. Economical and long lasting: It can
be reused several times compared to
INTRODUCTION: fresh flowers.
There is an increasing demand all over the 3. Dried flowers are available
world for decorating living and working throughout the year.
places with eco-friendly things like flowers
and foliages. 4. It can survive the heat of summer and
cold of winter.
Fresh flowers and foliages though exquisite in
5. Especially useful in autumn and
their beauty are highly expensive.
winter when flowers are scarce and
Also they are perishable and delicate in nature expensive. During this period fresh
and cannot retain their beauty and fresh look flower availability is less in temperate
for a long time even with the use of best countries because of chilling
technology for enhancing vase life. temperature. Cost of production is
high due to heating requirement in
Moreover, there is a non-availability of fresh
green houses and non-availability of
flowers and foliages all round the year in all
open field grown flowers.
places.
6. More flexibility than fresh flowers. We
In this context, flower can be dried, preserved
can increase the length of flower stalk
and processed to retain its beauty as well as
by using artificial stem. Thus creative
everlasting value.
possibilities are greater in dried
The beauty and value of the dried flower are flowers.
that they can be kept and cherished for years,
7. Less transportation cost. Dry flowers
which survive the cold of winter and heat of
can be transported through sea,
summer.
whereas fresh flowers need quick
At present dry flower industry is growing very transportation through the air, a costly
fast with more than 60 per cent share to the affair. Fresh flowers need cold storage
floriculture industry in India. also.
In dried flower industry, a turn over of more 8. Offers wide range of suitable and
than Rs. 150 crores is projected every year. striking colours.
Indias share in the export of these items is 9. Minimizes loses occurring in fresh
below 1.5 per cent in Europe and it is below 1 flower handling.
per cent of the world requirement. 10. Requires less maintenance.
Netherlands ranks first in the export of dried 11. Biodegradable.
flower followed by Columbia, Mexico, India
and Israel. 12. A variety of products can be prepared.

In view of expanding clientele, lucrative returns 13. Tolerant to most temperature.


and limited competition, more and more
entrepreneurs are expected to enter this USES OF DRIED FLOWER:
blooming business in near future.
Dried flowers can be utilized in the best
manner for making.
ADVANTAGES OF DRIED FLOWERS:
a) Decorative floral craft items.
1. Eco-friendly: Dried flower market has b) Greeting cards and covers.
grown exponentially as consumers c) Wall hangings/Wall plates.
became more eco-conscious and d) Floral designs.
choose dry flower as environmentally e) Calendars.
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f) Floral balls/Flower balls. Direct sunlight should be avoided to prevent


g) Festive decorations. fading of colour. Excess damp conditions also
h) Collages. should be avoided as it encourages mould.
i) Pomanders.
The key to drying flower is to withdraw 50 to
j) Bouquets and wreaths.
90 per cent water from the flowers without
k) Sweet smelling pot pourries.
distorting the shape or destroying the
l) Topiaries.
appearance of flowers and foliage.
m) Swags (Vertical and horizontal).
n) Flower arrangements. Selected materials for drying should have less
o) Landscapes. moisture content and fibrous tissue.
p) Sheaths.
Too matured flowers (opened flowers) are not
q) Floral album-for identification of
suited for drying as they generally shed upon
plants for botanical studies.
r) Cottage or small scale industry based drying and will not hold up well in
on floral crafts using dehydrated arrangements.
flowers, leaves, fruits, pods, seeds and Dark red colour flowers turns to black while
other parts is a distinct possibility. drying due to increase in pH in the cells that
s) Dry flowers can be sealed in glass leads to co-pigmentation of flavanoids and
containers for interior decorations. anthocyanins. The pH increase is due to
t) Dry flower industry can be associated degradation of proteins and release of free
with many subsidiary industries like ammonia.
cotton fabrics, terracotta, packaging,
cane, basket and glass, jute, iron and Yellow and orange colours change less while
brass, ribbons and laces, candles etc. drying while turns to brown or cream colour
By incorporating one with the other, due to oxidation processes.
one can have the benefit of value HARVESTING:
addition.
Harvesting should be done early morning or
TECHNIQUES FOR PRODUCTION OF DRY late evening after the dew and surface
FLOWERS: moisture have evaporated.
a. Principles affecting dehydration If temperature is high at the time of harvest,
biochemical reactions are at faster rate which
There are two important factors responsible for
leads to early senescence and further leads to
loss of fresh look of flowers and foliage. They are
petal drop while dehydration.
a) Microbial activity
Summer is the best season for dehydration.
b) Ageing process/senescence
However, colours are brighter in winter and
Both the factors are biochemical in nature. mansoon produced flowers.
Moisture is essential for operation of both
Use only materials free of insect and disease
factors.
damage as damage becomes more obvious
Preservation by dehydration is based on the after drying.
principle of reducing moisture content by
Place stems in a container of water to prevent
which chemical changes are brought to a
wilting while gathering.
standstill and micro-organism growths are
checked. FACTORS AFFECTING DEHYDRATION:
The process of dehydration depends upon:
After dehydration, dried produce should be
1. Atmospheric humidity.
stored in a dry atmosphere.
2. Airflow.
To achieve strong, natural colour in dried 3. Temperature.
material drying period should be as short as 4. Embedding material.
possible. 5. Method of drying.
6. Moisture content of the flowers.
7. Type and Shape of the flowers.
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Procedure: After bunching, flowers are hung


1. ATMOSPHERIC HUMIDITY: Higher humidity
upside down tied to the thread and dried in
delays the process of drying
sun.
by reducing the capacity of air
to absorb liberated moisture Advantage: Cheapest method since no cost on energy
from the product. Less is involved.
humidity results in brittleness.
Disadvantage:
2. TEMPERATURE: Higher temperature leads to
1. Season bound resulting in supply
rapid moisture loss so the
uncertainties.
quality of finished product
2. Requires large open space.
goes down with rise in
temperature. Low temperature 3. Time consuming
leads to delayed drying and 4. Shrinkage of petals
results in poor quality due to 5. Loss of natural colour induced by over
mould growth. exposure to sun

3. AIRFLOW: It is essential for conducting 6. Lack of uniform quality.


heat from the source to the 6. AIR DRYING/DRYING UNDER SHADE:
product through embedding
Flowers are hung in an inverted position or
and also for the transfer of
kept in an erect manner in a well ventilated, warm and
moisture liberated from the
shaded place. Protection from direct sunlight, dry
product to the atmosphere
atmosphere and plenty of ventilation are necessary.
outside.
Advantage:
4. EMBEDDING MATERIAL: Rate of evaporation is
different in different Simple and Cheaper method
embedding material due to No special equipment
different capacities to conduct involved.
heat and absorb moisture. Disadvantage:
5. METHOD OF DRYING: Rate of moisture loss and Time consuming
quality of produce also depends on method of drying. Weather dependant
Drying methods Shrinkage of petals
Unnatural straight stems
1.
Sun drying
2.
Air drying/Drying under shade Ex., Helipterum, Helichrysum, Limonium, Strawflower,
3.
Polyset drying Statice, Thistles, Yarrow, Golden rod, Babys
4.
Press drying breath, Celosia, Globe amaranth, Salvia,
Hydrangeas, Xeranthemum, Queen Annes Lace,
5.
Embedded drying : a) in room
Millet, Astilbe, Baptisia, Blackberry-lily, Cat
b) in sun tail, Chinese lantern, Clover, Dusty miller,
6. Hot air oven drying False-dragonhead, Fennel, Grains Grasses,
7. Microwave oven drying Lilac, Marigold, Milk weed, Okra, Polygonum,
8. Vacuum drying Rose, Smoke tree, Pansy, Bachelors button,
9. Freeze drying Bells-of- Ireland, Scarlet sage, Blue sage, Sea
lavender, Acacia, Acanthus (Bears breeches)
10. Skeletonizing
Acer (Sycamore), Love- lies-bleeding,
11. Drying through treatment with
Amaryllis, Anethum (Dill), Artemisia,
glycerin Arundinaria (Bamboo), Atriplex (Dock), Avena
12. Dyeing (Blue grass), Birch, Calendula, Callistemon,
1. Sun drying- Most common method Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), Corn flower,
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Clematis, Artichoke (Cynara scolymus), Dahlia, Bleeding heart, Corn flower, Golden rod,
Larkspur (Delphinium ajacis), Digitalis Alyssum, Buttercup, Bachelors button,
(Foxglove), Fennel, Kochia (Silver Cypress), Hydrangea Anemone, Butterfly weed, Daffodil,
Lavender, Liatris, Lovein-a-mist, Poppy, Lily-of-the-valley, Azalea, Celosia, Delphinium,
Chinese lantern (Physalis), Mignonette (Reseda Phlox, Queen Anns lace, Salvia, Sweet pea
lutea), Reed mace, Zea mays, Rose buds,
GRASSES AND FERNS:
Lavender, Zinnia, Artemesia, Astilbeetc,.
8. POLYSET DRYING: Adiantum, Nephrolepis, Golden fern, Silver fern

It is a polymer preservation method which is FOLIAGES:


applied to the flower 45 minutes before drying. It is a Thuja, Cassia biflora, Haematoxylon, Marigold,
chemical pre-treatment application which is used Casuarina, Calliandra, Rose foliage, Grevillea robusta,
before air drying to improve the quality of the dried Taxodium distichum.
flower.
11. EMBEDDED DRYING:
Advantages:
To overcome the problem of petal shrinkage
Lessens drying time. and other morphological changes in dehydrated
Improves the intensity of flower colour. materials due to air drying, the flowers are dried in
Minimizes shattering and wrinkling of petals embedding technique. The embedding materials cover
which may occur during air drying. flowers in such a way that the original shape of the
flower is maintained.
9. PRESS DRYING:
Advantage:
The flowers and leaves while press drying is
placed between the folds of newspaper sheets Retains colour and form.
or blotting papers giving some space among Support the petals more rigidly and
flowers. maintains shape on drying.
These sheets are kept one above the other and Disadvantage:
corrugated boards of the same size are placed Labour intensive.
in between the folded sheets so as to allow the Expensive since it involves the cost of
water vapour to escape. embedding materials.
The whole bundle should be placed in a plant 12. COMMON EMBEDDING MATERIALS:
press for 24 hours.
Sl. Material Properties
Then it in kept is electric hot air oven for 24
No.
hours at 40-450 C. 1. Silica gel Very clean material, does not
The press dried flower may be either stored in cake, acts very quickly, light in
sheets at a dry place or in desiccators for weight, keeps colour well,
future use. reusable (Bake in oven at 1200C
for two hours until turns dark
The original shape of the materials cannot be blue), highly hygroscopic,
maintained by press drying but original colour expensive, rapidly absorbs
is retained. moisture from flowers, it can
The pressed flowers and foliages are used in absorb about 40 per cent of its
making floral charts, greeting cards and weight with water, drying
landscapes. within 2-3 days.
2 Corn meal Light, tends to stick to the
Ex., FLOWERS: Pansy, Candytuft, Lantana, petals, hence difficult to
Verbena, Aster, Ixora, Chrysanthemum, handle, less tendency to flatten
Larkspur, Rose, Cosmos, Mussaenda, flowers, makes boxes easier to
Euphorbia, Pentas, Violets, Dahlia, English handle and move after filling.
Daisy, Geranium, Marigold, Zinnia, Ageratum,
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3 Borax Hygroscopic, bleaches petals if wires are pushed into it so that the flower
stored for long time, tends to remains upright.
become lumpy after absorbing
Desiccant is then gently and gradually poured
moisture, drying will take 2 to
all around and over so as to fill all the crevices
10 days. If flower remain in
in between the petals without disturbing the
borax too long, they become
shape of flower. Flowers are covered up to a
brittle and lose their petals.
cm on top.
4 Sand Cheapest, easy to handle,
heavy and does not react with Flower such as bougainvillea, candytuft,
water vapour. It neither forms perennial chrysanthemum, pompon dahlia,
lumps nor bleaches the plant gerbera, marigold, rose, limonium etc. can be
materials embedded in it. Since dried with their own stems.
heavier, it takes longer time for Embedding in such cases is done in deep
drying (4 days to 2 weeks) containers so as to accommodate the plant
5 Alum Double sulphate of Aluminium material without disturbing its shape and
and Potassium. form. These embedded materials are kept at
room temperature in a well ventilated room
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD EMBEDDING till the plant material gets completely dried.
MATERIALS
Advantages :
1. Fineness: - The material should be very fine (0.02- No shrinkage of petals
0.2mm) to fill the crevices and Disadvantages :
cavities present in flower and Takes longer time for dehydration
Weather dependant.
completely envelope them leaving no
gaps. 6. Embedding and drying in sun

2. Inertness to water vapour: - It should not react After embedding, the containers are daily
with water vapour released during drying, as well exposed to sun. Containers are shifted under a roof
as with floral parts and form lumps. during the evening and again brought to sun in the
morning.
Eg:- Borax and alum tend to form lumps when Advantage:
damp, sometime they harden and crack.
o Rapid dehydration as compared to earlier
3. Optimum weight:- Very light weight powders are method.
not suitable, since these are difficult to handle and Disadvantage:
leave gaps during embedding. o Weather dependant.
Flowers like gerbera, zinnia and
4. Non bleaching: - Drying material should be free
chrysanthemum dried well with minimum shrinkage
from any type of salt and chemical. Strongly
when sun dried after placing them in a box containing
hygroscopic material should be avoided as it
sand. This takes 4-5 days for drying.
bleaches plant material.
TAKING OUT THE FLOWER:
5. Embedding and drying in room
After dehydration, the containers are tilted for
For flowers with weak stems, stems are cut
removing the desiccants over and around the
about 2.5 cm from the base of the flower.
flowers.
If stem is too soft, a thin but strong wire of 5 cm
The dried flowers are either picked up by hand
length is inserted from the back in the center
or by tweezers; cleaned by inverting them and
of the flower after removing the flower stalk.
tapping the stems with fingers slowly and
Such flower can be easily dried in shallow
gently.
earthenware or metallic trays.
Remaining desiccants are finally removed with
About 5 cm layer of the desiccant is made at the
the help of fine hair painting brush.
bottom of the container and flower stems and
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Unbelievably fast
HOT AIR OVEN DRYING:
Procedure: The container with the embedded plant
Quality product
material is kept in the hot air oven at a controlled
temperature for appropriate time. Disadvantages: Costly method.
Advantages : VACUUM DRYING:
Faster dehydration Principle:
Temperature can be maintained The embedded material may be dehydrated
Independent from weather conditions under vacuum.

