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Draft EIA Report

of

M/s. Swastik Chemicals


Plot No.
No D D-2/CH/86
2/CH/86,
GIDC Estate, Dahej-2,
Dist.: Bharuch
(Period: September-2013)
(

Prepared by

San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.


424, Medicine Market,
Paldi Cross Road,
Paldi, Ahmedabad
Email: mahendra.sepl@gmail.com
Contents
Particulars Page no.
Contents 1-8
List of Tables 9-10
List of Figures 11

INDEX
Chapter 1 Introduction Page No.
1.1 Preface 1-1
1.2 Purpose of the Report 1-1
1.3 Identification of Project 1-2
1.4 Project Proponent 1-3
1.5 Brief description of the Project 1-3
1.5.1 Site selection 1-3
1.5.2 Location (Latitude and Longitude) and accessibility 1-4
1.5.3 Nature and size of the project 1-4
1.6 Scope of EIA 1-4
1.7 Statutory Requirements 1-5
1.8 Regulatory Framework 1-6
1.9 Terms of Reference Accepted/Issued by SEAC, dated 1-6
02/03/13
1.10 Objectives of EIA 1-13
1.11 Methodology for EIA 1-13
Chapter-2 Project Description
2.1 Introduction 2-1
2.2 Type of project 2-1
2.3 Land Requirement 2-1
2.4 Project Cost 2-2
2.5 Details of the site 2-2
2.6 Size or magnitude of operation 2-2
2.7 Proposed schedule for approval and implementation 2-3
2.8 Description of Manufacturing Process & Technology 2-3
(1) 4 Chloro Aniline 2-3
(2) 4 Chloro Aniline Hydrochloride 2-5

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2.9 Input Requirement 2-6
(a) Raw Material Requirement 2-6
(b) Water Requirement 2-6
(c) Fuel 2-6
(d) Power 2-6
(e) Manpower Requirement 2-6
2.10 Utilities Requirement 2-6
2.11 Generation of Pollutants 2-7
2.11.1 Waste Water Generation 2-7
2.11.2 Gaseous Emission 2-7
2.11.3 Hazardous/ Solid Waste 2-7
2.11.4 Noise 2-8
2.12 Mitigation Measures 2-8
2.12.1 Water Pollution Control Measures 2-8
2.12.2 Air Environment 2-8
2.12.3 Hazardous Waste Management 2-10
2.12.4 Noise Control measures 2-10
2.12.5 Health & Safety 2-11
2.13 Resource Conservation 2-11
2.13.1 Rain Water Harvesting 2-11
2.13.2 Green belt Development 2-12
Chapter 3 Baseline Environmental Status
3.1 Prelude 3-1
3.1.1 Study area 3-1
3.1.2 Period of the study area 3-1
3.1.3 Basic components of the Environment 3-1
(I) Lithosphere 3-1
(II) Hydrosphere or Water Environment 3-2
(III) Atmosphere or Air Environment 3-2
(IV) Biosphere 3-2
(V) Other Component 3-2
3.2 Establishment of baseline for Environmental 3-2
Components
3.3 Air Environment 3-3
3.3.1 Design of Network for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring 3-3
Stations

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3.3.2 Reconnaissance 3-3
3.3.3 Micrometeorology of the area 3-4
3.3.4 Ambient Air Quality Survey 3-5
3.3.5 Baseline Status 3-6
3.4 Water Environment 3-6
3.4.1 Ground Water Quality (Primary data) 3-8
3.5 Noise Environment (Primary data) 3-9
3.5.1 Introduction 3-9
3.5.2 Methodology 3-9
3.5.3 Ambient Noise levels in the study area 3-9
3.5.4 Ambient Air Quality Standards in Respect of Noise 3-10
3.5.5 Conclusions 3-10
3.6 Soil Environment (Primary data) 3-10
3.6.1 Introduction 3-10
3.6.2 Soil Characteristics 3-11
3.6.3 Corollaries 3-11
3.7 Ecology (Primary data) 3-12
3.7.1 Period of the study 3-12
3.7.2 Methodology 3-12
3.7.3 Floral diversity in the study area 3-13
3.7.3.1 Trees 3-13
3.7.3.2 Shrubs 3-13
3.7.3.3 Herbs 3-13
3.7.3.4 Climbers & Twiners 3-13
3.7.4 Cultivated plants in the study area 3-13
3.7.5 Ecological Stresses 3-14
3.7.6 Faunal Biodiversity of the study area 3-14
3.7.6.1 Birds in the study area 3-14
3.7.6.2 Butterflies from the study area 3-14
3.7.6.3 Reptiles, Mammals 3-14
3.8 Socio Economic & Land use (Secondary data) 3-14
3.8.1 Land use pattern and infrastructure 3-14
3.8.2 Demographic and Socio-Economic Environment 3-15
3.8.3 Living Standard and Infrastructure 3-15

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Chapter 4 Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation
Measures
4.1 General 4-1
4.2 Impact on topography 4-2
4.3 Air Environment 4-2
4.3.1 Construction Phase 4-2
4.3.2 Operational Phase 4-3
4.3.3 Sources of Air Pollution 4-3
4.3.4 Dispersion Modelling of Emissions from the proposed 4-4
plant
4.4 Micrometeorology 4-4
4.4.1 Air Quality Modeling and Predictions Using the 4-5
Gaussian Model (ISCST- 3)
4.4.2 Methodology 4-6
(a) Data Used for Computation 4-7
(b) Source Characteristics/Release Characteristics 4-7
(c) Meteorological Parameters 4-7
(d) Dispersion Modeling Results 4-7
4.4.3 Predicted GLCs of proposed plant 4-7
4.5 Water Environment 4-8
4.5.1 Water Demand 4-8
4.5.2 Wastewater Generation & utilization 4-8
4.5.3 Impact on Water Environment 4-9
4.6 Noise Level Impact 4-9
4.6.1 Prediction of Impact during Construction Phase 4-9
4.6.2 Prediction of Impact during Operational Phase 4-9
4.7 Land/Soil Environment 4-10
4.7.1 Prediction of Impacts during Construction Phase 4-10
4.7.2 Prediction of Impacts during Operation Phase 4-10
(Hazardous Waste)
4.8 Socio-Economic Impacts: Construction & Operational 4-10
Phase
4.9 Ecological Impacts 4-11
4.10 Mitigation measures during Construction 4-12
4.11 Mitigation measures during the operational phase 4-12
4.11.1 Measures for Air Environment 4-12
4.11.2 Measures for water environment 4-13

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4.11.3 Measures for hazardous/solid waste 4-13
4.11.4 Measures for Noise 4-13
4.11.5 Health & Safety measures 4-13
Chapter 5 Analysis of Alternatives
5.1 Prologue 5-1
5.2 Site Alternative 5-1
5.3 Alternative for technologies 5-2
Chapter 6 Environmental Monitoring Program
6.1 Prelude 6-1
6.2 Monitoring Plan 6-2
6.3 Schedules for Environment Monitoring 6-2
6.4 Ambient Air Quality monitoring 6-3
Chapter 7 Additional Studies (Risk Assessment)
7.1 Introduction 7-1
7.1.1 Scope of Study 7-1
7.1.2 Study Objective 7-1
7.1.3 The Study Approach 7-1
7.1.4 System Description 7-1
7.1.5 Identification of Hazards 7-2
7.1.6 Risk Reduction Measures 7-2
7.2 Probable Hazards & Risk 7-3
7.3 Hazardous Identification 7-3
7.3.1 Quantities of Hazardous Materials 7-4
7.3.2 Hazardous Substance to be handled at Swastik 7-5
Chemicals
1) Hydrogen 7-5
2) Hydrochloric Acid 7-9
7.4 Probable Hazards & Risk 7-12
7.5 Development of various Scenarios 7-13
7.6 Maximum Credible Accident Scenarios 7-13
7.6.1 Catastrophic Failure of Hydrogen Skid Outlet Pipe 7-13
7.6.2 Risk analysis 7-14
7.6.3 Safety Measures provided in Process 7-14
7.7 Safety precaution for handling and storage of 7-15
hydrogen
7.8 Methodology, Approach and Damage Criteria for Risk 7-16

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Assessment
7.8.1 Plant Leakage in Confined Space 7-17
7.8.2 Damage Criteria 7-17
7.9 Hazards due to leakage or containment 7-18
7.10 Hazards due to loss of containment 7-18
7.11 General Safety Precautions & Occupational Health 7-18
7.12 Spillages, Leakages: Controls 7-19
7.13 Safety Instructions for transportation of Hazardous 7-20
materials
7.14 Occupational Health and first aid Measures 7-21
7.15 Risk Mitigation Measures 7-21
7.15.1 Personal Protective Equipment 7-23
7.15.2 Handing of Hazards 7-23
7.16 General Working Conditions 7-24
7.16.1 Safe Operating Procedures 7-24
7.16.2 Work Permit System 7-25
7.16.3 Fire Protection 7-25
7.16.4 Emergency Preparedness 7-25
7.16.5 Static Electricity 7-25
7.16.6 Access 7-25
7.16.7 Material Handling 7-25
7.16.8 Communication System 7-26
7.16.9 First Aid Facilities 7-26
7.16.10 Accident Reporting, Investigation and Analysis 7-26
7.16.11 Safety Inspections 7-26
7.16.12 Safe Operating Procedures 7-26
7.17 Do’s & Don’ts of preventive maintenance 7-26
Chapter 8 Project Benefits
8.1 Introduction 8-1
8.2 Improvements in the physical infrastructure including 8-1
technical facility aspects
8.3 Improvement in Social Infrastructure 8-2
8.4 Employment potential 8-2
8.5 Other tangible benefits 8-3
Chapter 9 Environmental Cost Benefit Analysis
9.1 Introduction 9-1

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9.2 Proposed Project 9-1
Chapter 10 Environnent Management Plan
10.1 Introduction 10-1
10.2 Objective of Environmental Management Plan 10-1
10.3 Components of EMP 10-2
10.3.1 Environmental Management System 10-2
10.3.2 Environmental, Health and Safety Management 10-2
System
10.3.3 Environmental Management Cell 10-3
10.4 Environmental Management during Construction Phase 10-3
10.5 Environmental Management during the Operational 10-5
Phase
10.5.1 Air Pollution Management 10-5
(A) Sources of air pollution and control measures 10-5
(B) Measures to control fugitive emissions 10-5
10.5.2 Water Environment 10-6
10.5.3 Hazardous/Solid Waste Management 10-7
10.5.4 Noise Control Measures 10-8
10.6 Green Belt Development Plan 10-8
10.7 Resource Conservation/Waste Minimization 10-12
10.8 Occupational Health & Safety 10-12
10.8.1 Possibility of occupational health hazard & its control 10-13
10.8.2 Preventive Measures 10-13
10.9 Occupational Health Programme 10-14
10.9.1 Occupational Health and First aid Measures 10-15
10.9.2 Hazard Communication and Chemical Safety 10-15
10.10 Proposal for socio economic activities 10-16
10.11 Post-Project Environmental Monitoring 10-17
10.12 Environment management cost estimate 10-17
10.13 Environment Policy 10-18
10.14 Reporting System of non compliances/Violations of 10-18
Environmental Norms
Chapter 11 Summary & Conclusion
11.1 Background 11-1
11.2 Project Description 11-1
11.3 Proposed production capacities of Plant 11-2

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11.4 Description of Environment 11-3
11.5 Air Environment 11-3
11.6 Water Environment 11-4
11.7 Noise Environment 11-5
11.8 Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures 11-5
11.9 Environment Monitoring Program 11-7
11.10 Environmental Management Plan 11-8
11.11 Qualitative Risk Analysis 11-8
11.12 Conclusion 11-8
Chapter 12 Disclosure of Consultant engaged

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List of Tables
Table Name Page
No. No.
1.1 List of product with quantity 1-4
2.1 Land breakup 2-1
2.2 Location details 2-2
2.3 Magnitude of products 2-3
2.4 Product wise raw material consumption 2-13
2.5 Water consumption & wastewater generation details 2-14
2.6 Characteristics of wastewater 2-15
2.7 Stack details 2-16
2.7 (a) Estimated emission level 2-16
2.7 (b) Fugitive emission 2-16
2.7 (c) Fuel Analysis 2-17
2.7 (d) Technical specification of bag filter 2-17
2.8 Hazardous waste Details 2-19
2.9 Details of ETP units 2-20
3.1 Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Locations 3-17
3.2 Ambient Air Quality Status 3-18
3.3 Ambient Air Quality Status (PM10) 3-19
3.4 Ambient Air Quality Status (PM2.5) 3-20
3.5 Ambient Air Quality Status (SO2) 3-21
3.6 Ambient Air Quality Status (NOx) 3-22
3.7 National Ambient Air Quality Standards 3-23
3.8 Results of Groundwater Quality in the Study Area 3-25
3.9 Results of Surface Water Quality in the Study Area 3-26
3.10 Quality of GIDC Water 3-27
3.11 Indian Standard Specification for Drinking Water 3-28
3.12 Ambient Noise level in the study area 3-29
3.13 Ambient Air Quality Standards with respect to noise 3-29
3.14 Soil Analysis of Study area 3-30
3.15 Floral Diversity 3-31
(A) Tree 3-31
(B) Shrubs 3-32
(C) Herbs 3-33

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(D) Climbers and Twiners 3-34
(E) Agriculture crop 3-34
3.16 Faunal Biodiversity 3-35
(A) Birds 3-35
(B) Butterflies in the study area 3-37
(C) Reptiles in the study area 3-37
(D) Mammals in the study area 3-37
3.17 Land use statistics work out based on the satellite image 3-39
3.18 Land use Pattern 3-40
3.19 Summary of Socio-Economic Status (Demography) 3-41
3.20 Basic Amenities in the Study Area 3-41
4.1 Estimated Stack emission level 4-15
4.2 The 24-hourly average GLC Concentration Values for SPM 4-16
4.3 The 24-hourly average GLC Concentration Values for SO2 4-17
4.4 The 24-hourly average GLC Concentration Values for NOx 4-18
6.1 Environment Monitoring along with Frequency details 6-5
6.2 Measurement location, methodologies, with detailed budget 6-6
& procurement schedules
7.1 Facilities for Storage of chemicals 7-4

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List of Figures
Figure No. Name Page No.
1.1 Location Map 1-15
2.1 Water Balance Diagram 2-21
2.2 ETP Flow diagram 2-22
2.3 Schematic representations of the feasibility drawings 2-23
which give information important for EIA purpose
2.4 Plant Layout 2-24
2.5 Key Plan 2-25
3.1 Graphical representation of Ambient Air quality 3-18
3.2 Graphical representation for PM10 3-19
3.3 Graphical representation for PM2.5 3-20
3.4 Graphical representation for SO2 3-21
3.5 Graphical representation for NOX 3-22
3.6 Location of AAQM stations 3-43
3.7 Wind Rose Diagram 3-44
3.8 Water sampling Locations 3-45
3.9 Locations of Noise monitoring station 3-46
3.10 Locations of Soil sampling 3-47
3.11 Satellite Image with 10 km radius 3-48
3.12 10 km radius map showing project location 3-49
4.1 Isopleths for Ground Level Concentration Values for SPM 4-19
4.2 Isopleths for Ground Level Concentration Values for SO2 4-20
4.3 Isopleths for Ground Level Concentration Values for NOx 4-21
7.1 Procedure for hazard identification and risk assessment 7-28
10.1 EHS Management 10-20

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

CHAPTER-1
Introduction
1.1 PREFACE
An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an assessment of the
possible positive or negative impact that a proposed project may have
on the environment, together consisting of the environmental, social
and economic aspects. It is an assessment and management tool that
evaluates the possible positive or negative impact that a proposed
project may have on the environment. EIA systematically examines both
beneficial and adverse consequences of the project and ensures that
these effects are taken into account during project design.

The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers


consider the ensuing environmental impacts when deciding to proceed
with a project.

As India is a developing country, lots of industrialization has been came


in focus since last few decades that ultimately leads the bigger issues
related the environmental quality of the country. Hence, it is needful for
government of India to control the haphazard industrial development by
providing sustainable development under the legislation.

In India, Ministry of Environment and Forests has defined elaborated


‘Environmental Clearance (EC)’ framework along with requirements for
preparing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) under the
Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986 (Environmental Impact
Assessment Notification, 2006) for establishing/expanding and
industry/development projects although it supports development but
only if the development does not hamper the environment over a
defined threshold limit.

1.2 PURPOSE OF THE REPORT

The purpose of EIA is to ensure the protection, conservation and


management of the environment and natural resources including human

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

health aspects against uncontrolled development. EIA is an important


tool in the integrated environmental management approach.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is requisite to be carried out


only for those categories of projects that are covered under EIA
Notification, 2006 (amended time to time) and the criteria for screening
has been provided in the Act. Thus, EIA is fundamentally made
applicable to industrial and developmental projects, which are more
likely to have significant environmental impacts.
Proposed project of M/s. Swastik chemicals, falls under Category
5(f) - Synthetic organic chemical industry (dyes & dye intermediates;
bulk drugs and intermediates excluding drug formulations; synthetic
rubbers; basic organic chemicals, other synthetic organic chemicals and
chemical intermediates) and categorized as 'B'. Therefore, unit requires
Environmental Clearance for the proposed project.
EIA Consultant
In view of the above, legal aspect and monitoring work has been carried
out for all the environmental attributes by M/s. San Envirotech Pvt.
Ltd., Ahmedabad. Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) and
Environmental Management Plan (EMP) prepared after obtained the
Terms of References (TORs) from the SEAC, Gujarat. The final EIA/EMP
will be submitted to the SEAC for Environment Clearance after public
hearing.
1.3 IDENTIFICATION OF PROJECT

Identification with Location:


Swastik Chemicals proposed to be set up at Plot No. D-2/CH/86, GIDC
Estate, Dahej-2, Dist.: Bharuch, Gujarat.
Project activities with respect to category
The unit has applied for manufacturing of Parachloro Aniline and
Parachloro Aniline Hydrochloride at above location. The proposed
manufacturing activity falls in the project activity 5(f) - Synthetic
organic chemicals industry (dyes & dye intermediates; bulk drugs and
intermediates excluding drug formulations; synthetic rubbers; basic

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organic chemicals, other synthetic organic chemicals and chemical


intermediates) as per the EIA notification-2006.
1.4 PROJECT PROPONENT
The company is promoted and managed by Mr. Pankaj Patel who is a
Partner, having business experience of 15 years and having wide
contacts and supported by other qualified managers.
1.5 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT
Swastik Chemicals proposed to set up a new unit at Plot No. D-2/CH/86,
GIDC Estate, Dahej-2, Dist.: Bharuch, Gujarat and proposes to
manufacture Parachloro Aniline - 100 MT/Month and Parachloro Aniline
Hydrochloride - 100 MT/Month. This new unit will require installation of
machineries and related civil structures.
1.5.1 Site selection
The land in and around the plant site is plain. The proposed unit, apart
from generating direct and indirect employment and various business
opportunities, it will bring an overall up-liftment of the area and will
ultimately result in its complete socio-economic and infrastructure
development.
The other supporting site specific criteria are briefly summarized
hereunder,
• Availability of suitable and adequate land;
• Availability of raw materials of proper quality and in adequate
quantity;
• Availability of infrastructure facilities such as water supply, power,
roads, social infrastructure and man power;
• Good communication and transportation facilities;
• Proximity of market;
• The nearest town Vagra and City Bharuch are 28 km and 36 km
away from the project site, which is very well connected with
other parts of the country by road & rail;
• No R & R will be required;
• No national park or wildlife habitat falls within 10 km radial
distance from proposed project site.

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The location of project is best suited for proposed activities. So no


alternative for site is analyzed.
1.5.2 Location (Latitude and Longitude) and accessibility:

Latitude: 21043’15.46” N

Longitude: 72036’12.57” E

The proposed project site is in proximity of Bharuch District of Gujarat


state. The site is suitably located with respect to availability of raw
material, water availability, road network, unskilled, skilled and
professional manpower etc.
Various infrastructure facilities like transportation & communication are
easily available.
1.5.3 Nature and size of the project:
Nature of the project:
It will be a small scale project. List of raw materials is given in Table:
2.4 of Chapter-2. However, wastewater generated will be treated in ETP
and finally evaporated. Condensate water will be reuse in utility. The
details of hazardous waste generation are given in Table: 2.8.
Size of the project:
Swastik Chemicals intends to set up Parachloro Aniline and Parachloro
Aniline Hydrochloride manufacturing plant.
Production capacity is as under:
Table 1.1: List of products with quantity
Sr. Name of Product Production Capacity
No. MT/Month
1. Parachloro Aniline 100
2. Parachloro Aniline Hydrochloride 100

1.6 SCOPE OF EIA


The scope of present Environment Impact Assessment includes following
studies,
¾ Collection and evaluation of project details and related documents.
¾ Assessment of pollution potential due to proposed project.
¾ Collection and evaluation of present environmental baseline status
within an impact zone of 5-km radial distance from the project site

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on environmental parameters/attributes considering the proposed


activities like,
• Ambient Air quality
• Water quality
• Soil quality
• Noise levels
• Meteorology and climates
• Land use pattern and socio-economic status
¾ Identification, assessment and evaluation of the beneficial and
adverse impacts on surrounding environment due to proposed
project activities considering the existing baseline status along with
compilation of other information.
¾ Identify the sources and impact of hazards, if any.
¾ Based on the same, suggest and design risk assessment plan or
disaster management plan to prevent any hazard.
¾ Preparation EMP.

1.7 STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS


As per the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) notification of Ministry
of Environment and Forests (MoEF), dated 14th September 2006, setting
up of a new projects or activities, or on the expansion or modernization
of existing projects or activities based on their potential environmental
impacts as indicated in the schedule to the notification, being
undertaken in any part of India, unless prior environmental clearance
has been accorded, this EIA report of Swastik Chemicals has been
prepared for the perusal of SEAC for judging the environmental
compatibility of the project as per the Terms of Reference (TOR) issued
by SEAC, dated 02/03/13.
Other statutory requirement is provided in following table:
Sr. Statutory Provision made under Permission &
No. Requirements the Act of Submission
1. Environment Under Environment From SEIAA,
clearance for the Protection Act, 1986. Gujarat
new unit
2. EIA study with EIA Notification-2006. SEAC
TOR compliances

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3. Noise Monitoring Under the Noise GPCB


(Regulation & Control)
Rules, 2000.
4. Management and Hazardous wastes GPCB
Handling of (Management, Handling
Hazardous Wastes and Transboundary
Movement) Rules, 2008
(amended time to time).
1.8 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
The CPCB and SPCBs together form the regulatory and administrative
government body for prevention and control of pollution in India.
Legislation for environmental protection is mainly EIA Notification-2006,
The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, Water (Prevention & Control of
Pollution) Act-1974, Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) act-1981,
Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977; The
Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling and Transboundary
Movement) Rules, 2008 & amended time to time, etc. are major
Act/rules/notification applicable to industry.

1.9 TERMS OF REFERENCE ACCEPTED/ISSUED BY SEAC, DATED


02/03/13.
Based on the documents submitted by us and presentation held on
09/11/12, SEAC has directed to prepare detailed EIA/EMP including
following terms of reference:
Sr. Conditions Compliance
No.
1 Copy of plot holding certificate Plot holding certificate obtained
obtained from GIDC Dahej Showing from GIDC showing the list of
the list of products for which the plot products for which the plot has
has been allotted to the project been allotted is attached as
proponent. Annexure-I. Pls. refer point no.
4 for product details.
2 Notarized undertaking stating that Notarized undertaking is attached
they will manufacture only those as Annexure-II.
products for which the plot has been Pls. refer point no. 4 for product
allotted by GIDC Dahej. details.
3 Present land use pattern of the study Present land use pattern based on
area shall be given based on satellite satellite imagery is given in figure
imagery. 3.11; page no. 3-48 of chapter-3.
4 Layout plan of the factory premises. Pls. refer figure-2-4 on page no.
Provision of separate entry & exit and 2-24 of chapter-2 for factory

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adequate margin all round the layout.


periphery for unobstructed easy
movement of the emergency vehicle/
fire tenders without reversing back.
Mark the same in the plant layout.
5 Details of manufacturing process/ Pls. refer sec. 2.8, page no. 2-3 of
operations and mass balance for each chapter-2 for details of
product along with chemical manufacturing process, chemical
reactions. Details on strategy for the reactions and mass balance.
implementation of cleaner production
activities.
6 Assessment of source of the water Pls. refer point no. 12 of
supply with adequacy of the same to Annexure-I for source of water
meet with the requirements for the supply and its adequacy.
project. Permission obtained from the We have paid additional fees for
GIDC for supply of raw water. the more requirement of water as
Undertaking stating that no bore well permission was only 5 KLD in our
shall be dug within the premises. plot allotment letter. Letter for
contribution charges towards
water requirement is enclosing
herewith.

Notarized undertaking stating that


no bore well shall be dug within
the premises is attached as
Annexure-II.
7 Detailed scheme to achieve the zero Pls. refer sec. 2.12.1 on page no.
effluent discharge by complete 2-8 for effluent treatment scheme
reuse/recycle of treated effluent for complete reuse/recycle of
within the premises itself instead of treated effluent.
discharging it into GIDC underground
drain.
8 Revised water balance diagram Pls. refer figure 2.1, page no. 2-
showing fresh water requirement 21 of chapter-2 for revise water
reduced due to complete reuse balance showing reduction in
/recycle of treated effluent along with fresh water requirement due to
qualitative and quantitative analysis reuse/recycle of treated effluent.
of the each waste stream from the
processes.
9 Explore the possibility of reuse We have planned to use hydrogen
/recycle and other cleaner production gas for reduction of 4 Chloro
options for reduction of wastes. Aniline from parachloro nitro
Detail of methods to be adopted for benzene, which is a step towards
the water conservation. the cleaner technology resulted to
reduce solid hazardous waste
generated from the reduction
process.

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10 Characteristic of untreated and Pls. refer table 2.6, page no. 2-15
treated wastewater. A detailed of chapter-2 for characteristic of
effluent treat ability study vis-à-vis untreated & treated wastewater.
the adequacy and efficacy of the
treatment facilities proposed for the
wastewater to be generated. The We are going to achieve zero
characteristic on which treatability is discharge, treatability study is
based shall also be stated. attached as Annexure-III
11 Details of ETP units including its Details of ETP units including its
capacity, size of each unit, retention capacity, size and retention time
time and other technical parameters. are given in table 2-9, page no. 2-
20 of chapter-2.
12 One season site-specific Pls. refer section 3.3.3 on page
meteorological data including no. 3-4 of chapter-3 for
temperature, relative humidity, meteorological data including
hourly wind speed and direction and temperature, relative humidity,
rainfall shall be provided. hourly wind speed and direction.
13 One complete season AAQ data Pls. refer chapter-3, section 3.3.5
(except monsoon) to be given along & Table 3.2 to 3.6 on page No. 3-
with the dates of monitoring. The 6 & 3-18 to 3-22 respectively for
parameters to be covered shall be in AAQ data. Monitoring was carried
accordance with the revised National out during March 16, 2013 to
Ambient Air Quality Standards and June 15, 2013 twice a week.
project specific parameters. The
location of the monitoring stations Refer figure 3.6 on page no. 3-43
should be so decided so as to take for AAQ locations.
into consideration the pre-dominant
downwind direction, population zone
and sensitive receptors. There should For wind rose diagram, pls. refer
be at least one monitoring station in figure 3.7 of chapter 3 on page
the upwind direction. There should be no. 3-44.
at least one monitoring station in the
pre dominant downwind direction at a
location where maximum ground
level concentration is likely to occur.
14 Impact of the project on the AAQ of Refer sec. 4.4 of Chapter-4, page
the area. Details of the model used No. 4-4 for micrometeorology,
and the input parameters used for details of model.
modeling should be provided. The air
quality contours may be plotted on a Air quality contours showing
location map showing the location of location map and wind rose are
project site, habitation sensitive plotted in figure 4.1 to 4.3 on
receptors, if any. The wind roses page no. 4-19 to 4-21 of Chapter-
should also be shown on this map. 4.
15 Specific details of (i) Process gas i), ii) & iii) There will be no
emission from each unit process with process emission hence

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its quantification, (ii) Air pollution submission of detail is not


Control Measures proposed for required.
process gas emission, (iii) Adequacy iv) Pls. refer sec. 2.10 of chapter-
of the air pollution control measures 2 on page no. 2-6 for details of
for process gas emission, measures utility.
to achieve the GPCB norms, (iv) v) Refer sec. 2.9 (c) and table 2.7
Detail of the utilities required, (v) on page no. 2-6 and 2-16 for fuel
Type and quality of fuel to be used details. Quality of fuel is given in
for each utility, (vi) Flue gas emission table 2.7 (c) on page no. 2-17.
rate from each utility, (vii) Air vi) Detail of emission rate is given
Pollution Control Measures proposed in table 2.7(a) on page no. 2-16
to each of the utility along with its of chapter-2.
adequacy (viii) List the sources of vii) Dust Collector (Bag Filter) will
fugitive emission along with its be used as APCM. Technical
quantification and proposed details of bag filter are given in
measures to control it. table 2.7(d), page no. 2-17 of
chapter-2.
viii) pls. refer section 2.12.2 (b),
10.5.1(b) and table 2.7(b) on
page no. 2-9, 10-5 and 2-16 for
source of fugitive emission, its
control measures and
quantification.
16 Detail of increase in truck/tanker Our is a small scale unit to be
movement for transportation of developed in the designated
finished goods, raw materials etc. notified area where GIDC has
due to the proposed project. Impact already planned to developed
of the proposed project on local industrial activity including basic
infrastructure of the area such as on infrastructures. There is no need
road network due to transportation of of any additional infrastructure
finished goods raw materials etc. facility including road etc. because
whether any additional infrastructure average 1-2 trucks/tankers load
is required to be constructed and the will be increased due
agency responsible for the same with transportation of fuel and raw
time frame. material.
17 Detail of management of the Hazardous waste management is
hazardous wastes to be generated given in sec. 2.12.3 on page no.
from the project stating detail of 2-10. Waste quantity and its
storage area for each type of waste, disposal method are given in table
its handling, its utilization and no. 2.8, page no. 2-19.
disposal etc. How the manual We will make demarcated storage
handling of the hazardous waste will area for hazardous waste.
be minimized. Methodology of Pls. refer section 2.12.3(b) on
decontamination and disposal of page no. 2-10 of chapter-2 for
discarded container and its record methodology for de-
keeping. contamination and disposal of
discarded containers.

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18 Membership of common Unit will obtain membership


Environmental infrastructure certificate of any nearby GPCB
including the TSDF/common approved TSDF site.
Incineration facility, if any.
19 Details of measures proposed for the Pls. refer sec. 2.12.4 and 10.5.4
noise pollution abatement and its on page no. 2-10 and 10-8 of
monitoring. chapter-2 and 10 respectively for
noise pollution control measures.
20 A detailed EMP including the Pls. refer Chapter-10 for detailed
protection and mitigation measures EMP.
for impact on human health and
environment as well as detailed
monitoring plan and environmental
management cell proposed for
implementation and monitoring of
EMP. The EMP should also include the
concept of waste-minimization,
recycle/ reuse/recover techniques,
energy conservation and natural
resource conservation. Total capital Total capital cost earmarked for
cost and recurring cost/annum environmental pollution control
earmarked for environment pollution measures is given in section 2.4
control measures. of chapter on page no. 2-2 and
recurring cost/annum is given in
sec. 10.12 of chapter-10 on page
no. 10-17.
21 Permission from PESO, Nagpur for Total storage of hydrogen gas at a
storage of hydrogen. time will not increase 2 MT. Hence
PESO permission is not required
in our case.
22 Detailed safety precaution to be Pls. refer sec. 7.7, page no. 7-15
taken for handling and storage of of chapter 7 for safety precaution
hydrogen. for handling and storage of
hydrogen.
23 Occupational health impacts on the Pls. refer section 10.8, page no.
workers and mitigation measures 10-12 of chapter-10 for health &
proposed to avoid the human health safety and sec. 10.9 on page no.
10-14 for detail of occupational
hazards along with the personal
health programme.
protective equipment to be provided.
Provision of industrial hygienist and
monitoring of the occupational injury
to workers as well as impact on the
workers. Plan for periodic medical
checkup of the workers exposed.
Details of work place ambient air Pls. refer table 6.1 on page no. 6-
quality monitoring plan as per 5 of chapter-6 for monitoring plan

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Gujarat Factories Rules. of work zone air quality.


