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Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

Mechanical Engineering Department Mechanical Engineering Department Mechanical Engineering Department

Gediz University Gediz University Hacettepe University

Izmir,Turkey Izmir,Turkey Ankara, Turkey

isilay.yogurtcu@gmail.com selim.solmaz@gediz.edu.tr caglar.baslamisli@gmail.com

Abstract - This paper describes a method for lateral stability reference model. We will represent how yaw stability

control of electric and hybrid vehicles utilizing multiple electric affected using single track model with roll degree of freedom

motors connected to independent wheels of the vehicle. using electric motors at rear wheels.

Independent motor torque control based on LQR and PID are

used to generate positive drive and negative brake torques for II. VEHICLE MODELING

imposing an aligning moment around the yaw axis resulting in

For the beginning, linear bicycle model (single track

the lateral stability functionality. The developed algorithms

model) which is used commonly in literature, considered

were implemented and performance tested in Matlab-Simulink

environment and the dynamic performance characteristics sufficient to observe and detect the main dynamics of the

were reported with numerical simulation results. vehicle. In order to get more realistic results roll degree of

freedom is included in model.

Keywords - yaw control, lateral stability, PID, LQR, hybrid A. Single Track Model

vehicle

The Linear bicycle model (Figure 1), is widespread used

I. INTRODUCTION to explain the dynamic behaviours and lateral/longitudinal

Nowadays, especially concerning traffic safety, handling responses of road vehicle, under the following assumptions:

of motor vehicles is one of the most important subjects.

Since safety and comfort is essential vehicle stability control • Motions of body roll, pitch and bounce are neglected

has been an highly important concept. Especially as hybrid

• The vehicle is assumed to has constant velocity

technology become more common, active control systems

which consider hybrid design is studied more. There are • Only external force acting on the vehicle is the lateral tire

great numbers of study in literature about roll dynamics Force which is proportional to slip angle and occurs under

control via torque control for in-wheel motors[1,2,3]. In

assumption of low slip angle

reference [4], H-infinity based state feedback controllers are

designed which is resistant to tyres working condition in

linear and nonlinear regions. Another stability conrol study

proposed by Kim, J. and Kim, H. is yaw control algorithm

for in-wheel motor vehicle[5]. Among vehicle stability

control strategies fuzy logic based control is also widely

used[6,7,8]. Limited availability of necessary sensors for

feedback signals to designing control system is also caused

the fuzzy technique to be used more widely[9]. The authors

of [10] utilize yaw moment control and recommend ITB

(Independent Axle Torque Biasing) in order the vehicle

handling to be close to a linear vehicle handling

characteristic in normal driving situations and to maintain the

vehicle dynamics within the stable handling region in

extreme maneuvers. In literature there are various methods

and models used for analyzing and handling vehicle stability,

single track model is generally used to detect factors which Figure 1. Linear bicycle model

affect stability. In our study, single track model is used as

DOI 10.1109/EMS.2015.41

where; B. Single Track model with Roll Degree of Freedom

distance from front axle to centre of gravity

distance from rear axle to centre of gravity (10)

cornering stiffness of rear axle

yaw moment of inertia

vehicle mass

vehicle yaw rate

absolute vehicle velocity

β vehicle slip angle

steer angle of front wheels

front wheel slip angle

x is the state vector while input vectors are δ

rear wheel slip angle (steering angle) and u represents the braking/traction force

which is applied by electric motors that are mounted to rear

(1)

wheels of the vehicle. This force is used to enable yaw and

rollover control [12]. PID and LQR control techniques are

•The right and left wheel characteristics are combined in tested on this model for tracking yaw rate.

an equivalent wheel characteristic. Axle lateral wheel forces III. CONTROLLER DESIGN

are defined by linear tire model as a function of slip angle.

Considering the slip angles of vehicle β to be small, the Yaw and slip motions have huge effects on vehicle

vehicle lateral acceleration and slip angles of both axles can handling and stability, and these features can be controlled

be expressed[11] as: via yaw moment. In the proposed model , rear wheels are

controlled via electric motors, in case of understeering or

oversteering situations, yaw moment which is generated by

this electric motors will contribute to stability. Reference

(2)

values are calculated for yaw rate and side-slip angle ( and

(3) β ) and tracking this reference values is aimed using PID and

LQR controllers. First model shows tracking of with

(4) single track model using a control moment input that will be

occured with braking or traction forces applied to the rear

(5) wheels by wheel motors, Assuming yaw rate is measured

and sideslip angle is estimated properly, the control system is

shown in the block diagram below. Same control logic is

(6)

used both for PID and LQR.