Superior quality product It employs a thick walled chamber fitted with a


heating device, a vacuum pump for
Disadvantages : maintaining high vacuum and a condenser for
Costlier condensing the liberated moisture in drying
compartment.
Brittle flowers due to lack of
humidity. Advantages:
Accordingly drying period varies from 48 to 72 hours It permits the use of low temperature for
and temperature varies from 30 0C to 50 0C. drying, thus minimizing oxidative changes
resulting in excellent quality of the finished
MICROWAVE OVEN DRYING:
product.
Principle behind microwave oven
Energy loss is also minimum as most of the
drying is liberating moisture by
heat is utilized for evaporating moisture.
agitating water molecules in the
organic substances with the help of
electronically produced microwaves. Disadvantages: High cost of equipment and its
sophisticated nature.
Procedure:-
FREEZE DRYING/CRYO DRYING:
Embedded flowers and foliages in
silica gel contained in a non-metallic It is a relatively new process.
earthenware or glass ware are kept in
Fully opened flowers are cut into a uniform
an oven for few minutes to induce
15cm length and placed in vials so that the
effective drying.
basal 5 cm are immersed in solutions of
After the treatment the containers are glycerine, clove oil, ethylene glycol, dimethyl
taken out and kept at ambient sulfoxide and wetting agent.
temperature for a particular period, so
Various concentrations and combinations are
that the moisture of the container gets
used for stem uptake.
evaporated and the plant material gets
fully dried called as setting time. After this pretreatment, flower-stems are re-cut
to 5 cm in length and placed in a freezing
Generally, drying period varies from 1
temperature at 800C for 12 hours.
to 4 minutes and setting time 2 to 5
hours. Then the flowers are immediately placed in a
Microwave heating is a type of freeze dryer at 200C and under a vacuum of
dielectric heating using high less than 100 microns for 7 days.
frequency waves. When a substance Two phases in freeze dying
like water is absorbed in its free state
1. Freezing phase.
and then micro-waved it responds by
heating and vaporizing. 2. Vacuum drying phase.
Advantage of Microwave oven drying :

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or immersion in
Principle :-
glycerin
Freeze drying is a dehydration process that Air drying preserves Lavender
causes vaporization of water directly from a fragrance
solid ice crystal state to a vapour state without Air drying with Mollucella
passing through normal liquid state. glycerin
Flowers suited for freeze drying include Air drying with Rose
carnation, Antirrhinum and roses. glycerin
Air drying Allium, Helipterum,
Advantages : Texture, structure, shape, size, colour etc Leucodendron, Mimosa,
are similar to fresh ones. Gomphrena, Verbena
Disadvantages : Microwave oven Spray carnation
drying
High cost of equipment Microwave oven Chrysanthemum (small)
Electrical energy consumption. drying
Microwave oven Iris, Orchids, Sweet
Equipment maintenance cost is higher drying William, Tulip
Requires precise processing techniques.
Though expensive, freeze drying is becoming GLYCERIN TREATMENT:
very popular in U.S. to preserve special
It refers to replacing the moisture content in a
occasion flowers. Brides often choose freeze
flower with a mixture of glycerin and water. Here the
drying to preserve their wedding bouquets.
flower is actually preserved and not dried.
Vacuum drying temperature had more effect
Two types of glycerin treatments
on rose and carnation flowers than freezing
temperature. Lower vacuum drying 1. Systemic treatment: - It allows the plant to absorb
temperature (27 0C) resulted in flower with the glycerin through the stems naturally.
colour closer to fresh and control flowers, 2. Immersion treatment: - Here glycerin is forced
while higher vacuum drying temperature
through the stems under pressure.
(470C) resulted in lower moisture content and
stronger/stiffer petals but more changes in Flowers suited: - Caspia, Ming, Tree fern,
colour. Salal.
SKELETONIZING : Advantages:
Retains natural shape and
It is suited for foliages. flexibility
Skeletonizing is a process of removing Lasts indefinitely
soft tissue by soaking in water or Disadvantages: Preservation destroys natural colour/
alkali solution for 7-10 days. colour changes; Therefore dyes are used to
produce a wide array of choices; Dried
The decayed tissue is removed by
materials will have greasy feeling.
using a paint brush and washed.
Leaves:
E.g.: Peepal leaves
Maple, Bells- of-Ireland, Mexican, Orange
SUITABLE FLOWER FOR DIFFERENT
blossom , Oak , Beech, Cherry,
TECHNIQUES:
Eucalyptus, Magnolia, Japanese Fatsia,
Methods Crops
Mistletoe, Ferns, Mahonia, Salal, Camellia,
Air drying with silica Anemone, Freezia, Ivy, Rhododendron, Hydrangea
gel Zinnia, Narcissus
Borax/Alum drying Snapdragon, cosmea,
Delphinium
Drying with sand Dahlia

Air drying with water Foliage


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Procedure Methanol is diluted to 50 to 150 liters by adding


water.
Select a branch about 18 inches or less in length.
Dye paste is added to diluted methanol.
Remove lower leaves and branch or split the
stem end of wood materials about 4 to 6 Products are dipped in methanol solution and
inches to increase absorption. immediately taken out and dried for a few
minutes.
Make a mixture of 1 part glycerin and 2 parts
warm water. Moisture tests to know material is dried/not
Stir well and pour into glass containers. 1. Test the flower in more than one place, as
petals dry before the flower centre.
Mark the level of mixture on the containers.
2. Place sample in airtight jar, leave for a day or
As the branches absorb mixture, add a reserve two. If condensation appears, need to be dried
mixture which contains 1 part glycerin + 4 a little more.
parts water to the original marked level.
3. Check the sample by keeping upright in a
Soft stem takes 3-6 days for absorption whereas container for 24-48 hours. Head will droop if
woody stems takes 2 to 6 weeks. plants are not completely dried because; neck
Foliage colour will gradually change as of flower dries out last.
glycerin is absorbed. CARE OF DRIED FLOWERS:
DYEING OR COLOURING: 1. Prevention of moisture absorption- Dry
It is essential for good appearance. flower absorbs atmospheric moisture and
loses their shape. Therefore, they should be
It is a determining factor in the pricing of the stored immediately in moisture proof
product. containers like glass desiccators, tin boxes,
Dyeing also serves as a preservative. It cartons, wrapped with plastic sheet or wax
enhances the natural look and texture of the paper.
product. 2. Prevention of dust Storage containers
Three methods of dyeing should be dust free as dust particles spoil the
beauty of flowers.
1. Dyeing by dusting
3. Prevention of breakage- Pack carefully
Chalk powder mixed with dye is applied on ensuring that there is not too much pressure
flower surface. on flower heads.
2. Colouring of products using dyestuff with water 4. Prevention of direct sunlight and light in
1-4 kg dye and 5-20 liters of water is put in a order to avoid fading of colour.
small bucket to form a paste. 5. Prevention of damage by insects-Moth balls
This paste is added to steam boiling water tank should be kept in storage containers.
(800 l). About 2 l acetic acid is also added to VALUE ADDITION :
the tank.
Value added products
The product to be coloured is then dipped into
the boiling water until the required shade is Dried flower are exported as assortments of
achieved. value added items.

In case of fragile product, Magnesium chloride DESCRIPTION OF DRIED FLOWERS


is also added. The International Trade centre (ITC) of the
After colouring, product is placed in the open United Nations Commission on Trade and
to dry. Development (UNCTAD) in conjunction with the
GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) had
3. Colouring of product using dyestuffs with developed the following product description for
methanol dried flowers.

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These Categories are 2. Potpourri


1. Dried, dyed, bleached, impregnated or otherwise It is a mixture of dehydrated flowers, berries
prepared cut flowers and flower buds for and leaves which is exported either raw or
bouquets or for ornamental purposes scented.
ITC code : HS code-0603.90-00 The common method of display is in glass
bowls or ceramic jars which are placed in
It includes cut flowers, bouquets, wreaths, floral
bedrooms and bathrooms.
baskets etc.
This product can be packed in small muslin
2. Dried parts of plants for bouquets or for
bags or sachets which are then placed in
ornamental purposes
wardrobes and drawers are clothes-
ITC code : HS code 0604.99-10. fresheners.
3. Dried, dyed, bleached, impregnated or otherwise Use of potpourri as a natural scent as well as
prepared foliage, branches and other parts of decorative feature has gained wide
plants (without flowers or buds) and grasses, acceptance.
mosses, lichens suitable for bouquet or for
Potpourri overcomes the harmful effects of
ornamental purpose.
ozone depleting aerosols.
ITC code: HS code 0604.99-90.
Over 300 products are used in potpourri mixes.
It includes decorative fruit and Christmas trees
In India, major products used in potpourri are
EXPORT OF INDIAN DRIED FLOWER bachelors button (globe amaranth), cocks
MATERIALS: comb (Celosia argentea), marigold flower
(Tagetes sp), rose petals, bougainvillea petals,
India has evolved from being a raw material
supplier into a manufacturer of finished goods. The green leaves (such as bay leaves), neem leaves
Indian dried flower export market is classified into (Azadirachta indica), stones from plums,
four product segments. These classifications are peaches, apricot, amaranth etc.
particular to Indian suppliers and not confirm exactly OTHER FLOWERS INCLUDE:
to Harmonized code ITC (HS) descriptions or to
Larkspur, Delphinium, Cornflower, Peony,
competing product from other origin suppliers.
Sweet pea, Statice, Strawflower, Honeysuckle
Product Segmentation
Leaves from herbs like Artemisia, thyme, sage,
The Indian dried flower export market is rosemary, basil, yarrow, lavenders scented
classified into three main product segments and one geraniums, mints, marjoram, Verbena, anise,
specialized, lower volume segment, each with its own fennel.
characteristics.
Fruits include rose hips, hawthorn berries,
1. Dried flowers and plant parts in bulk juniper berries, grapefruit rind, orange rind
2. Potpourri and apples.

3. Arrangements (with dried plant Potpourri material should have a strong natural
materials and dried flowers) and colour or be a light enough shade to absorb
non-toxic dyes.
4. Floral handicrafts (Specialized/ low
volume) Material should be dry (maximum moisture
content of 7 per cent), resistant to mould, non
Dried flowers and plant parts in bulk toxic, free from noxious odours, of a low bulk
This is the high volume, well established end of density and sufficiently robust to withstand
the business. Varieties shipped under this mechanical blending.
classification include globe amaranth, celosia, U.K. is the biggest potpourri market for Indian
marigold, agro waste products as well as assembled raw balk materials.
flowers, exotics and material for liners and fillers used
in flower arrangements. Assembled flowers consist of
a number of parts of one or more sorts of flowers.
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HOW TO MAKE POTPOURRI: Dried floral designers require products with a


natural stalk of 15-40 cm. If stalks are not of an
Basis of a potpourri is the aromatic oils found
acceptable length, the products have wire
within the plant.
stalks attached with hot-glue gums.
These oils are not confined to flowers, but they
Products used in dried flower arrangements are
are at their peak at flowering time.
classified as Main blooms, Fillers, Liners and
So harvest leaves and flowers just as the plant Exotics
begins to flower.
Main blooms : Plays a key role because of their
After harvesting, dry the plant part in a warm, shape, size and colours in making
airy, dry room either by hang drying or flat bouquets or arrangements. They also
drying. include assembled everlastings. Most
common main blooms used within the
Drying at high temperature may result in loss
market are statice (sea lavender)
of aromatic oils.
Strawflower (Helichrysum), Nigella,
For making potpourri, a fixative is needed larkspur and roses.
which is responsible for absorbing the
Fillers : are a group of products used in
aromatic oils and slowly releasing them.
making bouquets and arrangements
Common fixatives include finely ground non whose function is to add bulk to the
iodized salt, Orris root (dried rhizomes of iris flower arrangement. They help to fill
plant), sweet flag (calamus root), gum any empty space in design.
benzoin, and ambergris.
Liners : Are mostly ornamental grasses, so
Other materials required are finely ground named because these grasses give a
spices (cinnamon, clove and nutmeg). To linear accent to an arrangement. Most
enhance the scent, add essential oil (Patchouli commonly used grasses are Avena
oil/rose oil/ lavender oil). (animated oats), Halaris (Canary
ARRANGEMENTS : grass), Triticum (ornamental wheat)
and Phleum (Timothy).
Most lucrative segment in dried flower market,
in terms of both total gross sales and unit In addition, a wide variety of plants
returns. such as typha (Cattail or reed mace),
maize, sorghum, spiked millet
a. Arrangements with dried plant materials (Pennisetum), dried branches and twigs
This market is small, specialized and of higher of trees (eg: silver dollar eucalyptus)
value. and shrubs can also be used.

Examples are wreaths, topiaries and swags. Exotics : Consists of a group of plants and
plant materials which originate from
Indian cottage industries are well developed in various tropical and subtropical
handicrafts. regions of the world. Indian Exotics
Examples of common products used in India: include Lotus heads (Seed head from
Nymphea species), palm spears (palm
Cotton pods, Exotic grasses and leaf material, leaf cut into spear shapes) and okra
large pine cones (Pinus sp), Unfurling fern fronds, pods.
dried capsicums (C. annum, C. frutescens), Barks and
twigs, Ornamental gourds (Cucurbita pepo), Seed pods 4. Floral handicraft
and heads. Handicraft products have served to generate
b. Dried flower arrangements: new demand for dried flower products. This segment
includes items such as:
High income private hotels and retail uses.
Dried items offer the arranger more flexibility Collages
than do fresh flowers. As a result creative Flowers pictures
possibilities are greater. Cards and covers (press-dried
flower and foliage)
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Innovative items such as :- SOURCE OF RAW MATERIALS :


Candle stands
Kolkata units procure their raw materials
Table lamps
locally as well as from Madhya Pradesh,
Picture frames
North eastern states, Bihar and South India.
Floral jewellary
Mirror decorations Tuticorin units procure some of their raw
Arrangements in glass containers materials from Pune and Nasik (Maharashtra)
and M.P. Bilaspur (M.P.) remains a major
ECONOMICS:
source of raw material for both Kolkata and
It is possible to start a home-scale establishment Tuticorin.
with a meager amount of Rs. 15,000/- and one may
Most raw materials are collected year round
supplement ones income by employing his family
from mountains, hills, valleys and deep sea by
members. A small scale industry can also be started if
villagers and trained rural labour and
the market for dry flowers and floral craft items is
supplied to the units either directly or through
explored in our country and world. There is quite high
collection agents.
margin of profit in this venture.
Whole process is quite informal and traditional
LOCATION OF DRIED FLOWER INDUSTRY:
20 per cent of raw material is cultivated and 80
The principal export houses /processing units per cent is collected from the wild.
for dried flowers are concentrated in port
Indias diversity in topography and climatic
towns of Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu), Kolkata
conditions makes it rich in plant material and
(West Bengal) and Mumbai.
hence, India can emerge as the leader supplier
Tuticorin accounts for over 50 per cent of of dried plant material
countrys export and Kolkata for about 40 per
EMPLOYMENT POTENTIAL:
cent. Tuticorin offers certain logistical,
political and climatic advantages over Calcutta The nature of industry requires an
for this industry. exceptionally large work force at the growing
/collecting stages.
Climate in Tuticorin is dry for best part of
the year. About 10,000 people are directly employed and
about 40,000 people are indirectly employed
MAJOR COMPANY IN INDIAN EXPORT:
with this industry.
1. M/s Ramesh Flowers Limited based in
A large number of employed are rural women,
Tuticorin has emerged as the single largest
who collects the flowers and plant materials,
exporter of dried flowers with a turnover of
sun dry them and then ready them for
over Rs 270 million. They have technical and
dispatch.
financial collaboration with Schleef of
Germany (Schleef holds 51 per cent of the More than 3,500 women are involved in this
companys equity). Schleef helps in product industry in Tuticorin alone and many in
design and development for European Kolkata.
markets. M/s W. Hogenwoning India, a
Thus dried flower industry is critical from the
prominent Dutch company has also started
stand point of employment potential.
exporting from Tuticorin
@@@@@@@
2. Singhvi International, Kolkata -having 60 per
cent of total dried flower exports from India.
The Singhvi family has a stronger export base
in Tuticorin
3. M/s Minex Agencies, Kolkata.
Major companies export their product to U.S.,
Holland Germany, Denmark, Czechoslovakia, Italy,
France, Spain, UK, Belgium, South Africa, Srilanka,
Australia and Mexico.