24 Risk assessment including prediction Discussed in chapter-7.
of the worst-case scenario and
maximum credible accident scenarios
should be carried out. The worst-case
scenario should take into account the
maximum inventory of storage at site
at any point in time. The risk
contours should be plotted on the
plant layout map clearly showing
which of the facilities would be
affected in case of an accident taking
place. Based on the same, proposed
safeguard measures including on-
site/off-site emergency Plan should
be provided.
25 Details of hazardous characteristics It is addressed in risk assessment
and toxicity of raw materials and chapter.
products to be handled and the Pls. refer page no. 7-12 of
control measures proposed to ensure chapter-7 for Antidotes of HCl.
safety and avoid the human health
impacts. This shall include the details
of Antidotes also.
26 Details of quantity of each hazardous Pls. refer table no. 7.1 on page
chemical to be stored, Material of no. 7-4 which shows the quantity
Construction of major hazardous of hazardous chemicals with
chemical storage tanks, dyke details, maximum inventory at a time. In
threshold storage quantity as per same table, material of
schedules of the Manufacture, construction of storage tank is
Storage & Import of Hazardous mentioned. Dyke details provided
Chemicals Rules of major hazardous in same table.
chemicals, size of the biggest storage
tank to be provided for each raw Material will be transfer
material & product etc. How the pneumatically and avoid minimize
manual handling of the hazardous manual handling of Hazardous
chemicals will be minimized? chemicals.
27 Details of the separate isolated Storage of H2 gas will be
storage area for flammable maximum 135 Kg x 2 and it is
chemicals. Details of flame proof well below threshold limit given in
electrical fittings, DCP extinguishers Manufacture, Storage & Import of
and other safety measures proposed. Hazardous Chemicals Rules of
Detailed fire control plan for major hazardous chemicals.
flammable substance and processes However, flameproof fitting will be
showing hydrant pipeline network, provided in the H2 storage area.
provision of DG set, fire pumps,
jockey pump, toxic gas detectors etc.

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28 Submit checklist in the form of Do’s & Pls. refer section 7.17 on page no.
Don’ts of preventive maintenance, 7-26 of chapter-7.
strengthening of HSE, manufacturing
utility staff for safety related
measures.
29 Detailed five year greenbelt Pls. refer Chapter-10, section
development program including 10.6, on page no. 10-8 for five
annual budget, types & number of year greenbelt development plan.
trees to be planted area under green
belt development (with map), Management is committed to
budgetary outlay along with make greenbelt at both side of
commitment of the management to the approach road of the factory.
carry out the tree plantation If GIDC is ready to give a
activities outside the premises at greenbelt space to develop
appropriate places in the nearby greenbelt, then management will
area and elsewhere. adopt this land for greenbelt
development.
30 Proposal for socio economic Pls. refer chapter-10, section
development activities including 10.10 on page no. 10-16 for
community welfare program most proposal of socio economic
useful in the project area for the development activities including
overall improvement of the budgetary provisions.
environment. Submit a detailed plan
for social corporate responsibilities,
with appropriate budgetary
provisions for the next five years and
activities proposed to be carried out,
specific to the current demographic
status of the area.
31 A tabular chart for the issues raised It will be incorporated after public
and addressed during public hearing.
hearing/consultation and
commitment of the management on
the same should be provided. An
action plan to address the issues
raised during public hearing should
be provided.
32 Does the company have a well laidOur is a proposed unit and there
down environment policy approved will be an Environment Policy
by its Board of Directors? If so, it
approved by Director/ Managing
may be detailed in the EIA report.
Director.
Pls. refer sec. 10.13 on page no.
10-18 of chapter-10 for
environment policy.
33 Does the environment Policy Environment Policy includes
prescribe for standard operating standard operating process

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process/procedures to bring into including commitment from


focus any infringement/deviation/ management.
violation of the environmental or
forest norms/conditions? If so, it may
be detailed in the EIA.
34 What is the hierarchical system or Pls. refer figure 10.1 of chapter-
administrative order of the company 10 on page no. 10-20.
to deal with the environmental issues
and for ensuring compliance with the
EC conditions? Details of this System
may be given.
35 Does the company have a system of Pls. refer section 10.14 of
reporting of non compliance/ chapter-10 on page no. 10-18.
violations of environmental norms to
the Board of Directors of the
company and/or shareholders or
stakeholders at large? This reporting
mechanism should be detailed in the
EIA Report.
36 Certificate of accreditation issued by NABET Certificate is enclose as
the NABET, QCI to the environmental Annexure-IV
consultant should be incorporated in
the EIA Report.

1.10 OBJECTIVES OF EIA

EIA is a policy and management tool for both planning and decision
making. EIA assists in identification, prediction and evaluation of the
foreseeable environmental consequences of proposed developmental
and industrial projects.
The objectives of the present EIA study is to assess the impacts on
various environmental components due to the proposed project and to
recommend appropriate environmental management plant for the unit
to ensure that the adverse impacts if any will be minimized. Moreover,
to prepare an Environmental Statement to indicate conclusively, if the
overall impacts are positive or negative.
1.11 Methodology for EIA

Environmental Assessment (EA), another term used in the


environmental studies, refers to an understanding of the present status
of environment and a study of how to manage them. Keeping in view
the nature and size of the proposed project and industrial area and

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various guidelines available, it was decided to cover an area of 5 km


radius from the center of proposed plant site for the purpose of
Environmental impact assessment study. The methodology is briefly
reported below and has been described in this section.
• Study of project components
• Study of environmental components
• Baseline data collection
• Evaluation of impact from project activities
• Preparation of Environmental Management Plan
• Risk Assessment

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Figure 1.1
Location Map

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Chapter 2
Project Description
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Swastik Chemicals is proposed to set up a new unit at Plot No. D-
2/CH/86, GIDC Estate, Dahej-2, Dist.: Bharuch, Gujarat.
Unit intends to manufacture Parachloro Aniline - 100 MT/month and
Parachloro Aniline Hydrochloride - 100 MT/month.
2.2 TYPE OF PROJECT
The proposed project will be a small scale unit. The proposed
manufacturing activity falls in the project activity 5(f), Synthetic organic
chemical industry (dyes & dye intermediates; bulk drugs and
intermediates excluding drug formulations; synthetic rubbers; basic
organic chemicals, other synthetic organic chemicals and chemical
intermediates) as per the EIA notification - 2006, amended time to time
& categorized as category 'B' and therefore environmental clearance
require from SEIAA, Gujarat state.
2.3 LAND REQUIREMENT
GIDC has allotted plot for the establishment of its new unit at Plot No.
D-2/CH/86, GIDC Estate, Dahej-2, Dist.: Bharuch, Gujarat. Total plot
area is 5000 m2. The industry will consists of various buildings including,
administration blocks, storage area, process area, greenbelt area etc.
The detailed break up of the land is given in Table 2.1 below:
Table: 2.1 Land break-up
Sr. No. Particular Area (m2)
1 Factory shed 867
2 RM storage tank 100
3 Storage shed 300
4 ETP 118.68
5 Office 200
6 Laboratory 150
7 Green Belt 1650

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8 Security cabin 5.0


9 Open to sky 1099.18
10 Parking 500.78
11 Toilet blocks 9.36
Total 5000

2.4 PROJECT COST


Total cost of the proposed project is around Rs. 400 lakhs. Out of this,
around Rs. 40 lakhs will be invested for EMS as capital investment and
around 15.0 lakhs as recurring cost per annum.
2.5 DETAILS OF THE SITE
The selection of site has been highly influenced by location factor. The
site enjoys maximum location advantage with respect to availability of
raw materials, market proximity and infrastructure facility. Details of the
project site are as given in following table:
Table: 2.2 Location details
Particulars Details
Plot No. D-2/CH/86, GIDC Estate, Dahej-2
District Bharuch
State Gujarat
Coordinates
Latitude 21043’15.46” N
Longitude 72036’12.57” E
Nearest Railway Station Bharuch (36 km)
Nearest Airport Surat (60 km)
Nearest City Bharuch (36 km)
Nearest Town Vagra (28 km)

2.6 SIZE OR MAGNITUDE OF OPERATION


Unit intends to set up Parachloro Aniline and Parachloro Aniline
Hydrochloride manufacturing unit.

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Production capacity is given hereunder:


Table: 2.3 Magnitude of products
Sr. Name of Product Production Capacity
No. MT/Month
1. Parachloro Aniline 100
2. Parachloro Aniline Hydrochloride 100

2.7 PROPOSED SCHEDULE FOR APPROVAL AND IMPLEMENTATION


Specifics Applied Specifics for Related Implementation
under the approval or recent
Act legal procedure status
EC for new Under Environment Submitted Project will
project Environment clearance for the Form I, TOR establish after
Protection new project from presentation obtaining EC from
Act, 1986 SEIAA as per the & TORs SEIAA, Gujarat
guideline of EIA awarded on
notification-2006. 02/03/13.
Operation Under Air, CTE & CTO/CCA Shortly apply After obtaining
of the new Water & from GPCB. for CTE/ CCA CC&A.
project Environment to GPCB.
(Protection)
Act

2.8 DESCRIPTION OF MANUFACTURING PROCESS & TECHNOLOGY


Manufacturing Process:
(1) 4 Chloro Aniline

¾ S. S. Autoclave (2 lit)
¾ 5 gm Na2CO3 dissolve in 13 ml water and taken in reactor.
¾ Add 9 gm pt/C 5% catalyst into it.
¾ Charge 500 gm previously melted PNCB in reactor with stirring.
¾ Then flush the reactor with H2 gas.
¾ H2 gas start passing in reactor.
¾ Slowly reach 11.0 kg pressure. Temperature raised itself up to
1100C.
¾ Maintain 11.0 kg pressure at 1100C temp. for about 2 ½ hrs.
¾ Then at the end of reaction, temp. start falling down itself.

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¾ Stop passing of H2 gas and realized H2 from reactor carefully. pH of


reaction mass will be 6.0.
¾ Filter reaction mass at around 900C temperature.
¾ Collect catalyst from filter paper for reuse.
¾ Mixture of filter PCA and water will then distilled under vacuum.
¾ 390 gm white PCA receive with 700C set point.
Chemical Reaction:

NO 2 NH2

Pt/C 5%
+ 3H2
+ 2H2O

Cl Cl
PNCB PCA

157.5 + 6 127.5 + 36

Process flow diagram:

Para nitro chloro Parachloro Aniline


benzene Vacuum
+ Water Distillation
+ 5% pt/c Catalyst

Hydroginator
Distillation

Flaking

Flaker

Packing

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(2) 4 Chloro Aniline Hydrochloride


Manufacturing Process:
¾ Take 500 ml HCl (30%) in flask.
¾ Add 400 gm PCA in it.
¾ Heat the mass to 70-750C temp.
¾ Clear solution will be stirred for ½ Hr.
¾ Then cooled it up to room temperature.
¾ White crystals obtained will be filtered.
¾ Received 488 gm PCA HCl containing about 4% moisture.

Chemical Reaction:
NH 2 HCl
NH 2

+ HCl

Cl Cl

127.5 + 36.5 164

Process flow diagram:

Glass line Reactor

Parachloro Aniline
+ HCl Centrifuge

Packing

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2.9 INPUT REQUIREMENT


(a) Raw Material Requirement
The list of raw materials is given in Table 2.4.
(b) Water Requirement
Water requirement will be met through GIDC water supply. Water
requirement will be for washing, utilities i.e. boiler and cooling and non-
industrial purpose i.e. domestic use & green belt. There will be no water
consumption in manufacturing process. Total water requirement
(including industrial water & domestic) will be 23.0 KLD; out of which
fresh water requirement will be 15.0 KLD and 8.0 KLD will be
condensate water from evaporator, reuse for utility (boiler and cooling
make up).
Break up of water consumption and wastewater generation is given in
Table 2.5. The water balance diagram is given in Figure: 2.1.
(c) Fuel
Bio fuel (briquettes)/coal will be used as a fuel in proposed boiler and
Thermic fluid heater @ rate of 3 TPD and 2 TPD respectively. HSD will be
used in D.G. set.
(d) Power
Power demand of 100 HP will be met from Daxin Gujarat Vij Company
Ltd. (DGVCL). The unit will also install a D.G. Set (120 kVA) which will
be treated as stand-by. Use of D.G. set will be in case of power
failure/emergency only.
(e) Manpower Requirement
Total manpower direct/indirect proposed for the plant operation shall be
approximately 20 nos. at all levels.
2.10 UTILITIES REQUIREMENTS
Boiler: Steam boiler with 3 TPH steam generation capacity will be used.
About 4.0 KLD water will be used.
Cooling tower: Capacity of cooling tower will be 50 TR. There will be
4.0 KLD makeup water requires for cooling tower.

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2.11 GENERATION OF POLLUTANTS


The details of pollutants generation from proposed activities is described
hereunder,
2.11.1 Wastewater Generation
The main source of the industrial wastewater generation will be from
process (water from RM), utilities i.e. boiler blow down & cooling bleed
off and washing; which will be around 9.0 KLD. Entire quantity of
wastewater will be treated in ETP consisting of primary treatment units
and taken to single effect evaporator. Condensate from the evaporator
will be reused in utility i.e. boiler and cooling.
The other source of wastewater generation will be domestic wastewater
of 4.0 KLD; which will be disposed off to soak pit through septic tank.
Water balance diagram is given in Figure 2.1.
2.11.2 Gaseous Emissions
There will be no process gas emission. Only source of gaseous emission
will be flue gas emission due to combustion of fuel. There will be
installation of two flue gas stacks, attached to boiler and thermic fluid
heater. Bio fuel (Briquette)/ Coal will be used as a fuel. Probable
emitted pollutants will be SPM, SO2 and NOx.
Unit is also proposed to install D.G. set of 120 kVA capacity to fulfill
power requirement in case of non-availability of power/emergency,
where HSD will be used as a fuel. Probable pollutants likely to emit will
be SPM, SO2 and NOx, but it will not the constant source of emission as
it will be used in case of power failure only. The details of the stacks are
given in Table 2.7.
2.11.3 Hazardous/Solid waste
The main source of hazardous waste generation will be ETP sludge from
ETP, used oil from machineries, discarded drums/barrels & plastic liners
and evaporation salt.
The generated quantity of ETP sludge will be 10 MT/month, evaporation
salt will be 1.5 MT/month, used oil will be around 0.2 kl/year, Discarded
drums/barrels will be 20 Nos./month & plastic liners will be 0.1
MT/month.

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There will be also generation of ash from combustion of fuel. Quantity of


ash will be 10 MT/month. The details of the hazardous waste with its
category as per HWM rules and solid waste are given Table 2.8.
2.11.4 Noise
The major noise generating sources in the plant will be boiler, TFH,
process plant, machineries, EMS, pumps, D.G. set, etc.
2.12 MITIGATION MEASURES
2.12.1 Water Pollution Control Measures
The main source of the industrial wastewater generation will be process;
washing; utilities i.e. Boiler blow down and cooling bleed off. Generated
industrial wastewater will be 9.0 KLD and it will be treated in ETP and
after treatment, entire quantity of wastewater will be sent to
evaporator. Condensate from the evaporator will be reused in utility i.e.
boiler and cooling.
Sewage will be 4.0 KLD which will be disposed off to soak pit through
septic tank.

Effluent Treatment scheme:

Wastewater generated from plant is collected in collection Tank. It is


then taken to neutralization tank where it is neutralize by hydrated lime.
Then alum/polyelectrolyte is added as coagulant into reaction tank.
After mixing, effluent is taken to primary settling tank where the flocks
are settled and the clear water is overflowed to the treated effluent
collection tank. Then entire quantity of wastewater will be sent to
evaporator. Condensate from the evaporator will be reused in utility.
Hence no wastewater discharges outside the premises. Sludge from the
bottom of the settling tank is to be taken into sludge drying bed and
disposed at approved TSDF site.

2.12.2 Air Environment


(a) Air Pollution Control Measures
There will be no process emission, only flue gas emission from proposed
activities. The flue gas emission will be due to combustion of fuel in
boiler and TFH. Bio fuel (Briquettes)/ Coal will be used as a fuel. Dust

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collector (Bag filter) will be provided as Air Pollution Control System.


Adequate stack height of 30 m will be provided for proper dispersion of
pollutants. Details of Bag filter with technical specification are provided
in Table 2.7(d).

Unit is also proposed to install D.G. set of 120 kVA capacity to fulfill
power requirement in case of non-availability of power/emergency,
where HSD will be used as a fuel. No need to install APCM on D.G. set
as it is not the constant source of emission as it will be used in case of
power failure only.

The facility of sampling such as ladder, sampling point, platform will be


provided as per the GPCB guidelines. Height of chimneys will choose in
such a way that, the generated pollutants will disperse effectively and
ensure that the ground level concentrations of pollutants in the
surrounding environment remain well within the permissible limits.
The details of stacks are given in Table 2.7. Technical specification of
bag filter is given in Table 2.7(d).
(b) Source and measures to control fugitive emission:
The source of fugitive emissions will be RPM and HCl fumes. Unit will
adopt following measures:
• Raw materials loading and unloading will be done in covered area.
• Entire material transfer process is pneumatically with 100% leak
proof arrangement.
• Concrete (Pakka) roads will be made to reduce the fugitive
emissions. Sprinkling of water will be done to reduce dusting from
road transportation.
• Regular periodic monitoring of work area to check the fugitive
emission.
• Plantation will be done around the project area and along the
roads.
• To reduce the pollutant emission during transportation, the unit
will ensure the practice of regular check up and maintenance of
vehicular engines for complete combustion of the fuel with the
transporter.

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2.12.3 Hazardous Waste Management


Entire quantity of hazardous waste will be handled and disposed as per
Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling and Trans boundary
movement) Rules’2008, amended time to time.
The main hazardous waste generation will be sludge from ETP, used
oil, discarded drums/barrels & plastic liners and evaporation salt. The
ETP sludge and evaporation salt will be disposed off to approve TSDF
site for land filling, whereas discarded containers/barrels & plastic
liners will be sold to authorized recyclers. The used oil will be sold to
registered re-refiners.
The unit will provide isolated area for the storage of hazardous waste
and there will not be any major impact on the environment due to
hazardous waste management.
(a) Management of Fly Ash
In proposed Boiler and TFH, bio fuel (briquette)/coal will be used as
fuel as a result fly ash will be generated around 10 MT/month.
Fly ash can be used for the commercial applications in cement
industry, brick making industry, etc.
Recommendation
Considering the law volume of Fly ash, we recommended to utilize it
by local brick manufacturer working in 25 km radius from project site.
Unit will provide it to brick manufacturer with no cost.
(b) De-contamination of discarded containers:
As per the HAZ Rule-2008, contaminated containers will be
decontaminated in our plant and log book will be maintained for
generation and disposals. Separate area for decontamination of
containers will kept near to proposed ETP. Contaminated water will be
treated with effluent in our ETP.
2.12.4 Noise Control measures
For the reduction and control of noise level, following design aspects
and operational procedures will be considered.
• Proper lubrication of machineries.
• Acoustic sound proof system will be provided.

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• Personal Protective Equipments like ear plugs and ear muffs will
be provided to the workers exposed to high noise level.
• Provision of green belt in and around the plant premises.
• Regular monitoring of noise level will be carried out and corrective
measures will be adapted accordingly to the possible extent.
By taking measures as mentioned above, it is anticipated that noise
levels in the plant will be maintained below the permissible limit.
2.12.5 HEALTH & SAFETY:
Swastik Chemicals will follow occupational health program from the
start of production. The following check-ups shall be carried out
regularly to avoid occupational hazards:
• Pre-employment medical check-up at the time of employment.
• Provision of periodical medical check up for all the employees.
• To provide necessary first aid facilities, the first aid training shall
also be given to the employees.
• The unit will appoint part time doctor for the examination and
treatment of the employee.
2.13 RESOURCE CONSERVATION
2.13.1 Rain Water Harvesting
Rain water harvesting is a method of utilizing rain water for domestic
and agricultural use, which is widely used throughout the world. Rain
water from terraces/rooftop areas shall be collected through rain water
down-take pipes & collected in catch basins or stored in rain water
tanks. However, the rain water from plant area and parking area may
contaminated and not advise to collect directly to catch basins. Rain
water harvesting pits shall be provided wherever feasible so that
maximum rain water recharged into the ground before it reaches the
storm water mains. The unit proposes ground water recharging sump
which will allow percolation of rain water after getting filter through
gravels and other media, which will be connected to the storm water
drainage system.
Thus, by recharging the ground water during the rain, unit wills efforts
to balance ground water.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

2.13.2 Green belt Development


Unit proposes to provide 1650 m2 area for the greenbelt development,
which will be 33% of total plant area. Local species will be planted as
per the guidelines.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Table No. 2.4


Product wise raw material consumption

Sr. Name of Raw Materials Quantity in


No. MT/Month
Parachloro Aniline-100 MT/month
1 Para chloro Nitro benzene 125
2 Hydrogen gas 55 m3
3 Catalyst 0.003
4 Sodium carbonate 3
Parachloro Aniline Hydrochloride-100 MT/month
1 Para chloro aniline 80
2 HCl 75
3 Soda Ash 20

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Table No. 2.5

Water consumption & wastewater generation details

Source Water Wastewater Remark


Consumption Generation
Kl/day Kl/day
Domestic 5.0 4.0 Disposed off into
soak pit
Greenbelt 5.0 00 -

Industrial
Process Nil 2.5 From RM
Cooling 4.0* 1.0 -
Boiler 4.0* 0.5 -
Washing 5.0 5.0 -
Total Industrial 13.0 9.0 To ETP and
passing to
evaporator,
condensate will be
reuse for utility
Grand total 23.0 13.0 --
Less recycle 8.0* -
Actual fresh water 15.0 -
requirement

Source of water: GIDC water supply

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Table No. 2.6

Characteristics of wastewater

Sr. Parameters Unit Before After


No. treatment treatment
1. pH pH Unit 3.5 7.5
2. Color Co.Pt 125 25
Unit
3. SS mg/L 175 50
4. TDS mg/L 7000 5500
5. COD mg/L 3000 2100
6. Oil & Grease mg/L 10 8
7. Ammonical Nitrogen mg/L 80 30

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Table No. 2.7


Stack details
Sr. Stack Fuel Type Fuel Stack APC Probable
No. attached consumption Height measures emission
to rate (m)
¾ Flue Gas Stacks
1 Boiler Bio Fuel 3 TPD 30 Dust PM<150 mg/Nm3
(3 TPH) (Briquettes) Collector SO2<100 ppm
/Coal (Bag Filter) NOx< 50 ppm
2 Thermic Bio Fuel 2 TPD 30 Dust
Fluid Heater (Briquettes) Collector
(1 No.) /Coal (Bag Filter)
(2 Lacs
kcal/hr)
2 D.G. Set HSD 35 lit/hr. 11 --
(120 kVA)
Stand-by
¾ No Process stack

Table No. 2.7(a)


Estimated emission level
Sr. Stack Stack Velocity Stack Dia. of SPM SO2 NOX
No. attached to Temp m/s height Stack mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3
(0c) (m) (m)
1 Steam 168 9.5 30 0.450 100 50 25
Boiler
2 Thermic 172 11.0 30 0.300 120 50 25
Fluid Heater
3 D.G. Set 180 15 11 0.150 80 28 32

Table No. 2.7(b)


Fugitive emission
Sr. Pollutants Results
No. μg/m3
1 RPM 130
2 HCl fumes 59

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Table No. 2.7(c)

Fuel Analysis
Sr. Parameters Results
No.
1 Gross C.V (Kcal/kg) 3000
2 Ash content (%) 15-20
3 Moisture content (%) 3

Table No. 2.7(d)

Technical specification of bag filter

Sr. No. Particulars Specification


Operating parameters
1. Gas Volume, m3/hr 750
2. Gas Temperature 1400C
3. Type of dust Gas loaded with fines
4. Inlet dust loading 10-15 g/Nm3
5. Outlet emission < 150 mg/Nm3
Bag filter data
1. Type of bag filter Pulse Jet Bag Filter
2. Quantity required 1 No.
3. Filter area 16 m2
4. Air to cloth ratio 0.78 m3/min/m2
5. Pressure drop maximum 150 mm WC
6. Length 7.0 ft.
Bags
1. Bag Material Woven fiber glass with acid
resistant finish
2. Size 152 mm diameter x 2743
mm length
3. Numbers of Bag 12 Nos.
4. Pore size 5-10 micron

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Compressed Air
1. Quantity 10-15 m3/m
2. Pressure 6 kg/cm2
Material of construction
1. Casing MS
2. Hopper MS
I.D. FAN
1. Purpose Induced draft the air from
pulse jet bag filter
2. Type Centrifugal air blower
3. Capacity 1100 m3/hr
4. Pressure 300 mm WC
5. Quantity 1 No.
6. Drive Indirect driven by “V” belt
7. Motor rating 7.5 H.P., 1440 rpm, Foot
mounted, TEFC, 3 phases

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Table No. 2.8

Hazardous waste Details


Sr. Type of Source Category of Quantity Disposal facility
No. Waste Waste as
per
HWM Rules
2008
1. Chemical ETP 34.3 10 Collection, storage,
Sludge and MT/month transportation and will
and evaporator be sent to TSDF site
Evaporation 1.5 for land filling
salt MT/month approved by GPCB.
2. Used Oil Machineries 5.1 0.2 Collection, storage,
MT/yr. disposal by selling to
approved re-refiners.
3. Discarded Raw 33.3 20 Collection, storage,
containers/ material Nos./month Reuse/sold to approve

barrels/ recycler.
0.1
liners MT/month

Details of Solid waste


Sr. Type of Quantity Disposal facility
No. Waste
1. Ash 10 Collection, storage,
MT/month disposal by selling to brick
manufacturer.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Table No. 2.9


Details of ETP units
S. Particulars Dimension (m) Capacity Retention Qty.
No. time
1. Collection Tank 3.20 dia. x 2.0 m 16 m3 40 hrs 1
3
2. Neutralization tank 2.5 x 2.5 x 1.8 11.25 m 24 hrs 1
3
3. Settling tank 2.0 x 2.0 x 2.1 8.4 m 20 hrs 1
4. Treated effluent 3.0 x 2.0 x 2.1 12.6 m3 28 hrs 1
collection tank
5. Sludge drying bed 3.0 x 3.5 x 1.2 10.5 m2 - 3
Surface
area
6. Single effect 3500 Kl cattle 1.5 Kl/hr - 1
evaporator capacity with
condenser, vacuum
system and
Receiver

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Figure 2.1
Water Balance Diagram

Total Water requirement


15.0 fresh + 8.0 recycle =
23 KL/Day

Domestic Process Utility Washing Gardening


5.0 KLD 00 8.0* KLD 5.0 KLD 5.0 KLD

1
5 water
Loss
from RM &
5.0
Gen
KLD
Soak pit
4.0 KLD Boiler Cooling
4.0 KLD 4.0 KLD
Total
5 KLD

Blow
Ev. Loss down Bleed off
2.5 KLD 0.5 KLD 1.0 KLD

2.5

Effluent Treatment Plant


2.5+0.5+1.0+5.0 = 9.0 KLD

Condensate
Salt Single effect
water
54 kg Evaporator
recovery
9.0 KLD
8 KLD*

System
loss
0.95 KLD

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Figure 2.2
ETP flow diagram

Raw
Effluent

Neutralization Treated
Collection
Tank effluent
Tank
collection tank

Settling
Tank
To
evaporator
Sludge
drying bed

Sludge to
TSDF

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Figure 2.3
Schematic representations of the feasibility drawings which give
information important for EIA purpose

Project Study

Baseline Environmental
Project review
data Generation

Site review
Primary data Second source
data
Field monitoring of
Process study • Air • Ecology
• Hydrology
• Water
• Topography
Study on Source of • Noise
pollutant • Water resources
• Ecology
• Land use
• Meteorology • Meteorology
Waste management
• Census data

Assessment of
Project
Assessment of back ground
Environment

Prediction of probable Impact

Evaluation of Impact

Mitigation & EMP

EIA report preparation

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Figure 2.4
Plant Layout

4.5 m Green Belt N

9.0 m

Office and Finished Raw Material ETP


Haz.
Parking product Storage area Waste
Storage Storage
30 m wide GIDC Road

Green Belt
1 2 3 4 5 Green Belt
Green Belt

V1 6
V2 Thermic Boiler
Fluid
Heater

Internal Road

Green Belt

1 & 2- Hydroginators
3, 4 & 5- HCl reactors
6- Neutralization Tank
V1 & V2- Vacuum distillation

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Figure 2.5
Key Plan

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Chapter 3
Baseline Environmental Status
3.1 Prelude
To assess environmental impacts from proposed project at a specific
location, it is essential to monitor the environmental quality prevailing in
the surrounding area prior to implementation of the proposed project.
The environmental status within the impact zone could be used for
identification of significant environmental issues to be addressed in the
impact assessment study.

In order to identify and establish the extent of likely impacts, it is


essential to gather information on existing environmental quality with
regard to various components of the environment.

3.1.1 Study area

Unit of Swastik Chemicals is proposed to be located at Plot No. D-


2/CH/86, GIDC, Dahej-II, Tal: Vagra, Dist: Bharuch, Gujarat. The
baseline study was carried out within 05 km radius (as per ToR) from
the center of the proposed project.

3.1.2 Period of the study area

The baseline study of the proposed project was done during Summer
Season, 2013 within 05 km radius from the center of the proposed
project site.

3.1.3 Basic components of the Environment

The component study of the present environment is necessary to predict


the environmental impact on the study area; therefore it is necessary to
classify the various components of environment from which it is made.

Environment consists of Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Lithosphere and


Biosphere. These Environment components have been considered for
the study of the existing environment, which is summarized below:

(I) Lithosphere: It includes the terrain and landscape study. Such as


topography and geology of the study area.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

(II) Hydrosphere or Water Environment: It includes water quality of the


study area by means of

a) Surface water quality

b) Ground water quality

(III) Atmosphere or Air Environment: Atmospheric condition mainly


depend upon the

a) Climatic condition, and

b) Micrometeorological data such as wind, temperature, humidity,


Rainfall etc. of the project area.

(IV) Biosphere: Ecological system consists of varieties of interrelationship


between both abiotic and biotic components including dependence,
competition and mutualism. Biotic components comprises of both plant
and animal communities, which interact not only within and between
themselves but also with the abiotic physical and chemical components
of the environment. Whereas biotic component includes study of,

a) Fauna: Study of the animal

b) Flora: Study of the plant

(V) Other Component: Other component of the surrounding area includes


Socio- Economic data and noise level data of the surrounding area.

The survey for above all components of the study area and data
collected by means of primary and secondary data are described from
Sec: 3.3 to 3.8.

3.2 Establishment of baseline for Environmental Components

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies need a significant


amount of primary and secondary baseline environmental data.

The primary baseline environmental data are those which need to


be collected in the field to define the status of environment (like air
quality data, water quality data, noise quality etc.).

The secondary baseline environmental data are those data which


have been collected over the years and can be used to understand the
existing environmental scenario of the study area by any recognized

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

agencies. (Such as used IMD data for micrometeorological data- rainfall,


humidity and census data for Socio Economic etc.).

The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies are conducted over


a short period of time and therefore for understanding the
environmental trend based on few months of primary data has its own
limitations. Ideally, the primary data has to be considered along with
the secondary data for complete understanding of the existing
environmental status of the area.

3.3 Air Environment


The impact on air environment would depend and has been identified on
the basis of identification of sources of air pollution from various process
operations; the nature of pollutants and their quantities likely to be
discharged to the atmosphere; and the baseline data on air quality.
The baseline data on air quality and micrometeorological conditions of
the area surrounding the project site have been generated through an
appropriately designed network for monitoring of Ambient Air Quality
(AAQ) within the zone of likely impacts.
3.3.1 Design of Network for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations
The following criteria were taken into account while designing the
ambient air quality-monitoring network:
ƒ Topography/Terrain of the study area
ƒ Populated areas within the region
ƒ Prediction of maximum concentrations and distances of their likely
occurrence under prevailing meteorological conditions
ƒ Representation of regional background
ƒ Representation of valid cross sectional distribution in downwind
direction
3.3.2 Reconnaissance
Reconnaissance was undertaken to establish the baseline status of air
environment in the study region. The prime objective of the NAAQ
survey, within 5 km radial study area around the plant site was to
establish the existing ambient air quality levels. Six Ambient Air Quality
Monitoring (AAQM) stations including project site were selected based

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

on the criteria used for designing the network. The locations (relative
directions and distances) of these stations with respect to project site
are given in Figure 3.6 and details of these stations are described in
Table 3.1.
The Particulate Matter (PM10), Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Sulphur
Dioxide (SO2) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) were identified as significant
parameters for ambient air quality monitoring, particularly because
these are likely to be emitted from the industries and for which ambient
air quality standards are prescribed.
The micrometeorological data on wind speed, wind direction,
temperature and relative humidity were collected through a weather
monitoring station for the study period. The baseline status of air quality
was monitored within the study area i.e. 5 km radial distance from
project site as per the latest regulatory guidelines.

