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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37 (2014) 168–181

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

A review of different heat exchangers designs for increasing the diesel


exhaust waste heat recovery
M. Hatami n, D.D. Ganji, M. Gorji-Bandpy
Babol University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol, Iran

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this paper, after a short review of waste heat recovery technologies from diesel engines, the heat
Received 11 January 2014 exchangers (HEXs) used in exhaust of engines is introduced as the most common way. So, a short review
Received in revised form of the technologies that increase the heat transfer in HEXs is introduced and the availability of using
14 April 2014
them in the exhaust of engines is evaluated and finally a complete review of different HEXs which
Accepted 3 May 2014
previously were designed for increasing the exhaust waste heat recovery is presented. Also, future view
points for next HEXs designs are proposed to increase heat recovery from the exhaust of diesel engines.
Keywords: & 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Waste heat recovery
Heat exchanger
Diesel engine
Exhaust

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
2. Waste heat recovery technologies in engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
2.1. Thermoelectric generators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
2.2. Organic Rankine Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
2.3. Six stroke engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
2.4. Turbocharging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
2.5. Exhaust gas recirculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
2.6. Engine heat exchangers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
3. Heat exchangers (HEXs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
3.1. Types of HEXs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
3.2. Heat transfer increasing methodologies in HEXs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
4. Engine HEXs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
4.1. HEXs in cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
4.2. HEXs in radiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
4.3. HEXs in exhaust. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
5. Exhaust HEX modeling and analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
6. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

Abbreviations: BSFC, brake specific fuel consumption; LHA, latent heat accumulator; CCHP, combined cooling, heating and power; LMTD, log mean temperature difference;
CFD, computational fluid dynamic; MEP, mean effective pressure; CHP, combined heating and power; MHD, magneto-hydrodynamic; CI, compression ignition; ORC, Organic
Rankine Cycle; DI, direct injection; PCM, phase change materials; DOE, design of experiment; RNG, renormalization-group; EGR, exhaust gas recirculation; SST, Shear-Stress
Transport; EHD, electro-hydrodynamic; SI, spark ignition; FDM, finite difference method; TEG, thermoelectric generator; GHG, greenhouse gases; VGT, variable geometry
turbines; HEX, heat exchanger; WHR, waste heat recovery
n
Corresponding author. Tel./fax: þ 98 111 323 4205.
E-mail addresses: m.hatami2010@gmail.com (M. Hatami), ddg_davood@yahoo.com (D.D. Ganji).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.05.004
1364-0321/& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
M. Hatami et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37 (2014) 168–181 169

Nomenclature T temperature (1C)


u,v,w velocity components (m/s)
Cp specific heat at constant pressure (kJ/kg K) U overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m K)
e specific exergy (kJ/kg)
g gravity acceleration (m2/s) Greeks
h specific enthalpy (kJ/kg)
m_ mass flow rate (kg/s) ε heat exchanger effectiveness
M molecular weight of exhaust gas (kg/mol) ρ density (kg/m3)
p pressure (bar) τ shear stress (N/m2)
Pb brake power (kW) η second law heat exchanger efficiency
Q_ heat flux (W) ν specific volume (m3/kg)
R universal gas constant (kJ/mol K)
s absolute entropy of ideal gas (kJ/kg K)