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9. Fernery:
LECTURE-18 It is a structure where different types of
ferns are grown or maintained for
LANDSCAPE GARDENING scientific or commercial purpose.
10. Archidorium:
It is a structure where different species
1. Landscape gardening:
of orchids are grown or maintained
It is a branch of floriculture which deals for scientific or economic purpose.
with the study of ornamental
gardening or garden features. 11. Archeology:
It is a branch of floriculture which deals
(OR)
with different species and varieties of
Bringing an area or piece of land into a orchids.
garden by utilizing naturally existing
features like undulations, terraces and 12. Bio-aesthetic planner:
plain surface so as to look to have He can be described as a master artist
more naturalistic effect than artificial who uses the whole country as his
in order to imitate nature canvas and his paints are the rich
2. Ornamental gardening: colours of red, blue, orange and white
of the different flowers.
It may be defined as a place for growing
plants exhibits various forms of plant Suggestions for implementing the principles of
life, which are consciously directed for gardening:
ornamental or practical use.
3. Landscape architecture:
1. The first and the foremost thing are not to
It is a combination of art and science and imitate another garden which has secured a
it deals with the study of ornamental prize in a competition.
or landscape gardening.
2. One has to develop ones own design giving
4. Landscape architect: due consideration to the local conditions.
Person who plans, designs and executes 3. One more mistake which is commonly made is
a work of landscaping is referred as to plant many more specimens than a garden
landscape architect. can accommodate causing overcrowding.
5. Arboriculture: 4. In a landscape garden any difference in levels
It is a branch of science which deals with has to be taken advantage of, but in a perfectly
the cultivation of trees. flat land it will be costly to create artificial
6. Arborist: undulations.

An arborist is a person who cultivates 5. In each garden there should be atleast one
and conducts research on tree species. feature or if there be a second these two
should harmonize with each other.
7. Gardner:
Any person who maintains or involved 6. Before planning a design one must be sure for
in carrying out day to day operation what purpose the garden is utility or beauty
in the garden or a person who or both.
establish and maintains the garden
8. Conservatory: PRINCIPLES OF GARDENING:
The glazed structure used for
1. INITIAL APPROACH:
maintaining/growing different plant
species or displayed for scientific In theory, everyone would like to have a perfect
study or commercial cultivation with plot of land, but in actual practice the plot
or without environmental controlling available for gardening, in three out of five
facility.
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cases, either will not be in a good site or the Unity has to be achieved from various angles.
shape and size will not be ideal.
o First, the unity of style, feeling and
A good designer is one who will make best use function between the house and the
of such a site. garden has to be achieved.
- As has already been stated, land with o Secondly, the different components of
natural undulations should never be the gardens should merge
leveled, but rather the differences in harmoniously with each other.
levels should be utilized with
o The aim is to give the visitor an overall
advantage.
impression of the garden rather than
- Fencing, should be such that it looks blowing up some special features.
natural as far as practicable and it
o The last point, which is also very
should not obstruct any natural view.
important, is to achieve some
For example, if there is natural forest
harmony between the landscape
scenery or a hillock just outside the
outside and the garden.
boundary it should be incorporated in
the garden design in a thoughtful o A garden laid out in complete defiance
manner so that it appears to be a part of the local conditions may look
of the garden. exotic, but is not a successful garden.
As for example, cacti planted in a
2. AXIS:
seashore garden is completely out of
This is an imaginary line in any garden around place as these are inhabitants of dry
which the garden is created striking a balance. localities.
In a formal garden, the central line is the axis. o To achieve a unity between the house
and the garden it is a common
At the end of an axis, generally there will be a
practice to train creepers on the front
focal point, although other architectural
porch which cover the rudeness of the
features such as bird-bath or sundial can also
masonry work and also bring the
be erected at about the midpoint.
house closer to nature.
o For the same reasons, foundation
3. FOCAL POINT: plantings are also done. A foundation
In every garden there is a centre of attraction planting broadly means the planting
which is generally an architectural feature of bushy plants near the foundation of
the house.
focused as a point of interest such as statue,
fountain, rockery etc. 6. SPACE:
A focal point is one of the elements of good The aim of every garden design should be such
landscape design. that the garden should appear larger than its
4. MASS EFFECT: actual size.

The use of one general form of plant material in One way of achieving this is to keep vast open
large numbers in one place is done to have spaces, preferably center lawn and restrict the
mass effect. plantings in the periphery, normally avoiding
any planting in the centre.
To see that such mass arrangements do not
become monotonous, the sizes of masses But if any planting has to be done in the centre
should be varied. the choice should be a tree which branches at a
higher level on the trunk (or the lower
5. UNITY: branches are removed) and not a bushy shrub.
Unity in a garden is very important as when Such planting will not abstract the view or
this is achieved it will improve the artistic look make the garden appear smaller than its size.
of the garden.

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Then sticks of different heights, representing


Another suggestion to create the illusion of
the various shrubs, are planted in various
more space in a large public garden is to
positions and by the method of permutation
alternate large lawns followed by a group of
and combination the most proportionate
trees.
looking arrangement is adopted.
A large open space planted haphazardly all
The common practice of laying out a small
over with trees looks smaller than its size.
rockery at the base of a large tree with small
The techniques of creating an illusion of more rockery at the base of a large tree with small
space are also referred to as 'Forced thorny specimens looks not only ugly but is
Perspective. also out of scale and proportion under the
7. DIVISIONAL LINES: large canopy of the tree.

In a landscape garden, there should not be any A tiny pool in the midst of a large lawn also
hard and fast divisional lines. looks disproportionate.

But there is the necessity of dividing or rather 9. TEXTURE:


screening a compost pit or a Malis quarter or The surface character of a garden unit is
a vegetable garden from the rest of the garden. referred to as texture.
In fact areas under lawn, gravel, stone or The texture of the ground, the leaves of a tree
cement path, and shrubbery border have their or shrub will all determine the overall effect of
natural divisional lines from its immediate the garden.
neighbour though these are not discreet. This
The texture of rugged looking ground can be
is what is exactly needed.
improved to an appreciable extent by laying
The divisional lines should be artistic with meticulously chosen small pebbles from the
gentle curves and these should also be useful. riverbeds, if establishing a lawn is out of the
Above all these lines should harmonize with question.
one another. A gulmohar is a fine textured tree when in full
8. PROPORTION AND SCALE: leaf, whereas

Proportion in a garden may be defined as a Spathodea companulata is a coarse textured


definite relationship between masses. tree. The placement of all these various
textures with harmony and contrast has to be
For example, a rectangle having a ratio of 5:8 is achieved to get the ultimate desirable effect.
considered to be of pleasing proportion.
As this ratio comes down the form looks 10. TIME AND LIGHT:
neither a square nor a rectangle and the design In a garden the time factor is very important.
becomes undesirable. There are three different categories of time in
There is no set rule as regards scale or a garden.
proportion in a garden. First come the daily time, which provides
But a simple rule is that a design should look different quantities and qualities of light
pleasant. during the course of the day.

It is better to have an adhoc design first and As the morning sun is vital for all flowers, the
then try it out on the actual spot. If the design designer has to take this into account while
looks appealing as well as pleasing, it is planning.
implemented. In most parts of India the garden design should
When a shrubbery border has to be planted the be planned in such a way that in the afternoon
outer design is marked by arranging a rubber it is possible to sit in a shaded place from
hose or thick wet rope in different designs on where the best part of the garden should be
the spot and the one which looks best is visible.
adopted.

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12. MOBILITY:
The second type of time is the seasonal
changes in the year. In a temperate country, the garden changes
colour very sharply and contrastingly from
A good planner must roughly take into account
one season to the other thus symbolizing
the seasonal movement of the sun and where
mobility or movement.
the shade and light are likely to fall during the
different parts of the season. As for example, As for example, many trees in the temperate
a lawn in Delhi which receives shade during regions attire themselves with wonderful hues
the early parts of the day in the winter will not due to the changes in their leaf colour in the
grow or remain patchy. A good and autumn.
knowledgeable Gardner is he/she who can
In most parts of Tropical India, though these
visualize such eventualities.
contrasting changes cannot be achieved, it is
The third time, which most people overlook or possible to bring in some subtle changes.
cannot visualize, is the fact as to what shape
For example, to create some symbol of
and proportion the shrubs and trees will attain
movement trees such as Bengal or
in the years to come.
Indian almond (Terminalia catapa) which
Often we can see sickly and lanky shrubs changes its leaf colour into striking red
growing near the trunk of a large tree, because twice annually before falling.
of lack of light and possibly nutrients also.
Lagerstroemia flos-reginae which also
The shrubs were planted when the tree was a changes the colour of the leaves to
sapling, without visualizing what would coppery shade in the autumn before
happen to them when the tree attained its full shedding.
size.
Madhuca indica and Ficus religiosa, the
The right type of tree should be planted at the new foliage of these appearing as
proper place so that shade is obtained during coppery red in the spring, should be
the hot days, at the appropriate time. planted in some parts of the garden.
This, in addition, improves the
11. TONE AND COLOUR:
landscape.
A tendency on the part of an amateur Gardner
The movement and cluttering of birds also
is to create a riot of colours by
bring life and mobility to the garden, though
indiscriminately planting flowering annuals of
sometimes some birds may become a menace.
all shades. This practice is not desirable.
Moreover, such riot of colours has only Large trees and bird-baths attract birds. For the
temporary effect. smaller birds, the safety of shrubberies is
needed to protect them from large predator
In a landscape garden, the permanent backdrop
birds.
is the green tones of the various trees and
shrubs. Some plants, bearing berries, such as Ficus
infectoria and Syzygium cumini (Syn. Eugenia
It is possible to lay out a garden with fine tone
jambolana), can also be planted in some remote
of entirely white or yellow flowers, but at the
corners though they may not look very
same time making it charming also.
ornamental.
Another important point is that it is better to
Flowering trees such as Bombax malabaricum
have masses of a single colour against a
(silk cotton) or Erythrina also attract birds
mixture of colours.
when in bloom.
A bud of roses containing only a single colour
The seasonal flowers will bring in the motion
of say red, yellow, or pink has a much softer
and movement of colourful butterflies.
tone and beauty than a rose bed containing a
mixture of colours. Fountains or even a lawn sprinkler and streams
in a garden also serve the objective of
movement.

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The lily pools should be filled with coloured


fish, the movement of which will be an added
attraction.
The frogs will also come and inhabit these
pools uninvited and in the process bring in
more movement.
13. STYLE:
Lastly, one has to decide about the style to be
adopted for ones garden.
Broadly speaking, every garden lover has to
invent his own style of gardening
commensurate with his budget, taste and the
nature of the site.
But a man can develop his own design only
when he studies carefully all the great garden
styles of the world and grasps the underlying
principles in them.
There is no doubt that persons not having
enough specialized knowledge will commit
mistakes; nevertheless, one should not get
deterred by this fact.
@@@@

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LECTURE-19 His idea was revolutionary and found many


admirers to follow this.
STYLES OF GARDENING
The concept of wild garden is not only against
all formalism but it also breaks the rule of
landscape styles.
Besides the term landscape gardening the His main idea was to naturalize plants in
shrubberies.
other two familiar terms in gardening are the Formal
He also preached that grass should remain
and Informal gardens.
unmowed, as in nature, and few bulbous
plants should be grown scattered in the grass
to imitate wild scenery.
1. FORMAL GARDENS:
He also suggested that passages should be
A formal garden is laid out in a symmetrical or opened in the woodland, and trees, shrubs,
a geometrical pattern. and bulbous plants should be planted among
the forest flora to fulfill his idea of a wild
In this garden the design is stiff as everything is
garden.
done in a straight and narrow way.
His other idea was to allow the creepers to
In such gardens everything is planted in
grow over the trees naturally imitating those
straight lines.
of the forests.
Also if there is a plant on the left hand side of a
Before someone starts to venture into designing
straight road, a similar plant must be planted
a garden it will be wise to get an idea abut the
at the opposite place on the right hand side
major gardening styles of the world.
i.e., mirror image of each other.
This will pen up a window to this knowledge
The flower beds, borders, and shrubbery are
on gardening and help him design his own
arranged in geometrically designed beds.
garden by adapting the best from each or any
Trimmed formal hedges, Cypress, Ashoka trees, of these.
and topiary are typical features of a formal
But this does not mean that one should copy
garden.
any garden style. For example, when a
would-be writer studies Shakespeare, Shaw,
2. INFORMAL GARDENS: or Tagore it does not mean that he will
translate their ideas in his work of literature.
In an informal garden, the whole design looks He only studies the styles of writing and
informal, as the plans and the features are forms his own ideas suiting to the situation
arranged in a natural way without following and time.
any hard and fast rules.
Similarly, a garden enthusiast has to study the
But here also the work has to proceed different styles only to gain knowledge to help
according to a set and well-through-out plan; him form his own ideas suiting the local
otherwise the creation will not be artistic and condition and limitations such as a available
attractive. space, funds, etc.,
The idea behind this design is to imitate Though in India from history and ancient
nature. literature we find that gardening was quite in
vogue in olden times, but unfortunately there
is no garden style called Indian garden,
3. WILD GARDEN:
which can claim a place in the major
gardening styles of the world.
A comparatively recent style of gardening,
namely, Wild Garden was expounded by The famous garden style of India the Mughal
William Robinson in the last decade of the Gardens are nothing but a replica of the
nineteenth century. ancient Persian Gardens.
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trees, rivulets or streams, artificial waterfalls


and clipped hedges.
The major garden styles are;
The flowering annuals, the main stay of an
1. Mughal Gardens,
English garden, came into prominence during
2. Persian gardens, the nineteenth century which subdued the
3. Italian gardens, architectural features.
4. French gardens
The main features of an English garden are
5. English gardens and the lawn, mixed border especially of
6. Japanese gardens herbaceous annuals, as well as herbaceous
perennials, shrubbery, and rock gardens.
Out of these, the Mughal, Persian, Italian and
French styles are Formal Gardens, The English climate suit admirably well for the
whereas, growth of herbaceous annuals.
English and Japanese gardens are classified as This prompted them to evolve a large number
Informal Style of gardening. of hybrids of annuals as well as to collect the
best flowering plants from all over the world.
{1} ENGLISH GARDENS: Most of the flowering annuals that we see
today in the Indian gardens, with the few
Due to favorable climatic conditions such as exceptions of amaranthus, balsam,
high annual rainfall, the natural ground cover gomphrena, marigold, etc., were brought here
in the English countryside is grass. by the British.
With this in mind the famous British garden
architects Repton and Capaciblity Brown (2) ITALIAN GARDENS:
advocated the concept that the British gardens
should like the countryside. The Italian garden style came into existence at
Their main idea was that, the gardens should the time of Renaissance.
merge with the countryside without any There is a striking similarity between the
artificial barriers such as fences, hedges, or the Persian and the Mughal styles with the Italian
like. style.
But it is only in the eighteenth century that In all these styles of gardening the similarity
these two gentlemen along with Kent brought was the use of heavy masonry features,
the touch of nature in the garden, although the through the character of masonry was
history of gardening in England dates back of different in the Italian style.
fourteenth century.
The Italian elites conceived their gardens just as
They started kitchen gardens to supply an extension of the lavish palaces, as a
vegetables to the inmates of the monasteries glamorous outdoor hall for entertainment and
and grew herb gardens for medicines. for showing off their wealth as well as status.
But this gradually imbibed the spirit of The most prominent features associated with
gardening to the people who realized the Italian gardens was,
goodness of residing in pleasant surroundings.
o The massive flight of stairs, generally of
By the middle of the sixteenth century the marble, complete with balustrade to
English gardens saw flower beds, topiary, and connect the different levels in the garden.
terrace gardens.
o Decorative urns, fountains generally in
In the middle of the eighteenth century gardens combination with stone sculptures or
were laid out with more emphasis on rather the fountains themselves used to
architectural features. emerge from one part or the other of the
The main features of gardens during this statues, are the other equally important
period were curved paths, informal groups of features of the Italian gardens.