In order to describe the dynamic behaviour of the bicycle

model, a state space model will be used, which can easily be

derived from the equations of motion with state x, input u

and output y. The state space model can be written in the

followingg way:

y

(7)

(8)

Figure 2. Control scheme

minimizing the difference between ideal and actual yaw

At equation (1.9),

) is steering ratio, is steering angle y adjusted parameters for controller,

rates. With properly

of front wheels and is input signal (steering angle). corrective moment is obtained to determine the control

214

Steering wheel angle (rad)

torque to apply on wheels. Total torque that can be obtained 1 0.2

from this controller is given in equation (11) but since we 0.5 0.1

controlled

-0.5 -0.1 reference

we can apply is the total moment on rear wheels [10] as -1 -0.2

uncontrolled

Time (s)

6 8 10 0 2 4

Time (s)

6 8 10

400 0.4

200 0.2

0 0

(11) -200 -0.2 uncontrolled

controlled

-400 -0.4

0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10

Time (s) Time (s)

(12)

Figure 3. Steering Wheel angle, yaw rate, motor torques and roll rate

(with velocity of 30 m/s)

For the simulations that is shown below, desired yaw rate B. LQR Controller

and desired sideslip angle is calculated as follows [13];

LQR controller obtains feedback gain matrix by

or (13) minimizing the cost function which is given below.

equation which is given below. Controller is robust when

A. PID Controller there can be found a K matrix with positive semidefinite R

and Q matrices satisfying Ricatti equation

The control scheme given above is designed, The

desired sideslip angle and desired yaw rate are calculated (17)

using reference model. Minimizing the difference between

Being positive semidefinite matrices we identify R and Q

desired and observed yaw rates via controller, yaw torque

as; R=1 and Q=[5000 0 ; 0 500000] than controller is

is generated as a corrective moment which will be the designed according to the equation (18). Here, ‘’u’’

control input. In order to do this, PID controller is used due represents control input( ) and K matrix is multiplied by

to its simple structure and common usage.PID controller is

where x1 and x2 represents side slip angle and yaw rate

composed of 3 parameters that are proportional (Kp),

integral (Kı) and derivative (Kd) control parameters. respectively. Seeing coefficients of Q , it can be noticed yaw

Determining these parameters, various methods can be used control is emphasized in control.

like Ziegler-Nichols method or tuners, in this study, we

used PID toolbox in Matlab/Simulink. The difference (18)

between reference yaw rate(13) and observed yaw rate

( is used as an input continuously for controller Using double lane maneuver test, LQR controller is

and our control torque, is obtained as an output. tested on the linear bicycle model with roll degree of

freedom in order to compare with performance of the PID

(15) controller. According to the test results, yaw rate is higher

than PID controller and required torque is less than the

required torque with PID controller although there is no big

difference between the results of PID and LQR control

Double lane change maneuver test is performed on single considering linear bicycle model with roll degree of freedom.

track model with roll degree of freedom and simulated in Additionally, the roll rate is also better with yaw control.

Matlab/Simulink. Yaw rate response and required corrective Matlab/Simulink test results are given below.

Steering wheel angle(rad)

Yaw rate (rad/s)

0.5 0.1

roll rate are shown in the graphs. has a small effect on 0 0

controlled

roll rate , it is seen that controlled yaw rate can track the -0.5 -0.1 reference

uncontrolled

reference yaw rate with acceptable error according to yaw -1

0 2 4

Time (s)

6 8 10

-0.2

0 2 4

Time (s)

6 8 10

rate output. However, the recquired torques are too high to 100 0.4

Motor torque (Nm)

50 0.2

be generated by electric motors, LQR control is also applied 0 0

controlled

-100 -0.4

0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10

Time (s) Time (s)

Figure 4 . Steering Wheel angle, yaw rate, motor torques and roll rate

(with velocity of 30 m/s)

215

IV. LATERAL STABILITY(YAW) CONTROLLED 4 WHEEL force on another wheel simultaneously. From the equations

TRACK MODEL above, we can derive the left and right wheel torques

dependently as follows;