1. Introduction other hand, since exhaust heat exchanger may cause a pressure
drop and affects the engine performance, its design is of great
Nowadays, diesel engines are widely used due to their abilities importance. The current paper aims to introduce the ways to
and advantages in industries for producing energy, electricity, recover heat from engines. Also, a review of previous heat
transportation, etc., but a large amount of their fuel energy is exchangers designs is performed and suggestions for future
wasted through the exhaust [1]. Researchers confirm that more developments are presented.
than 30–40% of fuel energy gets wasted from the exhaust and just
12–25% of the fuel energy converts to useful work [2,3]. On the
other hand, statistics show that the production of a large number 2. Waste heat recovery technologies in engines
of internal combustion engines increases the presence of harmful
greenhouse gases (GHG) which is a cause of concern. So, research- In this section, a short review of the technologies for heat
ers are motivated to recover the heat from the waste sources in transfer from engines is presented. In the current status of the
engines by using applicable ways. Heat recovery not only reduces world the requirement of energy is increasing especially for
the demand of fossil fuels, but also reduces the GHG and helps to transportation applications, so the usage of fossil fuels and conse-
save energy. Rakopoulos [4] mentioned that one of the main aims quently harmful greenhouse gases (GHG) will increase. Research-
of the second law of thermodynamic, in engines, is identifying the ers attempt to reduce the need of fossils fuels by using the waste
source of destruction and suggesting ways to convert these heat recovery from engines. As of now, six technologies are
destructions to useful work or to use them. Combustion is one of presented for engines waste heat recovery of which Saidur et al.
the main sources of energy destruction in engines which many [14] have performed a complete review of four of them. These six
researchers aimed to reduce its irreversibility property. For exam- technologies are thermoelectric generators (TEG), Organic Rankine
ple, Li et al. [5] investigated the effect of swirl chamber on Cycle (ORC), six stroke engines, turbocharging, exhaust gas recir-
combustion irreversibilities and concluded that increasing the culation (EGR) andexhaust heat exchangers (HEXs)and a short
chamber volume increases the irreversibilities due to lower introduction to each of them is given below.
temperature and pressure in the cylinder. Ghazikhani et al. [6]
investigated the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) effect and men- 2.1. Thermoelectric generators
tioned that EGR cannot improve the combustion process from the
second law view point. Primus et al. [7] tried to reduce the Thermoelectric generators (TEG) or Seebeck generators are
irreversibilities by insulating the cylinder. They observed a 3.7% devices which directly convert waste heat energy into electrical
increase in the indicated work and 49% increase in exergy of energy. These devices work on Seebeck effect which was discov-
exhaust gases, but their study showed that NOx also increases ered by Thomas Johann Seebeck in 1821 [15]. Recently, for
which is not appropriate. Many studies are done on using the increasing the efficiency of these devices, semiconductor p–n
alternative fuels to improve the combustion process. Approxi- junctions were added (Fig. 1)that are made up of new materials
mately all of them reveal that hydrogen enrichment can improve such as BiTe (bismuth telluride), CeFeSb (skutterudite), ZnBe
the combustion process [8–10]. Alasfour [11] showed that 30% (zinc–beryllium), SiGe (silicon–germanium), SnTe (tin telluride)
Butanol added to gasoline makes a 7% reduction in the second law and new nano-crystalline or nano-wire thermoelectric which
efficiency and was not appropriate from the second law view increase their efficiency to around 5–8% [14]. Although TEG
point, while Rakopoulos and Kyritsis [12] reduced the combustion devices have many advantages such as clean energy, without
irreversibilities by using methane and methanol. Also, Ghazikhani sound, without movable component and lesser maintenance costs,
et al. [13] confirmed that just 5% ethanol can improve the they are however only economical when used at high tempera-
combustion process through the second law view point in an tures (4 200 1C) and when only small amounts of the power (a
experimental work. few milliwatts) are needed. TEG's advantages motivated many of
It is evident that exhaust of the engines is another main source the researchers to use it in automobile waste heat recoveries
from which a large amount of energy gets wasted through it. This which can be seen in [14]. For instance, Karri et al. [16] studied two
energy can be recovered by using the heat exchanger in exhaust cases of exhaust waste heat recovery using TEGs. Also, Zhang and
and this recovered heat is then used in the cycles such as Organic Chau [17] reported that using TEG has low effect on engine
Rankine Cycle (ORC), combined heating and power (CHP), com- performance and it can improve the engine power up to 17.9%.
bined cooling, heating and power (CCHP), etc. In all these applica- But, in another research, Yu and Chau [18] revealed that when the
tions, requirement of a heat exchanger is necessary to transmit the exhaust gases flow through the TEG's heat exchanger, kinetic
heat from hot gases to working fluid at excellent efficiency. On the energy from the gases is lost and causes an increase in pumping
170 M. Hatami et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37 (2014) 168–181

Fig. 1. Schematic view of p–n junctions in TEG devices [14,15].

Fig. 2. Schematic of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) on diesel engine and T-S Diagram [19].

losses which is known as back pressure which reduces the are more suitable for low temperature sources such as engine
engine's performance. exhaust from the knowledge that wet fluids are never recom-
mended for ORC due to the interaction between fluid particles and
2.2. Organic Rankine Cycle turbine blades.

A number of thermodynamic cycles such as Calina, trilateral 2.3. Six stroke engines
flash, Goswami and Rankine are presented in the literature for
exhaust waste heat recovery from engines [14]. Among these The six-stroke engine is a type of internal combustion engine
cycles, Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) can be introduced as the most based on the four-stroke engine but with additional complexity
efficient cycle for low temperature sources such as engine exhaust. intended to make it more efficient and reduce emissions. Three
A schematic of the ORC is shown in Fig. 2 which contains boiler, types of six-stroke engines have been developed since the 1890s
expander, condenser, pump and working fluid [19]. Many works [14], but in one of them proposed by Conklin and Szybist [24], the
are performed in this field and complete reviews of them are engine captures the heat lost from the four-stroke diesel engine
presented by Sprouse et al.[20],Chen et al. [21] and Wang et al. and uses it to generate an additional power without more fuel
[22]. Most of these works are based on the effect of working fluid consumption. A schematic of the operation of this engine is shown
type on the ORC performance. The different types of working in Fig. 3. As seen, there are two power strokes: one with fuel, the
fluids are wet, dry and isentropic fluids with their T–S diagram other with water injection by using the waste heat of burned gases
slopes being positive, negative and infinite, respectively [14]. Chen in the previous stroke. Water injection is occurred after compres-
et al. [21] by comparing 35 kinds of working fluids reached to the sing the burned gases from first stroke when the crank shaft angle
fact that suitable working fluid depends on the operating condi- is 7201. Mean effective pressure (MEP) of these engines will be
tion and a working fluid does not have maximum efficiency at all increased by increasing the injected water amount. The main
conditions. Dai et al. [23] mentioned that organic working fluids advantages of this engine is reducing the emissions and using
M. Hatami et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37 (2014) 168–181 171