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The Persian styles are strictly formal and


o The greatest benefit the Italian garden style
symmetrical.
brought to gardening is that it taught all of
Europe that They used for their gardens all crafted
materials such as masonry, carved and pierced
Gardening could be a most respectable form of
marble stones, and highly polished stones.
art which demanded through and careful study.
The Persian gardens were laid out by cutting
terraces on the hill slopes. They also tapped
(3) FRENCH GARDENS
some natural spring to create a straight water-
In the sixteenth-century France, the court life course through the gardens and manipulated
the water-course to undertake different
was shrouded with stiff formality and
exactness. Matching with that the French style movements along its run.
of garden designs were also very intricate and If there was no natural source of water this was
artificial. Until this time the French gardens created artificially by diverting some rivulet or
were nothing but copies of Italian style. a stream.
The new style of gardening now known as So the main stay of a Persian garden design
French style is largely, rather solely, due to the was nahars (Flowing canals) of water the
efforts of Le Notre who served in the Royal concept of Persian Paradise, where cooling
Garden of Louis XIV from 1643 to 1700. water flows.
He elevated the art of garden design to a The selection and placing of trees were very
standard which had never since been reached. judicious.
It was Le Notre who showed to the world the The fruit trees represented the symbol of life
impact in impressiveness of scale, on garden while
design.
Cypress symbolized death and eternity.
His main creations, the gardens at Versailles,
have avenues which are memorable for their
(5) MUGHAL GARDENS
tremendous length and width.
To design a garden at Vauxe-le-Vicomte, his The gardens laid out during the rule of Mughal
first master piece, Le Notre had removed three Emperors in India are known as Mughal
villages to create his vista. gardens.
The moral of French garden style of Le Notre The Mughal gardens are similar to the style of
seems to teach the lesson How to Think gardens of Central Asia and Persia.
Big.
Babar (1494 1531) was the first Mughal ruler
The style of Le Notre can be termed as an to introduce this style in India.
evolution and mastery of the art of formal
garden in its perfection. All other Mughal rulers and some of the
Mughal Begums starting from Akbar and
His style dominated the gardens of civilized followed by Jahangir, Nur Jehan, Shah Jehan,
Europe, for a long time. and Aurangzeb all laid their hand on
developing one or the other Mughal gardens
(4) PERSIAN GARDENS in India.
The main features of Mughal gardens, which
Persian garden style is one of the oldest. are largely borrowed from the Persian style,
The Persian garden style and the Japanese style are :
both were based on their respective ideas of (a) site and style of the design, (b) walls, (c)
heaven. gates, (d) terrace, (e) nahars or running waters,
Except this similarity the two styles differ (f) baradari, (g) often a tomb or a mosque, and
widely from one another. (h) trees.

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1. Site and Design: The water canals were paved with


tiles (or marble) of blue colour to
Mughals were very choosy about the create the illusion of depth.
selection of site and always preferred
a site on a hill slope with a perennial The course of water used to be
rivulet or along the bank of a river. manoeuvred in various ways taking
advantage of each slope, however
Mughal gardens are generally small it may be, to break up the flow
rectangular or square in shape and into artificial falls and ripples.
different architectural features are the
main stay of the design. The water canals used to have
fountains to throw up the water high
2. Walls and Gates : in the air.
In the evenings small lamps used to be
The Mughals created the gardens not
illuminated to create beautiful
only for pleasure and recreation but
reflexions.
also as forts and residences
surrounded by high walls and with- The fascination for water came from
an-imposing wooden gate at the the Muslim faith which says that the
entrance which was studded with promised paradise is the place where
bold iron nails and pointed iron cooling waters flow.
spikes.
The purpose of the high walls was 5. Baradari:
security from the enemies and shelter This is noting but an arbour-like
against hot winds. structure, but made of stone and
The gardens were a place of peace for masonry with a pucca roof and a
the Emperors to enjoy with their raised platform for sitting.
wives and concubines.
These were usually provided with
twelve or occasionally more doors on
3. Terrace: all sides for the Emperors to watch the
The Mughals came from the hilly performance of the dancing girls.
terrains and so they were fond of
terraces in the gardens. For this 6. Tomb or Mosque:
reason they used to select the location It was a common practice to have the
of gardens near hill slopes. gardens built around a tomb (e.g., Taj
Their fascination for terrace was so Mahal, Akbhars Tomb at Sikandra).
intense that even in the plains of It is often said that the Mughal
Punjab they created artificial terraces. gardens were at their best when built
According to Islamic faith the Paradise around a monument.
has eight divisions and hence some
times the gardens have eight terraces 7. Trees and flowers:
corresponding to the eight divisions or
occasionally the gardens may be The trees were selected with careful
composed of seven terraces also planning and thought, as to Mughals
representing the seven planets. each tree symbolized something, like
life, youth, death, etc.

4. Nahars (Running Water): Fruit trees were considered symbols of


life and youth,
The style for having running water by
Cypress represented death and
constructing canals and tanks
eternity.
borrowed from the Persians.

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The Japanese gardens are further classified


The Mughals had bias for spring
flowering trees and flowers. based on positions, shape and purpose. The
important types are;
The seasonal flower beds were of
1. Hill garden,
geometrical pattern and constructed
along the water canals or near the 2. Flat garden,
main buildings. 3. Tea garden,
4. Passage garden, and
The favourite flowers were rose,
5. Sand gardens.
jasmine, carnation, hollyhock,
delphinium etc. (1} Hill Garden:

Out of the various styles, this garden style is


(6) JAPANESE GARDEN STYLE
considered to be the ideal by many garden
Both the Persian and Japanese garden designs enthusiasts.
were based on their respective ideas of
This style is known in Japanese as Tsukiyama-
heaven.
niwa or Tsukiyama-sansui, meaning hills
A most important teaching of the Japanese and water.
garden is possibly that unless a garden has
The hill garden is made up of one or more hills
an air of peace its not worth a place visiting.
designed with earth mounds and exposed
It should be a place where the mind finds rest
weathered stones.
and relaxation.
The other features of this garden are- water in
Another strong basis of the Japanese garden is
the form of a stream or a pond or waterfalls or
its immutability, i.e., except some seasonal
all the three with or without islands and also
changes in the deciduous trees the Japanese
bridges, lantern, stones, and trees.
garden hardly goes through any other strong
visible changes during different seasons. The important points in the garden are
decorated with stones and selected trees.
Even during the winter the Japanese gardens
have their own beauty with snow flakes But pine trees may be planted to give the effect
hanging down the stone pieces or the stone of being swept by wind.
lanterns.
Untrimmed stepping stones are placed over the
The immutability is achieved also because walks.
rather than a grand mixture of flowers, shrubs,
An island is generally a usual feature in a hill
and trees more emphasis is placed on natural
garden.
elements such as a simple path, a group of
rocks, stepping stones, streams, waterfalls, When the island is present it should be
bridges, stone lanterns, and so on. decorated with a Worshipping stone, called
raithai-seki in Japanese, a Sow-viewing
A Japanese garden tries to capture natural
lantern and a pine tree.
scenery or to imitate a landscape.
The three elements most important to achieve
(2) Flat Garden:
these objectives are water, stone, and plants.
Low sculptured bushes and trained dwarfed As the name implies, Hira-niwa or flat gardens
trees look very attractive in a Japanese garden. are laid out in flat ground without hills or
ponds.
Types of Garden: A Japanese garden may either be in Flat gardens are supposed to represent a
the form of a large public park or a small family mountain valley or a meadowland.
garden designed for living which is seen usually by
A Flat garden is not necessarily as flat as a pan-
members of the family or the family guests.
cake. Since it stimulates a mountain valley,
low rounded hills designed with the help of

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stones or earth mounds or both will look quite of deciduous trees should
appropriate in a flat garden. predominate.
The usual features to break the monotony of a
flat garden are a well, a water-basin made of ii. Inner Tea Garden
stone in the shape of an urn, stones lying close
to the ground. Contains the tea house.
The tea house of the classical
In a flat garden, the principle is to avoid strong
time was nothing but a small
vertical lines represented by tall pines.
straw hut with an outside
waiting place,
(3) Tea Garden:
The tea garden is laid out based on certain A small side room for
principles and customs of the Japanese tea washing the utensils, and the
main ceremonial tea house
ceremony and hence needs a considerable
itself having a capacity to
space of at least about 200 square metres, for accommodate only five
its designing. persons.
Since the performance of the tea ceremony
The entire path to the tea
needs an atmosphere of intimacy it is essential house is paved with stones or
that the garden be enclosed by a fence. studded with stepping-stone.
To protect the tea house from the noise of the
The inner garden is a
outer world, the tea gardens are divided into
subdued area and hence
an outer garden (soto-roji) and inner garden evergreen trees casting more
(uchi-roji). shadows are used here.
The entrance to the tea house
i. Outer Tea Garden is through a low-door so that
It is comparatively a narrow area, the guests have to enter in a
with a waiting place where the bending posture, simulating
guests are supposed to wait until respect and humility.
the master of the house appears to
welcome them. (4) Passage Garden:
This waiting place has a water- The passage gardens, the Roji-niwa, are those
basin for the convenience of the which are laid in narrow passage, as for
guests who can wash their hands example a narrow space between two houses
and a stone lantern for or approaches to buildings.
illumination, but in present days
this serves more as a decoration As such areas are generally narrow, the garden
piece. lay-out should be simple and not over
crowded.
A stone path, usually of stepping-
stones, leads to the inner garden. In such gardens there should be hardly any
ornaments such as lanterns, basins or other
The inner garden is also separated man-made features.
from the outer garden by a rustic
fence and a gate made of light The common features of a passage garden are a
material. few key rocks, slabs of stones, and only a
The outer garden will have simple couple of types of plant.
plantings and stone groupings. Bushy shrubs and trees are unsuitable in a
The outer garden should be passage garden; instead, plants with open
exposed to sun and hence planting form and slender shapes are selected.

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(5) Sand Garden : Some typical trees of Japanese gardens are;


(a) Evergreens : Pines, different species of Abies,
It is the simplest style of gardening, though not
liked by many as it is totally devoid of plants. Cryptomeria japonica, Podocarpus
macrophylla, and Juniperus
The most famous sand garden exists in Kyoto
chinensis;
and is known as Ryoanji garden.
(b) Deciduous : Maples (Acer species), Poplars
The garden consists of a rectangular area of (Populus sp.) Mulbery, (Morus
about 350 square metres adjoining a Zen alba), and Salix babylonica
Budhist temple.
(willow); (c)
The main feature of this style of gardening is to Flowering trees: The most commonly
arrange few vertical and prostrate stones in used plants are different Prunus species,
groups of 2 or 3 and to fill in gap between the
besides Magnolia grandiflora and others.
stones with fine white gravel.
Shrubs: Aucuba japonica, Azaleas, Gardenia
The gravel is raked in most simple patterns florida, Nandina domestica, Camellia,
simulating the ripples of flowing water.
Lagestroemia indica and Rhododendrons.
The raking has to be repeated often to keep the Bamboos play a special role in the
garden in its best shape. Japanese gardens.
This style of garden looks pleasant and The flowers - chrysanthemums, asters
effective only when confined to a limited area. (e.g., Aster fastigiatus, A. glehnii, A.
THE FEATURES OF JAPANESE GARDENS microcephalus), carnation, different lilies,
Ponds ,,Streams ,Waterfalls ,Fountains irises, lotuses, peonies, and orchids.
,Wells ,Islands ,Bridges ,Water ,Stone Among the vines- (Clematis, Lonicera
Lanterns, Stones, Pagodas ,Fences and japonica, Ipomoea hederacea, I. purpurea
Gates, Vegetation (Syn. Pharbitis purpurea) Trachelosermum
It is good practice to use plants which jasminoides, and Wisteria sinensis are often
change their leaf colour in the autumn or used.
put forth colourful leaves in the spring.
The examples of some such trees and
@@@@@@
shrubs are: maple, Cryptomeria japonica,
Terminalia catappa, Lagerstroemia flos
reginae, and Ficus religiosa.
The deciduous trees are never planted in
the front garden except in a tea garden, as
the bare branches may not look attractive
during the winter.