In order to observe the dynamic characteristics of the

effectiveness of in wheel motors on lateral stability(yaw), 4

(25)

track model is simulated using both PID and LQR control

techniques. Using this model we get more realistic results

and torque distribution on each wheel can be observed. For In above, and are left and right driving(or

linear bicycle model total moment at rear axle is considered braking) torues are calculated however, these torques are

however in this model total moment at rear axle is distributed limited by the road friction conditions. Deciding if the force

to left and right wheels. This full track model includes that will be applied to the wheel is driving force or braking

longitudinal, lateral , yaw motions and rotational dynamics force or determining which wheel this force will be applied

of the four wheels. Pitch and vertical motions are neglected to depend on steering wheel angle and the sign of the yaw

in this model. Considered dynamicr are given below[14]: error (understeering/oversteering situations). For example, if

the vehicle is turning right and actual yaw rate is less than

Longitudinal movement:. desired yaw rate which means the vehicle is understeering,

the brake is applied to the right rear wheel. For this full

vehicle model, corrective moment is calculated by both

(19) PID and LQR controllers, and simulated in Matlab/Simulink

Lateral movement : results are given below.

A. PID Controller

PID controller is applied to full track model to track the

(20) desired yaw rate and double lane maneuver test is conducted

on model. Steering wheel angle input, yaw rate response and

Yaw movement: required torque from rear in wheel motors are given in

graphs. According to results, this controller does not have

good performance on our model, recquired torque is too high

that electric motors are not able to satisfy that value.

(21)

Steering wheel angle(rad)

0.2 2

0.1 1

Since the forces which to be controlled are provided by 0 0

electric motors that are mounted to rear wheels, longitudinal -0.1 -1 observed

reference

force occurs at rear wheels. Thus, the longitudinal force on -0.2 -2

0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10

Left wheel motor torque (Nm)

Zaman (s)

2000

Zaman (s)

0 0

neglected. In the equations below; represents the

-1000 -1000

corrective moment which is allocated to left and right rear -2000 -2000

0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10

wheels. R and d represents wheel radius and d the Zaman (s) Zaman (s)

wheelbase. In this case; Figure 5. Steering Wheel angle, yaw rate, left and right motor torques

(with velocity of 30m/s)

B. LQR Controller

(22) When full track model is tested, it can be seen that LQR

(23) controller is more effective than PID controller for yaw rate

control. Without high torques, acceptable yaw rates can be

The left and right braking(or driving) torques ( ve obtained under control. Compared to LQR, PID control has

are obtained as below; [16] results which are not satisfactory with high torque need. Till

now, controllers generally required excessive torques that we

(24) couldn’t foresee. These high torques are not easy to obtain

from electric motors in order to provide desirable yaw rates.

For a solution to this problem we applied brake to front

According to the model, when the vehicle loses stability,

wheels, this implementation will help to achieve yaw control

one of the rear wheel motors will apply brake or driving

with smaller torques from electric motors. The results of

force, this motors changes the yaw moment on the vehicle

double lane maneuver test with LQR controller are given

via mentioned forces in order to improve the stability.

below:

Distribution of the yaw torque that occurs at rear part of the

vehicle is basically rely on increasing driving or breaking

force on one wheel while decreasing driving or breaking

216

Steering wheel angle (rad)

0.2 0.4

0.1 0.2

0 0

reference

-0.2 -0.4

0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10

Left wheel motor torque (Nm)

200 200

100 100

0 0

-100 -100

-200 -200

0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10

Time (s) Time (s)

Figure 6 . Steering Wheel angle, yaw rate, left and right motor torques

(with velocity of 30m/s)

front brakes to step in and Load Transfer Ratio (LTRd) is Figure 7 . The vehicle’s trajectory during double lane change

used as input signat to controller. This ratio states the maneuver

vehicle’s roll behaviour and expressed as following;

150 100

(26)

100 50

account. According to first condition, when exceed a 0 -50

-50 -100

be deactivated again must reach to lower threshold

value (0,65) for more stable performance. -100 -150

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

However, in case of some abrupt maneuvers, when Time (s) Time (s)

situations, is used as decision parameter. According to

the second condition relay is arranged to be open when the

0.2

value of exceed 0,95 ; and closed when it is below

0,80. When at least one of these relays is open, roll over 0.15

prevention is active with front brakes.