Fig. 3. Six stroke engine operation [24].

Fig. 5. EGR principle.

Fig. 4. Schematic view of turbocharging. oxygen is available for the combustion event which reduces
volumetric efficiency. Not only excessive intake-air temperature
from two main waste heat sources because injected water can be reduces efficiency, it also leads to engine knock or detonation
preheated by using an exhaust heat exchanger which will com- known as a destructive factor in engines. So, turbocharger units
pletely be discussed in this paper. often use an intercooler (also known as a charge air cooler) to cool
down the intake air as shown in Fig. 4. Recently, a novel exhaust
2.4. Turbocharging steam recovery called steam turbocharging is presented by Fu
et al. [27]. They set a Rankine steam cycle system coupled on
The first idea of turbochargers was proposed by Dr. Alferd J. engine exhaust pipe which utilizes the exhaust energy of engine in
Buchi in 1915 which he developed it on a diesel engine [14]. order to generate steam and then drive the turbine. Their results
Actually, a turbocharger is a supercharger driven with exhaust show that IC engine power can theoretically be improved by 7.2%
gases energy and increases the engine power by compressing the at most and thermal efficiencies can be raised up to 2 percent
inlet air to engine. Fig. 4 shows a turbocharger with its appurte- or more.
nances. A turbocharged engine is more powerful and efficient than
a naturally aspirated engine because the turbine forces more air 2.5. Exhaust gas recirculation
and proportionately more fuel into the combustion chamber than
atmospheric pressure alone, but it has some shortcomings. Turbo- Recirculation of the exhaust gases into cylinder or EGR is one of
lag i.e., (hesitation or transient response) during low speed the efficient methods to decrease the NOx level. EGR can be
acceleration and major concerns with heated bearings are two applied internally or externally in the engines. EGR is widely used
main shortcomings in turbochargers which are approximately in both gasoline and diesel engines reviewed by Wei et al. [28] and
solved by using two stages turbochargers [25] and variable Zheng et al. [29], respectively. In a diesel engine, the exhaust gas
geometry turbines (VGT) [26]. Another concern in turbochargers replaces some of the excess oxygen in the pre-combustion
is increasing the intake air temperature due to its pressure mixture. Since NOx is formed primarily when a mixture of nitro-
increase. The warmer intake air has the less density and the less gen and oxygen is injected into high temperature circumstances,
172 M. Hatami et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37 (2014) 168–181

the lower temperatures of combustion chamber caused by EGR these two main groups is related to exerting external force to the
reduce the amount of the NOx. Although Ghazikhani et al. [6] HEXs. Using fins [33–35], coated surfaces [36], displaced insert
mentioned that EGR cannot improve the combustion irreversibil- devices, micro-channels [37], swirl flow devices [38], coiled tubes
ity, but it can be assumed as a technique for using the heat of [39], nanoparticles additives [40,41], porous media [42–44], baffles
burned gases in the cylinder for another time [30]. Furthermore in and corrugated tubes [45], vortex generators [46–55] are examples
modern diesel engines, the EGR gases are cooled with a heat of non-active methods which do not need t any external forces,
exchanger in order to enter a greater mass of recirculated gases while mixing and vibrating the fluids by a mechanical device or
(Fig. 5). magnetic and electric fields (MHD [56–58] and EHD [59]), blowing
injection or external fluid jet are samples of active methods which
2.6. Engine heat exchangers an external force is applied to HEX for increasing the heat transfer.

