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Steven J. Kifowit

Prairie State College

In an earlier article, Kifowit and Stamps [8] summarized a number of elementary proofs of

divergence of the harmonic series:

∞

X 1 1 1 1 1

= 1 + + + + + · · · = ∞.

n=1

n 2 3 4 5

For a variety of reasons, some very nice proofs never made it into the final draft of that article.

With this in mind, the collection of divergence proofs continues here. This informal note is a

work in progress1. On occasion more proofs will be added. Accessibility to first-year calculus

students is a common thread that will continue (usually) to connect the proofs.

Choose a positive integer k.

k terms k2 terms

z }| { z

}| {

∞

X 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

= 1+ + + ··· + + + + ··· + 2

n=1

n 2 3 k+1 k+2 k+3 k +k+1

k3 terms

z }| {

1 1 1

+ + + ··· + 3 +···

k2 + k + 2 k2 + k + 3 k + k2 + k + 1

k k2 k3

> 1+ + 2 + 3 + ···

k + 1 k + k + 1 k + k2 + k + 1

2 3

k k k

> 1+ + + + ···

k+1 k+1 k+1

1

= k

=k+1

1 − k+1

Since this is true for any positive integer k, the harmonic series must diverge.

Proof 22

The following proof was given by Fearnehough [5] and later by Havil [6]. After substituting u = ex , this

proof is equivalent to Proof 10 of [8].

Z 0 Z 0

ex

x

dx = ex (1 − ex )−1 dx

−∞ 1 − e −∞

Z 0

= ex (1 + ex + e2x + e3x + · · ·) dx

−∞

Z 0

= (ex + e2x + e3x + · · ·) dx

−∞

0

1 1

= ex + e2x + e3x + · · ·

2 3 −∞

1 1

= 1+ + + ···

2 3

0

= [− ln(1 − ex )]−∞ = ∞

This proof was given by Bradley [2]. We begin with the inequality x ≥ ln(1 + x), which holds for all x > −1.

From this it follows that

1 1

≥ ln 1 + = ln(k + 1) − ln(k)

k k

for any positive integer k. Now we have

n

X 1

Hn =

k

k=1

n n

X 1 X k+1

≥ ln 1 + = ln

k k

k=1 k=1

= ln(n + 1).

∞

X 1

In the last proof the harmonic series was directly compared to the divergent series ln 1 + . The use

k

k=1

of the inequality x ≥ ln(1 + x) can be avoided by using limit comparison. Since

ln 1 + x1 − x12

lim 1 = lim = 1,

x→∞ x→∞ 1 + 1 − x12

x x

2

Proof 25

In an interesting proof of the Egyptian fraction theorem, Owings [12] showed that no number appears more

than once in any single row of the following tree.

1/2

1/3 1/6

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

. . . . . . . .

The elements of each row have a sum of 1/2, and there are infinitely rows with no elements in common. (For

example, one could, starting with row 1, find the maximum denominator in the row, and then jump to that

row.) It follows that the harmonic series diverges.

Proof 26

This proof is actually a pair of very similar proofs. They are closely related to a number of other proofs, but

most notably to Proof 4 of [8]. In these proofs Hn denotes the nth partial sum of the harmonic series:

1 1 1

Hn = 1 + + + ···+ , n = 1, 2, 3, . . . .

2 3 n

Proof (A): First notice that

1 1 1 n

Hn + H2n = 2Hn + + + ···+ ≥ 2Hn + ,

n+1 n+2 2n 2n

so that when all is said and done, we have

1

Hn + H2n ≥ 2Hn + .

2

Now suppose the harmonic series converges with sum S.

n→∞ n→∞

n→∞

1

≥ lim 2Hn +

n→∞ 2

1

= 2S +

2

1

The contradiction 2S ≥ 2S + 2 concludes the proof.

1 1 1 n 1

H2n − Hn = + + ··· + ≥ =

n+1 n+2 2n 2n 2

3

Suppose the harmonic series converges.

n→∞ n→∞

= lim (H2n − Hn )

n→∞

1 1

≥ lim =

n→∞ 2 2

1

The contradiction 0 ≥ 2 concludes the proof.