0.1

The situation with active front brakes and rear electric

motors is simulated using a commertial vehicle simulator. 0.05

Yaw rate (rad/s)

0

V. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS -0.05

The controllers which mentioned under IV. Title applied

-0.1

on the linear model which mentioned in III. and acceptable

results has observes. After that implementation our control -0.15

strategies which are effective on linear model then used with

more complex 4 wheel vehicle model and still able to -0.2

generate reasonable results. In full vehicle model -0.25 actual yaw rate

performance which simulated in commercial vehicle reference yaw rate

simulator, we get more realistic results due to torque -0.3

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

distribution and further dynamics of vehicle(tire dynamics Time (h)

etc.) that are included unlike linear model.

Mentioned simulator uses real vehicle model that

Figure 8. Right and left motor torques and yaw rate (v=120 km/sa)

includes all vehicle dynamics. According to the scenario, the

vehicle cruise at 120 km/h, undergoes double lane change

maneuver test using electric motors and front brakes. When

front brakes are active stability could be improved by lower

torques from electric motors. Simulation resuls are given

below.

217

[3] ANDO N., Fujimoto H., Yaw-rate Control for Electric Vehicle with

Right front braking torque (Nm)Left front braking torque (Nm)

300

Active Front/Rear Steering and Driving/Braking Force Distribution

200

of Rear Wheels, Nagaoka, Japan, The 11th IEEE International

100 Workshop on Advanced Motion Control Mart 21-24, (2010).

0

[4] BAŞLAMIŞLI S. Ç., Köse İ. E., Anlaş G., Handling stability

0 1 2 3

Time (s)

4 5 6 7

improvement through robust active front steering and active

300 differential control, Vehicle System Dynamics: International

200

Journal of Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility, Volume 49, Issue 5,

(2011)

100

[5] Electric Vehicle Yaw Rate Control using Independent In-Wheel

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Motor Jeongmin Kim*, Hyunsoo Kim** * School of Mechanical

Time (s) Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea

Figure 9 . Braking Torques [6] D. Simon, “Kalman filtering for fuzzy discrete time dynamic

systems,” Appl. Soft Comput., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 191–207, Nov.

2003.

Seeing simulation results for yaw control, maximum [7] Boada, B. L., Boada, M. J. L. and Diaz, V. 2005. “Fuzzy Logic

torque can be obtained from electric motor is limited with Applied to Yaw Moment Control for Vehicle Stability”. Vehicle

100 Newtons each. However this torque is not enough to System Dynamics, Vol. 43, No. 10, October, pp. 753-770.

[8] Li, D. Y., Liu, W., Li, J., Ma, Z. M., and Zhang, J. C. 2005

provide stability without front brakes, with the brake force “Simulation of vehicle stability control system using fuzzy PI

shown above, animations show that, the vehicle could track control method” IEEE International Conference on Vehicle

the desired trajectory closely. Electronics and Safety, pp. 165-170.

[9] Buckholtz, K. R. 2002. “Use of Fuzzy Logic in Wheel Slip

Assignment-Part 1: Yaw Rate Control”, SAE Transactions, 2002-

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 01-1221

This work was funded by TUBITAK grant number [10] Vehicle Handling Assistant Control System via Independent Rear

Axle Torque Biasing Hai Yu, Wei Liang, Ming Kuang and Ryan

113M070 and was facilitated by Gediz University McGee

Mechanical Engineering Department and Hacettepe [11] J. Y. Wong. Theory of ground vehicles. Department of Mechanical

University Automotive Engineering Department. The and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, fourth edition,

authors wish to thank the funding organization and the host 2008.

institutions for their support. [12] Topics in Automotive Rollover Prevention:Robust and Adaptive

Switching Strategies for Estimation and Control. Selim Solmaz, B.

Sc., M.Sc. Hamilton Institute National University of

Ireland,Maynooth

[13] Design of an Electronic Stability Program for vehicle Simulation

REFERENCES software B.J.S. van Putten DCT 2008.138

[14] Vehicle yaw control via coordinated use of steering/braking

[1] TAHAMI F., Kazemi R., Farhanghi S., A Novel Driver Assist

systems M. Doumiati, O. Sename, J. Martinez, L. Dugard P.

Stability System for All-Wheel-Drive Electric Vehicles, IEEE

Gaspar, Z. Szabo, J. Bokor

Transactions On Vehicular Technology, Vol. 52, No. 3, Mayıs

[15] Yaw Torque Control of Electric Vehicle Stability Hongtian Zhang,

(2003).

Jinzhu Zhang Heilongjiang Institute of Technology, Harbin

[2] KAMACHI M., Walters K., Yoshida H., Improvement of Vehicle

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Dynamic Performance by Means of In-Wheel Electric Motors,

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