One of the most common ways to recover heat from engines is


using the heat exchangers. Although heat exchangers are used in 4. Engine HEXs
ORC cycles which were previously discussed in Section 2.2, they
can separately be used for obtaining the heat from the exhaust for As described in Section 2.6, heat exchangers are widely used in
other applications such as hot water for domestic uses or utilizing the engines for heat recovery lonely or combined with other heat
as injection in cylinder, turbocharger, EGR, etc. Due to the high recovery technologies such as TEG, EGR, ORC, etc. which their
applications of heat exchangers, researchers have tried to improve applications are shown in Figs. 2, 4 and 5. Versus high applications
heat transfer through special design of heat exchangers. Even- of the HEX in engines and existence of many methods to increase
tually, the main goal of present study is to review different types of the heat transfer in HEX, just limited cases are presented for using
heat exchangers modeled or tested in exhaust of engines. and improving the HEXs in engines. The afore-mentioned researches
Although a few studies are performed in this field, but they can are introduced separately and compared in the following:.
be developed and filled the gaps in this area. Review to these
works and suggestions for future works is introduced in Section 4. 4.1. HEXs in cylinder
Before that a short review of heat exchangers and the methods of
heat transfer increasing are necessary which will be presented in Cylinder is the highest temperature source for heat recovery in
the following section. engines. Although cylinders were commonly cooled by radiators,
but Ghazikhani et al. [60] considered a separate circuit for cylinder
cooling to reduce the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) in a
3. Heat exchangers (HEXs) two stroke SI engine (Fig. 6). They reported the effect of engine
speed and torque on exergy balance and irreversibility. Their
Heat exchangers (HEXs) are devices for efficient heat transfer outcomes reveal that when torque or speed increases, the pressure
from one medium to another. They are widely used in space and temperature in the cylinder will rise and makes an increase in
heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical plants, exhaust gas availability and as a result the internal irreversibility
petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing, decreases. So, more exergy will be recovered in higher load and
sewage treatment, combustion engines, etc. [31]. A short review of speeds. They demonstrated thatdue to using this recovered exergy
HEXs types and the related methods for increasing the heat transfer from water, BSFC will be reduced about 14.1% [60].
are presented in the following.
4.2. HEXs in radiator
3.1. Types of HEXs
Another main application of HEXs in engines is radiators
HEXs can be classified according to various aspects. For constructed of a pair of header tanks, linked by a core with many
instance, classifications of HEXs in accordance with their flow narrow passageways, giving a high surface area relative to volume.
arrangement are parallel-flow, counter-flow and cross-flow. Engines are often cooled by circulating a liquid called engine
According to contact mechanism between hot and cold fluids is coolant through the engine block. Engine coolant is usually water-
recuperative, regenerative and direct contact. Also, HEXs can be based, but may also be oil or nanofluid for increasing the heat
classified on the basis of their mechanism properties such as transfer rate. Peyghambarzadeh et al. [61] prepared five different
double pipe, shell and tube, spiral tube, gasket , spiral plate, concentrations of water based nanofluids in the range of 0.1–1 vol%
lamella, finned plate and finally finned tube heat exchangers of Al2O3 nanoparticles for an engine radiator and found that
[31,32]. Due to the many various types of HEXs, selecting optimal nanofluids enhance heat transfer efficiency up to 45% in comparison
heat exchangers is the main challenge. To select an appropriate with pure water [61]. The same practical experiment was done by
heat exchanger design, the limitations of each model should be Leong et al. [62]using copper nanoparticles in water and ethylene
considered firstly. Though production cost is often the primary glycol which reported that about 3.8% of heat transfer enhancement
limitation, other aspects such as temperature ranges, pressure could be achieved by adding2% copper particles into ethylene glycol
limits, thermal performance, pressure drop, fluid flow capacity, the at the Reynolds number of 6000 and 5000 for air and coolant,
ability of cleanness, maintenance, materials, etc. are also impor- respectively [62]. A same research was performed by Ebrahimi et al.
tant and should be taken into account. [63] using SiO2 and found that using nanofluid as a coolant can
improve the heat transfer rate and reduce the fuel consumption.
3.2. Heat transfer increasing methodologies in HEXs
4.3. HEXs in exhaust
Commonly, heat exchangers are designed to maximize the
surface area of the wall between the two fluids while minimizing Some researchers attempt to enhance the rate of heat transfer
the resistance of fluid flow through the HEX for more efficiency. by a special design of HEXs in the exhaust of diesel engines due
Some efficient techniques are available to increase the heat to their high applications discussed in the previous sections.
transfer rate in the HEXs which can be classified into two main Zadsar and Gorji-Bandpy [38] used a twisted tape in the exhaust
groups, active and non-active methods. The difference between of an OM314 diesel engine in order to increase the recovered heat
M. Hatami et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37 (2014) 168–181 173

Fig. 6. Engine cylinder cooling, second law efficiency of heat recovery and BSFC reduction [60].