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LECTURE-19 The garden has good collections of different


Cassias.
FAMOUS GARDENS OF INDIA
The collections of bugainvillea and hibiscus are
also very rich.
The government, municipalities, city The other attractive features of the garden are
corporations, and some other agencies maintain collections of foliage plants,
some sort of gardens and parks in many parts of
Pergolas, arbours, statues, water garden,
India. These gardens generally fall into two aquarium, rose garden,
categories.
A beautiful natural rock formation and others.
1. Botanical Gardens - Gardens which are
meant for research as well as recreation The garden with its well-laid-out features,
where all kinds of botanical species are paths, open spaces, shade and flowering trees
maintained for the benefit of the students attracts a large number of visitors everyday.
of botany and general public.
2. BRINDAVAN GARDENS, MYSORE
2. Pleasure Gardens - A garden catering to
the needs of the ordinary citizens where This garden is one of the most important tourist
spots in India.
the common man visits enjoys the grass,
The garden is famous mainly for its
plants and flowers and gets relaxed from
illuminated running waters and innumerable
the otherwise drab city life. fountains decorated by coloured lightings.
In the evening when all the fountains and
Some of the important Indian parks and running water start working and are
gardens and their important features are illuminated with changing colour of lights, the
discussed below. whole place looks like a paradise.
The fountain and lightings apart from the
1. LALBAGH, BANGALORE (KARNATAKA) garden have open spaces under lawn,
illuminated flower beds and other ornamental
Lal bagh is the Karnataka State plantings.
Botanical Garden situated at The river Cauvery below the giant dam divides
the garden into two parts and visitors enjoy a
Bangalore.
boat ride in the river.
The initial layout of the garden was
started in 1760 by Hyder Ali. 3. GOVERNMENT BOTANIC GARDENS,
OOTACAMUND (Ooty)
The most attractive features of the garden are ;
This garden is situated at an altitude of 2,175 to
A large glasshouse where the annual flower 2,280 m above sea level in the Nilgiris Hills.
shows are held. It actually started functioning in 1848.
The tall majestic-looking Araucarias, The garden covers an area of 20 hectares in
especially Araucaria excelsa (syn. A. cookii) ascending terraces.
which steal the eyes of the visitors. The garden has six major sections:
The avenue of the large Ficus benjamina near the
The lower gardens consisting of the main
glasshouse is definitely a special feature of the
entrance, the lower lawns, and the new gardens:
garden. Plants such as Tecoma argentea,
Tabebuia avalandii and Tabebuia spectabilis are The Bandstand;
prize collections of the garden. The Conservatory, the Bog Garden, and the
Tennis Court Gardens;
The terrace with fountains and picnic spots;
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The new Bandstand and its surroundings; and The garden has many features
The nursery area. The sunken garden is most
4. SIMS PARK, COONOOR (TAMIL NADU) interesting.
The topiary work in the garden is
The park was established in 1874 by J.D. Sim
most interesting which attracts the
after whom it was named.
attention of any visitor.
This park in the Nilgiri Hills is the center of
The childrens corner,
attraction for the people of Coonoor and
Wellington. Greenhouses,
Rockery,
The park is spread over an area of 15 hectares
at an altitude of about 1,740 m above the sea Hibiscus varietal collection,
level. Large stretches of lawns, and
Some of the important features of the garden are Rosary is also important features of
the garden.
The terraces with winding paths,
lawns,
6. THE BYRANT PARK, KODAIKANAL (TAMIL
beds of annuals,
NADU)
rockeries,
a pond with two islands, The park has a total area of 10 hectares. The
Arches and pergolas training creepers. park was actually laid out in 1909.
The park has a good collection of roses, trees The park has, Terrace gardens, Lawns,
of ornamental as well as economic value,
Childrens park, A sunken garden,
shrubs, and creepers.
A good collection of roses, chrysanthemums,
trees and shrubs.
5. BOTANIC GARDEN, COIMBATORE (TAMIL The park is a centre for supplying ornamental
NADU) plants.
7. THE INDIAN BOTANIC GARDEN, SIBPUR,
The botanic garden situated on the campus of
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. KOLKATA (WEST BENGAL)
The layout in the garden is a harmony between
Actually speaking, the garden is not situated in
the formal and the informal designs.
Kolkata proper, but is in the twin city of
In the background of this garden is a bluish- Howrah, on the opposite side of the river
green hill range which ahs been incorporated Hoogly.
in the designing of different garden features.
The garden was established in 1787 on a 150
It was established in 1908 by the Department of hectare land. It ranks among the great
Agriculture, Madras. botanical gardens of the world and is the seat
of the Botanical Survey of India.
The main function of the garden is to rise and
maintain trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, etc., The garden was established on the suggestion
which are useful from economic as well as of Robert Kyd, an army man.
ornamental and bio-aesthetic point of view.
THE FEATURES ARE -
The garden meets the needs of public, scientist
The giant 200-year-old banyan tree (Ficus
and government department in the supply of
benghalensis).
plants.
The large collection of palms in the Palmetum
with a pond in the foreground.
The garden has 26 lakes.

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The garden has a total area of 24 acres laid out


The giant lily, Victoria regia which has giant
in beautiful terraces and provided with
disc-like leaves raised at the margins. It is
metalled approach roads. The garden has the
reported that the leaves floating on the surface
following sections:
of water can withstand the weight of a baby.
1) Upper indigenous section consisting of
The garden has 15,000 trees and shrubs in the dominant species of the eastern as well as of
open, representing 2,500 species. the Western Himalayas and Burma.
The palm houses, orchid houses, and ferneries 2) A central or middle section containing
house several thousand herbaceous plants. coniferous plants.
The Royal Palm Avenue near the river gate is 3) A rock garden, naturally displaying flora of
another beautiful feature of the garden. high altitudes and of the alpine region of this
locality.
The garden houses the best herbarium in the
4) The lower exotic section houses plants mainly
country and the library has more than 25,000
from the temperate regions of the world.
volumes.
5) Orchidarium: There are two large
greenhouses having about 2,500 orchids of
8. THE AGRI-HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY different species.
GARDENS, KOLKATA (WEST BENGAL) 6) Students garden consists of the Sikkim
Himalayan flora, arranged family-wise.
It is possibly the oldest Horticultural society of
India. The society first started its garden in 7) Cacti and other succulents are housed in a
1825, but the garden in the present site was greenhouse.
established in 1872. 8) In the bulbous section there are collections of
The Societys gardens are well laid out and a various species of lilies, amaryllis and
metalled path goes round the major parts of tuberous begonias.
the garden. 9) There is a rosary containing many cultivars of
A collection of Bougainvilleas roses.

A large pond houses good collections of 10) The aquatic garden is housed in two pools
water-lilies. consisting of species of Nymphaeaceae and
Rockeries and rock garden other submerged acquatics.

Lily ponds, a large independent 11) The Herbarium and seed section contains
Sunken garden, and a long beautiful pergola 30,000 herbarium sheets
with a rich collection of creepers and climbers, 12) The garden has about 1,800 botanical species
A huge open lawn, representing regions such as Burma, Malaysia,
Childrens corner, Central Asia, Japan, North and South
America, Europe, and Africa.
The largest collection of trees, shrubs, and
creepers including some hybrids developed in
this garden by the famous horticulturist, S. 10. NATIONAL BOTANICAL RESEARCH
Percy Lancaster. INSTITUTE, LUCKNOW (UTTAR PRADESH)

9. LLYOD BOTANIC GARDEN, DARJEELING The National Botanical Research Institute


(WEST BENGAL) popularly known as Sikander Bagh,
Laid out by Nawab Saadat Ali Khan (1789
Established in 1878 and situated at an altitude
1814) which was further improved upon by
of about 2,100 m in the midst of the
Nawab Wajid alishah, the latter naming it
Himalayas,
after his wife Sikander Mahal Begum.
it is one of the most picturesque botanic
gardens of India. The garden was laid by Sir The present area of the garden is 27 hectares.
George Kind, donated by William Lloyd. Important features:

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The main garden area is roughly 134 square


The garden has a library,
metres and is bounded from all sides by a
A large herbarium and has well- paved red stone path.
equipped laboratories on different
Two canals each of 5.40 m width run
branches of botany, chemistry, and a
from north to south and two similar
tissue culture laboratory.
canals intersect these to form a 60 m
The gardens with fine lawns, square island in the centre. This
island is the venue for the most of the
Rose gardens,
receptions held at Rashtrapati Bhavan.
Conservatory,
There is a sunken or circular garden
Cactus house, and which is a beautiful spot especially
A Lily pool is very well maintained during the winter when innumerable
and attracts streams of visitors from seasonal flowers bloom.
all over the country. The garden is famous for quantity and
quality of seasonal flowers.
11. HORTICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, There are good collections of
SAHARANPUR (U.P.) Bougainvilleas, different bulbous
plants as well as flowering trees which
The garden was possibly laid out well before ensure enough of colour throughout
1750. the year.

The garden was taken over by the East India There is a large collection of roses also.
Company in 1817. Greenhouses with collection of
orchids, cacti, succulents and ferns.
The well-known botanists such as Falconer,
Jameson and Duthie worked in this garden. The pergolas are laden with fine
creepers.
The garden mainly conducts research on sub-
tropical fruits. There are a large number of trees,
especially cypress (Cupressus) which
The garden has a good collection of fruit trees.
are clipped in the topiary style. The
The collection of ornamental plants such as garden remains open for about a
trees, shrubs, cacti and succulents are also month for the general visitors during
worth mentioning. the winter months when the seasonal
flowers are in full bloom.
12. RASHTRAPATI BHAVAN GARDEN, NEW This garden is popularly referred to as
DELHI Mughal Gardens.

Rashtrapati Bhavan is the official residence of 13. BUDDHA JAYANTI PARK, NEW DELHI
the President of India and one of the largest
buildings of its kind in the world. It was To commemorate the 2500th birth anniversary
completed in 1929. of Lord Buddha a park was laid out in the
rugged and rockery Ridge of New Delhi
The architecture of the palace is a mixture of
which turned out to be one of the best laid-out
Indian and Western style.
landscape gardens in the country.
The garden inside this palace was laid on the
pattern of Mughal gardens with conventional The garden is of about 30 hectares in size.
arrangement of squares, terraces, water
channels, etc. Important feature of this garden are:

Most of the existing natural flora such as


Butea monosperma, Acacias, etc.,

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The garden played an important part in the


The natural hillocks and rock formations
introduction of forest trees, ornamental and
were incorporated in the garden without
other economic plants. The collection of
trying to level or distort them.
indigenous flora is also quite rich.
The barren rocks and woodland areas
The important features of attraction are
have been planted with bulbs such as
Narcissus, Oxalis, Zephyranthes and hardy A greenhouse containing large collection
annuals such as Coreopsis, Cosmos, and of terrestrial and epiphytic orchids, ferns
Tithonia which seed themselves and grow and other shade-loving plants,
year after year giving and natural effect.
a greenhouse containing cacti and
There is a Japanese style of garden in one succulents; and the plant introduction
portion. nursery including a net-house.
There is a floral clock also. In addition to the botanic garden, there is
an arboretum of 50 hectares containing
This garden is a favorable spot of
mostly forest plants yielding timber and
picnickers and other people and children.
other economic products.
The garden has a good collection of trees
The garden has a herbarium containing
and shrubs.
300,000 sheets. The collection of water
plants is also quite good. It has a plant
14. JAPANESE STYLE GARDENS and seed exchange programme.

Dr. M.S. Randhawa, when he was the Vice-


16. MUGHAL GARDENS OF KASHMIR
President of the Indian Council of Agricultural
Research, once decided to lay out a chain of The credit of developing the Mughal gardens in
Japanese style gardens and with this in view Kashmir goes to Akbar, Jehangir and Shah
he visited the famous Japanese landscape Jahan.
architect Prof. K. Mori in 1958.
The gardens have a series of descending
The first Japanese style garden was laid out in
terraces,
the Roshanara Park, Delhi.
The flow of water which is another main
The garden was laid out complete with rivulets,
stay of the Mughal gardens.
water falls, pond with stepping stones,
wooden bridge and the like which are The gardens on the bank of the Dal Lake,
common features and a Japanese garden. Shalimar, Nishat Bagh, and Chasma-e-
Shahi are well preserved and mostly
Another garden with rivulet, stones, bridge,
frequented by visitors.
etc., was laid out in the official residence of the
Prime Ministers house at Safdarjung Road. Some other popular gardens are at
Achabal, Verinag, and Bijbehara.
15. BOTANICAL GARDEN, FOREST RESEARCH A most spectacular feature of these
gardens is the planting of the majestic
INSTITUTE, DEHRADUN (U.P.)
Chenar trees in groups.
The botanical garden occupies about 10 hectare.
In this 500-hectare Forest Research Institutes I. SHALIMAR GARDEN:
estate. This garden was initiated by Jehangir in
The botanic garden was started in 1934 at an 1619 and extended in 1630 by Zafar
altitude of 663 m. The garden is well laid out Khan, the then Governor of Kahsmir,
and is a place of attraction for the visitors. under the instructions of Emperor Shah
Jahan.
The primary function of the garden is to
introduce new plants from all over the globe.

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In the second terrace, there is a


The garden is connected with the Dal
large reservoir containing 25 large
Lake by a 1.6 km canal which is about
fountains.
10.8 m wide.
There are two main pavilions, one
On both sides of the canal there are
at the lower end and the other at
broad green paths lined by majestic
the upper end of the garden.
Chenar trees.
The other pavilion is situated at
The garden consists of three terraces,
the end of the upper terrace from
the first having a baradari, the Diwan-e-
where one can have a thorough
Am, and the second contains the Diwan-
view of the entire garden.
e-Khas. But, unfortunately, both these
buildings do not exist today, but only The beautifully designed
their stone bases are left surrounded by flowerbeds and the avenue of
fountains. Chenars attract immediate attention
of the visitor.
Along the centre of the garden there are
a series of water reservoirs inter- Morning is the best time for
connected by a wide canal. visiting this garden.
The canals and the reservoirs are paved III. CHASMA-E-SHAHI:
with polished limestone.
The garden situated about 8 km
The source of running water is a stream away from Srinagar is the smallest
which flows through these reservoirs among the three gardens of the
and canals and sometimes through valley.
beautiful chutes of various designs.
The main attraction of this garden
The third terrace containing a is a spring spewing clean, ice-cold
magnificent black stone pavilion was water having appetizing
meant for ladies. properties.
The pavilion is surrounded by a The garden was constructed by Ali
reservoir containing 140 large fountains. Mardan Khan, the Governor of
Maharaja Hari Singh of Kashmir Kashmir, under the instructions of
provided electricity to the garden. Emperor Shah Jahan.

II. NISHAT BAGH: The garden consists of three


terraces, a central aqueduct, water
The literary meaning of Nishat is tanks, waterfalls or chute, and
pleasure. fountains.
This pleasure garden was built by The two baradaris of the garden are
a Persian, Asaf Jah, who happened of recent origin, although the
to be the brother of Nur Jahan. plinth was provided by the
Mughal designer.
The garden has twelve terraces
each representing the sign of the The garden provides a panoramic
Zodiac. view of the Dal Lake.
The two wooden doorways and IV. VERINAG:
the baradari in the third terrace
were added by Maharaja Ranbir The centre of attraction of this
Singh. garden is the Verinag spring, the
water of which is exceedingly pure
The water runs all along the and highly transparent.
garden through a limestone lined
wide canal which has a number of
fountains.
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stone bridge, only the ruins of


The reservoir around it was
which remain today.
commenced by Jehangir and
completed by Shah Jahan. The design of the garden is typical
of the Mughal style.
The garden here has a charming
beauty.
17. THE MUGHAL GARDEN, PINJORE
Emperor Jehangir who expired on
his way back from Kashmir (HARYANA)
wished that he be buried there.
But his followers buried him near This garden situated 5 km below Kalka on the
Lahore. Thus his last wish to have Ambala Simla road.
eternal rest in a beautiful
Laidout by Fidai Khan, the foster brother of
surrounding remained unfulfilled. Aurangazeb during his reign in the
V. ACHABAL: seventeenth century.

This garden on the outskirts of the The original name of the place Panchapura or
town Anantnag was built by Nur Punjpur has association with the five Pandavas
Jahan in 1620. of our epic Mahabarata.

The spring at Achabal is the largest It is one of the best preserved gardens of north
in Kashmir, which flows through India and is famous for its beauty.
this garden traversed by three The garden is uniquely laidout in an area of 25
aqueducts. hectares and is divided into six terraces.
Along the central aqueduct there As customary with all Mughal gardens, this
are two large tanks and the upper garden is also encircled by an embattled wall.
one of these has a wooden pavilion
constructed on a wooden base. Along these paths there are lawns, flower beds,
trimmed hedges, rows and bottle palms and
There are six vertical waterfalls in many other ornamental shrubs and trees.
the garden, three on the upper part
and three in the lower. There is a good collection of fruit trees,
especially of mango, litchi, and sapota.
The banks of the tanks and the
canals are lined with stone and There are three magnificent buildings the
these abound in fish. Shish Mahal, the Rang Mahal, and the Jal
Mahal.
There is a ruin of hammom (Turkish
bath) and some other buildings.
18. CHANDIGARH ROSE GARDEN
The garden has a good collection
of different fruit trees besides the Rose is a very important ornamental flower for
large majestic Chenars. its beauty, elegance, grace, as well as
fragrance.
VI. BIJBEHARA:
The garden has an area of 10 hectares and
This garden constructed by Dara contains more than 36,000 roses of all types
Shikoh, the eldest son of Shah including hybrid tea, floribunda, polyanthas,
Jahan, is situated about 48 km miniatures, climbers and standards.
from Srinagar. The Chandigarh rose garden is situated in the
There are magnificent Chenars in centre of the city on a 15 hectare plot.
this garden; the girth of one of the It is designed to contain about 60,000 roses
tree measures about 16.2 m. when completed.
The garden was divided in two It is also contemplated to collect about 5,000
parts which were connected by a outstanding cultivars of roses.

