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The Hampson–Linde cycle is used in the liquefaction of gases,

especially for air separation.William Hampson and Carl von


Linde independently filed for patent of the cycle in 1895.[1]

Hampson-Linde systems introduced regenerative cooling, a positive-


feedback cooling system.[2]The heat exchanger arrangement permits
an absolute temperature difference (e.g. 0.27 °C/atmJ-T cooling for
air) to go beyond a single stage of cooling, and reach the low
temperatures required to liquefy "fixed" gasses.
The Hampson-Linde cycle differs from the Siemens cycle only in the
expansion step. Where the Siemens cycle has the gas do external
work to reduce its temperature, the Hampson-Linde cycle relies solely
on the Joule-Thomson effect. This has the advantage that the cold
side needs no moving parts
The Cycle

1. Heated—by compressing the gas—adding external energy into


the gas, to give it what is needed for running through the cycle
2. Cooled—by immersing the gas in a cooler environment, losing
some of its heat (and energy),
3. Cooled through heat exchanger with returning gas from next
(and last) stage,
4. Cooled further by passing the gas through a Joule-Thomson
orifice, removing heat, but conserving energy which is now
potential energy rather than kinetic energy.
The gas which is now at its coolest in the current cycle, is
recycled and sent back to be -

5. Heated—when participating as the coolant for stage 3, and then


6. Sent back to stage one, to start the next cycle, and be slightly
reheated by compression.

In each cycle the net cooling is more than the heat added at the
beginning of the cycle. As the gas passes more cycles and becomes
cooler, reaching lower temperatures at the expanding cylinder
becomes more difficult.