Fig. 7. Heat exchanger designed by [64] and heat recovery rate.

and their usage in a refrigeration cycle experimentally. Pandiyarajan loads as seen in Fig. 7. Furthermore, Lee and Bae [65] made a little
et al. [64] designed a finned-tube heat exchanger as shown in Fig. 7. heat exchanger with fins in the exhaust by design of experiment
They used a thermal energy storage using cylindrical phase change (DOE) technique. They reported that fins should be in the exhaust
material (PCM) capsules and found that nearly 10–15% of fuel gases passage for more heat transfer (Fig. 8) and designed 18 cases
power is stored as heat in thecombined storage system in different with different fin numbers and thicknesses and found the most
174 M. Hatami et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37 (2014) 168–181

Fig. 8. Heat exchanger designed in [65].

Fig. 9. Finned tube heat exchanger designed by Zhang et al. [66] for ORC application.

effective cases as shown in Fig. 8. Zhang et al. [66] modeled a finned generation is proportional to the total number of TEGs . It is
tube evaporator heat exchanger for an ORC cycle as shown in Fig. 9. necessary to mention that increasing the HEX length rises the TEG
They concluded that waste-heat recovery efficiency is between 60% numbers but on the contrary reduces the amount of temperature
and 70% for most of the engine's operating region and also they difference [69]. Also, Lu et al. [70] designed a heat exchanger on
mentioned that heat transfer area for a finned tube evaporator exhaust automobile as Fig. 12 in different outlet and inlet pipe
should be selected carefully based on the engine's most typical numbers and observed maximum 2.5 kPa pressure drop for that.
operating region. Ghazikhani et al. [67] used a simple double pipe Furthermore, Love et al. [71] used a HEX in exhaust of engine with
heat exchanger in a diesel engine and performed an exergy analysis TEGs for improving the TEGs performance as presented in Fig. 13
for finding the relation between irreversibility and exhaust sound and observed that for higher exhaust gas flow rates, thermo-
level. Recently, they [68] estimated an experimental work that BSFC electric power output enhances from 2 to 3.8 while overall system
could be improved approximately up to 12% in different loads and efficiency declines from 0.95% to 0.6%.
speeds of an OM314 diesel engine by utilizing the recovered exergy Yang et al. [72] invent a heat pipe ( a kind of heat exchanger) for
from a simple double pipe heat exchanger in exhaust (Fig. 10). Also, cooling the exhaust of a large bus and modeled it numerically and
they showed that exergy recovery will be enhanced by increasing finally obtained a good agreement between numerical and experi-
the engine loads and speeds especially in high speeds. mental outcomes. Although most of the studies in ORC use simple
As described in Section 2.1, using thermoelectric modules for double pipe or shell and tube HEX [20–22], some of them
heat recovery needs two heat sources, cold and hot. So, HEXs can introduced a special design for increasing heat transfer. For
be a suitable device for providing these sources which can example,Wang et al. [73] suggested a heat exchanger as shown
simultaneously produce electricity and hot water. Weng and in Fig. 14, it seems that this kind of HEX has high back pressure,
Huang [69] designed a heat exchanger with radial fins and TEG but in their study the total fuel saving of the engine reached up to
device as illustrated in Fig. 11 and studied the effect of HEX length 34% which is under some of the operating conditions. Recently,
and TEG number on heat recovery. They mentioned that the total Hossain and Bari [74,75] applied a new HEX for a diesel engine
generated power increases with rising the length of HEX l presented in Fig. 15 experimentally and numerically. After that
or enhancing the TEG number which gets saturated quickly. they optimized the working fluid pressure and the orientation
However, the average power per TEGs number has an opposite of heat exchangers and found the additional power increased
variation trend. This item is related to the fact that the total power from 16% to 23.7%. Also, they investigated the parallel and series
M. Hatami et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37 (2014) 168–181 175

250

Regenerated Exergy from water (W)


T=20 N.m with heat exchanger
x T=40 N.m with heat exchanger
T=60 N.m with heat exchanger
# T=80 N.m with heat exchanger
T=100 N.m with heat exchanger
200

#
150

100
# # x

50 x # # x
x x
0
1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

Engine Speed (rpm)

Fig. 10. Double pipe heat exchanger used in Ref. [68], exergy recovery and BSFC reduction.

Fig. 11. Heat exchanger designed with thermoelectric and radial fins [69].

configurations of HEXs and as a result obtained additional power volume and weight of the arrangementand simultaneously keep
are shown in Fig. 15. To understand more, other experimental the heat transfer from the gas side at a maximum range. Kauranen
design of HEX for refrigeration cycle and thermoelectric installa- et al. [81] used phase change materials (PCM) and latent heat
tion has been presented in Refs [76,77] and [78,79], respectively. accumulator (LHA) for diesel exhaust waste heat recovery which
Mavridou et al. [80] examined two groups of configurations: (a) a help to decrease the fuel consumption and also its emission
classical shell with a tube heat exchanger using staggered cross- reduction. In a different study,Baker et al. [82] designed a multi-
flow and (b) a cross-flow plate heat exchangerwhich is initially pass duct shape heat exchanger (Fig. 16) for a diesel engine by
placedwith finned surfaces on the exhaust gas and then is covered numerical finite difference method (FDM) and examined the
with metal foam instead of the fins.They attempt to minimize the effects of TEG, porous structure and fins for the amount of heat
176 M. Hatami et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37 (2014) 168–181