Proof 27

This proposition follows immediately from the harmonic mean/arithmetic mean inequality, but an alternate

proof is given here.

1 1 1

Proposition: For any natural number k, + + ···+ > 1.

k k+1 3k

Proof:

1 1 1 1

exp + + + ···+ = e1/k · e1/(k+1) · e1/(k+2) · · · e1/(3k)

k k+1 k+2 3k

1 1 1 1

> 1+ · 1+ · 1+ ··· 1 +

k k+1 k+2 3k

k+1 k+2 k+3 3k + 1

= · · ···

k k+1 k+2 3k

3k + 1

= > 3.

k

(In this proposition the denominator 3k could be replaced by [e k], but even this choice is not

optimal. See [1].)

∞

X 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

= 1+ + ···+ + + ··· + + + ···+ + ···

n=1

n 2 6 7 21 22 66

> 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + ···

The Fibonacci numbers are defined recursively as follows:

f0 = 1, f1 = 1; fn+1 = fn + fn−1 , n = 1, 2, 3 . . . .

For example, the first ten are given by 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55. The sequence of Fibonacci numbers

makes an appearance in a number of modern calculus textbooks (for instance, see [9] or [13]). Often the

limit √

fn+1 1+ 5

lim =φ=

n→∞ fn 2

4

is proved or presented as an exercise. This limit plays an important role in this divergence proof.

First notice that

fn−1 fn+1 − fn fn 1

lim = lim = lim 1 − = 1 − ≈ 0.381966.

n→∞ fn+1 n→∞ fn+1 n→∞ fn+1 φ

Now we have

∞

X 1 1 1 1 1 1

= 1+ + + + + + ···

n=1

n 2 3 4 5 6

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

= 1+ + + + + + +

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 1 1 1

+ + ···+ + + ··· + + ···

9 13 14 21

1 1 2 3 5 8

≥ 1+ + + + + + + ···

2 3 5 8 13 21

∞

X fn−1

= 1+

f

n=1 n+1

fn−1

Since lim 6= 0, this last series diverges. It follows that the harmonic series diverges.

n→∞ fn+1

Proof 29

This proof is essentially the same as Proof 2 of [8]. First notice that since the sequence

11 111 1111 11111

, , , , ...

10 100 1000 10000

increases and converges to 10/9, the sequence

10 100 1000 10000

, , , , ...

11 111 1111 11111

decreases and converges to 9/10. With this in mind, we have

10 terms 100 terms

z

}| { z }| {

∞

X 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

= 1+ + + ··· + + + + ···+

n=1

n 2 3 11 12 13 111

1000 terms

z }| {

1 1 1

+ + + ···+ +···

112 113 1111

10 100 1000

> 1+ + + + ···

11 1111 1111

9 9 9

> 1+ + + + ···

10 10 10

5

Proof 30

The following visual proofs show that by carefully rearranging terms, the harmonic series can be made

greater than itself.

Proof (A): This proof without words was posted on The Everything Seminar (Harmonic Digression,

http://cornellmath.wordpress.com/2007/07/12/harmonic-digression/).

···

: : ..

.

Proof (B): This visual proof leaves less to the imagination than Proof (A). It is due to Jim Belk and

was posted on The Everything Seminar as a follow-up to the previous proof. Belk’s proof is a visualization

of Johann Bernoulli’s proof (see Proof 13 of [8]).

···

: : ...

Proof (C): This proof is a visual representation of Proofs 6 and 7 of [8]. With some minor modifications,

6

a similar visual proof could be used to show that one-half of the harmonic series ( 12 + 1

4 + 1

6 + · · ·) is strictly

less than its remaining half (in the spirit of Proof 8 of [8]).

1/2

1/3 1/4 1/5 1/6 1/7 1/8 ···

1

1/2 1/3 1/4 ···

Proof 31

P R

Here is another proof in which 1/k and 1/x dx are compared. Unlike its related proofs (e.g. Proof 9 of

[8]), this one focuses on arc length.