3.3.3 Micrometeorology of the area


The micrometeorological conditions at the project site will regulate the
transportation and diffusion of air pollutants released into the
atmosphere. The principle meteorological variables are horizontal
convective transport (average wind speed and direction), vertical
convective transport (atmospheric stability, mixing height) and
topography of the area.
The data on surface meteorological parameters (hourly average wind
speed and direction) in the study area were collected during the
Summer Season, 2013 using portable weather monitoring station placed
at industry site. The sensors of this equipment were kept at about 10 m
above ground level with free exposure to the atmosphere all through
the study period in summer season. In addition, data on temperature as
well as relative humidity were also recorded simultaneously using a data
logger.
Wind Rose (Secondary data)
The 24 hourly wind rose was prepared using the data on wind direction
and speed collected for summer season in the study area. The same, as
depicted in Figure 3.7, shows the predominant wind directions are S,

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

SW, WNW and NW implying that wind comes from these directions for
most of the time during the period. The wind speed class 1-5 kmph
occurred for 11.5%, 6-10 kmph about 14.4%, 11-15 kmph 23.6% and
above 15 kmph and below 30 kmph occurred for 29.1% of the study
duration and of the time. The calm condition (below 1 kmph) prevails
21.3% of time. The wind data generated at site were also compared
with the climatologically data obtained from the nearest Indian
Meteorological Department station at Bhavnagar. The local prevailing
wind pattern during the study period is in conformity with the
climatologically normal of the region.
Temperature (Primary data)
During the study period, maximum and minimum temperature was
recorded as 46.0°C and 18.6°C respectively.
Relative Humidity (Primary data)
During study period, at project site, maximum relative humidity was
recorded as 85% and minimum as 10%.
Rainfall (Primary data)
No rainfall during the study period at project site.
3.3.4 Ambient Air Quality Survey
The ambient air quality monitoring was carried out at six locations, with
a frequency of twice a week continuously for three months i.e. Summer
Season, 2013 to assess the existing sub-regional air quality status in
summer season. Respirable Dust Sampler, Fine Particulate Sampler
along with the analytical methods prescribed by CPCB was used for
carrying out air quality monitoring. At all these sampling locations;
PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NOx were monitored on 24-hourly basis to enable
the comparison with ambient air quality standards prescribed by the
Central Pollution Control Board.
The data on concentrations of various pollutants were processed for
different statistical parameters like arithmetic mean, standard deviation,
minimum and maximum concentration and various percentile values.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

3.3.5 Baseline Status


The existing baseline levels with respect to PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NOx
are presented in Tables 3.3 to 3.6 with interpretation of statistical
analysis of observed ambient air quality data for six locations. Presented
results, represent the cross sectional distribution of baseline air quality
status of the study region.
Particulate Matter (PM10)
An average and 98th percentile value of 24-hourly PM10 values at all -the
locations ranged between 65.1-74.1 μg/m3 and 73.1-83.7 μg/m3, which
are well within the stipulated standard of CPCB i.e. 100 μg/m3.
Particulate Matter (PM2.5)
An average and 98th percentile value of 24-hourly PM2.5 values at all -the
locations ranged between 25.2-32.3 μg/m3 and 31.1-37.8 μg/m3, which
are well within the stipulated standard of CPCB i.e. 60 μg/m3.
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)
An average and 98th percentile value of 24-hourly SO2 value of
arithmetic mean at all the locations ranged between 11.2-14.3 μg/m3
and 14.0-18.2 μg/m3 respectively, which are well within the stipulated
standards of 80 μg/m3.
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)

An average and 98th percentile value of 24 hourly NOx value of


arithmetic mean at all the locations ranged between 12.2-15.8 μg/m3
and 15.3-19.5 μg/m3 respectively, which are much lower than the
standards i.e. 80 μg/m3, stipulated by CPCB.

3.4 Water Environment


Water Environment of an area is broadly classified into following
categories:
1. Surface water: Rivers, drains, canals, ponds etc.
2. Ground water: Accumulation in deeper strata of ground
The only source of recharging for both surface and groundwater source
is precipitation (rainfall).

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

(a) Rainfall in the study area (Secondary data):


The monsoon sets in by about the second week of June. South-west
winds blow from May and last till the end of September. About 95% of
the annual rainfall in the area occurs during the months of June to
September. The normal annual rainfall for Bharuch is 885 mm.
(b) Topography: Topography is concerned with local detail in general,
including elevation of area. Topography of the study area is plain and
average elevation is 48 meter from mean sea level.
(c) Local Hydrology: The area is cover under Alluvial Plains. Drainage of
water is generally east to west direction. Due to poor primary porosity
and permeability, these rocks do not form good aquifers. Dug wells,
dug- cum-bore wells and even deep bore wells are found to be feasible.
The groundwater structures are generally within 10 to 20m depth.
Storm water is generally drained from east to west direction. Only
seasonal nallas found in the study area.
Ground water level in the state varies considerably depending on aquifer
geology, geomorphology and rainfall. South-West monsoon is the main
source of ground water recharge. During pre-monsoon (May) water level
ranges in general from 10-20 m while during post-monsoon (November)
it varies in general from less than 5-7 m below ground level.

(d) Surface Water: Surface water samples have been collected from three
different sources including Narmada Estuary (Ambheta), Ambheta Pond,
Vadadla Pond. The results of all samples are tabulated in Table no. 3.9.

(e) GIDC Water Source: Analysis for GIDC water sample is done for
general parameters of drinking water which is given in Table no. 3.10.

(f) Ground water: It is important source of water in the study area. There
are many bore wells in the study area.

Water samples have been collected from project site and four different
villages (Ambheta, Dahej, Vadadla and Jolva).

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

3.4.1 Ground Water Quality (Primary data)


Collected water samples were analyzed for various characteristics of
ground water. Sampling locations are shown in Figure 3.8. The results
are shown in Table No. 3.8.
Color: All the samples were found color less meeting desirable norms.
pH: All the samples meet the desirable standards (pH ranges from 7.8
to 8.0).
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): TDS in samples ranges from 958 mg/L
(Nr. Project site) to 1876 mg/L (Ambheta). All the samples were meet
the permissible limit of 2000 mg/L, (If alternate sources of potable
water are not available).
Calcium: Calcium contents in the water ranges from 39 mg/L (Dahej)
to 51 mg/L (Ambheta), all the samples were meet the permissible limit
of 200 mg/L, (If alternate sources of potable water is not available).
Magnesium: Magnesium content in the water ranges from 30 mg/L
(Dahej) to 37 mg/L (Jolva). All the samples meet the permissible limit of
100 mg/L (if alternate source of potable water in not available).
Sulfate: Sulfate content in the water ranges from 41 mg/L (Dahej) to
105 mg/L (Jolva). All the samples meet the permissible limit of 400
mg/L for drinking water (if alternate source of potable water in not
available).
Total Alkalinity: Total alkalinity in the water samples ranges from 288
mg/L (Nr. Project site) to 359 mg/L (Ambheta). All the samples are
within the permissible limit of drinking water (600 mg/L) (if alternate
source of portable water is not available).
Other Parameters: Potassium (ranges from 54 mg/L to 67 mg/L),
Sodium (ranges from 302 mg/L to 633 mg/L) and Chloride (ranges from
412 mg/L to 877 mg/L).
Heavy metals like copper, lead, chromium and zinc are well below to
limit in all samples.
Conclusions: Ground water samples from villages meet the permissible
limit set by the authority (BIS). Indian Standard specification for
drinking water is given in Table 3.11.

EIA study for Swastik Chemicals 3-8


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

3.5 Noise Environment (Primary data)


3.5.1 Introduction
Noise can be defined as an unwanted sound. It interferes with speech &
hearing and is intense enough to damage hearing or is otherwise
annoying. The definition of noise as unwanted sound implies that it has
an adverse effect on human beings and their environment. Noise can
also disturb natural wildlife and ecological system.

Sound is mechanical energy from a vibrating surface, transmitted by


cyclic series of compression and rarefaction of molecules of the
materials through which it passes. Sound can be transmitted through
gases, liquids and solids. The number of compressions and refractions of
the air molecules in the unit of time is described as its frequency.
Frequency is expressed in Hertz (Hz), which is the same as the number
of cycles per second.

3.5.2 Methodology
To understand the noise environment in the study area, a survey was
conducted using sound level meter at seven locations including nr. plant
site as shown in Figure 3.9.
3.5.3 Ambient Noise levels in the study area
The ambient noise environment consists of the total noise generated in
the area at various distance around the sampling locations. The noise
level varies depending on the type of activities carried out in the
surrounding area. The baseline noise environment was studied at the
project site as well as the surrounding villages. The locations considered
for the noise monitoring are tabulated in Table 3.12. Noise survey was
carried out once at each of the seven locations in the day-and nighttime
during the study period.
The Leq values of noise levels during daytime (Ld) varied between 51.8
to 67.1 dB(A). Highest Ld value was recorded near project site (67.1
dB(A)), while the Leq values of noise levels during night time (Ln) varied
between 38.2 to 52.6 dB(A). Highest Ln value was recorded near project
site (52.6 dB(A)).

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

3.5.4 Ambient Air Quality Standards in Respect of Noise


Ministry of Environment and Forest has notified the ambient standards
in respect of noise in Gazette of India dated 14th February, 2000. Table
3.13 depicts these standards in respect of noise.
3.5.5 Conclusions
The noise generation in the surrounding areas was mainly due to
vehicular movement, commercial and domestic activities in the study
area. Generally noise levels in the places like temples, schools and
community hall have higher values in day time. In the study area,
higher noise value during day time was noted near project site but it is
within the Ambient standards of Industrial area for day time {75 dB(A)}
and highest results in night time was also recorded near project site,
which is higher than limit of residential area for night time {45 dB(A)}.
However, it is within prescribed limit of commercial area for night time
{55 dB(A)}.
3.6 Soil Environment (Primary data)
3.6.1 Introduction
Soils may be defined as a thin layer of earth’s crust that serves as a
natural medium for the growth of plants. It is the unconsolidated
mineral matter that has been subjected to and influenced by genetic
and environmental factors. Soils serve as a reservoir of nutrients for
plants and crops and provide mechanical anchorage and favorable tilth.
The study area has alluvial sandy loam soil locally known as Goradu (or
Gorat) or Bhatta. Goradu are nothing but alluvial soils of older origin
while Bhatta soils are of recent origin deposited chiefly along the banks
of river. The soils of this group are moderately deep, well drained,
calcareous fine soils on very gently sloping alluvial plain with slight
erosion and moderate salinity; associated with deep, moderate well
drained, calcareous, fine soils with moderate erosion. Taxonomy of soils
as per USDA system of classification: “Fine, montmorillonitic
(calcareous), hyperthermic vertic Ustochrepts”.
The study area has alluvial sandy loam soil with the following physical
and chemical characteristics:

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

3.6.2 Soil Characteristics


Samples of soils were collected from 4 locations (Nr. Plant site,
Ambheta, Vadadla, Dahej) during the study period and these locations
are shown in Figure 3.10.

The values of important physical and chemical parameters of these soil


samples are depicted in Table 3.14.
3.6.3 Corollaries
Physical Parameters
ƒ Particle Size: A Particle size of the different constituents (clay, silt,
sand and gravel) controls the porosity and water holding characteristic
of the soil. Clay (size < 0.002 mm) amount in the soil samples ranges
from 34% to 45%; Silt (size 0.002 to 0.075 mm) in the soil samples is
19% to 29%; Sand (size 0.075 to 0.475 mm) in the soil samples is 19%
to 28% and Gravel (size > 0.475 mm) in the soil samples is 10% to
16%.
ƒ Porosity: Porosity is a measure of space in between soil particles
caused by structural conditions and determined under identical
conditions. Porosity of soil samples of the study area ranges from
41.3% to 43.6%.
ƒ Water Holding Capacity (WHC): Water holding capacity (WHC) of soil
samples of the study area ranges between 35.2% to 41.9% and these
being sandy soils are not capable of retaining sufficient water during
irrigation for facilitating the plant growth.
ƒ Bulk Density: Bulk Density of soils in the study area is found to be in
the range from 1.4 to 1.5 g/cm3. Bulk density is of greater importance
for characterizing the physical behavior of soils. Generally, soils with low
bulk density have favorable physical conditions (porosity and
permeability) whereas those with high bulk density exhibit poor physical
conditions.
Chemical Parameters
ƒ pH: pH was determined by taking 1:5 ratio of soil and distilled water.
pH of soils in the study area is found to be in the range of 7.8 to 8.2.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

ƒ Chloride: Chloride content in soils of the study area is found to be in


the range of 214 to 241 mg/kg.
ƒ Soluble Calcium: The soluble calcium as CaCO3 in soil samples is
found to be in the range of 13.1 to 22.0 mg/kg.
ƒ Magnesium: Magnesium content in soil samples of the study area
ranges from 10.1 to 13.5 mg/kg.
ƒ Available Phosphorus: Available Phosphorus content in soil samples
of the study area ranges from 32.5 to 47.5 mg/kg.
ƒ Available Nitrogen: Available nitrogen content in soil samples of the
study area is found to be in the range from 134.6 to 145.7 mg/kg.
ƒ Potassium: Potassium content in soil samples of the study area is
found to be in the range from 11.2 to 21.5 mg/kg.
ƒ Sodium: Sodium content in soil samples of the study area is found in
the range from 51.9 to 78.1 mg/kg.
ƒ Total Organic Matter (TOM): Total organic matter content in soil
samples of the study area is found to be in the range of 1.2 mg/kg to
1.7 mg/kg.
3.7 Ecology (Primary data)
3.7.1 Period of the study
The baseline study, for the assessment of the floral and faunal
biodiversity of the terrestrial environment of the study area, within 5 km
radius from the proposed site has been conducted during Summer
Season, 2013.
3.7.2 Methodology
The primary objective of survey was to describe the floral and faunal
communities within the study area. The sampling plots for the floral
inventory were selected randomly in the suitable habitats within the
study area. The methodology adopted for faunal survey include; random
survey, opportunistic observations, diurnal bird observation, active
search for reptiles, faunal habitat assessment, active search for foot
prints and review of previous studies, literature review was conducted to
identify the representative spectrum of threatened species, population
and ecological communities.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

3.7.3 Floral diversity in the study area


The objective of this floral inventory of the study area is to provide
necessary information on floristic structure in the study area. The
structure and type of vegetation depends on climatic conditions and
physiography of an area. Climate of the study area is arid to semi arid
and suited for the growth of selected variety of vegetation/species.
The contents of this subsection are based primarily on reconnaissance
survey carried out by the team of San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. & available
information from forest department, which gives general pattern of
vegetation of this region during the study period as a baseline data in
absence of availability of secondary data. The dominant tree species,
herbs, shrubs, climbers and major crops were documented during this
baseline study. The list of floral species is given in Table 3.15 (A to E).
3.7.3.1 Trees
The dominant trees in the study area are Azardirachta indica (Limbado),
Mangifera indica (Keri), Acacia nilotica (L.). The tree species observed in
the study area is enlisted in Table 3.15(A).
3.7.3.2 Shrubs
Shrubs encounter during the study period are given in Table 3.15(B).
21 shrubs species belonging to 14 families were enumerated from the
study area. The dominant shrub community in this area is Prosopis
Juliflora (Gando baval), Lawsonia inermis (Mendhi).
3.7.3.3 Herbs
Major herbs observed in study area are enlisted in Table 3.15(C).
3.7.3.4 Climbers & Twiners
The climbers observed along the agriculture hedge and road side are
given in Table 3.15(D). Overall six species of climbers belongs to 3
families are recorded from the area.
3.7.4 Cultivated plants in the study area
Common cultivated crop plants in the study area include: Rabi season
(January to March) - wheat, mustard, jeera; April to June - juvar, bajra,
gram and Kharif (July to October) - paddy; Sugar cane and vegetables
are also grown at some places.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

3.7.5 Ecological Stresses


Human needs for settlement and commercial activities like farming,
industries, infrastructure (roads, canals, power lines, railways etc.) have
forced him to encroach on natural vegetation i.e. forests. Even the open
areas left for plantation/green cover at times have been occupied by
encroachers/slums resulting in stress on environment.
3.7.6 Faunal Biodiversity of the study area
For the documentation of the faunal biodiversity of the study area with
respect to birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterfly species, a baseline
survey had been conducted. The study area falls under Bharuch District
of Gujarat state.
3.7.6.1 Birds in the study area
The sightings of bird species were very less during the study period.
Most commonly spotted bird species of this area were; Cattle Egret,
Black-winged stilt, rock pigeon, Eurasian Collared-Dove, Spotted Dove,
House crow, common Myna. List of birds are given in Table 3.16(A).
3.7.6.2 Butterflies from the study area
Butterflies in the study area (Core zone and Buffer zone) are restricted
to few places. Butterflies observed during the present study are
documented in the Table 3.16(B).
3.7.6.3 Reptiles, Mammals
Reptiles and mammals found in the study area and area around it is
tabulated in Table 3.16(C) and 3.16(D) respectively. This is compiled
on the basis of sighting during field survey in the area and also from the
information collected from villagers and forest personnel working in the
area.
3.8 Socio Economic & Land use (Secondary data)
3.8.1 Land use pattern and infrastructure
The land use pattern indicates the manner in which different parts of
land is being utilized or non-utilized. It is an important indicator of
environmental health; human activity and a degree of interplay between
these two. Even though, the soil quality, water availability and climate
have strong influence on agriculture and vegetation, the human activity

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

may alter the natural environment to a large extent to suit human


needs. Unnatural land use often triggers rapid environmental
deterioration and disturbs ecological balance.
In census records, major land use classifications are; Forests, Culturable
land, Culturable wasteland and area not available for cultivation.
Culturable land is further classified as: irrigated and un-irrigated. Area
not available for cultivation includes lands put to non-agriculture uses as
well as barren and uncultivable lands.
The land use pattern for rural areas is discussed below. The information
is preliminary based on 2001 Census as depicting in Table 3.18.
Total land area is 11345.04 ha, out of that Irrigated area is 0.0 ha.
4903.82 ha are un-irrigated by source and it constitutes 43.22% of total
land area. The study area consist of Culturable wasteland is 107.86 ha
(0.95%).
3.8.2 Demographic and Socio-Economic Environment
The demographic and socio-economic details of the study area are
discussed below. These are primarily based on census data of 2001.
Data on number of households, population as well as literacy and
employment pattern in the study area have been presented in Table-
3.19. The employment pattern in the area is indicator of number of
persons employed in various sectors. It also indicates the various
categories of employment flourishing in the area.
The total no. of household in the villages are 2290 and the total
population is 10272 (54.00% men & 46.00% women). 64.70% of are
literate while literacy rate among women & men is 25.44% & 39.26%
respectively. 31.06% of male population is part of main worker, while
only 4.19% of female population is a part of main workers. 21.43% of
male population and 39.32% of female population are non workers.
3.8.3 Living Standard and Infrastructure
In India it is not possible to setup a primary standard of living because
of wide variations in terms of income, economic conditions, social
custom, employment opportunity, pattern of spending, etc. However,
availability of amenities like education, medical, water supply,

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

communication, road network, electricity, etc. significantly reflects the


level of development of the area. Information on available amenities in
the study area has been extracted from census record of 2001. Total
numbers of village in study area are 5. On the basis of data presented in
the Table-3.20, the status of available amenities is discussed in
following sub-sections:
Educational Facilities: As per 2001 census, there are 12 primary
schools, 1 Matriculation, & 8 Adult Schools Colleges in all 5 villages.
Medical Facilities: All 5 villages in the study area have five Community
Health Worker, 1 Dispensary, 1 primary health centers, 1 primary health
Sub-centers, 2 family Planning Centers & 3 Registered Private
Practitioners.
Drinking Water Supply: All the villages in the study area have two or
more sources of drinking water. 2 villages in study area have tap water
supply in addition to well (all). Moreover, all 5 villages have Tank Water
facilities, one has hand pump facility & one has river passing through.
Communication and Transport: The main mode of public transport
available in the study area is by bus service. Only at 2 places railway
station as western railway meter gauge line is passing. Majority of
villages in the study area is connected with pucca road. Three villages
have navigable waterway for easy transportation.
Post and Telegraph: As per 2001 census record out of 5 villages in
study area, 2 villages have post office facility and 1 village has Phone
and telegraph facility available.
Power Supply: As per 2001 census record out all the villages are
getting power supply for all purposes.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Table 3.1: Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Locations


(Period of Monitoring: March 16, 2013 to June 15, 2013)
Sr. Sampling Direction w.r. Distance Type of Area
No. Location to center of (km)
Industry (km)
1 Project site -- -- Industrial
2 Jolva ESE 3.9 Industrial
3 Vav NE 4.8 Industrial
4 Dahej WSW 3.4 Residential
5 Vadadla NE 2.3 Residential
6 Ambetha SW 4.1 Residential

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Table 3.2: Ambient Air Quality Status


(Period: March 16, 2013 to June 15, 2013)
Sr. Sampling PM10 PM2.5 SO2 NOx
No. Location
Average
(Min-Max)
1 Project site 74.1 32.3 14.3 15.8
(63.5-85.1) (24.5-38.3) (10.1-18.8) (12.3-19.9)
2 Jolva 68.6 30.4 12.0 13.8
(61.4-79.9) (23.3-35.5) (9.8-14.9) (10.1-17.5)
3 Vav 65.1 26.9 11.4 12.7
(57.2-74.5) (20.8-33.1) (9.0-14.2) (8.6-15.6)
4 Dahej 65.8 28.0 12.7 14.1
(58.2-76.3) (21.7-34.9) (10.1-15.3) (11.1-16.6)
5 Vadadla 67.2 25.2 11.2 12.2
(56.8-73.5) (19.9-31.4) (8.6-14.4) (8.3-15.5)
6 Ambetha 67.4 26.6 12.5 13.8
(60.7-75.2) (21.1-32.6) (9.5-14.8) (10.3-15.9)

Figure 3.1 Graphical representation of Ambient Air quality

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Table 3.3: Ambient Air Quality Status (PM10)


(Period: March 16, 2013 to June 15, 2013)

Average – 24 Hours Unit - μg/m3


Station Max Min 98 75 50 25 Avg SD
Name Percentile Percentile Percentile Percentile
Project site 85.1 63.5 83.7 76.9 74.4 70.1 74.1 5.2
Jolva 79.9 61.4 78.5 72.7 67.8 64.5 68.6 5.3
Vav 74.5 57.2 74.5 69.1 63.7 60.8 65.1 5.5
Dahej 76.3 58.2 75.3 69.9 64.3 61.5 65.8 5.6
Vadadla 73.5 56.8 73.1 69.9 68.0 65.0 67.2 4.1
Ambetha 75.2 60.7 74.9 70.4 67.5 63.5 67.4 4.5

Figure 3.2 Graphical representation for PM10

EIA study for Swastik Chemicals 3-19


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Table 3.4: Ambient Air Quality Status (PM2.5)


(Period: March 16, 2013 to June 15, 2013)

Average – 24 Hours Unit - μg/m3


Station Max Min 98 75 50 25 Avg SD
Name Percentile Percentile Percentile Percentile
Project site 38.3 24.5 37.8 35.1 32.5 29.6 32.3 3.8
Jolva 35.5 23.3 35.2 32.4 30.9 27.7 30.4 3.3
Vav 33.1 20.8 32.9 29.6 27.5 23.2 26.9 3.9
Dahej 34.9 21.7 34.8 30.1 28.1 25.3 28.0 3.8
Vadadla 31.4 19.9 31.1 27.5 24.6 22.4 25.2 3.4
Ambetha 32.6 21.1 32.3 29.8 26.2 23.5 26.6 3.7

Figure 3.3 Graphical representation for PM2.5

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Table 3.5: Ambient Air Quality Status (SO2)


(Period: March 16, 2013 to June 15, 2013)

Average - 24 Hours Unit - μg/m3


Station Max Min 98 75 50 25 Avg SD
Name Percentile Percentile Percentile Percentile
Project site 18.8 10.1 18.2 15.8 14.2 13.6 14.3 2.3
Jolva 14.9 9.8 14.8 13.2 11.5 10.6 12.0 1.7
Vav 14.2 9.0 14.0 12.6 11.5 10.5 11.4 1.5
Dahej 15.3 10.1 15.2 13.7 12.7 11.4 12.7 1.6
Vadadla 14.4 8.6 14.1 12.4 11.1 9.8 11.2 1.7
Ambetha 14.8 9.5 14.6 13.5 12.9 11.4 12.5 1.4

Figure 3.4 Graphical representation for SO2

EIA study for Swastik Chemicals 3-21


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Table 3.6: Ambient Air Quality Status (NOx)


(Period: March 16, 2013 to June 15, 2013)

Average – 24 Hours Unit - μg/m3


Station Max Min 98 75 50 25 Avg SD
Name Percentile Percentile Percentile Percentile
Project site 19.9 12.3 19.5 16.9 15.8 14.6 15.8 2.0
Jolva 17.5 10.1 17.2 14.8 13.6 12.5 13.8 1.9
Vav 15.6 8.6 15.4 13.7 13.1 11.6 12.7 1.7
Dahej 16.6 11.1 16.5 14.9 14.1 13.3 14.1 1.4
Vadadla 15.5 8.3 15.3 13.5 12.2 10.5 12.2 2.0
Ambetha 15.9 10.3 15.8 14.6 13.9 13.2 13.8 1.4

Figure 3.5 Graphical representation for NOX

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Table 3.7: National Ambient Air Quality Standards


(EP, 7th amendment rules-2009)
Pollutants Time-weighted Concentration in ambient air
average
Industrial, Ecologically Method of
Residential, Sensitive Measurement
Rural and area
others area (Notified by
Central
Government)
Sulphur Dioxide Annual Average* 50 20 ƒ Improved West and
(SO2), µg/m3 Gaeke
24 hours** 80 80
ƒ Ultraviolet
fluorescence
Oxides of Annual Average* 40 30 ƒ Modified Jacob &
Nitrogen as Hochheiser
24 hours** 80 80
(NO2), µg/m3 (Na-Arsenite)
ƒ Chemiluminescence
Particulate Annual Average* 60 60 ƒ Gravimetric
Matter (Size less ƒ TOEM
24 hours** 100 100
than 10 µm) or ƒ Beta attenuation
PM10, µg/m3
Particulate Annual Average* 40 40 ƒ Gravimetric
Matter (Size less ƒ TOEM
24 hours** 60 60
than 2.5 µm) or ƒ Beta attenuation
PM2.5, µg/m3
Ozone (O3), 8 hours ** 100 100 ƒ UV photometric
µg/m3 ƒ Chemiluminescence
1hours** 180 180
ƒ Chemical Method
Lead (Pb), Annual Average* 0.50 0.50 ƒ AAS/ICP method
µg/m3 after sampling on
24 hours** 1.0 1.0
EPM 2000 or
equivalent filter
paper
ƒ ED-XRF using
Teflon filter
Carbon 8 hours** 02 02 ƒ Non Dispersive
Monoxide (CO), Infra Red (NDIR)
1 hour** 04 04
mg/m3 spectroscopy
Ammonia (NH3), Annual Average* 100 100 ƒ Chemiluminescence
µg/m3 ƒ Indophenol Blue
24 hours** 400 400
Method
Benzene (C6H6), Annual* 05 05 ƒ Gas
µg/m3 chromatography
based continuous
analyzer
ƒ Adsorption and
desorption followed
by GC analysis
Benzo(a) Pyrene Annual* 01 01 ƒ Solvent extraction
(BaP)-particulate followed by
phase only, HPLC/GC analysis
ng/m3
Arsenic (As), Annual* 06 06 ƒ AAS/ICP method
ng/m3 after sampling on
EPM 2000 or
equivalent filter

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

paper
Nickel (Ni), Annual* 20 20 ƒ AAS/ICP method
ng/m3 after sampling on
EPM 2000 or
equivalent filter
paper
* Annual Arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year at a
particular site taken twice a week 24 hourly at uniform intervals.
** 24 hourly or 8 hourly or 01 hourly monitored values, as applicable, shall
be complied with 98% of the time in a year. 2% of the time, the time,
they may exceed the limits but not on two consecutive days of monitoring.

EIA study for Swastik Chemicals 3-24


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Table 3.8: Results of Groundwater Quality in the Study Area


(Date of Sampling: 08/05/2013 – 09/05/2013)

Parameters Unit CONCENTRATION


Nr. Ambheta Dahej Vadadla Jolva
Project
site
pH pH Unit 7.9 7.8 8.0 7.9 7.8
Color Co-Pt Colorless Colorless Colorless Colorless Colorless
Unit
Conductivity Micro 1362 2667 1896 1718 2431
mhos/cm
Turbidity NTU 5.5 5.8 5.1 5.0 6.0
TDS mg/L 958 1876 1325 1228 1635
Total Hardness as mg/L 248 276 221 237 275
CaCO3
Total Alkalinity mg/L 288 359 352 335 319
Sodium as Na+ mg/L 302 633 476 409 453
Potassium as K+ mg/L 66 67 54 58 65
Calcium as Ca+2 mg/L 48 51 39 42 49
Magnesium as Mg+2 mg/L 31 36 30 32 37
Chlorides as Cl- mg/L 412 877 648 542 618
Sulfates as SO4-2 mg/L 99 103 41 76 105
Phenol as C6H5OH mg/L <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Cyanide as CN- mg/L <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02
Arsenic as As mg/L <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Cadmium as Cd mg/L <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Copper as Cu mg/L <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Lead as Pb mg/L <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Manganese as Mn mg/L <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Iron as Fe mg/L 0.14 0.18 0.13 0.10 0.17
Total Chromium mg/L <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Nickel as Ni mg/L <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Table 3.9: Results of Surface Water Quality in the Study Area


(Date of Sampling: 08/05/2013 – 09/05/2013)
Parameters Unit CONCENTRATION
Narmada Ambheta Vadadala
Estuary Ambheta Pond Pond
pH pH Unit 8.1 7.9 7.8
Color Co-Pt Unit Colorless Colorless Colorless
Conductivity Micro 27630 445 396
mhos/cm
Suspended Solids mg/L 26.9 24.3 22.1
TDS mg/L 19457 312 279
Dissolved Oxygen mg/L 4 5 5
Total Hardness as mg/L 475 128 123
CaCO3
Total Alkalinity mg/L 409 135 211
+
Sodium as Na mg/L 6625 72 76
+
Potassium as K mg/L 138 12 28
Calcium as Ca+2 mg/L 58 25 23
Magnesium as Mg+2 mg/L 80 16 16
Chlorides as Cl- mg/L 10104 94 65
Sulfates as SO4-2 mg/L 834 38 22
Phenol as C6H5OH mg/L <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
-
Cyanide as CN mg/L <0.02 <0.02 <0.02
Arsenic as As mg/L <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Cadmium as Cd mg/L <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Copper as Cu mg/L <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Manganese as Mn mg/L <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Iron as Fe mg/L 0.25 0.12 0.15
Total Chromium as mg/L <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Cr
Nickel as Ni mg/L <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Total Coliform MPN/100ml 7 14 11

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Table 3.10: Quality of GIDC water


(Date of sampling: 08/05/2013)

Parameters Unit Concentration


pH pH Unit 7.8
Color Co-Pt Unit Colorless
Conductivity Micro mhos/cm 579
Turbidity NTU 5.5
TDS mg/L 364
Total Hardness as CaCO3 mg/L 132
Total Alkalinity mg/L 191
+
Sodium as Na mg/L 110
Potassium as K+ mg/L 15
Calcium as Ca+2 mg/L 23
Magnesium as Mg+2 mg/L 18
Chlorides as Cl- mg/L 95
Sulfates as SO4-2 mg/L 26

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Table 3.11: Indian Standard Specification for Drinking Water


Sr. Parameters Desirable Permissible Limit
No. Limit in the Absence of
Alternate Source
I Essential Characteristics
1. Colour, Hazen Units, Max. 5 25
2. Odour Unobjectionable -
3. Taste Agreeable -
4. Turbidity, NTU, Max. 5 10
5. pH 6.5-8.5 No Relaxation
6. Total Hardness (as CaCO3) mg/l, Max. 300 600
7. Iron (as Fe) mg/l, Max. 0.3 1.0
8. Chlorides (as Cl) mg/l, Max. 250 1000
9. Residual Free Chlorine, mg/l, Min. 0.20* -
II Desirable Characteristics
10. Dissolved Solids, mg/l, Max. 500 2000
11. Alkalinity (as CaCO3), mg/l, Max. 200 600
12. Sulphate (as SO4) mg/l, Max. 200 400
13. Nitrate (as NO3) 45 100
14. Fluoride (as F) mg/l, Max. 1.0 1.5
15. Calcium (as Ca) mg/l, Max. 75 200
16. Magnesium (as Mg) mg/l, Max. 30 100
17. Copper (as Cu) mg/l, Max. 0.05 1.5
18. Manganese (as Mn) mg/l, Max. 0.1 0.3
19. Mercury (as Hg) mg/l, Max. 0.001 No Relaxation
20. Cadmium (as Cd) mg/l, Max. 0.01 No Relaxation
21. Selenium (as Se) mg/l, Max. 0.01 No Relaxation
22. Arsenic (As As) mg/l, Max. 0.05 No Relaxation
23. Cyanide (as CN) mg/l, Max. 0.05 No Relaxation
24. Lead (as Pb) mg/l, Max. 0.05 No Relaxation
25. Zinc (as Zn) mg/l, Max. 5 15
26. Aluminium (as Al) mg/l, Max. 0.03 0.2
27. Boron (as B) mg/l, Max. 1 5
28. Chromium (as Cr) mg/l, Max. 0.05 No Relaxation
29. Phenolic Compounds (as C6H5OH) 0.001 0.002
mg/l, Max.
30. Anionic Detergents (as MBAS) mg/l, 0.2 1.0
Max. mg/l, Max.
31. Mineral Oil mg/l, Max. 0.01 0.03
32. Pesticides Absent 0.001
33. Radioactive Materials
a. Alpha Emitters, Bq/I, Max. - 0.1
b. Beta Emitters, Pci/I, Max. - 0.037
Note: * Applicable only when water is chlorinated
Source: IS: 10500, 2004

EIA study for Swastik Chemicals 3-28


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Table 3.12: Ambient Noise Levels in the Study Area


(Date of Monitoring: 08/05/2013 – 09/05/2013)

Sr. Locations Ld/Ln Applicable Noise Level


No. Standard dB(A)
dB(A)
1 Near Plant Site Ld 75.00 67.1
Ln 70.00 52.6
2 Ambheta Bus Stop Ld 65.00 60.3
Ln 55.00 48.5
3 Dahej Primary School Ld 50.00 51.8
Ln 40.00 38.2
4 Vadadla Temple Ld 50.00 52.1
Ln 40.00 39.4
5 Dahej Market Ld 65.00 61.9
Ln 55.00 41.4
6 Village Jolva Ld 55.00 54.5
Ln 45.00 42.1
7 Vadadla School Ld 50.00 55.4
Ln 40.00 38.8

Table 3.13
Ambient Air Quality Standards with respect to Noise

Category of Area Limits Leq, dB(A)


Day Time Night Time
Industrial 75 70
Commercial 65 55
Residential 55 45
Silence 50 40

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Table 3.14: Soil analysis of study area


(Date of Sampling: 08/05/2013 – 09/05/2013)
S. Parameters Unit Plant Ambheta Vadadala Dahej
No. Site
1. pH (5%)Solution - 7.8 8.2 7.9 8.2
2. Loss of Ignition % 6.9 6.3 6.1 6.8
3. Particle Size
Clay (< 0.002 mm) % 40 41 45 34
Silt (0.002 to 0.075 % 21 19 26 29
mm)
Sand (0.075-0.475 % 23 28 19 22
mm
gravel (size > 4.75 % 16 12 10 15
mm)
4. Water Holding % 35.2 35.7 41.9 40.6
Capacity
5. Permeability cm/hr 3.21 2.14 3.18 3.27
6. Bulk Density g/cm3 1.42 1.4 1.5 1.41
7. Porosity % 41.3 43.6 41.4 41.9
8. Sodium Absorption Meq/ 3.58 2.99 2.45 2.44
Ratio (SAR) 100gm
9. Sodium mg/kg 78.1 65.1 51.9 59.1
10. Potassium mg/kg 21.5 15.4 11.2 14.3
11. Calcium mg/kg 16.3 19.1 13.1 22.0
12. Magnesium mg/kg 11.8 10.1 12.5 13.5
13. Chlorides mg/kg 218 241 240 229
14. Sulphates mg/kg 205 175 200 194
15. Organic Matter mg/kg 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.7
16. Available Nitrogen mg/kg 134.6 145.7 141.0 145.1
17. Available Phosphorus mg/kg 47.5 41.2 42.5 32.5
18. Iron mg/kg 5.4 5.1 4.9 5.2

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Table 3.15
Floral Diversity
A Tree
Sr. Scientific Name Family Vernacular
No. Name
1. Delonix regia (Boj.) Raf. Caesalpiniaceae Gaulmor
2. Melia azdirachta L. Meliaceae Bakanlimdo
3. Acacia auriculiformis L. Mimosaceae Austrian baval
4. Cassia fistula L. Caesalpiniaceae Garmalo
5. Tamarindus indicum L. Caesalpiniaceae Amali
6. Mangifera indica L. Anacardiaceae Keri
7. Polyathiya Longifolia (Conn.) Annonaceae Asopalav
thw.
8. Cocos nucifera l. Arecaceae Narial
9. Phoenix sylvestris Arecaceae Kajuri
10. Terminalia catappa L. Combretaceae Badam
11. Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. Ex Malvaceae Paras piplo
Corr.
12. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Meliaceae Limbado
13. Casuarina equisetifolia L. Casuarinceae Sharu
14. Carica papaya L. Caricaceae Papaya
15. Acacia nilotica (L.) Mimosaceae Baval
16. Acacia senegal (L.) willd. Mimosaceae Goradio baval
17. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) Mimosaceae Pardesi baval
de
18. Moringa oliefera Lam Moringaceae Sargavo
19. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. Myrtaceae Jambu
20. Manilkara zapota (L.) Sapotaceae Chikoo
21. Salvadora oleoides L. Salvadoraceae Piludi
22. Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Sapotaceae Rayan
Dub.
23. Ficus religiosa L. Moraceae Piplo
24. Pongamia pinnata (L.) pierre Papilionaceae Karanj
25. Eucalyptus citriodra HK. Myrtaceae Nilgiri
26. Albizia lebbeck (L.) Bth. Mimosaceae Siris
27. Albizia procera (Roxb.) Bth. Mimosaceae Kalo siris

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28. Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Mimosaceae Gorasmli


Bth.
29. Prosopis cineraria (L.) Mimosaceae Khijado
30. Ficus benghalensis L. Moraceae Vad
31. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. Simaroubaceae Aurdso
32. Tectona grandis L.F. Verbenaceae Sag
33. Zizyphus glabrata Heyne ex Rhamnaceae Bor
Roth.