recovery.Then, they found that 1.06 kW is the maximum net volumes, exhaust temperatures and mass flow rates, a compara-
electrical powerwhich can beachieved for the three parallel flow tive study for selecting the best HEX model is rather difficult.
paths in a counter-flow arrangement. Also, Deng et al. [79] Anyway, as described above and seen in this Table, 12% improve-
designed two thermoelectric HEXs models shown in Fig. 17 by ment in fuel economy and 23.7% power improvement have been
CFD simulation and used Wilcox k-ω model to discuss on different reported in experimental works in the highest level done by
internal structures, lengths and materials on the HEX perfor- Ghazikhani et al. [68] and Bari and Hossain [75] while, these
mance. The same study has been performed by Kumar et al. [83] values are much greater in ORC modeling studies. It can be
which modeled three HEXs (rectangular, triangular and hexago- concluded from this Table that using fins is more appropriate than
nal) by CFD FLUENT software and experimentally produced and foams and porous materials due to lower pressure drop and higher
tested the best model. heat transfer rate. Also, using the PCM as a heat storage source,
For comparison the above schemes for exhaust HEXs, Table 1 is lower TEGs in downstream of HEX, designing parallel HEXs or HEX
provided with additional information from the above works. This with one inlet and two outlets, selecting the best solid material
table contains authors’ names, year of paper publication, metho- such as TEGs material and working fluid can help the exhaust heat
dology of their study, the type of engine and HEX and some main recovery and reduce the amount of fuel consumption.
outcomes based on the cost of efficiency, BSFC, optimization and As seen, most of the fuel economy improvement has been
other parameters studied by them. Because in all these papers, the reported in ORC modeling studies which Wang et al. [22] reviewed
same and full data are not presented and on the other hand, they them and the less one is reported in special HEX design studies.
are done on different engine types with different displacement For instance, Wang et al. [22] reported that the maximum of fuel
economy improvement is about 32%in a special work condition.
Also, Saidur et al. [14] pointed out that up to 4.7% improvement in
fuel economy efficiency by TEG and 7% improvement by using ORC
are reported by the researchers. In a thermo-economic study of
different working fluids in ORC, Sprouse et al. [20] reported that
n-butane is more economic fluid than other working fluids. Also,
Hajabdollahi et al. [84] showed that in a thermo-economic study,
the optimum result of R123 indicates 0.01%, 4.39%, and 4.49%
improvement forthe total annual cost in comparison with R245fa,
R22, and R134a, respectively. Recently, Will [85] proposed a novel
waste heat recovery in diesel engine with an external engine oil
bypass and found about 7% improvement in the fuel economy.

5. Exhaust HEX modeling and analysis

In this section, some necessary equations for modeling and


analysis of the exhaust HEX are presented. Three dimensional,
steady-state and turbulent flow are common assumptions for
Fig. 12. TEG heat exchanger designed by Lu et al.[70].
exhaust HEX modeling. When the problem assumed to be steady,
the time dependent parameters will drop from the governing
equations of the flow and conjugate heat transfer. The resulting
equations are [75]:
Continuity equation:
!
∇:ðρ V Þ ¼ 0 ð1Þ

Momentum equations:
x - momentum:
! ∂p ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx
Fig. 13. Exhaust heat exchanger used by [71]. ∇:ðρu V Þ ¼  þ þ þ ð2Þ
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z

Fig. 14. Exhaust heat exchanger used in Love et al. [73] and its back pressure and BSFC.
M. Hatami et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37 (2014) 168–181 177

Fig. 15. Heat exchanger used by Hossain and Bari [74] and recovered power in parallel and series configurations.

Fig. 16. Duct shaped HEX designed by Baker et al. [82] for studying the TEG, Fins and Porous structure effect on exhaust waste heat recovery (a) cross-section view (b) finned
configuration and (c) multiple parallel duct counter-flow configuration.

Fig. 17. Thermoelectric HEX designed by Deng et al. [79], (a) plate-shaped and (b) hexagonal-prism-shaped.heat exchanger.
178 M. Hatami et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37 (2014) 168–181

Table 1
Comparison the results of different HEX designs by researchers in the literature.

Reference, year Methodology Enginetype HEXtype Mainoutcomes

Pandiyarajanetal. Experimental Twin cylinder, four Shell and finned tube HEX (Fig. 7)  Nearly 10–15% of total heat is recovered.
[64],2011 stroke diesel engine  The maximum heat extracted at full load condition is around
3.6 kW.
 A cascaded latent heat storage system with multiple PCM is
suggested for more heat recovery.