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The garden is situated in a valley and a natural 20. SAYAJI PARK, BARODA (GUJARAT)
stream runs through it.
The Sayaji Park in Baroda is named after its
A section will be developed as a moonlight founder the former Maharaja Sayajirao III who
garden planted with only pure-white scented established it in 1879 over an area of 40
roses. hectares.
At present about 1,500 named roses are there in The garden is a beautiful belt of greenery in the
the museum. otherwise dry climatic region of Baroda.
Although the ambitious plans and targets of the The garden has about 8,000 various ornamental
garden have not yet been fulfilled, still this trees with rare plants such as Hyphaene
garden is a wonderful place to visit. thebaica, the branching palm, forming an
avenue in one corner.
19. MANDOR GARDEN, JODHPUR (RAJASTHAN) This formal portion of the garden has the
arbour like bandstand, paved walks, lush
This garden is situated about 5 km away from green lawns, four fountains. The park has a
the heart of Jodhpur. zoo also with rare animals such as white tiger.
It is one of the most beautifully laid-out
landscape gardens in our country but
@@@@@
unfortunately many people do not know
about it.
The credit of laying the garden goes to Raja
Abhai Singh (1724 1749 A.D.).
It is highly creditable that such a beautiful
garden has been laid out in the desert region
of Rajasthan.
The garden is fairly large in size and terraces
have been constructed on the slopes of the
hillocks to extent the garden up to the peaks.
The large spaces provided under lawn, the
flower beds, trees, and shrubs add beauty to
the garden.
There are fountains fitted with coloured lights
which are run on a payment of Rs. 20 per
hour. The tea stall situated at a higher terrace
adds beauty to the garden.

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LECTURE-20 The tube or the vase can be made of timber or


preferably of brick, concrete or, carved out of
GARDEN ADORNMENTS stone.
These can be built permanently in position or
In a garden several adornments and necessities may be kept just like that and moved whenever
should be provided to make it look more needed.
ornamental and useful.
When fixed permanently, these should
Garden seats, boxes, tubs, urns, ornamental generally be positioned over an ornamental
vases, fountains, bird baths, sundials, floral pillar keeping in view the proportion between
clocks, Japanese lanterns, statues, ornamental the two.
stone pillars or pieces, pergolas and arches are
some of the few examples of such garden If there is a paved path an ornamental vase or
ornaments/adornment. tub can be placed at the end of it or one each on
both sides.
1. GARDEN SEATS
Similarly, these can be placed near the gate or
Garden seats are necessity in any garden. near the staircase of the main entrance.
The seats should be comfortable, durable, Ornamental urns preferably of metal with
artistic-looking and should not look out of carvings outside look beautiful in the terrace,
place. near the staircase, or even inside the house.
Wooden and fabric seats are comfortable to seat Suitable ornamental plants should be grown in
compared to those built in stone or iron. such containers. Window boxes are also useful
When wooden seats are selected they should be garden ornaments.
made of good timber like teak to withstand the
vagaries of weather especially moisture as the
furniture has to remain outdoors. 3. BIRD BATHS

The wood is treated with preservative and These are nothing but large bowl-shaped
painted with moisture-proof chemicals. containers, generally made of concrete, fixed
over a pillar or column which is about one
The chair or bench should have an appropriate metre tall.
design. For example, a chrome seated chair will
look completely out of place in the midst of Water is stored in the bowl for the birds to come
woodland scenery. Similarly, rustic furniture in and drink or bath in it.
front a modern sophisticated house may be Birds baths should be constructed at a quiet
completely out of place. corner of the garden.
Iron or stone or concrete seats get easily heated
in the summer and become cool in the winter
thus making them uncomfortable to seat. 4. SUNDIALS

But for durability and to prevent from damage A sundial has many roles to play in a garden.
and theft concrete or stone seats are preferable It can be used as a focal point in a garden, can
in Public Park. form a center-piece of a formal flower bed and
Though iron furniture is also durable it is more can be placed in the center or at the end of the
likely to be stolen because of the value of metal lawn and at the junction or termination of a
unless firmly fixed. path.

2. ORNAMENTAL TUBS, URNS AND VASES A sundial is also a good feature in a sunken
garden.
These add beauty to a garden.
The sundial should be positioned in a place
Plants displayed in ornamental tubs or urns at where the shadow from a tree or building does
suitable places look beautiful. not fall for a long duration, otherwise the
feature becomes meaningless.

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6. JAPANESE LANTERNS
There should be free access to the base of the
column, so that one can closely observe the dial. These are highly sought-after garden
ornaments.
The column of the sundial should be fixed
firmly in the ground and is generally made of The lanterns should preferably be carved in
bricks, tiles, stones, or a combination of these stone and should be low and decorative as the
without a mortar coating to look more artistic. Japanese would prefer.
The column may be cylindrical or square faced
The top is generally square where the sundial with ornamental carvings.
with the compass is fixed.
Similarly, the fire box should also be carved in
This is also made of stone or concrete. In an ornamental manner.
western countries, metal sundial plates with
The roof may be broad-roofed, commonly called
compass are available for sale. Even dials for Snow View or Yukimi, so called because it
specific districts are available there. gives a charming effect to the landscape when it
In India one has to get it made with the digits. is snow-bound.
The digits can be carved on the cement or the Obviously these types of lanterns are made of
stone itself. white stone or white marble and are suitable for
Before fixing the dial, the movement of the sun areas having a snowfall.
should be observed and then the dial is screwed There is no harm even if these are preferred in a
to the base. tropical country especially near to pool.
The height of the column should not exceed 60- The narrow-roofed or Kasuga lanterns have a
90 cm or the dial will not be visible easily. six facet fire box.
Hundreds of these lanterns are found in the
Live sundials made of living plants complete
Kasuga temple near the town of Nara in Japan
with the figures, compass etc., in the form of
and hence the name.
topiary can be seen in some western countries.
Many people also fix decorative metal lanterns
over ornamental columns or pillars, also of
5. FLORAL CLOCKS metal.
The lanterns should be positioned in suitable
These are nothing but huge clocks, generally
places near the house or near a stream or pool.
operated by electricity, having huge hands for
showing the seconds, minutes, and hours.
The machinery of the clock is concealed in an 7. ORNAMENTAL STONES
underground chamber with only the hands
Ornamental stone pillars or pieces of rounded
showing above he ground against a dial of
form or other abstract designs, if properly
carpet bedding plants or flower beds.
placed, improves the look of any garden to a
A carpet bedding of green plants (E.g., Pilea great extent.
muscosa, Sedum) with figures made of red The stones can be placed near lily pools, along
plants (e.g., Alternanthera, Iresine sp.) or vice- or in the midst of streams and waterfalls.
versa looks quite ornamental.
Large ornamental pieces can also be placed at
Similar effects can be obtained by various the doorway and other suitable places.
coloured flowering annuals. The problem with The Japanese create most artistic stone gardens
annuals is that these are to be replaced with pieces of stones.
seasonally, whereas carpet bedding plants are of
First a large bed of crushed stone is made which
permanent nature.
is raked artistically to create ripples to simulate
Instead of living plants the dial can be decorated sea, over which single large piece of stone or a
with various coloured (natural or artificially group of stones are placed artistically at
coloured) pebbles also. intervals.

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10. PLANT STANDS


8. FOUNTAINS
Unless there is water under pressure one cannot The plant stands are also very useful
have any good fountain. structures for decorating the gardens.
Fountains are made to work by circulating the Plant stands are generally made of mild
same water contained in a pool.
steel rods molded in different fashions
There are various designs of fountains. with various-sized rings attached to
There may be a straight upright water jet or a hold the pots growing the plants.
number of finer water jets conversing in the
form of an umbrella. These can be displayed in the terrace
Water jets can also be designed in the form of garden, at the entrance of the house,
rainbows. in the roof garden or in any other
The jets and pipes are made of anti-corrosive advantageous position in the garden.
material.
To make the fountains more colourful during
the nights, coloured lights are provided under
water, with water-proof fittings.
With an automatic switch it is possible to
change the colours at regular intervals which
further adds to the beauty of the fountains.

9. STATUES

Statues of animate or inanimate objects are also


used in the garden to improve the looks.
The statues can be carved out of stone or made
of bronze.
The concrete statues can be placed in the midst
of a running stream or a pool, at the inter-
section of two roads, or at the end of a road or
near the doorway of the house.
The statues should be of good taste and artistic
value.

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LECTURE-21 DESIGNS
1. Major elements : plants and water
GARDEN ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF
GARDEN DESIGNS 2. Minor elements : Stones, bricks, tiles, tar,
metal, grass, plastic, wood, sculpture etc.,
The planning of a garden is an art. A garden 3. Other elements : Light, sound, smell,
architect should learn enough of geology, geography, touch, food etc.,
garden history, styles of gardening, and above all Major elements:
should have a profound knowledge about plants.
1. PLANTS:
Basic Principles of Landscaping / General Principles Classification of plants based on utilities and
functional value:
of Garden Design:
1. Aesthetic purpose:
1. Simplicity: a) Avenue planting- flower parade
Garden design should be simple. b) Ground planting
c) Shrubbery, rockery, topiary, hedges,
It should not have scope for under edges
complexity. d) Potted plant, flower beds, boarders
Visitors should catch entire effect. e) Ground cover
Visitors should know purpose of garden f) Water garden
design/plan. 2. Functional purpose:
2. Ideal garden should have space i.e. over a) Control pollution
crowding of plants should be avoided.
b) Reduces noise
3. Judicious uses of more number of
varieties/species of plants, instead of going c) Control soil erosion
for few plants go for more number of plants d) Wind break
because it serves two purposes. e) Deciduous plants can utilize to
a) Increases aesthetic beauty. increase temperature during winter
b) Serves the scientific purpose.
4. Garden path/ drive should not too straight Criteria for selection of plants:
and long. Morphological character should be considered
5. Garden should layout for owners comfort and while selecting the plants;
convenience. Height of the plant
6. Natural grade of greens taken in to Types of branches- upright, drooping,
consideration. horizontal
7. All garden features should be accommodated Spread and width of the plant
in proper place in a proportionate manner, Form of the plat
careful selection of plant and also increase
Type of plant- evergreen, deciduous
beauty of garden.
Colour of the plant
8. It should comfortable to living (Private
garden). Texture of the plant- smooth, rough
9. It should serve perfect place for passing Flowering time of the plant
leisure time. 1. WATER: water has the ability to change form, at low
10. Easy to maintain to carry out all intercultural temperature water freezes, evaporates at
operations. high temperature and liquefies at
moderate temperature
11. When we say garden is complete garden
should look beautiful and should give i. Aesthetic use:
pleasant look to the garden.
Water falls- cascade type,
fountains, streams, lakes, ponds,
Nappe, Chadar, chute.
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Water is used for creating v. SCULPTURES:


reflection during night time along
Artistic material adds beauty to the
with lighting.
garden with the use of stones,
The use of water helps in reducing granites, sandstone, marbles, metals
the temperature in the
Sculptures includes birds, human
microclimate.
being, animals etc
Sound of water makes a person
It can be kept in front, middle part,
feel comfortable.
and in running streams of the garden
Water may mask the over power
unwanted sounds
vi. GLASS : It includes mist chamber, green
ii. Functional use: Water will nourish the house, conservatory, terrariums and
plant, increases growth and development illumination purpose
vii. Concrete : Used for creating drives, paths,
MINOR ELEMENTS:
walks, ground cover
i. STONES:
viii. Tar/ Asphalt: Creating drives
For creating rockery, statues or
sculptures, to imitate natural water ix. Plastic : Drippers, sprinklers, pots, waste
falls, garden benches, path/walks
bin
Keep in mind that stone radiates heat
and will have to be used carefully OTHER ELEMENTS:
ii. BRICKS:
i. Lighting: Illumination, focusing the focal
For creating garden walls, ponds
points, illuminating water
As paving material
For constructing plant boxes ii. Sound: water falls, running streams,
musical fountain, and wind chimes
iii. WOOD:
iii. Smell: planting of aromatic plants in
Wood adds colour and texture to the different parts of the garden, trees,
garden Aromatic plants, annual beds can be used
Used for creating paths, steps, garden iv. Touch: Texture of materials like plant
bridges, ornamental picket fence,
surface, sculptures, paving, Garden
country fences, arches, pergolas
Wood should be coated with paints/ benches
preservatives to prevent decay
v. Food: Created at out side boundary of the
iv. METAL:
garden
For creating artistic features like
garden bridges, arches, pergolas, BASIC PATTERN IN GARDEN DESIGN
Arbour, fence, light stands, metal
1. Circular pattern- series of circles can utilize to
gardens
create circular. It is used in formal and
Used as a base material for plants to informal gardens
grow on, when used for topiary
2. Diagonal pattern- draws a grid line at 450 to
Metals should be treated with anti the boundary. It is also used in formal and
corrosive materials before using in the informal gardens
out doors 3. Rectangular pattern- it is utilized in formal
garden in a symmetrical manner

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STEPS IN GARDEN DESIGN ii. Mulching


iii. Ground covers
i. Identification of site: Identify the site for
iv. Minimize water loss by providing
two purposes drips

a. Public garden: give importance for


likings of the public @@@@@

b. Private garden: Give importance for


owners comfort

ii. Analysis: Need to study two factors

i. Physical factor- climate,


weather, soil type, existing
vegetation, existing manholes,
roads, path

ii. Social factors

iii. Measuring up: Draw rough sketch of the


area like existing features, length and
width of all features

iv. Drawing to the scale: based on sheet


available for small garden 1: 50 and for big
garden 1: 100

v. Evolving a pattern: Fence, lawn, flower


beds, hedge, edge, border, water falls,
rock garden, pond, shrubbery, island
beds, carpet beds, standards etc

vi. Turning pattern in to reality: Mark the


area using pegs and bars and plant the
permanent features on marked ground

vii. Xeriscaping: This is a technique use to


practice water conservation in creative
landscape, this can be practiced in areas
where scarcity of water.