B Shrubs
Sr. Scientific Name Family Vernacular
No. Name
1. Lawasonia inermis L. Lythraceae Mendhi
2. Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae Devalo
3. Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Capparaceae Kerdo
Edgew.
4. Xanthium strumarium L. Compositae Gokhru
5. Jatropha gossypifoloia L. Euphorbiaceae Pardesidevalo
6. Thevetia peruviana merr. Apocynaceae Pili karan
7. Nerium indicum Apocynaceae Lalkaren
8. Euphorbia neriifolia L. Euphorbiaceae Thor
9. Jatropha curcas L. Euphorbiaceae Ratanjot
10. Calotropis gigantea (L.)R. br. Asclepiadaceae Akado
11. Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. Balanitaceae Ingorio
12. Opunita elatior Mill. Cactaceae Fafdo Thor
13. Hibiscus rosa sinensis Malvacea Jasund
14. Abutilon indicum (L.) Sw. Malvacea Khapat
15. Zizyphus nummularia (Burm.f.) Rhamnaceae Chanibor
W.
16. Datura metel L Solanaceae Daturo
17. Solanum incanum L Solanaceae Ubhi ringan
18. Musa paradisiaca L. Musaceae Kela
19. Prosopis juliflora DC Mimosaceae Gando baval
20. Bougainvillea spectabills wild. Nyctaginaceae Bougainvel
21. Abelomoschus manihot (L.) Malvacea Jagali bhindi
Medic.

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C Herbs
Sr. Scientific Name Family Vernacular
No. Name
1. Tridax procumbens L Astemaceae Pardesi bhangro
2. Nymphaea pubescans Willd Nymphaeaceae Kamal
3. Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. Astemaceae Bhangro
4. Amaranthus viridis L. Amaranthaceae -
5. Aloe barbadensis Mill. Liliaceae Kunvarpato
6. Trichodesma indicum L. Boraginaceae Undha fuli
7. Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) juss. Amaranthaceae -
8. Cana indica Cannaceae -
9. Echinops echinatus Roxb Astemaceae Shulio
10. Bacopa monnieri L Scrophulariaceae -
11. Hygrophila auriculata (Schum.) Acanthaceae Kanta shelio
Heine.
12. Boerhavia diffusa L. Nyctaginaceae -
13. Cortalaria medicaginea Lam Papilionaceae Ran methi
14. Sorghum bicolar L. Poaceae Jowar
(Gramineae)
15. Solanum surattense Burm. Solanaceae Bhoringini
16. Tribulus terrestris L Zygophyllaceae Gokhru
17. Nymphaea stellata Nymphaeaceae -
18. Eichhronia crassipes (Mart.) Pontederiaceae Kanphutti
19. Argemone mexicana L. Papaveraceae Darudi
20. Pennisetum typhoides (Burm.) Poaceae Bajri
(Gramineae)
21. Cassia tora L Caesalpiniceae Kuvandio
22. Suaeda nudiflora (willd ) moq. Chenopodiaceae Moras
23. Cyperus bulbosus Vahl. Cyperaceae -
24. Cyperus diffromis L. Cyperaceae -
25. Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae Damrao
(labitate)
26. Ocimum sanctum L Lamiaceae Tuli
(labitate)

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D Climbers and Twiners

Sr. Scientific Name Family Vernacular


No. Name
1. Cuscuta chinenisis Lam. Cuscutaceae Amarval
2. Ipomoea pes – tigridis L. Convolvulaceae Wagpadi
3. Ipomoea aquatica – Forsk Convolvulaceae Nali ni bhaji
4. Coccinia grandis (L.) Voight Cucurbitaceae Ghiloda
5. Ipomoea pes- caprae Convolvulaceae Dariani vel
6. Luffa cylindrica (L.) M.J. Roem Cucurbitaceae Galku

E Agriculture Crop

Sr. Scientific Name Family Vernacular


No. Name
1. Gossypium herbaceum Malvaceae Kapas
2. Cajamus cajan Fabaceae Tuver
3. Triticum aestivum Poaceae Gehu
6. Oryaza sativa Poaceae Dangar
7. Zea maize Poaceae Makai
8. Sorghum vulgare Poaceae Bajri

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Table 3.16
Faunal Biodiversity
A Birds
Sr. Scientific Name Family Common Name
No.
1. Apusapus Apodidae (swifts) Common Swift
2. Elanus caeruleus Accipitridae Black-winged Kite
3. Halcyon smyrnensis Dacelonidae White – throated
kingfisher
4. Apusaffinis Apodidae (swifts) Little Swift
5. Vanellus indicus Charadriidae Red-wattled lapwing
6. Bubulcus ibis Ardeidae Cattle Egret
7. Meropsles chenaulti Meropidae Chestnut –headed
Bee eater
8. Merops persicus Meropidae Blue cheeked eater
merops supercilisus
9. Surniculus lugubris Cuculidae Drongo cuckoo
10. Mycteria leucocephala Ciconiidae Painted stork
11. Pseudibis papillosa Threskiornithidae Red- napped Ibis
12. Columba livia Columbidae Rock pigeon
13. Streptpoe liadecaocto Columbidae Eurasian collared –
dove
14. Streptope liaorientalis Columbidae Oriental Turtle –dove
15. Streptope liachinensis Columbidae Spotted- Dove
16. Corvus splendens Corvidae House crow
17. Eudynamys scolopacea Cuculidae Asian koel
18. Corvus corax Corvidae Common Raven
19. Dicrurus macrocercus Corvidae Black drongo
Dicrurus adsimliis
20. Dendrocitta vagabunda Corvidae Rufous tree pie
21. Pavo cristatus Phasianidae Indian peafowl
22. Parus major Paridae Great Tit
23. Mesophoyx intermedia Ardeidae Intermediate Egret
Egretta intermedia

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24. Egretta garzetta Ardeidae Little Egret


25. Ardeolagrayii Ardeidae Indian pond -Heron
26. Himantopus Charadriidae Black – winged stilt
himantopus
27. Oriolus oriolus Corvidae Eurasian Golden
Oriole
28. Lanius schach Laniidae Long –tailed shrike
29. Lanius excubitor Laniidae Northern shrike
30. Indian Robin Muscicapidae Saxicoloides fulicata
31. Pied Bush chat Muscicapidae Saxicola caprata
32. Acridotheres Sturnidae Bank myna
ginginianus
33. Acridothers tristis Sturnidae Common myna
34. Turdoides striatus Sylviidae Jungle Babbler
35. Orthotomus sutorius Sylviidae Common Tailorbird
36. Pycnonotus cafer Pycnonotidae Red-vented bulbul
37. Nectarinia asiatica Nectarinildae Purple Sunbird
38. Nectarinia minima Nectarinildae Crimson-backed
sunbird
39. Passer domesticus Passeridae House sparrow
40. Pycnonotus jocosus Pycnonotidae Red- whiskered
bulbul

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

B Butterflies in the study area


Sr. Scientific Name Family Common Name
No.
1. Papilio polytes Papilionidae Mormon
2. Danaus genutia Nymphalidae Stripped Tiger
Cramer
3. Mycalesis perseus Nymphalidae Common bush brown
4. Ixias marianne Pieridae White orange tip
5. Hypolimanas misippus Nymphalidae Danaid egg fly
6. Eurema hecabe Pieridae Common Grass yellow

C Reptiles in the study area


Sr. Scientific Name Common Name
No.
1. Daboia russelii Russell’s Viper
(Shaw and Nodder)
2. Bungarus caeruleus (Schneider) Common Indian Krait
3. Varanu bengalensis (Daudin) Common Indian monitor
4. Hemidactylus flaviviridis House Gecko
(Ruppell)
5. Calotes versicolor (Daudin) Common garden lizard
6. Naja naja (Linn.) Indian Cobra
7. Sitana ponticeriana (Cuvier) Fan-Throated Lizard
8. Ptyas mucosus (Linn.) Common rat snake

D Mammals in the study area


Sr. Scientific Name Common Name
No.
1. Funambulus pennanii Five striped Palm squirrel
(Wroughton)
2. Vulpes bengalensis (Shaw) Indian Fox
3. Lepus sp. Hare
4. Herpestes edwardsi (Geoffroy) Common Mongoose
5. Boselaphus tragocamelus Nilgai
(Pallas)

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

6. Felis chaus (Guldenstaedt) Jungle cat


7. Funambulu spennanii Five striped Palm squirrel
(Wroughton)
8. Herpestes edwardsii Common Mongoose
9. Mus booduga (Gray) Indian field mouse

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Table 3.17
Land use statistics work out based on the satellite image

Sr. No. Category Area (in Ha) Area in %


1 Habitats 680 2.13
2 Industrial Area 3875 12.14
3 Salt Pan 5585 17.49
4 Agriculture Land 16425 51.43
5 River 5289 16.56
6 Creak 33 0.1
7 Water bodies 48 0.15
Total 31935 100

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Table 3.18

Land Use Pattern

Sr. Name of Total Area Irrigated Unirrigated Culturable Area not


No. Village of the by source (ha) waste available for
Village (ha) (ha) cultivation
(ha) (ha)
1 Dahej 7630.52 -- 2140.44 30.01 5178.71
2 Vadadla 679.13 -- 631.98 5.40 41.75
3 Ambheta 1516.08 -- 786.66 16.43 712.99
4 Vav 643.46 -- 586.06 14.12 43.28
5 Jolva 875.85 -- 758.68 41.90 74.27

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Table: 3.19 Summary of Socio-Economic Status (Demography)


Name of No. of Total Population Literates Total main Cultivators Agricultural Marginal Non-Worker
the House- (Including Workers Laborer Workers
Village/ holds institutional and
Town/ houseless
Ward population)
P M F M F M F M F M F M F M F
Dahej 1551 6846 3756 3090 2734 1818 2215 309 220 3 457 197 104 60 1437 2721
Vadadla 142 606 305 301 185 103 195 41 56 10 33 33 0 30 110 230
Ambheta 293 1330 695 635 538 363 338 31 25 1 92 20 9 27 348 577
Vav 133 676 355 321 278 157 196 4 134 40 61 41 24 78 135 239
Jolva 171 814 436 378 298 172 246 45 87 5 84 90 19 61 171 272

Table 3.20 Basic amenities in the study area


Name of Educational Medical Drinking Communication Transportation Approach Nearest town Power
Village Facility Facility Water (Post or Facility to and Distance Supply
Facility Telegraph) (bus etc.) Village (Kms.)
Dahej P(4),H, PHC,D, T,W,TK PTO, P BS,RS,NW PR,KR Bharuch (45) EA
AC(4),O FPC,RP,CHW
Vadadla P(2),AC CHW W,TK PO BS PR,KR Bharuch (40) EA
Ambheta P(2),AC CHW T,W,TK PO BS, NW KR, NR Bharuch (43) EA
Vav P(2),AC RP, CHW R,W,TK, -(-5 km) BS,RS PR,KR Bharuch (45) EA
HP
Jolva P(2),AC, O PHS, FPC, W,TK -(-5 km) BS, NW PR,KR Bharuch (42) EA
RP, CHW

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Abbreviations:
Educational
P - Primary School
H - Matriculation or Secondary School
Ac - Adult Literacy Class/ Centre
O - Others

Medical Facility
PHC - Primary Health Centre
PHS - Primary Health Sub-Centre
RP - Registered Private Practitioner
FPC - Family Planning Centre
CHW - Common Health Worker
D - Dispensary

Drinking Water
T - Tap Water
W - Well Water
TK - Tank water
HP - Hand Pump
R - River

Post and Telegraph


PO - Post Office
P - Phone
PTO - Post and Telegraph

Transportation
BS - Bus
RS - Railway Station
NW - Navigable Waterway

Approach to Village
KR - Kachcha Road
PR - Pucca Road
NR - Navigable River

Power Supply
EA - Electricity for all purpose

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Figure 3.6 Location of AAQM stations

Project Site
5 km

Indicating AAQM station

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Figure-3.7

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Figure: 3.8 Water sampling locations

Project Site
5 km

Indicating Water sampling location

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Figure: 3.9 Locations of Noise monitoring station

Project Site
5 km

Indicating Noise monitoring station

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Figure: 3.10 Locations of soil sampling

5 km
Project Site

Indicating location of soil sampling

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Figure: 3.11
Land use map (10 km radius map)

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Figure: 3.12
10 km radius map showing project location

10 km
Project Site

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Chapter 4
Anticipated Environmental Impacts &
Mitigation Measures
4.1 GENERAL
Prediction of impacts is an important component in Environmental
Impact Assessment process. Various techniques and methodology
involve for predicting the impact due to proposed development of the
project. Mathematical models are the best tools to quantitatively
describe the cause effect relationship between source of pollution and
different component of the Environment. The predicted impact will be
super imposed on the data of present environmental scenario of
environmental quality, to derive the ultimate scenario of environmental
conditions after the establishment of the proposed project. The
quantitative prediction of impacts led to delineation of suitable
environmental management plan needed for implementation during the
commissioning of proposed activities. Depending on the nature of the
impact, suitable management plans are develop.

With the implementation and commissioning of the proposed project,


different types of impacts of different magnitude will be cause to the
environment in around the project area. The environmental and
ecological aspects are likely to disturb because of change due to the
proposed project operation.

As such it becomes important to estimate the peak incremental


concentrations of gaseous pollutants caused due to the emissions from
the proposed plant. Chapter 2 of this report discusses the pollution
sources from the proposed plant.

There are various types of impacts arise arising due to the proposed
activities. The impact assessment has been addressed for the following
attributes, which may get affected due to the proposed activities of the
project.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

• Impact on Topography
• Impact on Air Environment
• Impact on Water Environment
• Impact on Noise
• Impact due to solid waste generation
• Impact on terrestrial ecology
• Impact on aquatic ecology
• Socio economic aspects

4.2 IMPACT ON TOPOGRAPHY


Project activities include excavation of soil in the plant area and
construction of shed and storage facilities. The area of the proposed
plant is flat terrain. During construction, excavated soil will be restored
to its original shape. Thus the impact during the construction is
reversible, for short term and insignificant.
During the operation phase of the project, no impact is envisaged on the
topography. Topographical changes will not occur during the operational
phase. Thus, topography will remain unchanged after proposed set up of
unit.

4.3 AIR ENVIRONMENT


4.3.1 CONSTRUCTION PHASE
The source of air emission during the construction will include dust from
site cleaning, excavation of the plant area, construction activity etc.
These emissions are expected to result in change in baseline air quality,
primarily in the working area only. Dust and other emissions are not
likely to spread in wider area and not affect homes and other properties.
Dust will generate within working areas and measures will be taken to
protect workers. Some fugitive emission will generate from
transportation of raw material within the plant premises for construction
and vehicular movement.
To mitigate the impact of fugitive emission due to Suspended Particulate
Matter (SPM), regular sprinkling of the water will be done along with the
construction activities and approach road will be made up to complete
construction work.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

4.3.2 OPERATIONAL PHASE


Mathematical model used for predictions of impact during construction
phase includes steady state Gaussian Plume Dispersion model.
The impacts on air quality from any project depend on various factors
like design capacity, configuration, process technology, raw material,
fuel to be used, air pollution control measures, operation and
maintenance. Apart from the above, other activities associated with any
project, viz., transportation of raw materials and finished products,
storage facilities and material handling within the plant premises may
also contribute to air pollution.

4.3.3 SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION


There will be no process gas emission, only flue gas emission due to
combustion of fuel. Flue gas stack will be attached to boiler and Thermic
fluid heater. Bio fuel (Briquette)/ Coal will be used as a fuel. Dust
collector (Bag filter) will be provided as Air Pollution Control System.
Probable emitted pollutants will be SPM, SO2 and NOx.
Unit is also proposed to install D.G. set of 120 kVA capacity to fulfill
power requirement in case of non-availability of power/emergency,
where HSD will be used as a fuel. Probable pollutants likely to emit will
be SPM, SO2 and NOx, but it will not the constant source of emission as
it will be used in case of power failure only. Estimated emission level of
SPM, SO2 and NOx is presented in Table No. 4.1.
The mathematical model that has been used for predictions on air
quality includes steady state Gaussian Plume Dispersion model designed
for multiple point sources.
Fugitive emission
Fugitive pollutant such as dust and HCl fumes is likely to emit from the
activities. However, it will be at acceptable level. Special care is also
taken while material handling and storage. Pakka road will make to
reduce the fugitive emission. Water sprinkling will be done. All the
materials will be pneumatically transfer from storage tank to reactors.
Green area will be developed around/within the premises of the
proposed project site.

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4.3.4 DISPERSION MODELLING OF EMISSIONS FROM THE PROPOSED


PLANT

The objective of dispersion modeling is to predict the ground level


concentration during the operation of proposed plant and its impact on
ambient air quality of the area. The ground level concentrations of
pollutants have been computed using computer simulation model
Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST-3) of United State
Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and considering guidelines
stipulated by CPCB for air pollution dispersion modeling.
The key emitted pollutants from the proposed plant will be Suspended
Particulate Matter (SPM), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) and Nitrogen Oxide
(NOx).

4.4 MICROMETEOROLOGY
The hourly wind speed, solar insulation and total cloudiness during day
time and wind speed and total cloudiness during night time were used
to determine the hourly atmospheric stability classes (defined by
Pasquill and Gifford as A to F, A being most unstable and F being most
stable). The hourly stability classes were determined based on the
technique suggested by Turner.
Turner’s system used for determining the stability classes is as follows:
• For day or night: If total cloud cover (TC) = 10/10 and ceiling
<7000 ft (2134 m), NR = 0
• For night-time (defined as period from one hour before sunset to
one hour after sunrise):
a) If TC<4/10, use NR = -2
b) If TC>4/10, use NR = -1
• For daytime: determine isolation class number (IN)
a) If TC<5/10, use NR = IN
b) If TC>5/10, modify IN by the sum of the following applicable
criteria
If ceiling<7000 ft (2134m), modification = -2
If ceiling>7000 ft but <16000 ft (4877 m), modification = -1

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

• If TC=10/10 and ceiling>7000 ft, modification= -1, and let


modified value of IN=NR, except for day-time NR cannot be <+1.
During the study period stability calculated based on above-mentioned
Turner method gives average stability as A-B class during Day time and
E class during Night time. The mean mixing height considered for
prediction is 100 m as mean minimum and 1200 m as mean maximum.
Average micro meteorological data of summer season, 2013 is used.
4.4.1 AIR QUALITY MODELING AND PREDICTIONS USING THE
GAUSSIAN MODEL (ISCST- 3)
The objective of dispersion modeling is to predict the ground level
concentration during the operation of proposed plant and its impact on
ambient air quality of the area.
The impact on air quality due to emissions from single source or group
of sources is evaluated by use of mathematical models. When air
pollutants are emitted into the atmosphere, they are immediately
diffused into surrounding atmosphere, transported and diluted due to
winds. The air quality models are designed to simulate these processes
mathematically and to relate emissions of primary pollutants to the
resulting downwind air quality. The input includes emissions,
meteorology and surrounding topographic details to predict the impacts
of conservative pollutants.
The impacts of air pollutants were predicted using Gaussian air
dispersion model, which is selected on the basis of existence of multiple
point sources within the industrial complex and the plain terrain at the
project site. This model has been developed to simulate the effect of
emissions from point sources on air quality. Gaussian model is
extensively used for predicting the Ground Level Concentrations (GLCs)
of conservative pollutants from point, area and volume sources. The
impacts of primary air pollutants are predicted using this air quality
model keeping in view the plain terrain at the project site. The
micrometeorological data monitored at project site during study period
have been used in this model.

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The Gaussian model provides estimates of pollutant concentrations at


various receptor locations. It is an hour-by-hour steady state Gaussian
model which takes into account the following:
• Terrain adjustments
• Stack-tip downwash
• Gradual plume rise
• Buoyancy-induced dispersion, and
• Complex terrain treatment and consideration of partial reflection
• Plume reflection off elevated terrain
• Building down wash
• Partial penetration of elevated inversions is accounted for hourly.
• Source emission rates, exit velocity and stack gas temperature.
This model was used to estimate the ambient air quality levels at
different monitoring stations due to stack emissions. Only two stability
conditions based on the meteorology aspects were used to calculate the
theoretical maximum ground level concentration. Comparing the actual
data and data generated from mathematical modeling, it highlights that
the stability condition E & A-B were predominant in the region. Using
the estimated stack emission data and wind speed directions, a
mathematical model was prepared to establish the ground level
concentration in the region.
4.4.2 METHODOLOGY
Prediction of GLC values are made by using Industrial Source Complex
Short Term Model Version-3 (ISCST-3) software approved by U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). This model uses a steady
state, sector-averaged Gaussian plume equation for application in
complex terrain (i.e. terrain stack or release height) and is run using
stability classes developed by Pasquill and Gifford.
Following are the assumptions made while using the model:
- No dry and wet depletion of pollutants
- Receptors are on flat terrain with no flag pole

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(a) Data Used for Computation


Stack emissions data have been used for prediction of short-term
incremental GLC values of SPM, SO2, NOx using the one season
meteorological data collected at site during March 16, 2013 to June
15, 2013. Details of the data used for computations are given below:
(b) Source Characteristics/Release Characteristics
The details of estimated stack emissions load are given in Table 4.1.
(c) Meteorological Parameters
Hourly meteorological data collected at site for the period of March 16,
2013 to June 15, 2013 have been used for computing the
meteorological parameters.
(d) Dispersion Modeling Results
The 24 hourly average ground level concentration (GLC) values from
proposed project have been computed for SPM, SO2 and NOx,
considering topographical features around the proposed plant and
applicable stability classes. The maximum 24 hourly average GLC values
for SPM, SO2 and NOx, from proposed plant are given in Table 4.2 to
Table 4.4. Corresponding isopleths plotted are shown in Figure 4.1 to
Figure 4.3.
4.4.3 Predicted GLCs of proposed plant
It may be noted from the computed results presented in tables that,
highest 24–hourly incremental GLC value for SPM, SO2 & NOx are 0.470
µg/m3, 0.212 µg/m3 and 0.131 µg/m3 respectively. The point of
maximum concentration by unit would be 1.41 km from centre of
industry in SE direction.

For stable conditions (night time), the plume rise will be very high and
dispersion will be very poor and plume will not touch ground level even
at extremely large distance. At any wind velocity, the concentration
peak shifts from short distance for extremely unstable stability condition
to longer distance for neutral stability condition, increase in average
wind velocity results in the shifting of concentration peaks towards
lower distances for any specified atmospheric stability condition due to
decrease in plume rise.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Since the predicted incremental GLC values are at full load operation,
added together with the background levels of SPM, SO2 and NOx remain
well below the 24-hourly National Ambient Air Quality Standards for SO2
& NOx (80 μg/m3) and PM10 (100 μg/m3), the operation of proposed
plant is not likely to cause any significant impact on the ambient air
quality of the study area. The 24-hourly average GLC Values for SPM,
SO2 and NOX are reported in Table: 4.2 to Table: 4.4.

4.5 WATER ENVIRONMENT


4.5.1 Water Demand
Construction phase
During construction activities, required quantity of water will be met
from GIDC water supply. No disposal of construction waste outside the
plant and no leaching are anticipated. Thus the quality and quantity of
ground water will not have any adverse impact during construction
phase.
Operational Phase
Water demand during operational phase will be 23.0 KLD. Out of which
fresh water demand will be 15.0 KLD and 8.0 KLD will be condensate
water from evaporator, reuse for utilities. Water will be required during
operation of the plant for following purposes:
‰ Domestic use
‰ Utilities i.e. boiler and cooling
‰ Washing
‰ Greenbelt
Raw water requirement for, proposed project of Swastik Chemicals will
be met from GIDC water supply. However, unit will also recharge
ground water through ground water recharging structures.
4.5.2 Wastewater Generation & utilization
The main source of the industrial wastewater generation will be mainly
from process; washing, utilities i.e. Boiler blow down and cooling bleed
off. The generated wastewater will be 9.0 KLD, which will be treated in
ETP and entire quantity of wastewater will be evaporated. Condensate
from the evaporator will be reused in utility i.e. boiler and cooling.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Generated sewage will be around 4 KLD, which will be disposed off to


soak pit through septic tank. Detailed wastewater management is
discussed in chapter-2 of EIA report.
4.5.3 Impact on Water Environment
The generated wastewater will be treated in ETP. After treatment, entire
quantity of wastewater will be sent to evaporator. Condensate from the
evaporator will be reused in utility i.e. boiler and cooling. Hence,
insignificant impact on water environment.

4.6 NOISE LEVEL IMPACT


4.6.1 Prediction of Impact during Construction Phase
The noise produced during construction phase may have significant
impact on ambient noise levels. Since, the proposed project will be in
the new premises; construction activities will be carried out as per the
plant design. Additional noise will be generated due to installation of
new machineries and equipments. However, these impacts will be very
minor and temporary in nature. The noise impact will be relatively more
on construction workers during their duty hours, which will be mitigated
by use of personal protective devices like ear muffs/plugs etc. All over
the impact will be very minor and temporary in nature.

4.6.2 Prediction of Impact during Operational Phase


The main sources of noise within the plants are boiler, TFH, EMS, D.G.
set, machineries, process plant etc. Suitable noise control systems will
be provided to ensure that noise does not exceed the limits. The noise
level shall, however, exceed the limits for a short period during start-up
of equipments. The other sources of noise are the movement of vehicles
along the road. However, proper noise preventive measures have been
taken to minimize the noise pollution like ear plugs, dampers to the
boilers, efficient silencers to the vehicles, etc.
The results of monitoring carried out in the region have been presented
in Chapter-3. The results are below the standards prescribed for
Industrial environment. It can be concluded that, the impact on noise
environment will be long term but insignificant. The mitigation measures
proposed for minimizing impacts of noise are provided in Chapter-10.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

4.7 LAND/SOIL ENVIRONMENT


The main source of impact on land and soil environment will be due to
construction activities in the project phase.
4.7.1 Prediction of Impacts during Construction Phase
Since, the proposed project will be in the new premises; there will be
construction activities to be carried out. There will also be installation of
new machineries and equipments. But all this would not make a huge
damage to the present condition of land. Further the area of the plant is
flat. Leveling would not be required. Thus, topography will also remain
unchanged after execution of the proposal. Thus, the impact on the
land/soil during the construction will for short terms and insignificant.
4.7.2 Prediction of Impacts during Operation Phase (Hazardous
Waste)
Hazardous waste generation will be the main source of impact on the
soil environment, during operational phase. Entire quantity of hazardous
waste will be handled and disposed as per Hazardous Waste
(Management, Handling and Trans boundary movement) Rules’2008,
amended time to time.
The main hazardous waste will be ETP sludge, evaporation salt, used oil,
discarded drums/barrels and plastic liners. The ETP sludge and
evaporation salt will be disposed off to approve TSDF site for land filling,
whereas discarded drums/barrels & plastic liners will be sold to
authorized recyclers. Used oil will be sold to registered re-refiners.
Generated ash will be sold to brick manufacturers.
Thus, after taking adequate steps for the hazardous waste storage,
there will be inadequate impact on the environment due to proposed
project activities.

4.8 SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTS: CONSTRUCTION & OPERATIONAL


PHASE
The plant technology is most modern and will require educated and
trained manpower & unskilled manpower. The surrounding area has got
good educational facilities so; mostly the employment will be from

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

surrounding area. However, some experts with requisite experience may


come from outside also.
The operation of the proposed plant may require the workforce of about
20 personnel. Thus it will boost up the commercial and economical
status of the locality to some extent. Thus, overall impacts on socio-
economic environment due to the existence of plant will be long term
and positive in nature.
In view of the above the overall impacts on socio-economic environment
due to the proposed plant are long term and positive in nature.

4.9 ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS


Impacts of the proposed project on the ecological environment like
natural vegetation, crops, fisheries and aquatic life, species diversity,
are summarized here under:
The area around the premises has dense growth of vegetation. Various
trees, shrubs and herbs are found in and around it. A list of which is
given in Chapter 3.
The high Stomata Index of Azadirachta Indica makes them susceptible
to SO2. However, the emissions from the industry will be within limits
and proper dispersion provision will be provided by adequate stack
height hence no major impact is expected from this plant.
The high SPM levels may harm leaves by blocking stomata and thus
interfering with exchange of gases during photosynthesis and
respiration and also cause abrasion of plant surfaces when the wind
blows. But the site is not subjected to high-speed winds and the plants
can be expected to be free from any major impacts of SPM. Thus, there
will not be any significant impact on ecological environment due to
proposed project activities.