LeeandBae Experimental and 1.0 L SI engine Small fin-tube HEX with  Fin geometric parameters and the direction of the circulating
[65],2008 Taguchi method circulating coolant (Fig. 8) coolant were the main affecting factors on the cooling
performance.
 The heat exchanger that had maximum effectiveness was not
necessarily the optimum design.

Zhangetal. Mathematical ORC Four cylinder, R425 Finned tube HEX (Fig. 9)  The overall heat transfer rate of the evaporator increases with
[66],2013 modeling diesel engine engine power and reaches 70.4 kW at the rated power point.
 The heat transfer area of the preheated zone is the largest,
which is almost half of the total area.

Ghazikhanietal. Experimental and Four cylinder OM314 Simple double pipe HEX (Fig. 10)  12% reduction in BSFC.
[68],2014 exergy analysis diesel engine  Second law efficiency of HEX is more related to engine speed
than its torque.

WengandHuang CFD modeling, Using data of Hexagonal HEX with radial fins  The heat sinks attached to the downstream TEGs possibly cause
[69],2013 ANSYS-Fluent previous works and TEGs (Fig. 11) the downstream wall cooler.
 Implementing more TE couples may not necessarily be
worthwhile economically in the downstream.
 The optimum length of the TEG cuboid is 80 mm for a heat
exchanger of length 180 mm.

Luetal. [70],2013 Experimental Used a heat source as Muffler-like HEX with different  Design of 1-inlet and 2 outlet was more suitable than 2-inlet
automobile exhaust inlet and outlet numbers (Fig. 12) and 2 outlet due to higher heat transfer and lower
pressure drop.

Love etal. Experimental Single cylinder DI Longitudinal HEX with TEGs  Stainless steel material has 30–40% lower heat recovery than
[71],2012 diesel engine (Fig. 13) aluminum material.
 Efficiency can be improved by increasing the temperature and
mass flow rate of exhaust gases.

Yangetal. [72], Mathematical and HS663, a large bus Heat pipe HEX  Experimental and numerical modeling are in good agreement.
2003 experimental  The main benefit of heat pipe is low pressure drop (24.4 Pa) in
modeling normal work condition.

Wang et al. [73], Experimental and Four cylinder CA4GA1 Multi-coil helical HEX (Fig. 14)  Flow rate of working fluid plays an important role in HEX
2013 ORC numerical gasoline engine efficiency.
simulation  Back pressure increased due to HEX geometry.
 Total fuel saving was up to 34% under 2000 rpm and 75 Nm

Hossain and Bari Experimental and Four stroke, four Shell and tube heat exchanger  Improving the effectiveness of HEX from 0.44 to 0.76 by
[74], 2013 CFD modeling cylinder, HINO W04D (Fig. 15) optimization design.
diesel engine  Parallel arrangement for two HEXs has 10% more economically
than series.
 Maximum recovered additional power was 2.9 kW at 15 bar
which indicated 12% improvement in BSFC.

Bari and Hossain Experimental and Four cylinder, 13B Shell and tube heat exchanger  An additional 23.7% power improvement achieved by using
[75], 2013 CFD modeling Toyota diesel engine water as the working fluid.
 The additional power generation decreased at part loads.

Wojciechowski Experimental Light-duty diesel TEG generator  It was more favorable to use TEGs in SI engine than CI engine
et al. [78], 2010 engine and Fiat SI due to higher temperature and lower mass flow rate of
engine exhaust gases.

Deng et al. [79], Experimental and Four cylinder diesel Hexagonal-prism-shaped and  A plate-shaped heat exchanger made of brass with fishbone-
2013 CFD modeling engine plate-shaped heat exchanger shaped internal structure and length of 600 mm achieved a
(Fig. 17) relatively ideal thermal performance.

Mavridou et al. ORC modeling with Truck diesel engine Shell and tube (smooth and  The lowest pressure drop was achieved by the standard plate
[80], 2010 previous finned) Plate and fin HEX (plain and fin arrangement but if size and weight was also taken into
experimental data fins and metal foam) account.
 Substituting the fins with metal foam leads to a 38% reduction
in volume and weight but has more pressure drop.
 Shell and tube HEX had maximum pressure drop among other
designs.
M. Hatami et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37 (2014) 168–181 179

Table 1 (continued )

Reference, year Methodology Enginetype HEXtype Mainoutcomes

Baker et al. [82], Numerical Finite Cummins 6.7 L diesel Duct shape HEX with TEG and fins  Three way parallel ducts have more recovered heat than
2012 difference engine (Fig. 16) single duct
modeling (FDM)  32 fins in the duct, increase net power from 320 W to 975 W
 Ducts filled by porous structure increased heat recovery but
caused unacceptably large pumping work requirement.