This can be achieved by:

i. Grouping/selection of drought
tolerant plant, trees, shrubs,
annuals, cacti and succulents

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LECTURE-22 When specimen plants grown in clay pots are


used for interior decoration, these may be
ELEMENTS OF INTERIOR DECORATION AND plunged in a larger sized ceramic, glazed pot,
PRACTICE or in any other good looking metallic
container to improve the look.
Potting the plants in various shaped plant
The term Interior Decoration refers to stands also improved the look of display plant
decorating the interior of a house with objects stands may be made to accommodate only one
of ornamental and aesthetic value so as to plant or it may be branching to hold several
make the appearance of indoors beautiful, pots together.
pleasant and attractive. These are generally made of mild steel rods or
It is less costly to decorate the interior of a room plates with a heavy base and having a ring to
with live plants compared to flowers, which hold the pot.
are becoming costlier day by day and besides The branching types generally have several
they are to be replaced frequently. protruding hands from the main support at
Either foliage or flowering plants or even the end of which there will be rings to hold the
Bonsai plants may be selected for decorating pots.
the indoor. It is advisable to fix buckets made of GI sheets
A houseplant should be compact in growth or plastic at each ring and to place the pots
habit, evergreen in nature and should stand inside the bucket to arrest the drips.
some amount of shade around its growing A live screen can be created in window by
environments. growing light indoor creepers.
For decorating a small table, the plant should Growing a screen of creepers in between can
be compact and bushy in nature. separate the dining space in a drawing or
Besides the ornamental foliage and flowering living.
plants, cacti and succulents, palms, ferns and Plants grown in bowls or metal hanging
some bulbous plants can be grown inside a baskets can be fixed on the walls by using
house. brackets, which will bring a relief to an
The art of growing houseplants or indoor otherwise empty expanse of a wall.
plants inside a house is known as indoor Tubs and urns are portable and hence can be
gardening. used for temporary decoration indoors and
The popular methods of growing indoor plants elsewhere.
are in hanging baskets, china baskets, and tubs o Wooden tubs can be made with artistic
made of concrete, wood cane etc., bowls and designs.
dishes, bottles and windows.
o All tubs should stand on their leg or
Gardening in trays and trolleys are also part of should be placed over bricks for easy
indoor gardening. Trolleys fixed with flexible drainage.
wheels meant for serving tea and snacks are
o Wooden or cement tubs are painted to
quite suitable for growing indoor plants.
match with the color of the house.
All the four sides of the trolley should be raised
o The tub should be quite aesthetic in
to conceal the pots kept in it.
look.
Trays of different make and size can be used for
The topiary work should be displayed against a
growing indoor plants.
wall or a screen in the terrace.
Growing of houseplants in China baskets made
Hanging baskets can be hanged at the entrance
of cane even plastic gives an artistic and
of the house to welcome the visitor.
elegant touch to the dcor of the room.
o Hanging baskets can also be placed in
Troughs made of cane standing on its own legs
the hall the drawing room besides a
are very artistic and pleasing for growing
well lit window or in the bathroom
plants indoors.
above a fluorescent light.

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o A plain wall in a sunny room or a o The boxes should rest on


passage can also be artistically wooden edges to keep a gap
decorated with hanging baskets. between the sills for drainage.
o The containers should be attractive, light o The boxes are also fitted about
and easy to hang, wire baskets with 2cm away from the frame or
three hooks for hanging is a good wall to prevent rotting and
container as they provide good attack by termites.
aeration. o The boxes should be painted
o Wooden baskets are better looking. every two years to keep them
showy and attractive and also
o Earthen pots of various sizes and shapes
rust-free. A miniature rock
are available for use as hanging
garden can be built in the
baskets can also be made out of dried
window box.
gourd and coconut shells.
Trough is larger in size containing more
o For indoor purposes baskets of brass,
number of plants which can be
copper and glazed pottery may be
displayed in the window sill, on the
used.
floor or at the entrance of the house
o Even ordinary earthenware or ceramic under a covered veranda, bowls and
pots can be hanged in brackets on the dishes are meant for decorating dining
wall. table, television set, radio set, tea table
o For a larger basket two or three types of bowls and dishes generally have to
plants; one of vertical statue and the drainage holes.
other of training nature can be used. o Troughs can be made of
concrete, stone, wood, plastic
Window garden also known as window or fiber glass.
box gardening refers to that kind of o Fruit bowls, conical baskets,
gardening where plants are grown wooden dishes or bread trays,
within the room just, opposite or close pottery, conical and low
to the window or on the windowsill plastic bowls are used for
outside. flower arrangements are very
o There are different types of suitable for starting a dish or
window boxes such as Fiberglass bowl garden. Island or forest
box, pottery box (Terracotta boxes), scenery can be created.
Iron boxes, cast cement boxes,
Asbestos boxes, plastic boxes or Jar made of glass having fall sides with
wooden boxes can be used. or without lid is good for bottle
o The security of the boxes can be gardening as this conserves moisture.
achieved by fastening the boxes The jar has a wider mouth than a bottle.
with the window frame by a hook-
and-eye arrangement, or the boxes
can rest over metal or wooden Terrarium is a glass bowl of 25-30cm
brackets attached to the frame of diameters having an airtight lid.
the window aluminum nails or o Any size of bottle, jar or jug is
screw should be used to prevent suitable for gardening
rusting. provided these are made of
o In addition to brackets, with boxes clear glass.
can be secured further by tying o These offer a good display on
them round with galvanized wires a table, a stand, or a well-lit
and fixing the ends of the wires window. Fish aquariums also
with the window frame. serve this purpose.

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o For glass gardening long


handle tea spoon, table fork
and a long pair of tongues are
used as tools.
o Bottle garden plants need a
reasonable amount of light
but direct sunlight will
overheat the plants.
o The lamp is to be fitted in the
neck of the bottle, with the
help of a clamp.

Interior decoration not only includes the above


mentioned subjects of beautification but also
the other objects such as
o Use of screens for doors and windows,
o Drapery rods,
o Coir mats for floorings,
o Tiles for floorings,
o Painting the walls with light color
attractive paints,
o Decorative ceiling fans,
o Lamp shades,
o Wall plates depicting wild life or
natural scenery,
o Mirrors,
o Statues,
o Carvings artistic furniture,
o Showcases and positioning them at
appropriate positions or spots or
places.

@@@@@

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pass the wires through these posts starting


LECTURE- 23 from 22.5cm intervals at ground level to
30cm upwards up to a height of 1.8m.
THE DIFFERENT FEATURES OF A
The posts are embedded at least 45-60 cm
GARDEN
in the ground and the wires are stretched
with the poles with strong staples or
clamps.
GARDEN WALLS
Wire netting fence is cheaper than chain-
link fence but is less durable.
A garden lover will never like to block the
view of his garden by putting a wall along Wire netting can also keep away the
its periphery. rabbits, provided the netting is buried at
least 22.5 cm in the soil and turned
A garden as it is enjoyed from inside
outward at the bottom to stop burrowing.
should also be visible from outside.
Chain-link fencings of various designs are
But, sometimes, from safety or beauty available and these are fixed in angle iron
point of view (e.g., to obscure the ugly
poles spaced at 3m distance.
sight of an open drain), it may be
necessary to erect a brick, concrete, or Iron grills of various designs can also be
stone wall along the periphery of the used for fencing but the cost, of course
garden. will be prohibitive.
A compromise is to have a low brick (or The sight of an expanse of fencing does
concrete or stone) wall of say 60-90 cm not suit to the artistic design of a nicely
height and to put over it some grills, so laid-out garden and hence people would
that the view is not totally obscured from like to obscure it from view as quickly as
outside. possible by growing quick-growing and
elegant creepers such as Bignonia venusta,
Alternatively, walls from 1.80 to 5m may Honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymeman),
also be erected depending upon the size of Vernonia elaegnifolia, etc.
the garden. STEPS
To break the drabness of a concrete or Sometimes it becomes necessary to have
brick wall, at least in the more prominent steps in a garden, as for example, when a
places, one may grow creepers such as path goes from one level to the other or
Ficus repens over the wall. one has to climb or get down from the
terrace garden.
FENCING
Steps can be made of various materials but
usually the same mateial used for the path
Though not exactly a part of the garden in
is used for steps also.
the stricter sense, fences are a utility item
essentially needed for marking the The materials used are concrete, stone,
boundary and for protection. wood, or gravel.
Sometimes, fences are also put to separate The gravel can be held in position with a
one part of the garden from the other. stone-retaining wall.
Several materials such as wood, bamboo, Grass should not be used in the steps as it
wire, wire nettings and chain-link fences becomes slippery when watered.
may be used for this purpose. The steps in the garden should be
Fences of wood and bamboo get spoilt different than those in the building.
quicker than the wire fences.
Here, the treads (i.e., steppings) should be
The simplest wire fencing will be to put quite broad and the risers low, so that
stout wooden posts at 3m distance and people can have an easier climb.
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A depth of 50 to 7.5cm of fine gravel is


A garden is meant for leisure, pleasure
spread over this, sprinkled with water,
and comfort and hence steep and narrow
and rolled heavily.
steps are unsuitable as they cause
The drive should be kept free of weeds
discomfort in climbing.
with the help of some weedicide.
(b) Asphalt or Concrete Drives:
GARDEN DRIVES AND PATHS
For asphalt or concrete roads also the
foundation is prepared in the same
A garden must have a carriage drive
manner and on top of it either asphalt or
leading to the house and garage besides
concrete is laid.
several other paths or walks leading to
different parts of the garden. A layer of 5cm concrete will be enough for
most roads.
The main criterion of a good garden drive
or path is to provide a flat, dry and For long roads a slope of 1: 100 may be
pleasant passage for the persons or allowed for drainage.
vehicles and it should harmonize with the
All roads should be a little higher (2.5cm)
other garden features.
than the surrounding ground.
A path in the garden should be laid out
The width of the garden roads should be
after due consideration is given to its
about 3-5m.
necessity and artistic appeal.
Too many paths, especially in a small (B) PATHS
garden, may spoil the artistic value.
A path with graceful and gentle curves A garden path should never be less than 60cm
will look much better than a straight path. wide but should be preferably between 90 and
120cm, if sufficient space is available.
Materials used for the construction of
drives are gravel, asphalt, or concrete, A wider path allows easy passage for wheel
whereas barrows and other garden implements.
For garden paths much more attention Paths should not be generally too high or too
should be taken for the appearance and as low from the adjoining ground except in a
such concrete or asphalt is seldom used. marsh or a rock garden.
Garden paths are generally made of Gravel paths, Brick paths, Stone paving, Crazy
gravel, paving-stones, crazy-paying, paving, Grass Paths,
bricks, or grass.
HEDGE
(A) DRIVES
Shrubs or trees planted at regular intervals to
(a) Gravel drives:
form a continuous screen are called a hedge.
A gravel drive should be given adequate
foundation to prevent it from sinking. The above definition is broad-based, but many
other plants such as succulents, cactus, and
The soil is excavated to a depth of about sub-shrubs also form beautiful and useful
30 cm but in heavy clayey soil this should
hedges.
be a little more to ensure proper drainage.
About one-third to half of the excavated Purpose:
depth is filled up with rough stones, well- A garden hedge can serve the purpose of a
burnt brick pieces, clinkers, or any other compound wall, give shelter from strong gails
hard material.
ensure privacy, i.e.
The greater part of the remaining
Serve the purpose of a screen, form a
excavated depth is filled with coarse
background for a floral display such as
gravel mixed with a little earth and rolled. herbaceous border, as a part of the garden on
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its own merit, separate one component of a ii. Aralia: Different species.
garden from the other (e.g., the vegetable iii. Barleria: Different species with their
garden from the flower garden). beautiful flowers subject themselves to be
Screen the ugly and unwanted spots such as trimmed to beautiful hedges; plants are 60-
manure pits, lavatory, servants quarters, etc., 100 cm high. Rooted cuttings are planted
in the garden. 20-25 cm apart.
iv. Bauhinia acuminata: It can be trimmed to a
Criteria for selecting a hedge plant: In a
nice hedge, which looks more beautiful
garden a hedge is planted with two purposes:
with its white flowers.
(a) Protective, which means protection v. Bougainvillea: B. spectabilis, B. glabra, Mrs.
against theft, trespass, wind. etc., and Fraser, Partha, and some other cultivars
(b) Ornamental purposes or screening. form good protective as well as ornamental
For protection a hedge plant should have the hedges withstanding frequent trimming
following characteristics planting is done at 60-90 cm spacing.
vi. Caesalpinia pulcherrima: It should be pruned
Quick growing, hardy, including drought-
tall; harder pruning forces it to ageing
resistant character, thorny, dense, should
faster. The plant flowers freely.
respond to frequent pruning and clipping
vii. Carissa carandas: A thorny bushy shrub
and can be raised quickly by seeds or
which is used as an effective protective
cuttings.
hedge. Seeds are sown 60-75 cm apart in
Though attractive foliage and flower is not single rows. Cuttings also root easily.
a criterion in this category, definitely these viii. Clearodendron inerme: It is most suitable for
characters will be an added attraction. ornamental hedge and can also be used as
Ornamental hedges should have attractive protective hedge. It is planted 15-20 cm
foliage and/or flowers, should be dense in apart in double rows spaced at same
growth habit and stand regular clipping. distance.
ix. Duranta: It forms a good ornamental as
The ornamental hedges are generally low
well as a protective hedge. The variegated
in height and they do not obstruct the view
variety looks very ornamental. It is
completely since the other portion is visible
over the hedge. planted 30-40 cm apart and can be kept
quite low by trimming.
Selection of suitable plants: There is a wide variety of
x. Eranthemum: Several species (see page 144)
trees, shrubs and other plant which can be formed into
are used as ornamental hedge. Cuttings
hedges. Some trees form good tall hedges. A list is
provided below for a general guidance. are planted 15 cm apart in double rows.
xi. Hamelia patens: A beautiful shrub which
(A) Palms as Hedge: Areca lutescens, Ptychosperma stands trimming and attains a height of 75-
macarthurii, Rhapis escelsa 90 cm. It is planted 30 cm apart.
(B) Trees as Hedge: Acacia farnesiana, Erythrina, xii. Hibiscus: Different types especially H. rosa-
Grevillea robusta, Inga dulcis, Parkinsonia aculeate, sinensis are grown as hedge mainly for
Polyalthia longifolia, Pongamia glabra, Putrajniva ornamental purposes. It is frequently
roxburghii, Thevetia nerifolia. pruned to keep a height of 75 to 90 cm.
xiii. Lantana: Different species of this genus are
(C) Conifers as Hedge: Casuarina equisetifolia, used as hedge and these stand trimming
Cryptomeria japonica, Thuja and pruning very well.
i. Trees are generally planted 60-90 cm apart in a xiv. Murraya exotica: It also forms a good atall
hedge. attractive hedge when properly trimmed.
xv. Plumbago capensis: It forms a pretty
(D) Shrubs for Hedges: ornamental hedge. Cuttings are put in
i. Acalypha, A. tricolor, A hamiltoniana, A. double rows, 15-20 cm apart.
wilkesiana var. musaica and other small- xvi. Punica granatum: It forms a tall hedge, 1.5
leaved species can be trimmed regularly to to 2m high. It is drought-resistant.
form ornamental hedges. The tall species xvii. Poinsettia pulcherrima: It can be used as a
can be used as protective hedge also. beautiful ornamental hedge.
Cuttings are planted 25-30 cm apart.
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xviii. Rosa: Some species such as R. multiflora Edging may be formal, made of stone,
can make a good spiny hedge. bricks, tiles, etc.,
xix. Sesbaia aegyptica (Syn. Aeschynomene sesban):
Informal edges consisting of living plants.
It grows to a height of 2m within 2-3
months and is a popular hedge in the drier There are certain plants which are very
parts of India. suitable for edging purposes and these are
xx. Strobilanthes anisophyllus: A shade-loving known as edge plants.
ornamental hedge.
Edge plants, unlike hedges, should grow
xxi. Tecoma stans: It forms an attractive tall (1
very low as the purpose is not for
to 3m) hedge within a span of two years.
screening but to provide a lining only, for
the purpose of decoration or demarcation.
(E) Cactus, succulents, and others as hedge