The graph shown here is that of the polar function r(θ) = π/θ on [π, ∞).

π

r(θ) =

θ

s 2

Z ∞ Z ∞√ Z ∞ Z ∞ ∞

2

dr π

Arc Length = r + dθ ≥ r2 dθ = r dθ = dθ = π ln θ = ∞

π dθ π π π θ π

7

Now let the polar function ρ be defined by

1, π ≤ θ < 2π

1/2, 2π ≤ θ < 3π

1/3,

3π ≤ θ < 4π

ρ(θ) = .. ..

. .

1/n, nπ ≤ θ < (n + 1)π

..

. .

..

The graph of ρ is made up of semi-circular arcs, the nth arc having radius 1/n. The total arc length of

the graph of ρ is

π π π 1 1 1

π + + + + ··· = π 1 + + + + ··· .

2 3 4 2 3 4

The graphs of r (dashed) and ρ (solid) on [π, 6π] are shown below.

By comparing the graphs of the two functions over intervals of the form [nπ, (n + 1)π], we see that the

graph of ρ must be “longer” than the graph of r. It follows that

1 1 1

π 1 + + + + ···

2 3 4

must be unbounded.

Proof 32

The divergence of the harmonic series follows immediately from the Cauchy Condensation Test:

∞

X

Suppose {an } is a non-increasing sequence with positive terms. Then an converges if and

n=1

∞

X

only if 2k a2k converges.

k=0

8

Proof 33

This proof is similar to Proof 4 of [8]. Just as above, Hn denotes the nth partial sum of the harmonic series:

1 1 1

Hn = 1 + + + ···+ , n = 1, 2, 3, . . . .

2 3 n

Consider the figure shown here:

1

y=

x

1

n

1

n+1

n n+1

Z n+1

1 1 1

< dx < .

n+1 n x n

Repeated use of this result gives

Z 2n

1 1 1 1 1

+ ···+ < dx = ln 2 < + ···+

|n + 1 {z 2n} n x |n {z 2n − 1}

H2n −Hn H2n−1 −Hn−1

or

1 1

H2n − Hn < ln 2 < H2n − Hn + − .

n 2n

| {z }

1/2n

1

< H2n − Hn < ln 2.

ln 2 −

2n

Therefore H2n − Hn → ln 2, and the sequence {Hn } must diverge.

Proof 34

P

In [4] Paul Erdős gave two remarkably clever proofs of the divergence of the series 1/p (p prime), where

the sum is taken over only the primes. Other proofs of this fact, such as one given by Euler (see [3]), make

use of the harmonic series. Erdős’ proofs do not, and as a consequence, they establish the divergence of the

harmonic series.

9

The proofs are rather complicated, but accessible and well worth the effort required to follow them

through. A few elementary ideas are required before we begin:

(iii) Let N be a given positive integer. For any positive integer m, there are ⌊N/m⌋ integers between 1 and

N that are divisible by m.

∞

X 1

This is the first of Erdős’ proofs. We begin by assuming converges. It follows that there exists an

p

i=1 i

integer K such that

∞

X 1 1

< .

pi 2

i=K+1

We will call pK+1 , pK+2 , pK+3 , . . . the “large primes,” and p1 , p2 , . . . , pK the “small primes.”

Now let N be an integer such that N > pK . Let N1 be the number of integers between 1 and N whose

divisors are all small primes, and let N2 be the number of integers between 1 and N that have at least one

large prime divisor. It follows that N = N1 + N2 .

By the definition of N2 and using (iii) above, it follows that

∞

N N N X N

N2 ≤ + + + ··· = .

pK+1 pK+2 pK+3 pi

i=K+1

∞ ∞

X N X N N

N2 ≤ ≤ < ,

pi pi 2

i=K+1 i=K+1

where the last part of the inequality follows from the definition of K.

Now, referring back to the small primes, let x ≤ N be a positive integer with only small prime divisors.