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Mitigation Measures for different component

4.10 MITIGATION MEASURES DURING CONSTRUCTION:


In order to mitigate the adverse environment impact due to the
construction phase are given below:
• Regular sprinkling of the water will be recommended along with the
construction activities.
• Regular preventing maintenance of machinery and transportation of
vehicles during construction to reduce noise pollution.
• The domestic sewage generated during the construction activity will
be routed to septic tanks followed by soak pit.
• To protect the workers working in noisy area, personal protective
equipments like earmuffs/earplugs, safety shoes will be provided.
• Tree plantation will be proposed around periphery of plant premises
and along the road sides.

4.11 MITIGATION MEASURES DURING THE OPERATIONAL PHASE:


4.11.1 Measures for Air Environment
A) Stack Emission
¾ Flue gas volume should be checked for amount of air needed for the
complete combustion of the fuel.
¾ The unit will also provide adequate stack monitoring facilities for the
periodic monitoring of the stack to verify the compliance of the
stipulated norms.
¾ In order to minimize the air pollution, unit will develop green belt on
and around its premises.
B) Measures for fugitive emissions

The unit will have following measures:

¾ Pakka/concrete roads will make to reduce the fugitive emission.


Water sprinkler will be provided to reduce the dusting from road
transportation.
¾ To reduce the pollutant emission during transportation, the unit will
ensure adopting the practice of regular check up and maintenance of

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

vehicular engines for complete combustion of the fuel by the


transporters.
¾ Regular periodic monitoring of work area to check the fugitive
emission.
4.11.2 Measures for water environment

¾ Unit proposed to recharge ground water during the whole year and
especially in monsoon to balance the water table by making a
recharge sump/ structures etc. in own premises.

¾ Use of high-pressure hoses for cleaning the floor to reduce the


amount of wastewater generated.

4.11.3 Measures for hazardous/solid waste

¾ Classification of waste
¾ Collection, Storage, Transportation & disposal & sell to appropriate
recycler &/or reuse.
¾ Data Management and reporting
¾ Separate storage area
4.11.4 Measures for Noise

To minimize the noise pollution, the unit proposes the following noise
control measures,
¾ Noise suppression measures such as enclosures, buffers and/or
protective measures should be provided, if required (wherever noise
level is more than 90 dB (A)).
¾ Employees should be provided with ear protection measures like
earplugs or earmuffs. Earplug should be provided to all workers
where exposure is 85 dB (A) or more.
¾ Extensive oiling, lubrication and preventive maintenance will be
carried out for the machineries and equipments to reduce noise
generation.

4.11.5 Health & Safety measures


¾ Provision of periodic medical check up for all the employees.
¾ The unit will engage a medical officer for the regular medical
examination and treatment of the employee.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

¾ Protective equipments will be regularly checked and will be kept


easily accessible and easily workable during emergency.
¾ Various types of fire extinguishers such as (Foam type, water CO2
type, CO2 type) will be provided inside the factory premises.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Table No. 4.1


Estimated emission level
Sr. Stack Stack Velocity Stack Dia. of SPM SO2 NOX
No. attached to Temp m/s height Stack mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3
(0c) (m) (m)
1 Steam Boiler 168 9.5 30 0.450 100 50 25
2 Thermic Fluid 172 11.0 30 0.300 120 50 25
Heater
3 D.G. Set 180 15 11 0.150 80 28 32

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Table 4.2
The 24-hourly average GLC Concentration Values for SPM

RANK CONC RECEPTOR (XR,YR) TYPE RANK CONC RECEPTOR (XR,YR) TYPE
1 0.470 (1000.00, -1000.00) GC 26 0.227 ( .00, 2000.00) GC
2 0.385 (2000.00, -2000.00) GC 27 0.225 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
3 0.378 (1000.00, 1000.00) GC 28 0.224 (1000.00, .00) GC
4 0.353 (1000.00, -1000.00) GC 29 0.221 (3000.00, .00) GC
5 0.312 (1000.00, -1000.00) GC 30 0.218 (3000.00, 3000.00) GC
6 0.307 ( .00, 2000.00) GC 31 0.216 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
7 0.302 ( .00, 1000.00) GC 32 0.216 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
8 0.295 (2000.00, 2000.00) GC 33 0.214 (4000.00, -4000.00) GC
9 0.294 (1000.00, -1000.00) GC 34 0.213 ( .00, 2000.00) GC
10 0.281 (3000.00, -3000.00) GC 35 0.212 (1000.00, -1000.00) GC
11 0.274 (1000.00, .00) GC 36 0.212 (1000.00, -1000.00) GC
12 0.270 (2000.00, -2000.00) GC 37 0.210 ( .00, 2000.00) GC
13 0.268 (1000.00, -1000.00) GC 38 0.210 (1000.00, 1000.00) GC
14 0.267 (1000.00, .00) GC 39 0.210 (3000.00, .00) GC
15 0.263 (2000.00, -2000.00) GC 40 0.207 (3000.00, -3000.00) GC
16 0.261 (2000.00, .00) GC 41 0.205 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
17 0.252 ( .00, 3000.00) GC 42 0.204 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
18 0.249 (2000.00, .00) GC 43 0.203 ( .00, 4000.00) GC
19 0.244 ( .00, 2000.00) GC 44 0.198 (1000.00, -1000.00) GC
20 0.241 (2000.00, -2000.00) GC 45 0.197 (1000.00, -1000.00) GC
21 0.237 ( .00, 1000.00) GC 46 0.197 (2000.00, .00) GC
22 0.232 (1000.00, .00) GC 47 0.195 ( .00, 3000.00) GC
23 0.232 (2000.00, .00) GC 48 0.193 ( .00, 3000.00) GC
24 0.229 ( .00, 2000.00) GC 49 0.191 (3000.00, -3000.00) GC
25 0.229 (2000.00, -2000.00) GC 50 0.190 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
3
Note: Receptor Types: GC = Grid cart, Concentration in µg/m

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Table 4.3
The 24-hourly average GLC Concentration Values for SO2

RANK CONC RECEPTOR (XR,YR) TYPE RANK CONC RECEPTOR (XR,YR) TYPE
1 0.212 ( 1000.00, -1000.00) GC 26 0.103 ( 1000.00, .00) GC
2 0.177 ( 2000.00, -2000.00) GC 27 0.102 ( 3000.00, .00) GC
3 0.171 ( 1000.00, 1000.00) GC 28 0.101 ( 3000.00, 3000.00) GC
4 0.160 ( 1000.00, -1000.00) GC 29 0.100 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
5 0.142 ( 1000.00, -1000.00) GC 30 0.099 ( 4000.00, -4000.00) GC
6 0.141 ( .00, 2000.00) GC 31 0.099 ( 1000.00, .00) GC
7 0.136 ( 2000.00, 2000.00) GC 32 0.098 ( .00, 2000.00) GC
8 0.135 ( .00, 1000.00) GC 33 0.097 ( 1000.00, -1000.00) GC
9 0.133 ( 1000.00, -1000.00) GC 34 0.097 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
10 0.130 ( 3000.00, -3000.00) GC 35 0.097 ( 1000.00, -1000.00) GC
11 0.126 ( 1000.00, .00) GC 36 0.097 ( 3000.00, .00) GC
12 0.125 ( 2000.00, -2000.00) GC 37 0.096 ( 3000.00, -3000.00) GC
13 0.122 ( 2000.00, -2000.00) GC 38 0.096 ( .00, 2000.00) GC
14 0.120 ( 1000.00, -1000.00) GC 39 0.096 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
15 0.120 ( 1000.00, .00) GC 40 0.095 ( 1000.00, 1000.00) GC
16 0.119 ( 2000.00, .00) GC 41 0.094 ( .00, 4000.00) GC
17 0.116 ( .00, 3000.00) GC 42 0.092 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
18 0.114 ( 2000.00, .00) GC 43 0.091 ( 1000.00, -1000.00) GC
19 0.111 ( .00, 2000.00) GC 44 0.091 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
20 0.111 ( 2000.00, -2000.00) GC 45 0.090 ( .00, 3000.00) GC
21 0.107 ( 2000.00, .00) GC 46 0.090 ( 2000.00, .00) GC
22 0.105 ( 2000.00, -2000.00) GC 47 0.090 ( 1000.00, -1000.00) GC
23 0.105 ( .00, 1000.00) GC 48 0.089 ( .00, 3000.00) GC
24 0.105 ( .00, 2000.00) GC 49 0.089 ( 3000.00, -3000.00) GC
25 0.104 ( .00, 2000.00) GC 50 0.087 ( .00, 2000.00) GC
3
Note: Receptor Types: GC = Grid cart, Concentration in µg/m

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Table 4.4
The 24-hourly average GLC Concentration Values for NOx

RANK CONC RECEPTOR (XR,YR) TYPE RANK CONC RECEPTOR (XR,YR) TYPE
1 0.131 ( 1000.00, -1000.00) GC 26 0.061 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
2 0.103 ( 1000.00, 1000.00) GC 27 0.061 ( .00, 2000.00) GC
3 0.099 ( 2000.00, -2000.00) GC 28 0.061 ( 2000.00, .00) GC
4 0.096 ( 1000.00, -1000.00) GC 29 0.060 ( .00, 2000.00) GC
5 0.087 ( .00, 1000.00) GC 30 0.060 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
6 0.085 ( 1000.00, -1000.00) GC 31 0.059 ( 2000.00, -2000.00) GC
7 0.082 ( 1000.00, -1000.00) GC 32 0.058 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
8 0.081 ( .00, 2000.00) GC 33 0.057 ( 1000.00, 1000.00) GC
9 0.077 (1000.00, .00) GC 34 0.057 ( 1000.00, -1000.00) GC
10 0.076 (2000.00, 2000.00) GC 35 0.056 ( 3000.00, .00) GC
11 0.075 (1000.00, -1000.00) GC 36 0.056 ( .00, 2000.00) GC
12 0.072 (1000.00, .00) GC 37 0.056 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
13 0.071 (3000.00, -3000.00) GC 38 0.056 ( .00, 2000.00) GC
14 0.071 ( .00, 1000.00) GC 39 0.056 (1000.00, -1000.00) GC
15 0.069 (1000.00, .00) GC 40 0.056 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
16 0.069 (2000.00, .00) GC 41 0.056 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
17 0.069 (2000.00, -2000.00) GC 42 0.055 (1000.00, .00) GC
18 0.068 (2000.00, -2000.00) GC 43 0.055 (3000.00, 3000.00) GC
19 0.067 ( .00, 1000.00) GC 44 0.055 (1000.00, -1000.00) GC
20 0.067 (1000.00, .00) GC 45 0.054 (4000.00, -4000.00) GC
21 0.066 (2000.00, .00) GC 46 0.054 ( 3000.00, .00) GC
22 0.065 ( .00, 2000.00) GC 47 0.053 ( 2000.00, .00) GC
23 0.064 ( .00, 3000.00) GC 48 0.052 ( 1000.00, .00) GC
24 0.064 ( .00, 1000.00) GC 49 0.052 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
25 0.062 (2000.00, -2000.00) GC 50 0.052 ( .00, 1000.00) GC
3
Note: Receptor Types: GC = Grid cart, Concentration in µg/m

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Figure 4.1

Isopleths for Ground Level Concentration Values for SPM


10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

-2000

-4000

-6000

-8000

-10000
-10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

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Figure 4.2

Isopleths for Ground Level Concentration Values for SO2


10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

-2000

-4000

-6000

-8000

-10000
-10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. - Ahmedabad

Figure 4.3

Isopleths for Ground Level Concentration values for NOx


10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

-2000

-4000

-6000

-8000

-10000
-10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

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CHAPTER-5
Analysis of Alternatives
5.1 Prologue:
Alternative analysis is the process of analyzing the proposed locating for
suitability for basic necessities to operate the plant safely, this analysis
also covers the environmental aspect of pollution prevention, and
improvement in quality of life nearby the project vicinity.
M/s. Swastik Chemicals has proposed to set up Parachloro Aniline
and Parachloro Aniline Hydrochloride manufacturing plant at Plot No. D-
2/CH/86, GIDC Estate, Dahej-2, Dist: Bharuch.
As per the EIA notification, unit is covered under category 'B', Schedule
- 5(f), Synthetic organic chemicals industry (dyes & dye intermediates;
bulk drugs and intermediates excluding drug formulations; synthetic
rubbers; basic organic chemicals, other synthetic organic chemicals and
chemical intermediates) and therefore prior EC is require.
5.2 Site Alternative:
The proposed unit will be located at Plot No. D-2/CH/86, GIDC, Dahej-2,
Tal: Vagra, Dist: Bharuch.
Nearest Railway station is at Bharuch @ 36 km away from project site
and nearest airport is at Surat which is around 60 km away from the
project location. Nearest town Vagra and city Bharuch are @ 28 km and
36 km away from the project site, which is very well connected with
other parts of the country by road & rail.
The other supporting factors are briefly summarized here under,
• Availability of raw materials of proper quality and in adequate
quantity;
• Availability of suitable and adequate land;
• Availability of infrastructure facilities such as water supply, power,
roads, social infrastructure and man power;
• Good communication and transportation facilities;
• Proximity of market;

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

• No R & R will be required;


• No national park or wildlife habitat falls within 10 km radial
distance from proposed project site;
The location of project is best suited for proposed activities. So no
alternative for site is analyzed.
5.3 Alternative for technologies:

Specifics Proposed Alternatives


Technology
Water Effluent treatment ¾ Unit already has proposed adequate
plant consisting of technology for the treatment of
primary treatment industrial wastewater.
units followed by
single effect
evaporator.
There will be no any chance of failure of
Domestic wastewater
proposed technology as it is enough to
will be disposed off abate the proposed pollution load.
through septic tank.
Air Dust Collector ¾ Not recommended as Dust Collector is
(Bag Filter) satisfactory to abate the emission load.
Solid Store in storage area • Sludge and evaporation salt will be
• ETP sludge disposed off to TSDF site for land
• Evaporation filling.
salt • Spent oil will be disposed by selling to
• Spent oil registered re-refiners.
• Discarded • Discarded drums/barrels/liners will be
drums/barrels/ disposed by selling to authorize
Plastic liners recyclers.
As all above are safe disposal facilities
and also guided by authority. So no
thoughts are required for switching on
other alternative.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

CHAPTER-6
Environmental Monitoring Program
6.1 Prelude:

Environment monitoring is the sampling and analysis tool to know the


environment conditions at particular time. The record of environmental
monitoring is most important as the environmental changes are slow in
nature and impact appears after many years. Environmental Monitoring
is the technical heart of Assessment of environmental and social impacts
arising due to implementation of the proposed project. An equally
essential element of this process is to develop measures to eliminate,
offset or reduce impacts to acceptable levels during implementation and
operation of projects. The integration of such measures into project
implementation and operation is supported by clearly defining the
environmental requirements within an Environmental Management Plan
(EMP).

M/s. Swastik Chemicals proposed to set up Parachloro Aniline and


Parachloro Aniline Hydrochloride manufacturing plant. It has proposed
adequate environmental monitoring programme.

Environment Monitoring Program:

The continuous monitoring of Environmental parameters like air, water,


noise, soil and meteorological data and performance of pollution control
facilities and safety measures in the plant are vital for proper
environmental management of any industrial project. Therefore, the
company shall create environmental monitoring facilities by the
environmental and safety department to monitor air and water
pollutants as per the guideline of GPCB and CPCB. Moreover, air, water
and soil shall be monitored by out side agencies authorized by GPCB at
regular frequencies. This department shall also carry out periodical
checkup of fire and safety equipments.

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6.2 Monitoring Plan:

The basic objective of implementing a monitoring plan on a regular


basis is as follows:
¾ Know the pollution status within the plant and its vicinity.

¾ Generate data for corrective action in respect of pollution.

¾ Correlate the production operations with emission and control


mechanism.

¾ Examine the performance of pollution control system.

¾ Assess the Environmental impacts.

¾ Remedial measures and environment management plant to


reverse the impacts.

6.3 Schedules for Environment Monitoring:

The environmental monitoring will be scheduled on regular interval to


assess the conditions. The record of these monitoring will be compared
with the baseline study to know the changes in environmental
conditions. The post-project environmental monitoring suggested
herewith should be as per the following guideline. The highlights of the
integrated environmental monitoring plan are:
• The stack monitoring facilities like ladder, platform and porthole at
all the stacks will be maintained in good condition.
• Regular monitoring of all gaseous emissions from stacks/vents.
• The performance of air pollution control equipment evaluated
based on these monitoring results.
• Water consumption will be recorded daily.
• As far as possible, noise curbed at its source, with the help of
acoustic hoods and other such noise reducing equipment. Regular
noise level monitoring carried out.
• Green belt properly maintained and new plantation programmes
undertaken frequently.
• Continuous environmental awareness programmes will be carried
out for the employees and also in the surrounding villages.

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6.4 Ambient Air Quality monitoring

Schemes for monitoring of ambient air quality stack emissions and


fugitive emissions are proposed. The ambient air quality monitoring
systems are recommended for monitoring the ground level
concentrations and fugitive emissions around the plant. Unit should
install three monitoring stations around its array limit (at 1200 as per
guideline) for monitoring PM, SO2 and NOx. The combined data will
provide overall characteristic and emission from the industry. For this,
the following equipment is recommended to be procured or hire the
services from Environmental consultant by the project proponent for
implementing the above mentioned monitoring schemes:
Respirable Dust Sampler
Blower - 1.0-1.5 m3/min capacity with adapter for uniform suction
through filter and a properly calibrated manometer assembly for the
determination of flow rate through filter paper.
Rota meter - For gaseous sampling calibrated Rota meter (0-5 LPM) for
maintaining flow rate should be provided.
Main housing - The main housing should be rectangular with a stand of
about 1.25 m height. Besides this, stack emissions monitoring as per
GPCB guidelines shall be carried out.

Noise Environment
Monitoring of noise levels is essential to assess the efficacy of
maintenance schedules undertaken to reduce noise levels and noise
protection measures. A good quality digital sound pressure level meter
is essential for this purpose.

Water Environment
Entire quantity of wastewater will be collected and treated in ETP
consisting of primary treatment units and evaporated. Condensate from
evaporator will be reuse for utility. So there will be no wastewater
discharge outside the premises and unit will achieve zero discharge.

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Transportation:
All the necessary precaution will be taken while carrying out transport of
the materials as per the Hazardous rules of transportation, Central
Motor Vehicle Act-1988 & 1989. The vehicle for transportation of raw
materials and products will be parked at specified loading facilities
where there will be a provision of fire extinguishers.

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Table: 6.1 Environment Monitoring along with Frequency details

Nature of Frequency of analysis with Parameters


Analysis its analyzer
Wastewater Monthly by external agency pH, TDS, SS, Oil &
Grease, etc.
analysis
Stack Monitoring Monthly by external agency PM, SO2, NOX
of each stack
Ambient Air Monthly for 24 hours or as PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOX
Quality Monitoring per the statutory conditions
by external agency
Noise Pollution Monthly as per the statutory Near main gate, near
conditions by external agency boiler, process area,
etc.
Work area Monthly by external agency RPM, HCl fumes
monitoring
Health check up of As per the statutory guideline All workers
workers

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Table: 6.2 Measurement location, methodologies, with detailed budget &


procurement schedules

Particulars No. of Parameters Methodologies Total Budget


location Method of Method of (Rs.)
Monitoring Analysis
Stack All stacks PM, SO2, NOx Stack PM: IS 11255: 1800/stack
part-1: 1985
Monitoring of monitoring
SO2: IS 11255:
each stack kit part-2: 1985
NOx: IS
11255: part-7:
2005
Ambient Air 3 PM10, PM2.5, RDS, Fine PM2.5: IS 5182: 5500/AAQM
part-23: 2006
Quality locations SO2, NOx particulate
PM10: IS 5182:
Monitoring sampler part-23: 2006
SO2: IS 5182:
part-2: 2001
NOx: IS 5182:
part-6: 2006
Waste water 1 Sample pH, TDS, SS, -- APHA-AWWA 2000/Sample
Oil & Grease, st
Analysis 21 edition
etc.
Work zone 2 to 3 RPM, HCl Personal Gravimetric 1000/location
fugitive locations fumes Sampler

monitoring
Noise Pollution 6 to 8 -- Sound Sound Level 100/location
locations Level Meter Meter

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Chapter-7
Additional Studies (Risk Assessment)
7.1 INTRODUCTION
The risk assessment studies have been conducted for identification of
hazards, to calculate damage distances and to spell out risk mitigation
measures.
Swastik Chemicals is proposed to be located at Plot No. D-2/CH/86,
GIDC, Dahej-II, Tal: Vagra, Dist: Bharuch, Gujarat and proposes to
manufacture Parachloro Aniline and Parachloro Aniline Hydrochloride.
Unit will going to use of Hydrogen gas and HCl as raw material,
therefore risk assessment is carried for storage & Handling of Hydrogen.
7.1.1 Scope of Study
The scope of work is to carry out risk analysis of Hydrogen storage and
handling by Swastik Chemicals.
7.1.2 Study Objective
The objective of the risk analysis includes the following:
• Identification of hazards
• Selection of credible scenarios
• Consequences analysis of selected accidents scenarios
• Risk mitigation measures
7.1.3 The Study Approach
The risk assessment study is broadly comprised of the following steps:
• System Description
• Identification of Hazards
• Selection of Credible Accident Scenarios
• Consequence Analysis
• Risk Mitigation Measures
7.1.4 System Description
This step comprised the compilation of the location, design and
operational information needed for the risk analysis.
Various aspects of risk usually includes,

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ƒ Process Hazards;
ƒ Process Safety Management Systems;
ƒ Fire Protection and Emergency response equipment and programs;
ƒ Security Vulnerability;
ƒ Impact of hazards consequences (equipment damage, business
interruption, injury, fatalities);
ƒ Qualitative risk identification of scenarios involving hazardous
materials;
ƒ Risk reduction measures.
7.1.5 Identification of Hazards
Hazards associated with the plant for proposed activities were identified.
Some of the more important methods used to achieve this are:
Quantitative Risk Analysis: Provides a relative measure of the
likelihood and severity of various possible hazardous events by critically
examining the plant process and design.
Work Safety Analysis: The technique discerns whether the plant
layout and operating procedures in practice have any inherent
infirmities.
Safety Audit: Takes a careful look at plant operating conditions, work
practices and work environments to detect unsafe conditions.
Together, these three broad tools attempt to minimize the chances of
accidents occurring. Yet, there always exists, no matter how remote,
probability of occurrence of a major accident.
7.1.6 Risk Reduction Measures
Based on hazard identification and consequence analysis, risk reduction
measures were suggested to reduce risk and enhance safety at the
plant.
Other approaches are:
ƒ Hazards identification utilizing formal approach (HAZOP etc.);
ƒ Frequency Analysis. Based on past safety data (incidents/
accidents); Identifying likely pathway of failures and quantifying
the toxic/inflammable material release;

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ƒ Hazards analysis to quantify the consequences of various hazards


scenarios (fire, explosion, BLEVE, toxic vapour release etc.).
Establish minimum value for damage (e.g. IDLH, over pressure,
radiation flux) to assess the impact on environment.
ƒ Risk Quantification: Quantitative techniques are used considering
effect/ impact due to weather data, population data and frequency of
occurrences and likely hood of ignition/toxic release. Data are
analyzed considering likely damage (in terms of injury/fatality,
property damage) each scenarios is likely to cause.
7.2 PROBABLE HAZARDS & RISK
Hazard identification and risk assessment is carried out through careful
study of plant process. Concurrent study of both probability and the
consequences of an accident are carried out and the final risk
assessment is made. Since chemical & fuel posses’ different kind of
hazard, both have been separately associated. The chemicals poses
more of Occupational Health Hazard, while fuel posses more of
safety/accidental hazards. Hazard & risk assessment has been carried
out for exposure to harmful dust/vapors, liquid pool evaporation or
boiling and leakage’s in confined space.
7.3 HAZARDOUS IDENTIFICATION
A hazard is an inherent physical or chemical characteristic that has the
potential for causing harm. A hazard Identification study is an organized
effort to identify and analyze the significance of hazardous situations
associated with a process or activity. Specifically, Hazard Identification
studies are used to pinpoint weaknesses in the design and operation of
facilities that could lead to accidental chemical releases, fires, or
explosions. These studies provide organizations with information to help
them to improve the safety and manage the risk of their operations.

Hazard Identification studies usually focus on storages, process safety


issues, like the acute effects of unplanned chemical releases on plant
personnel or the public. These studies complement more traditional
industrial health and safety activities, such as protection against slips or
falls, use of personal protective equipment, monitoring for employee

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exposure to industrial chemicals, etc. Although Hazard Identification


studies typically use qualitative methods to analyze potential equipment
failures and human errors that can lead to accidents, the studies can
also highlight gaps in the management systems of an organization's
process safety program.

Techniques of Hazard Identification


Different techniques are adopted for Hazard Identification based on
hazardous substances, quantity, type of process, gravity of hazards etc.
The various techniques can be illustrated as below;
1. Personal Visits & Inspection of Plant by Team members
2. Safety Audits
3. Check lists
4. Feedback from plant personnel
5. Accident records
6. Safety Reports
7. Safety Manuals
Present Risk Assessment is carried out for considering the storage,
handling & use of Hydrogen.
7.3.1 Quantities of Hazardous Materials
Various chemicals will be used and stored at the plant in small to large
quantities as per requirement. As per Manufacture, storage and Import
of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 and amendment subsequently,
there will be only few hazardous chemicals, which have potential for
creating risk to life and property in an unlikely event of leakage or
spillage followed by fire.
The hazardous chemicals are stored at the plant in drum with adequate
dyke around storage area and bag. Details of storage of hazardous
chemicals are given in Table-7.1.
Table-7.1: Facilities for Storage of Chemicals
Name of Max. MOC Place of Operating Type of Control
Hazardous Storage Storage Parameter Hazard Measure
Chemicals Capacity Provided
Hydrogen Road skid MS Ground 5 kg/cm2 Fire & Flame-proof area
floor Ambient Explosion • Flame-proof
equipments
are used

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• Firefighting
equipment
• PPEs will be
provided
• Safety
shower, eye
wash
• provided
• Earthing-
bonding
provided for
static charge.
• Level gauge
provided.
• Tanker
unloading
procedure.
Hydrochloric 10 tone x HDPE Ground Ambient Corrosive Dyke will be
Acid 3 floor provided for 12
kl storage of HCl
with acid proof
lining.

Out of these, some hazardous chemicals requires special precaution


during handling. Important characteristics of these hazardous materials
are described in details,
7.3.2 Hazardous Substances to be handled at Swastik Chemicals
M/s. Swastik Chemicals will be engaged in the production of Para Chloro
Aniline and Para Chloro Aniline Hydrochloride. During its manufacturing,
different hazardous chemicals will be required to be handled. Important
characteristics of these hazardous materials are described in details,
(1) Hydrogen:
Hazards identification:
Physical state: Gas or Liquid.
Emergency overview Warning: Gas Contents under Pressure. Extremely
flammable Do not puncture or incinerate container. Can cause rapid
suffocation. May cause severe frostbite.
Liquid: Extremely flammable. Extremely cold liquid and gas under
pressure. Can cause rapid suffocation. May cause severe frostbite. Do
not puncture or incinerate container. Contact with rapidly expanding
gases or liquids can cause frostbite.
Routes of entry: Inhalation

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Potential acute health effects:


Eyes: Contact with rapidly expanding gas may cause burns or frostbite.
Contact with cryogenic liquid can cause frostbite and cryogenic burns.
Skin: Contact with rapidly expanding gas may cause burns or frostbite.
Contact with cryogenic liquid can cause frostbite and cryogenic burns.
Inhalation: Acts as a simple asphyxiate.
Ingestion: Ingestion is not a normal route of exposure for gases
Contact with cryogenic liquid can cause frostbite and cryogenic burns.
Medical conditions aggravated by overexposure: Acute or chronic
respiratory conditions may be aggravated by overexposure to this gas.
First Aid Measures:
No action shall be taken involving any personal risk or without suitable
training. If it is suspected that fumes are still present, the rescuer
should wear an appropriate mask or self-contained breathing apparatus.
It may be dangerous to the person providing aid to give mouth-to-
mouth resuscitation.
Eye contact: Check for and remove any contact lenses. Immediately
flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally
lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical attention immediately.
Skin contact: In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of
water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and
shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Clean shoes thoroughly before
reuse. Get medical attention immediately.
Frostbite: Try to warm up the frozen tissues and seek medical
attention.
Inhalation: Move exposed person to fresh air. If not breathing, if
breathing is irregular or if respiratory arrest occurs, provide artificial
respiration or oxygen by trained personnel. Loosen tight clothing such
as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical attention immediately.
Fire-fighting measures:
Flammability of the product: Flammable
Auto-ignition temperature: 399.85 to 573.75°C (751.7 to 1064.8°F)
Flammable limits: Lower: 4% Upper: 75%

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Fire hazards in the presence of various substances: Extremely


flammable in the presence of the following materials or conditions:
oxidizing materials.
Fire-fighting media and instructions: Use an extinguishing agent
suitable for the surrounding fire.
Apply water from a safe distance to cool container and protect
surrounding area. If involved in fire, shut off flow immediately if it can
be done without risk. Contains gas under pressure. In a fire or if heated,
a pressure increase will occur and the container may burst or explode.
Special protective equipment for fire-fighters
Fire-fighters should wear appropriate protective equipment and self-
contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) with a full face-piece operated in
positive pressure mode.
Handling and storage:
Handling: High pressure gas. Do not puncture or incinerate container.
Use equipment rated for cylinder pressure. Close valve after each use
and when empty. Protect cylinders from physical damage; do not drag,
roll, slide, or drop. Use a suitable hand truck for cylinder movement.
Never allow any unprotected part of the body to touch uninsulated pipes
or vessels that contain cryogenic liquids. Prevent entrapment of liquid in
closed systems or piping without pressure relief devices. Some materials
may become brittle at low temperatures and will easily fracture.
Storage: Cylinders should be stored upright, with valve protection cap
in place, and firmly secured to prevent falling or being knocked over.
Cylinder temperatures should not exceed 52°C (125°F).
For additional information concerning storage and handling refer to
Compressed Gas Association pamphlets P-1 Safe Handling of
Compressed Gases in Containers and P- 12 Safe Handling of Cryogenic
Liquids available from the Compressed Gas Association, Inc.
Exposure controls/personal protection
Engineering controls: Use only with adequate ventilation. Use process
enclosures, local exhaust ventilation or other engineering controls to

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keep worker exposure to airborne contaminants below any


recommended or statutory limits.
Personal protection:
Eyes: Safety eyewear complying with an approved standard should be
used when a risk assessment indicates this is necessary to avoid
exposure to liquid splashes, mists or dusts.
When working with cryogenic liquids, wear a full face shield.
Skin: Personal protective equipment for the body should be selected
based on the task being performed and the risks involved and should be
approved by a specialist before handling this product.
Respiratory: Use a properly fitted, air-purifying or air-fed respirator
complying with an approved standard if a risk assessment indicates this
is necessary. Respirator selection must be based on known or
anticipated exposure levels, the hazards of the product and the safe
working limits of the selected respirator.
Hands: Chemical-resistant, impervious gloves complying with an
approved standard should be worn at all times when handling chemical
products if a risk assessment indicates this is necessary. Insulated
gloves suitable for low temperatures.
Personal protection in case of a large spill:
Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) should be used to avoid
inhalation of the product.
Physical and chemical properties:
Molecular weight : 2.02 g/mole
Molecular formula : H2
Boiling/condensation point : -253.2°C (-423.8°F)
Melting/freezing point : -259.2°C (-434.6°F)
Critical temperature : -240.1°C (-400.2°F)
Vapor density : 0.07 (Air = 1) Liquid Density @ BP:
4.43 lb/ft3 (70.96 kg/m3)
Specific Volume (ft 3/lb) : 14.0845
Gas Density (lb/ft 3) : 0.071

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(2) Hydrochloric Acid:


Hazards Identification:
Potential Acute Health Effects:
Very hazardous in case of skin contact (corrosive, irritant, permeator),
of eye contact (irritant, corrosive) of ingestion. Slightly hazardous in
case of inhalation (lung sensitizer). Non-corrosive for lungs, Liquid or
spray mist may produce tissue damage particularly on mucous
membranes of eyes, mouth and respiratory tract. Skin contact may
produce burns. Inhalation of the spray mist may produce severe
irritation of respiratory tract, characterized by redness, watering and
itching. Skin inflammation is characterized by itching, scaling, reddening
or occasionally, blistering.
Potential Chronic Health Effects:
Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (sensitizer) The substance
may be toxic to kidneys, liver, mucous membranes, upper respiratory
tract, skin, eyes, Circulatory System, teeth. Repeated or prolonged
exposure to the substance can produce target organ damage. Repeated
or prolonged contact with spray mist may produce chronic eye irritation
and severe skin irritation. Repeated or prolonged exposure to spray mist
may produce respiratory tract irritation leading to frequent attacks of
bronchial infection. Repeated exposure to a highly toxic material may
produce general deterioration of health by an accumulation in one or
many human organs.
First Aid Measures
Eye contact: Check for and remove any contact lenses. In case of
contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15
minutes. Cold water may be used. Get medical attention immediately.
Skin Contact: In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of
water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and
shoes. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Cold water may be
used. Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse.
Get medical attention immediately.