Kumar et al. [83], Experimental and Three cylinder, four Rectangular, triangular and  Bismuth telluride introduced as an effective module due to low
2011 CFD simulation stroke SI engine hexagonal HEX with TEG cost and low operating temperature range with a considerable
efficiency.
 By considering cost, space, weight and performance,
rectangular is chosen as the best HEX model.

ΔT cold end ¼ T g;out  T c;in ð12Þ


y – momentum:
! ∂p ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τ zy An important parameter calculated in the previous works for
∇:ðρυ V Þ ¼  þ þ þ þ ρg ð3Þ HEX analysis is HEX effectiveness. Effectiveness can be defined as
∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z
the ratio of the actual heat transfer in a given HEX to the
z – momentum: maximum possible rate of heat transfer, i.e. [74]
! ∂p ∂τxz ∂τyz ∂τzz _ p Þ ðT c;out  T
ðmC Þ
∇:ðρw V Þ ¼  þ þ þ ð4Þ ε¼ _ g c;in
ð13Þ
∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z ðmC p Þmin ðT g;in  T c;in Þ
Energy equation: In order to estimate the energy availability of the HEX in
   2  exhaust, some researchers carried out the exergy analysis
∂T ∂T ∂T ∂ T ∂2 T ∂2 T
ρc p u þ υ þ w ¼λ þ þ ð5Þ [74,68]. By considering some assumptions for simplification of
∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2
the combustion product as ideal gas, the specific exergy of the
Commonly, the above equations are solved for HEX modeling exhaust is calculated by using the following equation [74]:
by commercial CFD codes such as ANSYS, FLUENT, OpenFOAM, etc.
e ¼ u  u0 þp0 ðν  ν0 Þ  T 0 ðs  s0 Þ ð14Þ
which the HEX geometry is meshed in CFX, GAMBIT, etc. according
to the literature, Renormalization-group (RNG) k–ε model and where
Shear-Stress Transport (SST) k–ω model are two suitable viscous  
R p0 T
models for simulating these kind of problems [69,74,75,79,83,86]. p0 ðν  ν0 Þ ¼ T0 ð15Þ
M p
The amount of transferred heat or heat flux is an important
parameter in HEX analysis. The average heat flux is [40] presented And
as follows: R p
ðs  s0 Þ ¼ s0 ðTÞ  s0 ðT 0 Þ  ln ð16Þ
ðQ_ g þ Q_ c Þ M p0
Q_ ave ¼ ð6Þ
2 In the afore-mentioned equations, zero subscripts (0) denote
where Qc is the heat transferred to the coolant which is calculated dead states. Also, calculating the exergy destruction and irrever-
as: sibility in the exhaust HEX are important parameters which can be
found in [68]. The second law of efficiency for an exhaust HEX is
Q_ c ¼ m
_ c C pc ðT c;out  T c;in Þ ð7Þ defined as [68]:
In Eq.(7),m _ c is the mass flow rate of coolant and Cpcis the _ ðe
m e Þ
η ¼ _ c c;out c;in ð17Þ
specific heat of coolant. Qg is the heat transferred to the exhaust mg ðeg;in eg;out Þ
gases which for temperature-dependent specific heat can be
Another important parameter used in diesel waste heat recovery
calculated as:
analysis is BSFC. BSFC and can be calculated as follows:
Z T g;out
Q_ g ¼ m_g C pg dT ð8Þ _f
m
T g;in BSFC ¼ ð18Þ
Pb
In the above equation,m _ g is the exhaust gases mass flow rate where m _ f is the fuel mass flow rate and Pb is the brake power of
which is the sum of the intake air and fuel consumption mass flow diesel engine.
rates [65]. By calculating Qave, the overall heat transfer coefficient,
U(W/m K) for the HEX can be expressed as:[66]
6. Conclusion
Q_ ave
U¼ ð9Þ
LΔT LMTD In this paper, a short review of heat recovery technologies in
Where L is the axial length of HEX and ΔTLMTD is the logarithmic engines and heat exchangers has been presented. It seems that in
mean temperature difference given by: most of these technologies (ORC, TEG, EGR, HEXs and turbo-
charging), heat exchangers have an important role to transfer heat
ΔT  ΔT cold end
ΔT LMTD ¼  hot end  ð10Þ for recovering process, so a suitable design for heat exchanger
ln ET hot end =ΔT cold end should be applied in accordance with this fact that heat transfer
And ΔTs are increases when pressure drop is in the allowable limit. Some
experimental and numerical researches about various heat
ΔT hot end ¼ T g;in  T c;out ð11Þ exchangers designs existed in the literature which all of them
180 M. Hatami et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37 (2014) 168–181

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