Write x = yz 2 , where y and z are positive integers, y is squarefree (i.e. has no perfect square divisors), and

√

z ≤ N . The integer y must have the factorization

y = pm 1 m2 m3 mK

1 p2 p3 · · · pK ,

where each exponent mi has value 0 or 1. It follows from the multiplication principle that there are 2K

√ √

possible choices for the integer y. Since z ≤ N , there are at most N possible choices for the integer z.

√

Therefore there are at most 2K N possible choices for the integer x. Recalling the definition of x, we see

√

that we must have N1 ≤ 2K N .

So now we have established that

√ N

N = N1 + N2 < 2 K N + .

2

However, by simply choosing N such that N > 22K+2 , we are lead to a contradiction:

√

K

√ N N√ N

N = N1 + N2 < 2 N+ < N+ = N.

2 2 2

10

Proof 35

P

This is Erdős’ second proof of the divergence of 1/p (p prime) [4]. It uses the same notation and concepts

as the previous proof.

We begin by using the fact that

∞ ∞

X 1 X 1 1 1

= − =

i=2

i(i + 1) i=2

i i+1 2

to establish that ∞

X 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3

2 < + + + + ··· = + = .

p

i=1 i

4 2·3 3·4 4·5 4 2 4

∞

X 1

Now assume that converges. It follows that there exists an integer K such that

p

i=1 i

∞

X 1 1

< .

pi 8

i=K+1

As above, we will call pK+1 , pK+2 , pK+3 , . . . the “large primes,” and p1 , p2 , . . . , pK the “small primes.”

Let N be a positive integer and let y ≤ N be a positive, squarefree integer with only small prime divisors.

The integer y must have the factorization

y = pm 1 m2 m3 mK

1 p2 p3 · · · pK ,

where each exponent mi has value 0 or 1. It follows from the multiplication principle that there are 2K possi-

ble choices for the integer y. Those 2k integers must remain after we remove from the sequence 1, 2, 3, . . . , N

all those integers that are not squarefree or have large prime divisors. Therefore, we must have the following

inequality:

K ∞ K ∞

K

X N X N X N X N 3 1 N

2 ≥N− − ≥N− − >N− N− N = .

i=1

p2i pi p

i=1 i

2 pi 4 8 8

i=K+1 i=K+1

11

Proof 36

Nick Lord [10] provided this “visual catalyst” for Proof 23.

Consider the graph of y = sin(ex ) for 0 ≤ x < ∞.

y y = sin(ex )

The graph has an x-intercept at the point where x = ln nπ for each positive integer n. This sequence of

x-values diverges to infinity, and the distance between each pair of intercepts is given by

n+1 1

ln(n + 1)π − ln nπ = ln = ln 1 + .

n n

n for each n, the series of gaps between intercepts has a total length less than the harmonic

series: ∞ X ∞

X 1 1

ln 1 + < .

n=1

n n=1

n

Since the sequence of x-intercepts diverges, the harmonic series must diverge.

12

Proof 37

This is a visual proof comparing the harmonic series to a divergent integral. It is similar to Proof 9 of [8].

..

.

7

1/7

1−x

6 y=

1/6

x

5

1/5

4

1/4

3

1/3

2

1/2

1

1

1/2 1 x

Z 1

1 1 1 1 1−x

1+ + + + + ··· > dx = ∞

2 3 4 5 0 x

Proof 38

Here is a matrix version of Johann Bernoulli’s proof (Proof 13 of [8]). We start by defining the infinite

matrices M (square) and h:

0 2 0 0 0 0 ··· 1

0 0 3 0 0 0 ··· 1/2

M = 0 0 0 4 0 0 ··· h = 1/3

,

0 0 0 0 5 0 ··· 1/4

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

. . . . . . . .

P∞ 1 1 1 1

Notice that hT M h = n=1 n =1+ 2 + 3 + 4 + · · ·. Therefore our goal is to show that hT M h = ∞.