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Serious Skin Contact: Wash with a disinfectant soap and cover the
contaminated skin with an anti-bacterial cream. Seek immediate
medical attention.
Inhalation: If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give
artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical
attention immediately.
Serious inhalation: Evacuate the victim to a safe area as soon as
possible. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. If
breathing is difficult, administer oxygen. If the victim is not breathing,
perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation when the inhaled material is
toxic, infectious or corrosive. Seek immediate medical attention.
Ingestion: If swallowed, do not induce vomiting unless directed to do
so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an
unconscious person. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or
waistband. Get medical attention immediately.
Fire and Explosion Data:
Fire Hazards in presence of Various Substances: of metals
Explosion Hazards in presence of various substance: Non-
explosive in presence of open flames and sparks, of shocks
Special remarks on fire Hazards: Non combustible. Calcium Carbide
reacts with hydrogen chloride gas with incandescence. Uranium
phosphide reacts with hydrochloric acid to release spontaneously
flammable Phosphine. Rubidium acetylene carbides burns with slightly
warm hydrochloric acid. Lithium silicide in contact with hydrogen
chlorine becomes incandescent. When dilute hydrochloric acid is used,
gas spontaneously flammable in air is evolved. Magnesium boride
treated with concentrated hydrochloric acid produces spontaneously
flammable gas. Cesium acetylene carbide burns hydrogen chloride gas.
Cesium acetylene carbide burns hydrogen chloride gas. Cesium carbides
ignite in contact with hydrochloric acid unless acid is dilute. Reacts with
most metals to produce flammable hydrogen gas.
Special Remarks on Explosion Hazards: Hydrogen chloride in
contact with the following can cause an explosion, ignition on contact, or

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other violent/vigorous reaction: Acetic Anhydride AgClO + CCl4 Alcohols


+ hydrogen cyanide, Aluminium Aluminium-titanium alloys (with HCl
vapor), 2-Amino ethanol, Ammonium hydroxide, Calcium Carbide Ca3P2
Chlorine + dinitroanilines (evolves gas), Chlorosulfonic acid Cesium
Carbide Cesium acetylene carbide, 1,1- Difluroethylene Ethylene
diamine, Ethylene imine. Fluorine, HClO4 Hexalithium disilicide H2SO4
metal acetylides or carbides, Magnesium boride, Mercuric sulfate,
Oleum, Potassium Permangate, beta-propiolactone Propylene oxide,
Rubidium Carbide, Rubidium, acetylene carbide Sodium (with aqueous
HCl), Sodium Hydroxide Sodium tetraselenium, Sulfonic acid,
Tetraselenium tetranitride, U3P4, Vinyl acetate, Silver Perchlorate with
carbon tetrachloride in the presence of hydrochloric acid produces
tricholoromethyl perchlorate which detonates at 400C.
Handling and Storage:
Precautions: Keep locked up. Keep container dry. Do not ingest. Do
not breathe gas/fumes/vapor/spray. Never add water to this product. In
case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment. If
ingested, seek medical advice immediately and show the container or
the label. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Keep away from
incompatibles such as oxidizing agents, organic materials, metals,
alkalis, Moisture. May corrode metallic surfaces. Store in a metallic or
coated fiberboard drum using a strong polyethylene inner package.
Storage: Keep container tightly closed. Keep container in a cool, well-
ventilated area.
Physical & Chemical Properties:
Physical state and appearance : Liquid
Odor : Pungent Irritating
Color : Colorless to light yellow
pH (1% soln/water) : Acidic
Boiling Point : 108.58 C @ 760 mm Hg (for
20.22% HCl in water) 83 C @ 760
mm Hg (for 31% HCl in water) 50.5
C (for 37% HCl in water)

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Melting Point : -62.250 C (-800 F) (20.69% HCl in


water) -46.20 C (31.24% HCl in
water) -25.40 C (39.17% HCl in
water)
Specific Gravity : 1.1-1.19 (water=1) 1.10 (20% and
22% HCl solutions) 1.12 (24% HCl
solution) 1.15 (29.57% HCl
solutions) 1.16 (32% HCl solution)
1.19 (37% and 38% HCl solutions)
Vapor Pressure : 16 kPa (@ 200C average)
Vapor Density : 1.267 (Air=1)
Odor Threshold : 0.25 to 10 ppm
Solubility : Soluble in cold water, hot water,
diethyl ether
Antidotes for HCl: Milk of Magnesia, Eno, Cordinol Tab, Eye Drops
7.4 Probable Hazards & Risk
From the preliminary risk assessment study carried out for M/s. Swastik
Chemicals, some of the possible hazards have been identified. The likely
accident scenarios considered are given below:
Sr. Scenario Vulnerability Remarks
No. Zone
1. Spill of Area close to Isolate the area immediately and
Acids spill area ensure no ignition source comes
nearby. Reclaim the material if possible
or cover the spill with sand/ mud/ foam
(to be safely disposed off later)
2. Storage of Fire & Flame-proof area
hydrogen Explosion • Flame-proof equipments are used
• Firefighting equipment
• PPEs will be provided
• Safety shower, eye wash
• provided
• Earthing-bonding provided for static
charge.
• Level gauge provided.
• Tanker unloading procedure.

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The above mentioned hazards scenarios can further aggravate into


much more serious incidents if not intercepted in time. The fire in one
tank of tank farm can spread to adjoining tanks and may result in
explosions. The vulnerability zone will be considerably enlarged. The
vapors of toxic fluids/dust if carried away by wind above TLV
concentrations may further enlarge the vulnerability zone.
7.5 Development of various Scenarios
The below is showing all potential incident outcomes from the release
(loss of containment) of a hazardous chemical. Further, the properties
of chemical, conditions of release etc. all influence, which of the logical
paths shown in the chart. Though, it is not detailed enough to cover all
possible permutations of phenomena that can immediately result from a
hazardous materials release.
7.6 Maximum Credible Scenario
This QRA study is carried out for Storage and unloading skid of
Hydrogen. Following maximum credible scenario is considered for this
QRA study;
Jet Fire scenario due to Catastrophic Failure of Hydrogen Gas Skid outlet
line rupture; Worst Case Scenario (WCS): 100% Catastrophic rupture of
Hydrogen Skid outlet pipeline;
Chemical Capacity Weather Overpressure Level in psi
Condition 8 3.5 1
Hydrogen 1500 m3 2/F Less than 10 16
Rack 10
Legends:
• 1.0 psi = shatters glass
• 3.5 psi = serious injury likely
• 8.0 psi = destruction of buildings
7.6.1 Catastrophic Failure of Hydrogen Skid outlet Pipe
The worst case considered is Catastrophic Rupture of outlet pipe of
Hydrogen skid. By comparing all the Pasquill stability i.e. weather
category (2/F, 2/D, 5/D) for all distances after explosion, it can be
concluded that for release of material from the Storage Tank due to
Catastrophic Rupture, can lead to the BLEVE Scenario.

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Destruction of building can be took place when overpressure level of 8.0


psi reached and this will cover the distance less than 10 meter, While
the chances of serious injury likely can be took place up to a distance of
10 m with 3.5 psi overpressure level. The chances shatter glass occurs
under the 1 psi overpressure. And it will be covering up the distance of
16 m.
7.6.2 Risk analysis
In order to do a risk analysis a typical approach is first to identify the
hazards, Hazard identification, and define Acceptance criteria for the
identified hazards. At the hydrogen refueling station the hazards may
include hydrogen leakage in the dispenser, smoking, reckless driving,
lack of maintenance, etc. When the risk related to the hazards is
assessed the result should be compared to the acceptance criteria
defined. If the results can meet the criteria the risk is by definition
acceptable. On the other hand, if the result does not meet the criteria
possible mitigation measures should be evaluated.
7.6.3 Safety Measures provided in Process
The following various safety measures will be provided at the unit;
• All the revolving & moving parts of machineries are properly
guarded.
• Electrical cables, Earthing, Earth Leakage circuit, Breakers Lighting
Arrestor, Shock proof safety equipments are provided to avoid
electrical hazards.
• All the tanks of corrosive chemicals are marked with label, capacity,
Proper material of construction, level indicator, dyke wall with acid
proof
• Brick lining, etc safety measures are provided.
• The statutory notice for acid & alkali danger is displayed in storage
area.
• Total two safety showers - Eye washers are provided, in case of any
chemical spillage on body parts.
• The vessels, Barrels, Pipeline are properly earthed and continuity test
of such earth wire is done regularly.

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• The adequate quantity of DCP, ABC type of Fire Fighting Equipments


is available.
• Overhead and underground water tank for emergency purpose is
provided.
• Lighting arrestor provided at the factory – Top.
• Workmen are well trained to use Personal Protective Equipments like
Hand Gloves, helmets, safety shoes, masks & SCBA.
• The complete plan is having total flame proof electrical fitting.
• Raw materials are stored separate as per their characteristics.
• The complete plant and storage area are declared no smoking zone
for which proper sign board, notice displayed.
• No welding cutting operation is carried out without proper care and
safety permit.
• First Aid Box, necessary Medicines etc. are provided at emergency
health centre.
• On Site Emergency Plan is prepared & Mock drill will be carried out
periodically.
• In order to overcome chemical hazard during day to day working, the
management has taken almost all precautionary measures during
various stages like design, selection of materials of constructions,
layout erection, atomization, preventative, breakdown maintenance,
etc.
• Flameproof electrical motors, switches, lights, wiring etc. are
provided in hydrogen storage & usage area.
• Earthing provided to each electrical motor, storage vessels,
equipments, storage tank, Road Tanker (Flexible) and testing is
carried out periodically.
• Flange to flange earthing jumper is provided in Hydrogen pipeline.
7.7 Safety precaution for handling and storage of hydrogen
Hydrogen (H2) is a colorless, odorless, flammable gas which is
compressed to high pressure. The flammable range of hydrogen is 4.0%
- 75.0% in air. High-pressure leaks can ignite spontaneously and burn
with a colorless flame.

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Special safety precautions for Hydrogen use can be taken by the


unit
1. MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) on Hydrogen shall be available at
site in both English and Gujarati language.
2. Safe Work Practices
• Select and use the correct regulator connector
• Check the overall condition of the regulator
• Do not use a regulator that has been used for other gases
• Leak test the connections.
• Never work on a pressurized system.
• If there is a leak, close the cylinder valve.
• Purge the system in a safe manner.
3. Handling and Storage
• Use adequate ventilation.
• Separate Hydrogen cylinders from oxygen, chlorine, and other
oxidizers by at least 6.1 meters or use an approved gas cabinet.
• Store only where temperatures will not exceed 125°F (52°C).
• The must be no sources of ignition in areas where Hydrogen is
being stored.
• Segregate empty cylinders from full cylinders.
• When a cylinder is not in use, screw the valve protection cap
firmly in place.
• Secure cylinders upright at the top and bottom. Adjust the
cylinder racks so that cylinders are tightly secured.
4. Personal Protective Equipment
Wear safety glasses when handling any compressed gas.
7.8 METHODOLOGY, APPROACH AND DAMAGE CRITERIA FOR RISK
ASSESSMENT
Consequence analysis is that part of risk analysis, which considers
individual failure cases and the damage, caused by each failure case. It
is done to predict the outcome of potentially serious hazardous
accidents to man and material in and around the plant boundary limits.
The advantages of carrying out consequence analysis are given below:

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• To improve plant layout (for new projects and for expansion of


existing one)
• To meet statutory requirements
• Protection of public in the nearby areas (no residential/ inhabited
nearby)
• Disaster management planning
• Training tool
The findings of a consequence analysis provide information about
hazardous effects resulting from an accident scenario. In addition,
Methods for dealing with possible catastrophic events are also provided.
7.8.1 Plant Leakage in Confined Space
A chemical fluid spill is a common type of process incident and can lead
to potentially serious accident. If the spilled material gives rise to
hazardous vapor or aerosol these may interact with plant environment
resulting in explosion or harm to plant’s personnel/ damage to plant
equipment/machinery (if vapours are toxic/ corrosive/inflammable).
Most chemical spills do not have such dramatic sequences but they must
all be handled carefully and correctly. Plant of Swastik Chemicals will
open with natural ventilation.
7.8.2 Damage Criteria
In order to appreciate the extent of damage produced by various
accident scenarios, it is appropriate to discuss the physiological/
physical effects of toxic fluid exposure/thermal radiation intensities due
to spillage causing subsequent fire. The thermal radiation usually results
in burn on the human body and damage to plantation. Furthermore,
inanimate objects like equipment, piping, cables, etc. may be affected
and may aggravate the situation further.
Consequence analysis has been carried out for selected failure cases.
Consequence analysis quantifies vulnerable zones for a likely incident
and once the vulnerable zone is identified for an incident, measures are
proposed to eliminate damage to plant and potential injury to personnel.

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7.9 HAZARDS DUE TO LEAKAGE OR CONTAINMENT


Major hazardous chemicals involved in the plant will be hydrogen gas
and hydrochloric acid. In the event of leakage or accidental release of
these chemicals, it will create only localized effects within the short
distances from fixed or spread pool in case of fire. Storage and handling
of hazardous chemical will not pose any hazardous situation if these are
handled or stored correctly with adequate safety provisions and fire
fighting facilities. Therefore, suitable safety measures including fire
fighting facilities will be provided at the plant to attend any emergency
due to accidental release of these hazardous chemicals.
Among the hazardous inventories, there are few potential toxic
materials that can form toxic vapour cloud in unlikely event of release.
7.10 HAZARDS DUE TO LOSS OF CONTAINMENT
In the event of leakage or accidental release of above mentioned
hazardous chemicals, it will create localized effects within the short
distances inside the plant. Adequate safety measures including fire
fighting facilities will be provided to attend any emergency for these
hazardous chemicals. Among the hazardous inventories, toxic vapour
cloud may form and move on site or even off site of the plant.
7.11 GENERAL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS & OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH:
Safety of plant personnel and equipment’s is of utmost importance
irrespective of plant size. Units should bring its environment, health and
safety policy and follow it. Proper safety procedures are being followed
as far as possible including the use of personal protective gadgets (hand
gloves, dust masks, face shield, goggles, apron etc. as required) by the
workers while charging material manually (if required) in reaction/
purification/washing/storage vessel, operating filter; flushing the
equipment or pipe line; and drawing samples for analysis to prevent
hazardous exposure to worker and to avoid spill of inflammable
chemicals. Avoid contact with the raw materials (touch, inhale or oral
route) with the use of Personal protective equipment. Prevention is
better than cure. Safety of plant personnel and equipment’s is of utmost
importance irrespective of plant size. Units should bring its

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environment, health and safety policy and follow it. Proper safety
procedures are being followed as far as possible including the use of
personal protective gadgets (hand gloves, dust masks, face shield,
goggles, apron etc. as required) by the workers while charging material
manually (if required) in reaction/purification/washing/storage vessel,
operating filter; flushing the equipment or pipe line; and drawing
samples for analysis to prevent hazardous exposure to worker and to
avoid spill of inflammable chemicals. Avoid contact with the raw
materials (touch, inhale or oral route) with the use of Personal
protective equipment. Prevention is better than cure. A schedule has
been drawn up for regular preventive maintenance of each unit and the
same needs to be faithfully followed as far as possible. All the valves,
which are prone to open and spill inflammable/toxic material due to
accident impact, must be placed with suitable guard. The unit's
management should ensure that all rotating machines and moving parts
are provided with appropriate guards and the guards are put back in the
position after check up and maintenance. All the control systems are
being periodically checked for their reliability and accuracy.
Ventilation has been provided in process area where chances of build up
of concentration of hazardous chemicals are high to prevent fire/toxic
hazard. Electrical grounding of all equipment is ensured.
Units' management has identified all hazardous chemicals in use in the
plant and prepared Safety Data Sheets for most of them. Safety Data
Sheets are quite comprehensive and provide important data/information
on physical and chemical properties, fire and explosive hazards, toxic
limits, emergency and first aid measures etc.
7.12 SPILLAGES, LEAKAGES: CONTROLS
Depending on the leaking rate/source, the following actions will be
taken:
• Isolation/cutting of supply at the leaking point, transfer to some
other vessel/equipment, and using protective appliances like hand
gloves, helmets, PVC suits etc.

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• Persons not involved in the spill should leave the area immediately.
Limit the movement of contaminated personnel until they are
monitored.
• Close off and secure the spill area to prevent entry. Cover spill with
absorbent material (unless liquid is flammable or oxidizing).
• Efforts will be made, to prevent the spread of spillage by
neutralization/ earth barriers.
• Outgoing effluents will have to be blocked and taken to effluent pit. It
will be discharged after treatment only. Continuous neutralization will
also be arranged.
• Highly inflammable chemicals will be transported by road. Therefore,
adequate safety precautions for transportation are followed. During
transportation of hazardous chemicals, MSDS & TREM card will be
provided to driver. As per Motor Vehicle Rules, PESO rules and
Factory Rules all safety precautions will be followed during
transportation of hazardous chemicals.
• Record spill details and contamination monitoring results.
7.13 SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS
• Name of the chemical along with pictorial sign denoting the
dangerous goods should be marked on the vehicle and the packing
material.
• The name of the transporter, his address and telephone number
should be clearly written on the road tanker and on the vehicle.
• The important safety precautions should be mentioned on the tanker
as a warning label.
• The tanker or vehicle should not be used to transport any material
other than what is written on it.
• Only trained drivers and cleaners should transport hazardous
chemicals.
• The transporter and the manufacturer must ensure the safe
transportation of the material.

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• The tanker should be checked for its fitness and safe condition before
loading.
• Park the vehicle at designated place. Stop the engine.
• The tanker should not be overloaded beyond the weight permitted by
R.T.O.
• Check for leakages from the line connections before starting and
stopping the filling operations. Provide earthing to tanker securely.
• Connect the piping properly. Before start unloading, check that, there
should not be any leakage.
• After unloading is over, close the lid properly.
• Vehicle to be started only after removal of all pipelines connected
with tanker.
• Drive the vehicles carefully, especially in crowded localities and on
bumpy roads.
• Do not apply sudden break.
• The tanker should not be parked for long time on the way and
especially in crowded places. Park the vehicle away from residential
areas.
7.14 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND FIRST AID MEASURES
Units are using a number of chemicals, which if handled in safe ways
with all precautions (as detailed in respective MSDS) will not cause
harm to employees. However in rare case of exposures, immediate
action is to be taken to save life and reduce the extent of damage. Unit
has first aid facilities and calling base ambulance facilities as and when
required. Industry has appointed part time doctor for periodically health
check. Instructions for immediate actions to exposures to some of the
chemicals will be given to employees.
7.15 RISK MITIGATION MEASURES
For risk mitigation/reduction, attempts should be made either to reduce
inventories that could get released in the event of loss of containment
or failure likelihoods or both as feasible. Risk analysis identifies the
major risk contributors, which enables prioritization of the plant that

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deserve special attention in terms of inspection and maintenance in


particular and over all safety management as a whole.
For the risk reduction at the plant, the following salient suggestions and
recommendations are made:
• On site and off site emergency response plan should be prepared
and circulated to concern persons.
• Personnel at the proposed plant and public in surrounding area
should be made aware about the hazardous substance stored at
the plant and risk associated with them.
• A written process safety information document should be compiled
for general use.
• The document compilation should include an assessment of the
hazards presented including (i) toxicity information (ii) permissible
exposure limits. (iii) Physical data (iv) thermal and chemical
stability data (v) reactivity data (vi) corrosivity data (vii)
information on process and mechanical design.
• The process design information in the process safety information
compilation must include P&IDs/PFDs; process chemistry;
maximum intended inventory; acceptable upper and lower limits,
pressures, flows and compositions and process design and energy
balances.
• The adequate numbers of heat and smoke detectors should be
provided at strategic locations in the plant and indication of
detectors/sensors should be provided in main control room.
• Predictive and preventive maintenance schedule should be
prepared for equipment, piping, etc. and thickness survey should
be done periodically as per standard practices.
• A written procedure (Management of Change) must be developed
to manage changes to process chemicals, technology, equipment
and procedures that affect a covered process.
• Safe work practices should be developed to provide for the control
of hazards during operation and maintenance such as: (i)
lockout/tag out (ii) Confined space entry (iii) Opening process

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equipment or piping (iv) Control over entrance into a facility by


maintenance, contractor, laboratory or other support personnel.
• Personnel engaged in handling of hazardous chemicals should be
trained to respond in an unlikely event of emergencies.
• The plant should check and ensure that all instruments provided in
the plant are in good condition and documented.
• Safety measures in the form of “DO” and “Don’t do” should be
displayed at strategic locations especially in local language and
English.
• Regular mock drills should be carried out once in every 3 months
and shortcomings should be recorded and rectified.
7.15.1 Personal Protective Equipment
Personal protective equipments are devices that are fitted and issued
to each worker personally for his or her exclusive use. They are
intended for temporary use and emergency response action only. If a
worker has to enter in a contaminated area, he must wear adequate
protective equipment. Employees should be taught when and how to
use respiratory apparatus provided, and how to recognize defects in
the equipment. Full dress escape drills should be conducted at least
once a year. If such safety equipment is not available, entry into the
contaminated area should not be attempted.
• Personal protective equipment should be easily accessible
outside the hazardous material storage area and away from
areas of likely contamination.
• Employees who work near RM storage Tank must be issued a
properly fitted cartridge type or canister type escape respirator.
• Each employee should maintain his/her personal protective
equipment clean and in working condition at all times.
• All equipments should be used and maintained in accordance
with the manufacturer’s instructions.
7.15.2 Handing of Hazards
• Personal protective equipment used by the person during handling of
hazardous chemicals, should be replaced after certain time.

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• If any spillage of hazardous chemicals, it should be cleaned and


disposed as per standard practiced.
• Empty drums of hazardous chemicals should neutralize immediate.
• Personnel engaged in handling of hazardous chemicals should be
made aware of properties of hazardous chemicals.
7.16 GENERAL WORKING CONDITIONS
(a) House Keeping
• All the passages, floors and stairways should be maintained in
good condition. The system should be available to deal with any
spillage of dry or liquid chemical at the plant.
• Sufficient disposable bins should be clearly marked and these
should be suitably located in the plant.
• Walkways should be clearly marked and free from obstructions.
• In the plant, precaution and instructions should be displayed at
strategic locations.
• All pits, sumps should be properly covered or securely fenced.
• Roads/walkway within the plant should be maintained neat and
clean.
(b) Ventilation
• Adequate ventilation should be provided in the work floor
environment.
• The work environment should be assessed and monitored
regularly.
• Local ventilation is most effective method for controlling dust and
gaseous emissions at work floor.
7.16.1 Safe Operating Procedures
• Safe operating procedures should be available for mostly all
operations and equipment.
• The workers should be informed of the consequences of failure to
observe the safe operating procedures.
7.16.2 Work Permit System
Work permit system should be followed at the plant. Hazardous work
permit should be used for hot work, electrical works, etc.

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7.16.3 Fire Protection


• The fire fighting system and equipment should be tested and
maintained as per relevant standards.
• Smoke detectors to be provided at the plant and should be
calibrated and maintained properly.
• Adequate fire fighting facilities should be available at the plant,
including, dry chemical powder type, water CO2 type, mechanical
foam type, CO2 type and sand buckets.
• Adequate numbers of fire extinguishers should be provided in
production area corridors.
• There should be structured inspection system for firefighting
facilities and equipment.
• The fire fighting system and equipment should be tested and
maintained as per relevant standards.
7.16.4 Emergency Preparedness
• On-site emergency plan should be prepared and readily available
for an unlikely event of emergency.
• Emergency telephone numbers should be available and display
properly strategic locations.
7.16.5 Static Electricity
• All equipment and storage tanks/containers of flammable
chemicals should be bounded and earthed.
• Electrical resistance for earthing circuits should be maintained.
Periodic inspections should be done for earth pit and record should
be maintained.
7.16.6 Access
• Adequate safe access should be provided to all places where
workers need to work and all such access should be in good
condition.
7.16.7 Material Handling
• Material handling areas should be clearly defined.
• The workers should be made aware about the hazards associated
with manual material handling.

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7.16.8 Communication System


• Adequate communication facilities should be available at the plant
and supported with uninterrupted power supply.
• Communication facilities should be checked periodically for its
proper functioning.
7.16.9 First Aid Facilities
• First box should be provided at strategic locations within the plant.
• At least one stature should be available in first aid room.
• List of important telephone numbers should be displayed in first
aid room.
7.16.10 Accident Reporting, Investigation and Analysis
A system should be initiated for accident and near miss reporting,
investigation and analysis. To motivate and awareness among the
personnel at the plant about safety, total accident (lost time injury)
free days can be displayed on the board prominently at strategic
location.
7.16.11 Safety Inspections
The system should be initiated for checklist based routine safety
inspection and internal audit of the plant periodically. Safety inspection
team should be formed from various disciplines and departments.
7.16.12 Safe Operating Procedures
Safe operating procedures should be formulated and updated, specific
to process & equipment and distributed to concerned plant personnel.
7.17 Do’s & Don’ts of preventive maintenance
Do
• Store in isolated space.
• Always wear safety glasses with side shields when handling or
working around gases.
• Self breathing apparatus always keep ready to meet any
emergency.
• Move cylinders by using a specifically designed cylinder cart.
• Always use self personal protective apparatus.

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• Always keep a fire extinguisher available where compressed gases


are stored.
• Mechanical ventilation process in case of gas leakages.
• Always segregate full cylinders from empty cylinders.
• Store cylinders away from electrical switches, outlets and extension
cords.
• Immediately report leaks or failures of the engineering controls.
• In case of leaks, escape-type respiratory protective equipment
should be available in the immediate work area.
• Post "NO SMOKING" sign in area.
• Use the appropriate pressure regulator. Ensure equipment is
compatible with cylinder pressure and contents.
Don’t Do
• Never store cylinders where they can come in contact with corrosive
materials.
• Never store cylinders near an electrical circuit.
• Without PPE, don’t enter in chemical storage area.
• Never use excessive force when opening of any storage tank.
• Do not use cylinders as a support, doorstop or a coat rack.
• Never remove, alter or cover cylinder labeling or markings.

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Figure-7.1
Procedure for hazard identification and risk assessment

Procedure for Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment

Risk
Evaluation
Process
Effects
Information
Study Evaluation

Process Engg.
Details (P&I)
EPP
Inventory
Identification of
Analysis
Plot Plan Hazard Prone Report
Layout Areas

FEI and DMP


Data Collection
Toxicity Index Hazardous
Physical Units
Properties of
Chemicals

Hazard
Met. Data
Survey
Risk
Mitigation
Population Data
Measures
Checklist
Approach

Past Accident
Data

Env. Opinion
Data

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CHAPTER-8
Project Benefits
8.1 Introduction
All industrial projects have positive and negative effects around nearby
locations due to its operational activities. This chapter is introduced to
highlight and focused on those points which will become beneficial to
the surrounding area or community in terms of infrastructural
development, social development, boosting employment and other
tangible benefits due to upcoming or proposed activities.
The proposed project has a potential for employment of skilled, semi-
skilled and unskilled employees during construction phase as well as
operational phase.

Followings are the benefits that surrounding area will get due to the
proposed project:

8.2 Improvements in the physical infrastructure including technical


facility aspects:
Physical infrastructure includes infrastructural & technological facilities
of the project, necessary for the operation of the unit. M/s. Swastik
Chemicals has proposed to set up Parachloro Aniline and Parachloro
Aniline Hydrochloride manufacturing unit. Unit will use modernized
technologies and infrastructural facilities. So that, nearby public or
workers will become aware to new technology launched or running in
the present market and thereby it will also helpful in increasing
knowledge of employ and surrounding people.
Followings will be other improvements in the physical infrastructure:
¾ Adoption of new technology
¾ Awareness in local educated people for new technology
¾ Improvement in local amenities facilities
¾ Improvement in road link facilities as transportation through truck
and other vehicles will increased due to new project

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¾ Improvement in local civilization


¾ Increase income of local population
¾ Nearby town will developed due to requirement of new project
8.3 Improvement in Social Infrastructure:
Due to proposed project activity, Social Infrastructure will improve by
means of Civilization, Vocational Training and Basic Amenities.
Civilization:
Due to the project, new technology, employment and other
infrastructural facilities will boost up income of surrounding people and
improve quality of life. This will indirectly boost up the civilization of the
surrounding people.
Vocational Training:
Moreover, unit will provide vocational training opportunity to the
surrounding people and greed for employment will motivate the
education activities that will leads the change in life style of the
surrounding and affected people hence social infrastructure will
improved due to the proposed project activities.
Basic Amenities:
Better education facilities, proper health care, road, infrastructure and
drinking water facilities are basic social amenities for better living
standard of any human being which will further augment the above
amenities either by providing or by improving the facilities in the area,
which will help in uplifting the living standards of local communities.
8.4 Employment potential
Due to the proposed project, infrastructure will get improved and
enhance the employment opportunity for both skilled and unskilled
person from nearby area. Direct employment as well as indirect
employment due to ancillary services will be given to the local people.
Therefore, the socio-economic status of the local people will get
improved. The details of employment opportunity during Construction
and Operation phase are discussed underneath:

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Increased employment opportunity at Construction phase:


In the construction phase, involvement of manpower will be directly and
indirectly. Thus temporary and permanent employment will be
generated during construction phase.
Unit will require around 10-15 workers during the construction phase.
Moreover, unit will offer first priority to local workers for the
employment.
Increased employment opportunity at Operation phase:

During the operation phase of project, 20 nos. of skilled and unskilled


manpower will require for routine operation of the project.

8.5 Other tangible benefits:

Give identical value to the surrounding villages or area:

Surrounding villages and area will get unique identity due to the
development of the project as the outside people come here will focus
to surrounding village to reach there.

The other ancillary facility and local house hold business will also
increase due to new settlement in nearby villages.

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CHAPTER-9
Environmental Cost Benefit Analysis
9.1 Introduction:

Environmental Cost Benefit Analysis works on theory of prices and values,


for priceless as it calculates the worth of life, nature and natural
resources.
Cost-benefit analysis offers a way of achieving superior environmental
results at a lower overall cost to society than other available approaches.
The costs and the benefits of regulation often will be realized in the
future; in such cases the numeric estimates of costs and benefits are
“discounted,” i.e. treated as equivalent to smaller amounts of money
today. Proponents of cost-benefit analysis make one basic arguments in
its favor that is use of cost-benefit analysis ostensibly leads to more
“efficient” allocation of society’s resources by better identifying which
potential regulatory actions are worth undertaking and in what manner.

9.2 Proposed Project:

Environmental Cost Benefit Analysis produces more efficient decision by


increasing monetary values of the life, health and natural resources.
Unit proposed to set up Parachloro Aniline and Parachloro Aniline
Hydrochloride manufacturing plant, which has limited impacts on
environment and has good potential for profitable business leading to
improvement of quality of life around the project location.

In order to assess the pros and cons of any particular regulatory standard
for proposed activity, cost-benefit analysis seeks to translate all relevant
considerations into monetary terms.

Here the Environmental Cost Benefit Analysis was calculated in terms of


saving life, storing up of natural resources by applying adequate
measures such as Effluent Treatment Plant, installation of APCM,
greenbelt development and rain water harvesting system.

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This pollution prevention measures will minimize effect of pollutants on


environment. These will lead to the saving of human lives and the
prevention of diseases.

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Chapter-10
Environment Management Plan
10.1 INTRODUCTION

An Environment Management Plan (EMP) has been prepared to minimize


negative impacts and is formed on the basis of prevailing environmental
conditions and likely impacts of this project on various environmental
parameters. This plan will also facilitate monitoring of environmental
parameters.

An equally essential element of this process is to develop measures to


eliminate, offset or reduce impacts to acceptable levels during
implementation and operation of project. The integration of such
measures into project implementation and operation is supported by
clearly defining the environmental requirements within an Environment
Management Plan (EMP).

EMP includes scheme for proper and scientific treatment and disposal
mechanism for air, liquid and solid hazardous pollutant, apart from this,
green belt development, safety aspects of the workers; noise control
CSR activities etc. are also included in it.

From the previous chapter, it can be said that the proposed project of
Swastik Chemicals has significantly less pollution potential. For
abatement of environmental pollution, the unit would adopt several
measures, which are summarized under in this chapter.

10.2 OBJECTIVE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

The objective of the Environmental Management Plan is summarized


hereunder,

¾ To limit/reduce the degree, extent, magnitude or duration of


adverse impacts.
¾ To treat all the pollutants i.e. liquid effluent, air emissions and
hazardous waste with adoption of adequate and efficient
technology.

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¾ To comply with all the norms and standards stipulated by Gujarat


Pollution Control Board/Central Pollution Control Board.
¾ To create good working conditions.
¾ To reduce any risk hazards and design the disaster management
plan.
¾ Continuous development and search for innovative technologies for
a cleaner and better environment.

10.3 COMPONENTS OF EMP


EMP for the proposed project of Swastik Chemicals covers following
aspects:

¾ Description of mitigation measures which are proposed for


operation phase only

¾ Description of monitoring program

¾ Institutional arrangements

¾ Implementation schedule and reporting procedures

All above aspects and objectives are kept in the view and considering
the same, EMP is prepared for two major fields,

10.3.1 Environmental Management System

M/s. Swastik Chemicals is well aware of environmental requirements


for planning and implementation of the project and set up a department
with trained personnel headed under the qualified environmental
manager. As indicated in the impact and mitigation chapter of this
report, the environmental impact due to the proposed project is very
marginal release of pollutants.