i. Agave Americana: This and other tall growing (A) Foliage Plants for Edging
agaves are used as barriers to cattle.
ii. Bambusa: Some dwarf species such as dwarf 1. Alternanthera, A. amabilis, A. amoenga, A.
Chinese bamboo (B. nana) make untidy hedge. bettzichiana var. spathulata, and A. versicolor.
Bamboo hedge may harbour snakes, if kept The last tows are very colourful, shaded red,
untidy. bronze, and pink. Cuttings are planted 3-5 cm
iii. Euphorbia antiquorum: A spiny succulent shrub apart in double rows spaced at 5 to 10cm in
which makes a tall hedge up to 3m. situ.
iv. E. bojeri: With its pretty scarlet flowers this 2. Acalyphas or similar shrubs in shrubberies.
forms a good hedge, 45-60cm high. 3. Coleus: Family: L Labiate. Some dwarf coleus
v. E. splendens: It is similar to above but stems and (20-45 cm high) can also form edging to
spines are stouter. ornamental shrubs.
vi. E.tetragona: It is used to form a tall spiny hedge. 4. Pilea muscosa (Syn. P microphylla)
vii. E. tirucalli: It is a spineless succulent tree,
branches slender, brush-like and cylindrical. (B) Flowering Plants Used of Edging
viii. Furcraea selloa: A plant like agave with spines Many of the flowering annuals and some
can be used as cattle-proof hedge. perennials are used for edging. The most important
ix. Optmtia: Many species of Opuntia, belonging to among these are Alyssum, Amaryllis, Brachycome,
Cactaceae, form into thorny hedges. Gerbera, Torenia, Zephyranthes different types, pansy
x. Pandanus: The screw pine is a thorny plant and and perennial verbena. Many cultivars of miniature
should not be used as hedge in a small garden. roses are also used for edging.
It is used as hedge in large commercial farms
growing food crops. The plant bears scented ARCHES
flowers. Because of its thick growth, the plant
is a good hiding place for snakes. A garden may need some arches for
xi. Pedilanthus tithymaloides (Syn.Euphoribia
training climbers or ramblers.
canaliculata): A spineless plant belonging to
Euphorbiaceae is commonly used as Arches are generally constructed near the
ornamental hedge. Cuttings are planted 10-15 gate or over paths in the garden.
cm apart in double rows spaced 15cm from
An arch should be at least 2 to 2.5m high,
each other.
so that the branches of creepers hanging
xii. Cactus (Cereus, Opuntia) when used as hedge
down should not interfere with access.
outgrows in size and should not be used in
home gardens. The breadth depends upon the path over
which it is constructed but should not be
EDGING less than 1m.

Lining of borders of flowerbeds, paths, Galvanized wire nettings may be fixed on


lawn and shrubbery with brick, concrete, the sides of the arches to help the creepers
living plants, etc., is known as edging. to climb up.

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In broad pergolas it may also be possible


The portions above ground should be
to keep a few shade loving plans to
painted green.
protect them against sun, but this may not
be desirable all the time.
PERGOLAS
TOPIARY
For growing creepers in a row pergolas
It is an art of trimming plants into
are ideal structures on which these may be
different shapes i.e., of birds, animals,
trained.
domes, umbrellas etc.
A pergola may be defined as a series of
It is an old art but how-a-days.
arches joined together.
It is becoming popular in city parks to
Pergolas are generally constructed over
recreate visitors specially childrens.
pathways, which add beauty to a garden.
For making good topiary, ideal shrubs
Like arches the support can be made of
and trees should be selected.
wooden or stone or brick pillars, angle
iron and G.I. pipes. Characteristics of plants
The supporting pillars may be connected Plant should be quick growing in
together by wooden rafters or MS rods nature.
may be welded to the pillars.
Leaves should be small, green or
The roof may be made of angle irons of yellow in color.
different sections with longitudinal and
Ability to withstand frequent
cross rails.
clipping/pruning.
Over this base strong galvanized wire-
Produces good number of lateral
mesh or welded-mesh may be placed for
shoots.
the creepers to spread easily.
E.g. Clerodendron inermae, Duranta
The width of pergolas is kept generally
plumari, D. variegata D. goldiana,
within 2-2.5m and the height is also the
Juniferous chinensis, J. horizontalis,
same but preferably on the higher side.
Cupressus sempervirans, and Thuja
The width may be increased or decreased orientalis. For temperate countries
a little, if necessary. English yew, Box tree.
The length will depend upon the area to Method: Training frames are generally
be covered, the number of creepers employed for making topiary.
available and of course the budget.
These frames are generally made from soft
The roof of a pergola may be flat or in the steel rods or galvanized wire frames.
shape of an arch.
Making frames true to shape is highly
As in the case of an arch, the pergola is technical and artistic for true depiction of
also painted green to merge with the figures.
colour of the foliage. Identify and mark the suitable place
A pergola is a useful resting place during for planting
the summer months in a tropical country.
Excavate the pit with the size of 3 cft
The path below remains cool due to the or 2 cft
creepers growing above.
Both pit and soil should be exposed to
If the pergola is side enough concrete or sunlight for the period of 10-15 days
wooden benches may be constructed for
Fill the soil into the pit without
sitting.
changing the soil strata. Top soil

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should be mixed with enough Suitable plants


quantity of sand and FYM. 1. Annuals: All annuals may be accommodated
in the rockery depending on their height in
Leave the soil for 10-15 days for
between shrubs and other perennial plants-
proper settling.
Asclepias, Calliandra, Clerodendron, Crossandra,
Select healthy, strong seedling and Cuphea, Euphorbia .
plant exactly centre of the pit. 2. Shrubs: Duranta, Juniferous, Lantana sellowiana,
Russelia juntia, Thuja orientalis etc.
After put forth the new growth,
3. Cacti and Succulents: Adiantum, Pony tail
pinch/stopping should be done to plant, Opentia, Cerus, Mumalaria, Agave,
encourage the laterals shoots. Kalanchoe, Sansiveria, Yacca, Hawarthia, Furcrea,
After plant attaining proper height Sedum etc.
and with, lace pre-fabricated iron or 4. Ferns: Nephrolepsis, Polypodium and Adiantum
steel frame over the plant cut all the etc.
shoots which come out from the frame 5. Shade plants: Imparatiens sultaniana,
to achieve desired shape. Pedilanthes tithymaloides, Pilea muscosa,
Portulaca sps, minature roses, Zebrana pendula,
Maintenance: The topiary plants Tradescantia albifolia, Vincea rosea etc.
should be watered fertilized liberally
so that plants make a dense and 11. CARPET BED:
colorful growth.
It means covering an area preferably a bed
10. ROCK GARDEN: or a series of beds, with dense low
growing herbaceous plants according to a
Rocks and soils are arranged in such a set of design.
fashion that conditions are created for
It looks attractive in sloppy land when it is
the growth of different plants.
not existed in the selected area, the soil
In nature, rocks may be getting should be imported from the other places
covered with different colored moss for creating the slope.
and if soil collected in cracks and
Carpet bed can often utilized for creating
crevices of rocks, plants grow there
figures or letters are cutout with the help
naturally.
of plants having different growth habits
Selection of site: It is easy to create or having different colored leaves.
rock garden where natural rocks are
To have a contrast, plants with one color
available nearby. But large rock
as background and then other color may
garden should be situated in a place
run through in groups, strips or lines or
where there will fit with the other
letters to have the desired effect.
garden features. Apart from this
corners, middle part of garden, under It can also be created in an artistic manner
large trees are better places for depending upon the taste of the designer
creating rock garden. and plants available at hand.
Characteristics of rocks: The rocks
should be of local origin, porous and Plant characteristics:
have a weathered look. Stones having
diameter of 60cm or more should be a. They should be perennial in
selected. nature
Types of rockery: Common types are b. They should retain better contrast
a. Tyre type of rockery b. Round through out the year
rockery c.Rectangular
c. They should have quick
rockery
d. Square rockery e. Rockery recuperative quality
under tree f. Alpine rockery d. They should withstand to
g. Flat type rockery frequent pruning and mowing
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e. They must be capable to Suitable places for shrubbery in the


withstand summer sun and heavy garden are
rains o Centre part and
f. They must be capable to
o Corners of the gardens
withstand drought

E.g. Alternanthera (Red, green, variegated, 14. BORDERS:


range types), Dwarf coleus, Irisine lindanae, Pilea
microphylla, Portulaca, Sedum, Mexican grass, It is defined as beds, which are more in
Korean grass, etc length than breadth and contain plants of
heterogeneous character.
12. FLOWER BEDS: There are three types of borders
1. Herbaceous border 2.Annual mixed border
Main idea of creating flowerbeds in the
3. Mixed border
garden is to display the flowers in best
way as possible. HERBACEOUS BORDER:
The flowerbeds can be planted with This is a characteristic of English
winter flowering annuals sown during garden, containing hardy perennial
September-October or summer flowering
herbaceous plants, which die down
ones sown during February-March and
to the ground level after flowering,
rainy season flowers sown during April-
June. but put up new growth from the
roots in the next season.
The perennial plants like Canna, daisy
etc., are planted in flower beds. Herbaceous border needs good
depth of soil and sunny situation.
Designs: The shape of flowerbeds should
be simple designs such as circles, The border may be placed against a
rectangles, squares, ellipses are easier to wall, a fence, shrubbery, a hedge or
maintain.
a double divided grass path.
Kidney shaped beds, beds with sharp
points and angles also look very Annual mixed border: A border consisting of
attractive. mixed annual flowers. The beds are annual in
duration.
For marking the beds simple plastic hose
pipe or wet rope may be used to obtain Mixed border:
the desired shape on the ground then
mark out the outer border with lime A mixed border generally herbaceous
powder followed by digging. shrubs with less spreading root
system, sub-shrubs, herbaceous
perennials, bulbous plants and annual
13. SHRUBBERY:
flowers.
Growing of shrubs in a groups is
referred as Shrubbery A mixed border is arranged against the
background of walls, ornamental trees
Shrubs are the permanent features and
or fencing and compound walls.
once planted will become permanent
features unlike the seasonal flowers
which are to be replaced every season. 15. ARBOUR
If shrubs are properly selected, the It is nothing but a hut like structure
shrubs in the shrubbery will provide having more than eight entrances.
flowers throughout the year.
It acts as a resting place for visitors.

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18. BONSAI
Suitable place of construction of arbor is
preferably highest part of the garden so Bonsai is a tree or simply a plant
that visitors can see overall structure and cultivated in a pot or container,
beauty of garden. resembling a fully grown tree on a
Materials: For pillars: Wooden poles, miniature scale.
metal pipes, brick pillars, concrete pillars.
Bonsai first appeared in China over a
Roofing materials: Metal rods, wooden
thousand years ago on a very basic
flats GI mesh or tiles.
scale, known as pun-sai.
Construction procedure similar to pergola.
The word is derived from Chinese
16. GARDEN BRIDGES Penjing and In Japanese Bon means,
Shallow pan/pot and Sai means
Bridges are necessity item in a garden to Plant, it is literally called as Tray
cross the stream or pond. planting.
This should be developed harmoniously Bonsai is an art of growing trees,
with landscape. plants proportionately in smaller
containers occasionally in
The shape, size and material of the bridge
combination with rocks of many
depend upon the type of water barrier it is
forms, by treating them with certain
to transverse.
technique in order to reproduce in
In pictures are garden designs, rustic miniature appearances found in
looking materials is more appropriate nature.
than the formal one. They are made up of
Bonsai comprises a tree or shrub
stone, wood or concrete materials.
planted for developing as a miniature
plant showing the general appearance
17. LAWN:
of that plant species found in nature
Lawn is defined as a piece of land thickly for many years.
covered with uniformly green soft grass.
It is the art of dwarfing trees or plants
It is also called as Green carpet
and developing them into an
It is like a cushion, velvet carpet giving aesthetically appealing shape by
pleasure both to sight and feeling. growing, pruning and training those
in containers according to prescribed
Lawn is an art of any garden.
techniques.
It is a center peace around which all
Overall, bonsai is a great interest,
garden elements are placed in subordinate
hobby or even profession to
order like the royal court where the kind
undertake.
occupied the central position surrounded
by his courtiers. A bonsai is not a genetically dwarfed
plant and is not kept small by cruelty
Lawn was introduced by Englishmens,
in any way.
since then it has continued to stay as the
most important feature in our garden. It is also common belief that bonsai
are only a few centimeters tall.
Selection of grasses:
Most are over 05 centimeters (2II) tall
A good grass is one, which should
and max upto 1 meter (3.33 ft).
put-up fair growth of uniform texture
and greater tolerance to abuse. This is what is meant by the
expression "heaven and earth in one
Common grasses
container".
a. Calcutta doob b. Mexican grass
c. Korean grass d. Kentukey blue grass
e. Zade velvet f. Bermeda g. St. Augustian
grass h. Green gem i. Polypogium
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BONSAI STYLES: 10. Twisted trunk style: The trunk diminishes size
toward the top and gives the appearance of
There are many styles in bonsai, which have twisting in upon itself; the branches break out in
been developing over the ages. The following are the all directions.
principal classical bonsai styles developer over the
11. On the rock: The piece of rock is places
years.
appropriately in the container to be embraced
1. Formal upright style (Chokkan): In this style eventually by the roots of the bonsai. This
branches grow symmetrically and horizontally however sinks into the soil below. Once the little
around the upright straight trunk. tree starts growing and putting new roots in to
small cavities in the rock, one can get so called
2. Winding or Kyokkum/Curved trunk style
(Moyogi): In this style plants retains a very rock planting.
natural appearance with the help of curving 12. Memo bonsai/Mini bonsai/Disc bonsai: The
nature of the trunk. The branches get smaller in plants are often not more than 8 15cm high (3
size towards the top growing also in the edge of 6 inches) and grow in containers after no bigger
the curves. than a thumble.
3. Oblique/Leaning trunk style (Shakakn): The
trunk leans to one side; braches are positioned
@@@@@The End@@@@@
horizontally, shooting out in all directions. The
surface roots clearly visible in the side opposite
to the lean.
4. Windswept style (Fukinagashi): This differs
from previous style that branches grow on one
side of the trunk only. This gives the impression
of the blowing continually from the direction.
5. Broom style (Hokidachi): This style having the
similarity in appearance to unturned broom. It
spreads the branches in the shape of a fan, may
occupy half the total height of the tree. The trunk
is upright.
6. Cascade style (Kengai): The branches grow out
over the edge of the container chosed for this
style is high enough to show off cascade effect to
best advantage.
7. Multiple trunks style or Clump shaped
(Kadudaki): Trunks are allowed to grow a single
root, which has put several shoots. The result of
this is a little group of trees. Generally, they
should make up an odd number but if only
trunks appear, they should of different sizes.
8. Raft style (Ikuabuchi): This style creates an
effect of fallen trunk, which has put out roots
downward, and branches upward. The final
impression, which is quite original, is one of the
groups of individual plants all spring from a
horizontal trunk.
9. Woodland (Yose ue): In this fascinating style, in
a single container a number of all individual
plants of the same species are laid out in a
correctly proportioned manner.
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