Let Jk be the infinite square matrix with ones along the superdiagonal starting at row k and with zeros

13

elsewhere. For example,

0 0 0 0 0 0 ···

0 0 0 0 0 0 ···

0 0 0 1 0 0 ···

J3 = .

0 0 0 0 1 0 ···

0 0 0 0 0 1 ···

.. .. .. .. .. .. ..

. . . . . . .

It follows that M = J1 + J1 + J2 + J3 + J4 + · · · (in the sense that, for any n, the equality holds for the n × n

leading, principal submatrices).

By expanding hT J1 h, we find that

∞

X 1

h T J1 h = = 1.

n=1

n(n + 1)

1

h T Jk h = .

k

Now suppose that the harmonic series converges with sum S. Then we have

S = hT M h = hT (J1 + J1 + J2 + J3 + J4 + · · ·)h

= h T J 1 h + h T J1 h + h T J2 h + h T J3 h + h T J4 h + · · ·

1 1 1

= 1+1+ 2 + 3 + 4 + ···

= 1 + S.

It is not difficult to prove the following result (see for example [7, pages 128–129]), which was studied in

detail by the Italian mathematician Ernesto Cesàro.

P∞ Pn

Suppose that k=1ak converges with sum S and let Sn = k=1 ak . Then the sequence of

1 Pn

average partial sums, { n k=1 Sk }n=1 , also converges to S.

∞

1 1 1 1

Hn = 1 + + + + ···+ ,

2 3 4 n

and notice that

n

1X 1 n n−1 n−2 1

Hk = + + + ··· +

n n 1 2 3 n

k=1

n .

1 X n−k+1 Hn

= = Hn − 1 +

n k n

k=1

14

The divergence of the harmonic series now follows by contradiction. Assuming that the harmonic series

converges with sum S, we have

n

!

1X Hn

S = lim Hk = lim Hn − 1 + = S − 1 + 0.

n→∞ n n→∞ n

k=1

Here are a couple of proofs involving probability theory. Because they are too advanced for the typical

calculus student, they are not duplicated here.

P 1

• n = ∞: A Micro-Lesson on Probability and Symmetry by Omer Adleman, Amer. Math. Monthly,

November 2007, pages 809–810

• A Proof of Divergence of the Harmonic Series Using Probability Theory by Arnab Kumar Laha, avail-

able at http:\\www.iimahd.ernet.in/download.php?downloadid=279

15

References

[1] E. R. Bobo, A sequence related to the harmonic series, College Mathematics Journal, 26 (1995),

pp. 308–310.

[2] D. M. Bradley, A note on the divergence of the harmonic series, American Mathematical Monthly,

107 (2000), p. 651.

[3] W. Dunham, Euler: The Master of Us All, The Mathematical Association of America, 1999.

P1

[4] P. Erdős, Über die Reihe p, Mathematica, Zutphen B 7 (1938), pp. 1–2.

[5] A. Fearnehough, Another method for showing the divergence of the harmonic series, The Mathemat-

ical Gazette, 75 (1991), p. 198.

[6] J. Havil, Gamma: Exploring Euler’s Constant, Princeton University Press, 2003.

[7] I. I. Hirschman Jr., Infinite Series, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1962.

[8] S. J. Kifowit and T. A. Stamps, The harmonic series diverges again and again, The AMATYC

Review, 27 (2006), pp. 31–43.

[9] R. Larson, R. P. Hostetler, and B. H. Edwards, Calculus, Houghton Mifflin Company, 8th ed.,

2006.

[10] N. Lord, Maths bite: seeing the divergence of the harmonic series, The Mathematical Gazette, 87

(2003), pp. 125–126.

[11] R. B. Nelson, Proofs Without Words II: More Exercises in Visual Thinking, The Mathematical As-

sociation of America, 2000.

[12] J. C. Owings Jr., Another proof of the Egyptian fraction theorem, American Mathematical Monthly,

75 (1968), pp. 777–778.

[14] A. J. B. Ward, Divergence of the harmonic series, The Mathematical Gazette, (C) (1970), p. 277.

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