10.3.2 Environmental, Health and Safety Management System

Model EHS system suggests and addresses EMS issues such as:
- Management system expectation
- Management leadership, responsibilities and accountability
- Risk assessment and management
- Compliance and other requirements
- Personnel, training and contractor services

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- Documentation and communications


- Facilities design and construction
- Operation, maintenance and management
- Community awareness and emergency response
- EHS performance monitoring and measurement
- Incident investigation reporting and analysis
- EHS management system audit
- Management review and audit
10.3.3 Environmental Management Cell

Apart from having an environmental management plan, it is also


necessary to have a permanent organizational set up charged with the
task of ensuring effective implementation. In this effect, M/s. Swastik
Chemicals will assign responsibilities to officers from various disciplines
to co-ordinate the activities concerned with management and
implementation of environment control measures. An organogram of
Environment management is shown in Figure-10.1. Basically, this
department undertake monitoring of environmental pollution level by
measuring stack emissions, ambient air quality, effluent quality, Noise
level, etc. either departmentally or appointing external agency
whenever necessary.
10.4 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT DURING CONSTRUCTION PHASE
Swastik Chemicals through its head project contractor will provide the
necessary infrastructural facilities to the labour. The following factors
would be given consideration to maintain good environmental quality
during construction phase:
Swastik Chemicals is a proposed unit; hence excavation work will be
carried out as per requirement. There will also be installation of new
machineries and equipments that ultimately lead adverse impact on
environment. But it will be temporary in nature.
Construction for installation work shall generate noise and dust but it
will within working areas. Therefore, measures will need to taken to
protect workers. To mitigate the adverse environment impact due to the
construction phase-

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• Regular sprinkling of the water will be recommended along approach


road during construction activities.
• Regular preventive maintenance of machinery and transportation of
vehicles during construction to reduce noise pollution.
• To protect workers working in noisy area, personal protective
equipments like earmuffs/earplugs will be provided.
• Reduce the exposure time of workers to the higher noise level by job
rotation.
• Domestic sewage generated during the construction activity will be
routed to septic tanks followed by soak pit.
• Tree plantation will be proposed around periphery of plant premises
and along the road sides.
• In the construction phase, directly and indirectly manpower will be
involved. Thus temporary and permanent employment will be
generated during construction phase.
Water Environment
During construction phase, provision for infra-structural services
including water supply, sewage, drainage facilities and electrification will
be made. The construction site would be provided with suitable toilet
facilities for the workers to allow proper standards of hygiene. These
facilities would be connected to a septic tank and maintained to ensure
minimum impact on the environment.
Safety and Health during Construction Phase
Adequate space will be provided for construction of temporary sheds for
construction workers mobilized by the contractors. Unit will also supply
potable water for the construction workers. The safety department will
supervise the safe working of the contractor and their employees. Work
spots will be maintained clean, provided with optimum lighting and
enough ventilation to eliminate dust/fumes.
Socio-economic Environment
Management of M/s. Swastik Chemicals will give preference to local
people through both direct and indirect employment.

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10.5 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT DURING THE OPERATIONAL


PHASE

Environmental Management Plan of the proposed unit will comply with


the stipulated standard limits. EMP proposed for implementation is
detailed under the following heads:
♦ Air Pollution Control
♦ Wastewater Management
♦ Solid Waste Management
♦ Noise Management
♦ Greenbelt Development
♦ Occupational Safety and Health
♦ Implementation of EMP and monitoring programme
10.5.1 Air Pollution Management
A) Source of air pollution and control measures:
There will be no process gas emission. Only source of gaseous emission
will be flue gas emission due to combustion of fuel. Flue gas stack will
be attached to boiler and Thermic fluid heater. Bio fuel (Briquette)/ Coal
will be used as a fuel. Dust collector (Bag filter) will be provided as Air
Pollution Control System. Technical specification of bag filter is given in
chapter-2 of EIA report. Adequate stack height of 30 m will be
provided for proper dispersion of pollutants. Probable emitted pollutants
will be SPM, SO2 and NOx.
Unit is also proposed to install D.G. set of 120 kVA capacity to fulfill
power requirement in case of non-availability of power/emergency,
where HSD will be used as a fuel. No need to install APCM on D.G. set
as it will not be the constant source of emission as it will be used in case
of power failure only.
B) Measures to control fugitive emissions:
The fugitive dust emissions and HCl fumes from the proposed plant
would be significant and the sources will be as under:
• Raw material handling
• Transfer points
• Loading of raw materials

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

• Leakage, spillage
The unit will adopt following measures:
• All the raw materials will be pneumatically transfer to the reactor.
• Pumps, valves fitting will be kept tightly closed.
• Raw materials loading and unloading will be done in covered area.
• All the materials will be pneumatically transfer from storage tank
to reactors.
• Concrete (Pakka) roads will be made to reduce the fugitive
emissions. Sprinkling of water will be done to reduce dusting from
road transportation.
• Regular periodic monitoring of work area to check the fugitive
emission.
• Plantation will be done around the project area and along the
roads.
• To reduce the pollutant emission during transportation, the unit
will ensure the practice of regular check up and maintenance of
vehicular engines for complete combustion of the fuel with the
transporter.
10.5.2 Water Environment

Source of Water Pollution


The water requirement for the proposed activities will be met through
GIDC water supply. Total water demand (including industrial water &
domestic) will be 23.0 KLD. Out of which, total fresh water demand
will be 15.0 KLD and 8.0 KLD will be condensate water reuse for utility
(boiler and cooling make up).

Generated wastewater will be 9.0 KLD and it will be treated in ETP


consisting of primary treatment units and taken to single effect
evaporator. Condensate from the evaporator will be reused in utility
i.e. boiler and cooling. Domestic effluent will be 4.0 KLD which will be
disposed off to soak pit through septic tank.

Detailed wastewater management is discussed in chapter-2 of EIA


report.

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Water Management:

¾ Domestic effluent will be disposed off through soak pit.


¾ No wastewater discharge outside the premises.
¾ Treated water will be evaporated and condensate will be reuse in
process.
¾ Rain water harvesting system would be implemented to recharge
ground water.
10.5.3 Hazardous/Solid Waste Management:

ETP waste and evaporation salt will be sent to TSDF site. Whereas
discarded containers/barrels & plastic liners will be sold to authorized
recyclers. The used oil will be sold to registered re-refiners.
There will be also generation of fly ash from combustion of fuel which
will sell to brick manufacturer.
Entire quantity of hazardous waste will be handled and disposed as per
Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling and Trans boundary
movement) Rules’2008, amended time to time.
Hazardous/Solid Waste management includes following:
o Measures to minimize waste generation
o Operation of waste handling, treatment and disposal facilities
Swastik Chemicals will implement the following measures for
solid/hazardous waste management:
- Waste Inventory
- Classification of waste
- Packaging, storing and transporting wastes to disposal site
- Maintenance to prevent spillage and leakage
- Data Management and Reporting
- Personnel Training
The condition specified in the Authorization from GPCB shall be followed.
The manifest system shall be implemented for control and record
keeping.
Thus, after taking adequate steps for the hazardous waste storage,
there will be inadequate impact on the environment due to proposed
project activities.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

10.5.4 Noise Control Measures

The main sources of noise will be various operating equipments,


machinery from various sections of the plant. For the reduction and
control of noise level, following technological and management measures
will be considered:

¾ Noise suppression measures such as enclosures, buffers and/or


protective measures will be provided (wherever noise level is more
than 90 dB(A)).
¾ Low noise equipments will be installed and where required acoustic
enclosures will be provided.
¾ Proper lubrication of machineries.
¾ Areas of high noise level will be partitioned off.
¾ Personal Protective Equipments like ear plugs/ear muffs will be
provided to the workers working in high noise level.
¾ Acoustic laggings and silencers will be provided to equipment
wherever necessary.
¾ Workers high exposed to noise levels shall be provided with
rotational duties.
¾ All workers will be regularly checked medically for any noise related
health problems.
¾ Provision of green belt in and around the plant premises.
¾ Regular monitoring of noise level will be carried out and corrective
measures will be adapted.
By taking measures as mentioned above, it is anticipated that noise
levels in the plant will be maintained below the permissible limit.

10.6 GREEN BELT DEVELOPMENT PLAN


Total greenbelt will be developed in an area of 1650 m2. The green belt
developed by planting trees suitable for local climate. The density of
tree will be 1000 tree per acres i.e. 1 tree per 4 m2 to minimize the
effect of air and noise pollution and to improve overall environment.
These trees will be planted in open and close patches in multiple rows.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

The plantation of trees in and around the company are meant mainly to
reduce air pollution caused by factory emissions, to absorb sound, to
prevent soil erosion and to maintain aesthetic value for healthy living.
For the development of green belt, plants having big leaves are
preferred. Trees that are native of this area will be been chosen for
plantation. Plants are suitable for green belt development is ascertained
by the following characteristics:
- The plant should be fast growing.
- It should have thick canopy cover.
- It should be perennial and evergreen.
- It should have large leaf area index.
- It should be indigenous.
- It should be efficient in absorbing pollutants without significant
effects on plant growth.
The objectives of the industrial greenbelt are to improve the micro-
environment and create environmental awareness among the local
people. The success depends on the type of land available and selection
of suitable tree species for pollution control. Selection of tree species for
industrial areas is influenced by the nature of industry. The objective
will be to ensure a green cover tolerating pollutant gases and solid
particulates present in the atmosphere.
Schedule of greenbelt development
Unit proposed to undertake plantation of 330 saplings (@ 80 saplings
per year for five year.) in area of 1650 m2 during five years period.
PLANT SPECIES SUCCESSFULLY GROWING IN THE STUDY AREA
S. Species Local S. Species Local
No. Scientific Name No. Scientific Name
Name Name
1 Mangifera Mango 5 Acacia Babool
indica Nilotica
2 Azadirecta Neem 6 Delonix Regia Gulmahor
Indica
3 Cocos nucifera Nariel 7 Manilkara Chikoo
zapota
4 Polyathiya Asopalav 8 Carica papaya Papaya
Longifolia

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Design of Green Belt


As far as possible, following guidelines will be considered in green belt
development.
• The spacing between the trees will be maintained as per GPCB
guideline i.e. 1 tree/4 sqm.
• Keep spaces so that the trees may grow vertically and slight increase
the effective height of the green belt.
• The short trees (< 10 m height) will be planted in the first two rows
(towards plant side) of the green belt. The tall trees (> 10 m height)
will be planted in the outer three rows (away from plant side).
• Tall trees in one line and short trees in one line will be planted
around the production blocks to control the emissions and to reduce
the noise.
Plantation Programme
The plantation of trees in and around the company are meant mainly to
reduce air pollution caused by factory emissions, to absorb sound, to
prevent soil erosion and to maintain aesthetic value for healthy living.
Details of year wise tree plantation programme
Year Area to be No. of trees Survival
planted proposed to be
rate
(Sqm.) planted
1st 330 80 75%
2nd 330 80 75%
3rd 330 80 75%
4th 330 80 75%
5th 330 80 75%
Total 1650 400 --

Survival rate of trees and post plantation care:


Considering the availability of water and general survey of surrounding
area, the survival rate is expected to be around 75%. Moreover, the
wire net guards will be provided to protect the saplings. The same will
be properly manure and watered so that it can grow well.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Planting methodology:
The plantation shall be done in pits. Pits of about 50 cm diameter shall
be dug in grid of 0.5 m x 0.5 m up to a depth of 0.3 m. The pit shall be
refilled with soil after the planting. The sampling of healthy, nursery
raised, seedlings in polythene containers shall be transported in
baskets. Planting shall be done after first monsoon showers.
The level of soil is about 10 cm above of ground level. The soil around
the plant shall be pressed to form a low through. About 25 gm chemical
fertilizers shall be added in ring of 25 cm radius around the plant.
Watering shall be continued after plantation if any dry spells follows.
Cleaning and wedding shall be done twice during first and once during
following seasons. Planted area shall be inspected and mortality rate
ensured for each species. The dead and drying plant shall be replaced
by fresh seedlings.
Budgetary Expenditure:
Budgetary expenditure for development and establishment of greenbelts
are worked out as below:
Cost of greenbelt development
Sr. Description of Estimated Quantum Approximately
No. work rate of work cost in Rs.
Capital cost
1 Land leveling to 75/m3 100 7500
using excavated soil
inside the plant
2 Plantation cost Rs. 50/tree 400 20000
3 Grassing in vacate 40/sqm 800 32000
space (50% of
greenbelt area)
Total capital cost 59500
Operating cost
1 Maintenance cost 20/tree 80 1600
(Manure, pesticide
etc.)
2 Irrigation - - 15000
3 Salary of Gardner 6000 1 6000
Total 22600
Year wise financial provision
22600/year up to five years
6th Year and onwards: 20000/year

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

10.7 RESOURCE CONSERVATION/WASTE MINIMIZATION


The unit shall also implement the concept of waste minimization
including:
• Good House Keeping: Proper house keeping practice makes the
system easier and less costly.
• Rain water harvesting system shall be adopted to reduce the fresh
water requirement.
• Cleaner production technology shall be adopted for the resource
conservation and pollution control.
• Reuse/Recycle mechanism for generated waste by selling to
appropriate users to implement conservation strategy.
10.8 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY
The company will maintain occupational safety & health of the
employees with well defined procedures, as per ISO-14001 and OSHA-
18001. A well defined on site emergency plan, monitoring and mock
drills will be conducted regularly.
Following check-ups shall be carried out regularly to avoid occupational
hazard:
• Pre-medical check-up of the employees at the time of employment in
unit.
• Regular health check up of all the employees will be conducted.
• The first aid training shall also be given to the employees. Monitoring
of occupational hazards like noise, ventilation shall be carried out at
frequent intervals.
• Appointing the medical officer for the regular medical examination
and treatment of the employee.
The following precautions shall be taken to avoid foreseeable accident
like spillage and fire hazards and to minimize the effect of any such
accident and to combat the emergency at site level.
• Employees working in dust prone area will be provided with dust
mask. Their Lungs Function Test will be conducted on regular basis to
assess their condition for taking suitable corrective & preventive
measures.

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

• Workers working in noisy area will be provided with ear plug/ear


muffs and it will ensure that they use it regularly.
• Employees will be provided with appropriate/adequate PPEs.
• Protective equipments will be regularly checked and kept at easily
accessible place and easily workable during emergency.
• Various emergency spots in plant area will be identified and kept in
sharp and alert watch.
• Fire bucket and hose reels will be provided to withstand the fire or
explosion conditions.
• Various types of fire extinguishers such as (Foam type, water CO2
type, CO2 type) will be provided inside the factory premises.
• Regular training and awareness programmes will be conduct on
Occupational Health, Safety and Environment etc.

10.8.1 Possibility of occupational health hazard & its control


An occupational hazard is a situation with the potential to harm a
worker. Occupational hazards can be divided into two categories:
safety hazards that cause accidents that physically injuries to workers,
and health hazards which result in the development of disease.
Hazards can be rated according to the severity of the harm they cause
- a significant hazard being one with the potential to cause a critical
injury or death.
In case of Swastik Chemicals, hydrogen and HCl will be used. HCl
cause eyes and skin burns. Causes respiratory and digestive track
burns. Inhalation of HCl mist may produce severe irritation of
respiratory tract, characterized by coughing, choking or shortness of
breath. Hydrogen is extremely flammable and it can cause rapid
suffocation and cryogenic burns in eyes and skin. Acute or chronic
respiratory conditions may be aggravated by overexposure to this gas.
May cause severe frostbite.

10.8.2 Preventive Measures


The methods of protecting the work force from exposure to toxic agents
in the workplace, following measures will be adopted:

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

• Local exhaust ventilation or other engineering controls to keep


worker exposure to airborne contaminants below any statutory
limits.
• Use explosion-proof ventilation equipment.
• Personal protection - Protective clothing shall be worn, Chemical-
resistant, impervious gloves shall be worn. Vapour respirator, Self-
contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) will be used to avoid
inhalation. Face shield will be used.
• Gas detector with emergency alarm systems in confined area.
• Flush eyes and skin with plenty of water in case of contact.
• Wear washed and cleaned clothing.
Occupational surveillance involves active programmes to anticipate,
observe, measure, evaluate and control exposures to potential health
hazards in the workplace. Depending upon the occupational
environment and problem, two surveillance methods can be employed:
medical and environmental.
1. Medical surveillance is used to detect the presence or absence of
adverse health effects for an individual from occupational exposure to
contaminants, by performing medical examinations and appropriate
tests.
2. Environmental surveillance is used to document potential
exposure to contaminants for a group of employees, by measuring the
concentration of contaminants in the air, in bulk samples of materials,
and on surfaces.
10.9 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAMME
M/s. Swastik Chemicals will employ well qualified and experienced
production manager who will look out safety part. Unit will make
arrangement for part time doctor for regular checking of health of the
employees and arrange periodical safety programme to update
employee by safety experts. Annual health check up for employees will
be carried out and record will be maintained. Regular training to plant
personnel in safety, fire fighting and first aid will be provided.

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Unit will maintain a healthy work environment. This will be accomplished


through the identification, evaluation and control of workplace
environmental factors which may cause sickness, impaired health or
significant discomfort and inefficiency among workers. Environmental
factors such as noise, physical hazards and ergonomic hazards will be
monitored on a periodic basis to assist in maintaining a healthy work
environment. Hearing protection aid will be provided to workers who
work in the high noise areas, during construction of the proposed
facilities and also to those who will continue through the life of the
facility.
10.9.1 Occupational health and first aid measures
Unit will be used number of chemicals, which if handled in safe ways
with all precautions (as detailed in respective MSDS) will not cause
harm to employees. However, in rare case of exposures, immediate
action is to be taken to save life and reduce the extent of damage. Unit
has first aid facilities and calling base ambulance facilities as and when
required. Industry has appointed part time doctor for periodically health
check. Instructions for immediate actions to exposures to some of the
chemicals will be given to employees.
10.9.2 Hazard communication and chemical safety
The information on the hazards of the materials to be used will be
provided to the workers for the proposed project of Swastik Chemicals.
A hazardous chemical directory is being developed to maintain
information on hazards associated with each chemical used. Copies of
Material Safety Data Sheet for all hazardous materials at the proposed
facility will be kept at the unit and will be available for employee review.
The hazard communication program will serve as the basis for selection
of personal protective equipment such as gloves, goggles, face shields,
etc. Material handling areas will be clearly defined.

• The workers will be made aware about the hazards associated with
manual material handling.
• A written process safety information document will be compiled for
general use.

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• The document compilation will include an assessment of the hazards


presented including (i) Physical data (ii) Thermal data (iii) Process
and mechanical design.
• Personnel engaged in handling of hazard activities will be trained to
respond in an unlikely event of emergencies.
The plant will check and ensure that all instruments provided in the
plant are in good condition and documented.

10.10 PROPOSAL FOR SOCIO ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES:


Social service has always been an inherent part of the unit. Socio
economy development activities will be a part of CSR activities to be
carried by the unit. Total budget of Rs. 2.0 lakhs has been earmarked
for taking up CSR initiatives.
Following activities will be carried out as a part of socio-economic
development to considering local social need. Unit has always believed
that besides growing their businesses it is also vital to build trustworthy
and sustainable relationships with the community at large.
Agriculture Training: Considering surrounding social needs, we
proposed to organize some training programs with the help of nearby
agriculture specialists to develop their crops and productivities. Unit also
proposed to help farmer to organize periodical soil testing.
Medical Camp: Unit also proposed to contribute some fund in medical
camps and eye check-up camps etc.
Cattle camp: Unit may also donate some funds for cattle feed.
Children’s Development: Unit will also take interest in organizing
some children development programs and distribute some school kits
(school bags, books, note books, etc.) to nearby schools.
Budgetary provisions for the next five years (Every Year)
Activity Budgetary provision
(Lakhs)
Agriculture Training 0.5
Medical Camp 0.4
Cattle camp 0.3
Children’s Development 0.8

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Project authority will also carry out regular environmental awareness


program on environmental management measures being undertaken for
improving their quality of life. Unit will also provide direct and indirect
employment to people. This will enhance the economic status.
10.11 POST-PROJECT ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING
The post-project environmental monitoring suggested herewith should
be as per the guideline. The highlights of the integrated environmental
monitoring plan are:
• The stack monitoring facilities like ladder, platform and port- hole of
all the stacks should be maintained in good condition.
• Regular monitoring of all emissions from stacks.
• The performance of air pollution control equipment evaluated based
on these monitoring results.
• Water consumption in the complex should be recorded daily.
• Regular noise level monitoring will be carried out.
• Green belt should be properly maintained and new plantation
programmes undertaken frequently.
• Continued environmental awareness programmes shall be carried
out within the employees and also in the surrounding villages.
• Ground water recharging well will be developed within the industrial
premises and encouraged in the surrounding villages too. All
possible back–up and support provided to them.
10.12 ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT COST ESTIMATE
The management will spend about Rs. 15.0 lakhs as recurring cost per
annum on the pollution control measure, green belt development and
other environment management.
Recurring cost is estimated as below:
S. Description Recurring Cost
No. (Lakh/annum)
1 Air pollution Control 1.0
2 Water pollution Control 11.2
3 Noise pollution Control 0.4
4 Environment Monitoring and 1.0

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Management
5 Occupational Health 0.5
6 Green Belt Development Plan 0.3
7 Rain water harvesting system 0.6
Total cost per annum 15.0

10.13 ENVIRONMENT POLICY


Swastik chemicals proposed to set up a new unit and there will be an
Environment Policy approved by the management.
We commit ourselves to:
¾ Ensure continuous improvement in environmental performance of
our works through protective Environmental management system.
¾ Comply with applicable legal and other requirements related to
environmental aspects.
¾ Conserve the resources particularly water, power by fixing and
improving consumption norms.
¾ Concept of cleaner production will be adopted.
¾ Ensure involvement of all employees and contractors in effective
implementation of Environment Management System through
training and awareness.
¾ Promote awareness among local surrounding community for
preservation and maintaining clean environment.
10.14 REPORTING SYSTEM OF NON COMPLIANCES/VIOLATIONS OF
ENVIRONMENTAL NORMS
Company will develop reporting systems of non compliances/
violations of environmental norms to the management. The
mechanism is summarized below:
1. Identify deviation/ non-compliance/ violation of environmental
norms as lay down in Consent to operate and letter of
Environmental clearance. Record to communication/complain
received from plausible stake holder.
2. The EHS manager will identify deviation/non-compliance/ violation
from failure to comply with statutory requirements.

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3. Respond from EHS manager within reasonable time limit to concern


authorities with c/c mark to Technical head.
4. Technical head will take it in action and give necessary guideline to
comply this deviation/ non-compliance/ violation of environmental
norms. Parallel arrange budget for necessary action to comply the
condition.
5. Communication received from the EHS manager will be discussed in
technical management meeting.
6. Board discussion, Decision and Action
• The Chairperson will review the information available and take a
decision depending on the seriousness of the violation.
• The decision will be taken to ensure the compliance of non-
compliance/ violation of environmental norms and it’s
safeguarded. The decision will be taken by consensus and if no
consensus is arrived at, voting will be conducted.
• Enlist measures that would undertake to ensure that deviations/
noncompliance /violations of Environmental norms and take care
not to occur same violation in future.

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Figure 10.1
EHS Management

Plant Head

EHS Manager

Environmental
Chemist

ETP Chemist

Supervisors/
operator

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Chapter-11
Summary & Conclusion
11-1 BACKGROUND
Since India is a developing country and industries have always played
major role in the economic development of the country. Gujarat is one
of the well developed industrialized state and has significant
contribution in industrial as well as economic development of the
country.
M/s. Swastik Chemicals is a new unit and proposed to set up at Plot
No. D-2/CH/86, GIDC Estate, Dahej-2, Dist.: Bharuch, Gujarat and
proposes to manufacture Parachloro Aniline - 100 MT/Month and
Parachloro Aniline Hydrochloride - 100 MT/Month.
The total area of the premises is 5000 sqm.

11-2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Location of Project
Location details are shown in the table below:
Location Details
Particulars Details
Plot No. D-2/CH/86, GIDC Estate, Dahej-2
District Bharuch
State Gujarat
Coordinates
Latitude 21043’15.46” N
Longitude 72036’12.57” E
Nearest Railway Station Bharuch (36 km)
Nearest Airport Surat (60 km)
Nearest City Bharuch (36 km)
Nearest Town Vagra (28 km)

Site selection
The proposed unit, apart from generating direct and indirect
employment and various business opportunities will bring an overall up-

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liftment of the area and will ultimately result in its complete socio-
economic and infrastructure development.
Other supporting site specific criteria are briefly summarized here
under,
• Availability of raw materials of proper quality and in adequate
quantity;
• Availability of suitable and adequate land;
• Availability of infrastructure facilities such as water supply, power,
roads, social infrastructure and man power;
• Good communication and transportation facilities;
• Proximity of market;
• The nearest town Vagra and city Bharuch are 28 km and 36 km
away from the project site, which is very well connected with
other parts of the country by road & rail;
• No R & R will be required;
• No national park or wildlife habitat falls within 10 km radial
distance from proposed project site.
The location of project is best suited for proposed activities. So no
alternative for site is analyzed.

11-3 PROPOSED PRODUCTION CAPACITIES OF PLANT


Unit intends to set up Parachloro Aniline and Parachloro Aniline
Hydrochloride manufacturing plant. Details are given hereunder:
Magnitude of products
Sr. Name of Product Production Capacity
No. MT/Month
1. Parachloro Aniline 100
2. Parachloro Aniline Hydrochloride 100

Cost of the project


The estimated cost of the project is around Rs. 400 lakhs. Out of this,
around Rs. 40 lakhs will be invested for EMS as capital investment and
around 15.0 lakhs as recurring cost per annum.

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11-4 DESCRIPTION OF ENVIRONMENT


To predict the impact of the proposed activities on the surrounding
environment the current baseline environmental status was studied by
collecting the data and carrying out monitoring for the period of
Summer Season, 2013.
The environmental quality has been analyzed with respect to ambient
air quality, water quality, noise levels, soil characteristics, flora & fauna
and parameters concerning human interest. Based on the data, the
relevant impacts on various environmental components were also
predicted by using appropriate mathematical models as well as impact
assessment techniques. An appropriate environmental management
plan was also delineated to minimize the adverse impacts.

11-5 AIR ENVIRONMENT


The ambient air quality monitoring was carried out at six locations, to
assess the existing sub regional air quality status in summer season.
The Respirable Dust Sampler and Fine Particulate Sampler along with
the analytical methods prescribed by CPCB were used for carrying out
air quality monitoring. At all these sampling locations; PM10, PM2.5, SO2
and NOX were monitored on 24-hourly basis to enable the comparison
with ambient air quality standards prescribed by the Central Pollution
Control Board.

The data on concentrations of various pollutants were processed for


different statistical parameters like arithmetic mean, standard deviation,
minimum and maximum concentration and various percentile values.
Particulate Matter (PM10)
An average and 98th percentile value of 24-hourly PM10 values at all -the
locations ranged between 65.1-74.1 μg/m3 and 73.1-83.7 μg/m3, which
are well within the stipulated standard of CPCB i.e. 100 μg/m3.

Particulate Matter (PM2.5)


An average and 98th percentile value of 24-hourly PM2.5 values at all -the
locations ranged between 25.2-32.3 μg/m3 and 31.1-37.8 μg/m3, which
are well within the stipulated standard of CPCB i.e. 60 μg/m3.

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Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)


An average and 98th percentile value of 24-hourly SO2 value of
arithmetic mean at all the locations ranged between 11.2-14.3 μg/m3
and 14.0-18.2 μg/m3 respectively, which are well within the stipulated
standards of 80 μg/m3.
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)
An average and 98th percentile value of 24 hourly NOx value of
arithmetic mean at all the locations ranged between 12.2-15.8 μg/m3
and 15.3-19.5 μg/m3 respectively, which are much lower than the
standards i.e. 80 μg/m3, stipulated by CPCB.

11-6 WATER ENVIRONMENT


Ground water quality
Color: All the samples were found color less meeting desirable norms.
pH: All the samples meet the desirable standards (pH ranges from 7.8
to 8.0).
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): TDS in samples ranges from 958 mg/L
(Nr. Project site) to 1876 mg/L (Ambheta). All the samples were meet
the permissible limit of 2000 mg/L, (If alternate sources of potable
water are not available).
Calcium: Calcium contents in the water ranges from 39 mg/L (Dahej)
to 51 mg/L (Ambheta), all the samples were meet the permissible limit
of 200 mg/L, (If alternate sources of potable water is not available).
Magnesium: Magnesium content in the water ranges from 30 mg/L
(Dahej) to 37 mg/L (Jolva). All the samples meet the permissible limit
of 100 mg/L (if alternate source of potable water in not available).
Sulfate: Sulfate content in the water ranges from 41 mg/L (Dahej) to
105 mg/L (Jolva). All the samples meet the permissible limit of 400
mg/L for drinking water (if alternate source of potable water in not
available).
Total Alkalinity: Total alkalinity in the water samples ranges from 288
mg/L (Nr. Project site) to 359 mg/L (Ambheta). All the samples are
within the permissible limit of drinking water (600 mg/L) (if alternate
source of portable water is not available).

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Other Parameters: Potassium (ranges from 54 mg/L to 67 mg/L),


Sodium (ranges from 302 mg/L to 633 mg/L) and Chloride (ranges from
412 mg/L to 877 mg/L).
Heavy metals like copper, lead, chromium and zinc are well below to
limit in all samples.
Conclusions: Ground water samples from villages meet the permissible
limit set by the authority (BIS).

11-7 NOISE ENVIRONMENT


The Leq values of noise levels during daytime (Ld) varied between 51.8
to 67.1 dB(A). Highest Ld value was recorded near project site (67.1
dB(A)), while the Leq values of noise levels during night time (Ln) varied
between 38.2 to 52.6 dB(A). Highest Ln value was recorded near project
site (52.6 dB(A)).

11-8 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES


SOURCE OF AIR POLLUTION
There will be no process emission. Only source of gaseous emission will
be flue gas emission due to combustion of fuel. There will be installation
of two flue gas stacks, attached to boiler and thermic fluid heater. Bio
fuel (Briquette)/ Coal will be used as a fuel. However, adequate stack
height of 30 m will be provided to both the stacks for proper dispersion
of emission. Dust collector (Bag filter) will be provided as air pollution
control system. Probable emitted pollutants will be SPM, SO2 and NOx.
Unit has proposed to install D.G. set of 120 kVA capacity to fulfill power
requirement in case of non-availability of power/emergency, where HSD
will be used as a fuel.
Probable pollutants likely to emit will be SPM, SO2 and NOx, but it will
not constant source of emission as it will be used only in case of power
failure only.
Air Quality Modelling and Predictions
It is predicted that highest 24–hourly incremental GLC value for SPM,
SO2 & NOx are 0.470 µg/m3, 0.212 µg/m3 and 0.131 µg/m3 respectively.
The point of maximum concentration by unit would be 1.41 km from
centre of industry in SE direction. With this marginal contribution due to

EIA study for Swastik Chemicals 11-5


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

the proposal of the project, the levels of SPM, SO2 and NOX will be below
residential area limit prescribed by CPCB.
Water Environment
Water demand will be met through GIDC water supply. Total water
requirement will be 23.0 KLD, out of which fresh water requirement will
be 15.0 KLD and 8.0 KLD will be condensate water from evaporator,
reuse for utility (boiler and cooling make up).
The main source of the industrial wastewater generation will be from
process (water from RM), utilities i.e. boiler blow down & cooling bleed
off and washing; which will be around 9.0 KLD. Entire quantity of
wastewater will be treated in ETP consisting of primary treatment units
and taken to single effect evaporator. Condensate from the evaporator
will be reused in utility i.e. boiler and cooling.
The other source of wastewater generation will be domestic wastewater
of 4.0 KLD; which will be disposed off to soak pit through septic tank.
Hence there will not be any adverse impact on water environment.

Hazardous/Solid Waste Management


Entire quantity of hazardous waste will be handled and disposed as per
Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling and Trans boundary
movement) Rules’2008, amended time to time.
The main source of hazardous waste generation will be ETP sludge from
ETP, used oil from machineries, discarded drums/barrels & plastic liners
and evaporation salt.
ETP sludge and evaporation salt will be disposed off to approve TSDF
site for land filling, whereas discarded containers/barrels & plastic liners
will be sold to authorized recyclers. The used oil will be sold to
registered re-refiners.
There will be also generation of ash from combustion of fuel, which will
be sold to brick manufacturers.
The unit will provide isolated area for the storage of hazardous waste
and there will not be any major impact on the environment due to
hazardous waste management.

EIA study for Swastik Chemicals 11-6


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Noise Control Measures


Generation of noise will be due to the operation of boiler, TFH, process
plant, DG set, machineries and other vehicular movements. All these
sources will generate continuous noise. However, the noise transmitted
outside the plant boundary will be low because most of the noise
generating equipments will be in closed structures. The unit will provide
acoustic systems to D.G. set. However D.G. set is treated as stand-by
and usage is very less in emergency or during the power failure only.
The workers are also provided ear muff, ear plug while working at noisy
area.
Green Belt Development
Unit proposes to provide around 1650 m2 area for the greenbelt
development, which will be of 33% of total plant area.

11-9 ENVIRONMENT MONITORING PROGRAM


The details of monitoring are as below:
Nature of Frequency of analysis with Parameters
Analysis its analyzer
Wastewater Monthly by external agency pH, TDS, SS, Oil &
Grease, etc.
analysis
Stack Monitoring Monthly by external agency PM, SO2, NOX
of each stack
Ambient Air Monthly for 24 hours or as PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOX
Quality Monitoring per the statutory conditions
by external agency
Noise Pollution Monthly as per the statutory Near main gate, near
conditions by external agency boiler, process area,
etc.
Work area Monthly by external agency RPM, HCl fumes
monitoring
Health check up of As per the statutory guideline All workers
workers

EIA study for Swastik Chemicals 11-7


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

11-10 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN


Overall objective of EMP
Prevention: Measures aimed to impede the occurrence of negative
environmental impacts and/or preventing such an occurrence having
harmful environmental impacts.
Preservation: Preventing any future actions that might adversely affect
an environmental resource or attribute.
Minimization: Limiting or reducing the degree, extent, magnitude, or
duration of adverse impacts.
EMP for Swastik Chemicals for proposed project covers following
aspects:
• Description of mitigation measures
• Description of monitoring program
• Institutional arrangements
• Implementation schedule

11-11 QUALITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS


Risk analysis and study have been carried out for identification of
hazards, selection of credible scenarios, Risk Mitigation measures etc.
Qualitative risk analysis study will be followed to minimize accidents and
for safe operations. All the hazardous materials will be stored and
handled as per MSDS guidelines.

11-12 CONCLUSION
Based on the study
• There will be no major impact on water environment as generated
effluent will be treated in Effluent Treatment Plant and
evaporated. Condensate from evaporator will be reused for utility.
Domestic effluent will be disposed to soak pit through septic tank.
• Dust Collector (Bag Filter) will be used as air pollution control
system.
• There will be no process emission.
• To prevent fugitive emission, various steps will be taken like
regular sprinkling of water and making of concrete roads.

EIA study for Swastik Chemicals 11-8


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

• Adequate arrangement for handling and disposal of Hazardous/


solid waste will be made.
• Fire protection and safety measures will be provided to take care
of fire and explosion hazard.
• Suggestions of qualitative risk analysis study will be followed to
minimize accidents and for safe operations.
• Recommendations suggested in Environmental Management Plan
will be followed to minimize the impact of proposed project.

Overall, direct and indirect employment opportunities,


improvement in basic infrastructures by development of industry etc.
will be observed with negligible impact on environment.

It can be concluded that on positive implementation of mitigation


measures and environmental management plan during the construction
and operational phase, there will be negligible impact on the
environment.

EIA study for Swastik Chemicals 11-9


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

Chapter-12
Disclosure of Consultant engaged
Introduction
The profile of the consultant is given below:
About San Envirotech Private Limited
San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. is a leading multi-disciplinary testing laboratory in
Gujarat. SEPL provides testing services in the areas of environmental
assessment and analytical testing.
San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. has started work in 1990 to serve the environment as
a trustee of a next generation with a small infrastructure.
During last two decade, San has been taking care of client’s unique problems
and concerns in order to develop cost effective strategies to meet their
regulatory obligations. We focus on strategic planning and comprehensive
solutions to address both the short and long term needs of the clients.
Consequently we have developed long – term relationship with our clients to
provide them with the services necessary to meet their changing needs.

To protect and preserve the natural resources on earth for future generation,
it offers extensive consultancy services in the field of environment. With its
rich experience, multidisciplinary expertise and with the support of its state-of
the-art analytical equipment, the services offered by the division are vide
ranging and encompasses entire scope of environment management and
monitoring services. With its emphasis on quality services over the years, it
has evolved itself into a single reference point in India for comprehensive
environmental services.

The quality Policy


SAN Envirotech Pvt. Ltd. is functioning as leading environmental consultant
to fulfill the aim as to serve environment as a trustee of next generation with
small infrastructure.
We conduct analytical works pertaining to various Environmental
Parameters. We perform Effluent treatability studies also. To conduct the

EIA study for Swastik Chemicals 12-1


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad

analysis work, we follow National & International Quality Standard and update
our process regularly.
“Quality Assurance Team” always welcomes any suggestion and
feedback, to improve the Quality, Performance and Standards of the
services. These suggestion and feedback are considered for reviewing of the
services and complied immediately.
Major Milestones and Accreditation
1997-Auditors for schedule-II Industries approved by the committee of Hon.
High Court of Gujarat.
2007-Recognized laboratory under Environment Protection (EP) Act by
Government of India (GOI), currently under renewal with MoEF.
2011-Accredited by QCI/NABET, Govt. of India for EIA report preparation.
2012-Certified company under ISO 9001:2008, 14001:2004 and OHSAS
18001:2007
The list of persons involved in the preparation of present EIA/EMP report is
presented below:
Sr. Name Qualification Position Contribution Signature
No.
1. Dr. Mahendra Ph.D. Director Coordinator & expert
Sadaria for WP, AQ, AP
2. Rajesh Solanki B.E. In-house Associate
Environment expert Coordinator & Expert
(WP, AP, RH & SHW)
3. Diti Patel M.Sc. Associate Associate
(Env. Sci.) FAE Coordinator & Expert
(AP & WP)
4. Mr. Satish B.E. Civil Empanel Land Use (LU)
Borad expert expert
5. Mr. Ashwin B.Tech Empanel Expert (SC)
Sadaria (Agriculture expert
Engineering)
6. Mr. Mehul B.E. Chemical In-house Expert (AP)
Panchal expert
7. Dr. Khyati Ph.D In-house Expert (HW,EB)
Thacker expert
8. Mr. P.K. B. Tech Empanel Expert (RH)
Shrivastava (Chemical) expert
9. Mr. Hardik M.Sc. Empanel Expert (HG & GEO)
Patel (Geology) expert
10. Dr. Rupabhai Ph.D. Empanel Expert (SE)
Malakiya expert
11. Arun Kumar AMIE (Mining) Empanel Expert (NV)
Yadav expert
12. Shreya Bhatt M.Sc. (Micro) Associate Expert (WP)
FAE

EIA study for Swastik Chemicals 12-2


 
 
 
 
 
San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.-Ahmedabad

TREATABILITY STUDY

ON

EFFLUENT GENERATION

&

ADEQUACY of EMS

OF

Swastik Chemicals
Plot No. D-2/CH/86, GIDC Estate,
Dahej-2, Dist.: Bharuch, Gujarat.

Prepared by
M/s SAN ENVIROTECH PVT. LTD.
424 Medicine Market,
Paldi Cross Road,
AHMEDABAD.
Email: mahendra.sepl@gmail.com

Treatability study of M/s Swastik Chemicals, Dahej -0-


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.-Ahmedabad

1.1 INTRODUCTION

M/s. Swastik Chemicals is a new unit and proposed to set up at


Plot No. D-2/CH/86, GIDC Estate, Dahej-2, Dist.: Bharuch, Gujarat
and proposes to manufacture Parachloro Aniline-100 MT/Month and
Parachloro Aniline Hydrochloride - 100 MT/Month.
The total area of the premises is 5000 sqm.

The main object of this report is to work out the adequacy of


Effluent Treatment Plant for above product to collect the basic
information on manufacturing process and effluent generation from
production as well as proposed effluent load to find out proper
treatability and it will be submitted to SEAC/GPCB for process and
getting the EC/CTE.

San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad Conducted a Pollution Control


Study, For M/s. Swastik Chemicals to take the representative
effluent samples taken from similar production activities in Naroda
Industrial estate and prepare representative sample on the bases of
production ratio.

On the bases of mass balance, total requirement of water will be


around 23.0 m3/d, out of which fresh water requirement will be
15.0 KLD and 8.0 KLD will be condensate water from evaporator,
reuse for utility. Wastewater generation will be about 9.0 m3/d and
it will be treated in ETP and after treatment, entire quantity of
wastewater will be sent to evaporator. Condensate from the
evaporator will be reused in utility i.e. boiler and cooling.
The study has been carried out with the following.
To assess the pollution load of various sectional and combined
waste water discharge. To conduct treatability studies and evolve
an appropriate wastewater treatment system to meeting the
disposal standard of Gujarat Pollution Control Board.

Treatability study of M/s Swastik Chemicals, Dahej -1-


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.-Ahmedabad

1.2 Details of the products

Sr. Name of Product Production Capacity


No. MT/Month
1. Parachloro Aniline 100
2. Parachloro Aniline Hydrochloride 100

1.3 The Site:


Particulars Details
Plot No. D-2/CH/86, GIDC Estate, Dahej-2
District Bharuch
State Gujarat
Coordinates
Latitude 21043’15.46” N
Longitude 72036’12.57” E
Nearest Railway Station Bharuch (36 km)
Nearest Airport Surat (60 km)
Nearest City Bharuch (36 km)
Nearest Town Vagra (28 km)

1.4 Inputs:
Raw materials:
Sr. Name of Raw Materials Quantity in
No. MT/Month
Parachloro Aniline-100 MT/month
1 Para chloro Nitro benzene 125
2 Hydrogen gas 55 m3
3 Catalyst 0.003
4 Sodium carbonate 3
Parachloro Aniline Hydrochloride-100 MT/month
1 Para chloro aniline 80
2 HCl 75
3 Soda Ash 20

Treatability study of M/s Swastik Chemicals, Dahej -2-


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.-Ahmedabad

Manufacturing Process:-Manufacturing process is included as


Annexure-1
Water: Water is used as media to carry out reaction. Apart from
this, water is consumed like equipment & floor washing, Boilers,
drinking, laboratory consumption and toilet flushing. Average daily
water demand is approximately 23 m3/d, out of which fresh water
requirement will be 15.0 KLD and 8.0 KLD will be condensate
water from evaporator, reuse for utility. This entire water
requirement will be met from GIDC water supply, Dahej.
Energy: Power demand of 100 HP will be met from Daxin Gujarat
Vij Company Ltd. (DGVCL). The unit will also install a D.G. Set
(120 kVA) which will be treated as stand-by. Use of D.G. set will
be in case of power failure/emergency only.
Fuel: Bio fuel (briquettes)/coal will be used as a fuel in proposed
boiler and Thermic fluid heater @ rate of 3 TPD and 2 TPD
respectively. HSD will be used in D.G. set.
1.5 Wastes and Emissions:
Liquid Effluent: Trade effluent is mainly generated during
process and washing of equipment and floor. Other effluent
stream is boiler blow down. The maximum quantity of combined
trade effluent is 9.0 m3/d. The other source of wastewater
generation will be domestic wastewater of 4.0 KLD; which will be
disposed off to soak pit through septic tank.
The water balance diagram is enclosed as annexure–2. Effluent
will be conveyed to Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP).
Entire quantity of wastewater will be treated in ETP consisting of
primary treatment units and taken to single effect evaporator.
Condensate from the evaporator will be reused in utility i.e. boiler
and cooling. The details of treatment plant are enclosed as
Annexure-4. Sewage is treated and disposed by septic tank and
soak pit system. We have obtained effluent samples from other
industry manufacturing similar products and carried out
treatability studies. The report is enclosed as annexure-3
Treatability study of M/s Swastik Chemicals, Dahej -3-
San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.-Ahmedabad

Air Emission: Air emission is mainly caused by combustion of


Fuel in boiler and Thermic Fluid Heater. Bio fuel (Briquette)/ Coal
will be used as a fuel. In Boiler and Thermic Fluid Heater, efficient
combustion of fuel will be maintained to minimize generation of air
pollutants. Flue gases will be emitted to environment through a 30
m chimney each to ensure effective dispersion of flue gases into
environment. Details of stack/ chimney is enclosed as Annexure-
5
Hazardous Waste: Categorization of waste is done as per the
Hazardous Waste (Management, handling and Trans boundary
Movement) rules, amendment 2008. The hazardous waste
includes following Categories:
ƒ Cat. 34.3: ETP sludge from Physico-Chemical treatment of
effluent.
ƒ Cat. 5.1: Spent Oil from Reduction Gear.
ƒ Cat. 33.3: Discarded Drum of Raw materials & Plastic Liners of
Raw materials
The ETP sludge is disposed by sending it to TSDF site approved by
GPCB. The spent oil will be sold to approved re-refiner & the
discarded drums & liners will be Sold or reused to pack finished
products reused in house. Summary of Hazardous waste
generation and its disposal is enclosed as Annexure-6
Noise: Noise is mainly generated by plant machinery like
compressors and pumps & surroundings However ambient noise
levels are within prescribed limits and do not cause a nuisance in
surrounding areas.
Odour: There is no significant odour generation from plant area.
The industry has adopted good house keeping practice, proper
plant- floor drainage system and good sanitary systems for floor
cleaning. There is also no odour generation from ETP due to
efficient operations.

Treatability study of M/s Swastik Chemicals, Dahej -4-


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.-Ahmedabad

Annexure-1
Manufacturing Process:-
(1) 4 Chloro Aniline
¾ S. S. Autoclave (2 lit)
¾ 5 gm Na2CO3 dissolve in 13 ml water and taken in reactor.
¾ Add 9 gm pt/C 5% catalyst into it.
¾ Charge 500 gm previously melted PNCB in reactor with stirring.
¾ Then flush the reactor with H2 gas.
¾ H2 gas start passing in reactor.
¾ Slowly reach 11.0 kg pressure. Temperature raised itself up to
1100C.
¾ Maintain 11.0 kg pressure at 1100C temp. for about 2 ½ hrs.
¾ Then at the end of reaction, temp. start falling down itself.
¾ Stop passing of H2 gas and realized H2 from reactor carefully.
pH of reaction mass will be 6.0.
¾ Filter reaction mass at around 900C temperature.
¾ Collect catalyst from filter paper for reuse.
¾ Mixture of filter PCA and water will then distilled under vacuum.
¾ 390 gm white PCA receive with 700C set point.
Chemical Reaction:

NO 2 NH2

Pt/C 5%
+ 3H2
+ 2H2O

Cl Cl
PNCB PCA

157.5 + 6 127.5 + 36

Treatability study of M/s Swastik Chemicals, Dahej -5-


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.-Ahmedabad

Process flow diagram:

Para nitro chloro benzene Parachloro Aniline


+ Water Vacuum
+ 5% pt/c Catalyst
Distillation

Hydroginator
Distillation

Flaking

Flaker

Packing

Treatability study of M/s Swastik Chemicals, Dahej -6-


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.-Ahmedabad

(2) 4 Chloro Aniline Hydrochloride


Manufacturing Process:
¾ Take 500 ml HCl (30%) in flask.
¾ Add 400 gm PCA in it.
¾ Heat the mass to 70-750C temp.
¾ Clear solution will be stirred for ½ Hr.
¾ Then cooled it up to room temperature.
¾ White crystals obtained will be filtered.
¾ Received 488 gm PCA HCl containing about 4% moisture.

Chemical Reaction:
NH 2 HCl
NH 2

+ HCl

Cl Cl

127.5 + 36.5 164

Process flow diagram:


Glass line Reactor

Parachloro Aniline +
HCl Centrifuge

Packing

Treatability study of M/s Swastik Chemicals, Dahej -7-


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.-Ahmedabad

Annexure-2
Water Balance Diagram

Total Water requirement


15.0 fresh + 8.0 recycle =
23 KL/Day

Domestic Process Utility Washing Gardening


5.0 KLD 00 8.0* KLD 5.0 KLD 5.0 KLD

1
5 water
Loss
from RM &
5.0
Gen
KLD
Soak pit
4.0 KLD Boiler Cooling
4.0 KLD 4.0 KLD
Total
5 KLD

Blow
Ev. Loss down Bleed off
2.5 KLD 0.5 KLD 1.0 KLD

2.5

Effluent Treatment Plant


2.5+0.5+1.0+5.0 = 9.0 KLD

Condensate
Salt Single effect
water
54 kg Evaporator
recovery
9.0 KLD
8 KLD*

System
loss
0.95 KLD

Treatability study of M/s Swastik Chemicals, Dahej -8-


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.-Ahmedabad

Annexure-3
TREATEBILITY STUDIES
1. VOLUME AND CHARACTERISTIES OF WASTEWATER
Total volume of wastewater emanated from the industry is 9.0 m3/day.
Source & Volume Characteristics
Type-1 Process -2.5 m3/d As per colum-1
Type-2 Boiler Blow down and Cooling Bleed As per colum-2
off-1.5 m3/d
Type-3 Washing -5 m3/d As per colum-3
Total Equalize = 2.5+1.5+5.0=9.0 m3/d As per colum-4

Concentration of different stream of effluent


Sr. Parameters Unit Colum1 Colum2 Colum3 Colum4
No
1. pH pH 1.2 4.5 5 3.5
Unit
2. Color Co-Pt 170 35 130 125
Unit
3. SS mg/L 310 85 135 175

4. TDS mg/L 13750 5685 3975 6965

5. COD mg/L 6310 450 1855 2860

6. Oil & Grease mg/L 18.2 2.5 11.5 12

7. Ammonical mg/L 175 10 45 76


Nitrogen
Volume in m3 2.5 1.5 5.0 9.0

Treatability study of M/s Swastik Chemicals, Dahej -9-


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.-Ahmedabad

2. PRIMARY TREATMENT:
The waste sample (100 ml.) when mixed with 15 % Lime Solution. The
resultants pH was 8.5. This was taken for further treatment with Alum
as to produce good settlement.
Beaker No. 1 2 3 4
Alum Dose mg/L 10 15 20 25
Polly Electrolyte mg/L 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

The contents were stirred for 20 minutes and allowed to settle for 30
minutes. At this stage good and fast separation is observed. After
settled was taken for analysis. Following results were observed.

1. Beaker No. 1 2 3 4
2. pH 7.9 7.8 7.6 7.5
3. SS 135 108 75 68
4. COD 2209 2110 2094 2028

It is observed that high pH and alum could be effective, as suspended


solid concentration was observed low. COD reduction is also observed.
The results indicate that there is good reduction in SS and COD at the
rate of 25 mg/L. Alum dose and 4.0 mg/Lit of Polly electrolyte at pH
8.5

As unit is going to zero discharge to evaporate primary treated


effluent, hence further treatment is not required.
PROCESS OF EFLUENT TREATMENT
Wastewater generated from plant is collected in collection Tank. It is
then taken to neutralization tank where it is neutralize by hydrated
lime. Then alum/polyelectrolyte is added as coagulant into reaction
tank. After mixing, effluent is taken to primary settling tank where the
flocks are settled and the clear water is overflowed to the treated
effluent collection tank. Then entire quantity of wastewater will be sent
to evaporator. Condensate from the evaporator will be reused in

Treatability study of M/s Swastik Chemicals, Dahej - 10 -


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.-Ahmedabad

utility. Hence no wastewater discharges outside the premises. Sludge


from the bottom of the settling tank is to be taken into sludge drying
bed and disposed at approved TSDF site.
The detail Effluent Treatment Plant is given in Annexure-3.

No Parameter Before Treatment After Treatment


1. pH 3.5 7.5
2. Color 125 25
3. SS 175 68
4. TDS 6965 5630
5. COD 2860 2028
6. Oil & Grease 12 7.5
7 Ammonical 76 28
Nitrogen

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San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.-Ahmedabad

Annexure-4
Details of ETP Units
S. Particulars Dimension (m) Capacity Retention Qty.
No. time
1. Collection Tank 3.20 dia. x 2.0 m 16 m3 40 hrs 1
2. Neutralization tank 2.5 x 2.5 x 1.8 11.25 m3 24 hrs 1
3
3. Settling tank 2.0 x 2.0 x 2.1 8.4 m 20 hrs 1
3
4. Treated effluent 3.0 x 2.0 x 2.1 12.6 m 28 hrs 1
collection tank
5. Sludge drying bed 3.0 x 3.5 x 1.2 10.5 m2 - 3
Surface
area
6. Single effect 3500 Kl cattle 1.5 Kl/hr - 1
evaporator capacity with
condenser, vacuum
system and
Receiver

Treatability study of M/s Swastik Chemicals, Dahej - 12 -


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.-Ahmedabad

ETP flow diagram

Raw
Effluent

Neutralization Treated
Collection
Tank effluent
Tank
collection tank

Settling
Tank
To
evaporator
Sludge
drying bed

Sludge to
TSDF

Treatability study of M/s Swastik Chemicals, Dahej - 13 -


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.-Ahmedabad

Annexure-5
Source of Air Emission with estimated emission level

Sr. Stack Stack Velocity Stack Dia. of SPM SO2 NOX


No. attached to Temp m/s height Stack mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3
(0c) (m) (m)
1 Steam 168 9.5 30 0.450 100 50 25
Boiler
2 Thermic 172 11.0 30 0.300 120 50 25
Fluid Heater
3 D.G. Set 180 15 11 0.150 80 28 32

Treatability study of M/s Swastik Chemicals, Dahej - 14 -


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.-Ahmedabad

Annexure-6
Hazardous wastes

Sr. Type of Source Category of Quantity Disposal facility


No. Waste Waste as
per
HWM Rules
2008
1. Chemical ETP 34.3 10 Collection, storage,
Sludge and MT/month transportation and will
and evaporator be sent to TSDF site
Evaporation 1.5 for land filling
salt MT/month approved by GPCB.
2. Used Oil Machineries 5.1 0.2 Collection, storage,
MT/yr. disposal by selling to
approved re-refiners.
3. Discarded Raw 33.3 20 Collection, storage,
containers/ material Nos./month Reuse/sold to approve

barrels/ recycler.
0.1
liners MT/month

Treatability study of M/s Swastik Chemicals, Dahej - 15 -


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.-Ahmedabad

CONCLUSION
Looking to the above survey and analysis, the major source of water
pollution is from process and utilities. So proposed pollution control
system is adequate to take care of the pollutant load which will be
generated from proposed activities is appropriate to achieve zero
discharge of effluent.

Treatability study of M/s Swastik Chemicals, Dahej - 16 -


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.-Ahmedabad

TO WHOMSOEVER IT MAY CONCERN


M/s. Swastik Chemicals is a proposed unit envisages producing Chemical
Products like Parachloro Aniline-100 MT/month & Parachloro Aniline
Hydrochloride-100 MT/month. The unit is located at Plot No. D-2/CH/86,
GIDC Estate, Dahej-2, Dist.: Bharuch, Gujarat.
The production and pollution load status worked out as under.
A) PRODUCTION:
Sr. Type of Products Quantity in
No. MT/Month
1 Parachloro Aniline 100
2 Parachloro Aniline Hydrochloride 100
B) EFFLUENT LOAD:
Under the proposed circumstances wastewater generation will be around
tune around 9.0 m3/d. Pl. refer Annexure-3
C) DETAILS OF ETP
Details of ETP is discussed in Annexure-4
D) AIR POLLUTION POTENTIAL:
Details of Air pollution potential is discussed in Annexure-5
E) SOLID WASTE:-
Details of waste generation and its disposal is discussed in Annexure-6

Looking to the above, Effluent treatment facilities and its disposal,


Environmental Management System provided by this industry for the
products and capacity certify as stated above is adequate to achieve the
quality of effluent(Air + Wastewater + Solid waste) as specified by the
Gujarat Pollution Control Board.

This certificate is subjected to automatically cancellation in case of any


change in product profile / capacity, quality & quantity of effluents (Air +
Water + solid) and efficiency of EMS equipment.

Date: 01/10/2013 Name & Address of the Auditor

(Dr. Mahendra Sadaria)


San Envirotech Pvt. Ltd.
Ahmedabad

Treatability study of M/s Swastik Chemicals, Dahej - 17 -


STATE LEVEL EXPERT APPRAISAL
COMMITTEE, GUJARAT.
Office : G:*jijarsl~ ~ i liui
~ r tL---+-,:CI ~qI IL\- ui Board,
"Paryavaran Bhavan", Sector 10-A,
~~
HARDIK SHAH ~ a n d h i n a g a r - 3 8 2 0 1 0 GUJARAT
,
SECRETARY Phone : 079 -23232152,
State Level Expert Appraisal Committee Fax : 079 -23222784.
Email : ms-gpcb@gujarat.gov.in
Ref. No.: EIA-10-2012-1418-~.]$16

To,

e i
ankaj Pate1
k Chemicals Lu
2 HAR 2jlj
A-40 1, Vasant Vihar Tower,
Shahibaug, Ahmedabad. i *

Sub:Environment Clearance under the EIA Notification 2006 for your proposed project
at Plot No : D-2lCW86, Ta : Dahej, Dist : Bharuch.

Dear Sir,
This refers to your application on the subject mentioned above and the meeting held with the
State Level Expert Appraisal Committee, Gujarat, on gth November, 2012. The relevant
information furnished in Form I and presentation made before the SEAC was considered and the
additional information required was communicated to you by the SEAC immediately after the
said presentation. However, a copy of the same is attached herewith for further necessary action
at your end. You may please furnish the desired information 1 documents to enable us to process
the application further.
With regards,
Yours sincerely,

(K. C. Mistry)
Ilc. Secretary, State Level Expert Appraisal Committee

Encl : As above.
/I'
Swastik Chemicals, Plot No:D-21CHl86, Ta:Dahei, Dist:Bharuch.
f
This is a proposed unit applied for manufacturing of Parachloro Aniline-100 MTIm and
Parachloro Aniline Hydrochlor~de-100MTIm. The proposed manufacturing activity falls in the
project activity 5(f) as per the EIA Notification-2006.
Plot area of the project is 5000 m2 and total cost of the proposed project is Rs. 400 lacs Total
raw water requirement of 25 KLIday w ~ l bel met through GIDC water supply. It was presented
that there will not be any water requ~rementfor process. Total ~ndustrialwaste water generation
will be 10.5 KLIday (process-2 KLIday, wash~ng-5KLIday, util~t~es-3 5 KLIday) and it will be
treated in the proposed ETP. Treated effluent w ~ lbe
l disposed off into GlDC drainage line. 610
fuel(briquettes)/coal will be used in a proposed bo~ler& a thermic fluid heater and bag filter is
proposed as APCM. No process emission has been envisaged ETP sludge & Discarded
containerslbarrelslliners are the main hazardous waste to be generated from the proposed
production.
Technical presentation by the project proponent also included the details like general
information regarding the project, manufacturing process, layout plan, proposed TOR,
characteristics of products & raw material, resource requirement & waste generation etc.
rl
During the meeting, the projedt proponent was asked to work out the scheme of complete
utilization of treated water within premises and to achieve zero effluent discharge outside the
premises. After detailed deliberation, the following Terms of Reference were prescribed for the
EIA study to be done covering 5 km radial area surrounding the project boundary.
1. Copy of plot holding certificate obtained from GlDC Dahej showing the list of products for
which the plot has been allotted to the project proponent.
2. Notarized undertaking stating that they will manufacture only those products for which the plot
has been allotted by GlDC Dahej.
3. Present land use pattern of the study area shall be given based on satellite imagery.
4. Layout plan of the factory premises. Provision of separate entry & exit and adequate margin
all round the periphery for unobstructed easy movement of the emergency vehicle Ifire
tenders without reversing back. Mark the same in the plant layout.
5. Details of manufacturing process Ioperations and mass balance for each product along with
chemical reactions. Details on strategy for the implementation of cleaner production
activities.
6. Assessment of source of the water supply with adequacy of the same to meet with the
requirements for the project. Permission obtained from the GlDC for supply of raw water.
Undertaking stating that no bore well shall be dug within the.premises.
7. Detailed scheme to achieve the zero effluent discharge by complete r u s e Irecycle of treated
62
effluent within the premises itself instead of discharging it into GlDC underground drain.
8. Revised water balance diagram showing fresh water requirement reduced due to complete
reuse Irecycle of treated effluent along with qualitative and quantitative analysis of the each
waste stream from the processes.
9. Explore the possibility of reuse Irecycle and other cleaner production options for reduction of
wastes. Details of methods to be adopted for the water conservation.
10. Characteristics of untreated and treated wastewater. A detailed effluent treat' ability study
vis-a-vis the adequacy and efficacy of the treatment facilities proposed for the wastewater to
be generated. The characteristic on which treatability is based shall also be stated.
11. Details of the ETP units including its capacity, size of each unit, retention time and other
technical parameters.
12. One season site-specific meteorological data including temperature, relative humidity, hourly
wind speed and direction and rainfall shall be provided
13. One complete season AAQ data (except monsoon) to be given along with the dates of
monitoring. The parameters to be covered shall be in accordance-withthe revised National
Ambient Air Quality Standards and project specific parameters. The location of the
monitoring stations should be so decided so as to take into consideration the pre-dominant
downwind direction, population zone and sensitive receptors. There should be at least one
monitoring station in the upwind direction. There should be at least one monitoring station in
the pre dominant downwind direction at a location where maximum ground level
concentration is likely to occur.
14. Impact of the project on the AAQ of the area. Details of the model used and the input
parameters used for modeling should be provided. The air quality contours may be plotted
on a location map s h o w i ~ gthe location of project site, habitation, sensitive receptors, if any.
The wind roses should also be shown on this map.
15. Specific details of (i) Process gas emission from each unit process with .its quantification, (ii)
Air pollution Control Measures prpposed for process gas emission, (iii) Adequacy of the air
pollution control measures fbr process gas emission, measures to achieve the GPCB norms
(iv) Details of the utilities required (v) Type and quantity of fuel to be used for each utility (vi)
Flue gas emission rate from each utility (vii) Air Pollution Control Measures proposed to each
of the utility along with its adequacy (viii) I-ist the sources of fugitive emission along with its
quantification and proposed measures to control it.
16. Details of increase in truck Itanker movement for transportation of finished goods, raw
materials etc. due to the proposed project. Impact of the proposed project on local
infrastructure of the area such as on road network due to transportation of finished goods,
raw materials etc. Whether anv additional infrastructure,is required to be constructed and the
agency responsible for the same with time frame.
17. Details of management of the hazardous wastes to be generated from the project stating
detail of storage area for each type of waste, its handling, its utilization and disposal etc. How
the manual handling of the hazardous wastes will be minimized. lblethodology of de-
contamination and disposal of discarded containers and its record keeping.
18. Membership of Common Environmental Infrastructure including the TSDF I Common
Incineration Facility, if any.
19. Details of measures proposed for the noise pollution abatement and its monitoring.
20. A detailed EMP including the protection and mitigation measure for impact on human
",
health and environment as well as detailed monitoring plan and environmental management
cell proposed for implementation and monitoring of EMP. The EMP should also include the
.concept of waste-minimisation, recyclelreuselrecover techniques, energy conservation, and
natural resource conservation. Total capital cost and recurring costlannum- earmarked for
environment pollution control measures.
21. Permission from PESO, Nagpur for storage of hydrogen.
22. Detailed safety precautions to be taken for handling and storage of hydrogen.
23. Occupational health impacts on the workers'and mitigation measures proposed to avoid the
human health hazards along with the personal protective equipment to be provided.
Provision of industrial hygienist and monitoring of the occupational injury to workers as well
as impact on the workers. Plan for periodic medical checkup of the workers exposed. Details
of work place ambient air quality monitoring plan as per Gujarat Factories Rules.
24. Risk assessment including prediction of the worst-case scenario and maximum credible
accident scenarios should be carried out. The worst-case scenario should take into account
the maximum inventory of storage at site at any point in time. The risk contours should be
-plotted on.the.-plant layout map cleqrly showing which of the facilities would be affected in
case of an accident takirlg place. Based on the same, proposed safeguard measures
including On-Site IOff-Site Emergency Plan should be provided.
25. Details of hazardous characteristics and toxicity of raw materials and products to be handled
and the control measures proposed to ensure safety and avoid the human health impacts.
This shall include the details of Antidotes also.
26. Details of quantity of each hazardous chemical to be stored, Material of Construction of
major hazardous chemical storage tanks, dyke details, threshold storage quantity as per
schedules of the Manufacture, Storage & Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules. of major
hazardous chemicals, size of the biggest storage tank to be provided for each raw material &
product etc. How the manual handling of the hazardous chemicals will be minimized?
27. Details of the separate isolated storage area for flammable chemicals. Details of flame proof
electrical fittings, DCP extinguishers and other safety measures proposed. Detailed fire
control plan for flammable 'substances and processes showing hydrant pipeline network,
provision of DG Sets, fire pumps, jockey pump, toxic gas detectors etc.
28. Submit checklist in the form of Do's & Don'ts of preventive maintenance, strengthening of
HSE, manufacturing utility staff for safety related measures.
29. Detailed five year greenbelt development program including annual budget, types & number
of trees to be planted, area under green belt development [with map], budgetary outlay;
along with commitment of the management to carry out the tree plantation activities outside
the premises at appropriate places in the nearby areas and elsewhere.
30. Proposa! for .socio-e.conomic deve!cpment activities inc!uding community welfare program
most useful in the project area for the overall improvement of the environment. Submit a
detailed plan for social corporate responsibilities, with appropriate budgetary provisions for
the next five years and activities proposed t o be carried out; specific to the current
demographic status of the area.
31. A tabular' chart for the issues raised and addressed during public hearinglconsultation and
commitment of the management on the same should be provided. An action plan to Address
the issues raised during public hearing should be provided.
32. Does the company have a well laid down Environment Policy approved by its Board of
~irectors?If so, it may be detailed, in the EIA report. 2
33. Does the Environment Policy prescribe for standard operating process Iprocedures to bring
into focus any infringement I'deviation Iviolation of the environmental or forest norms /
conditions ? If so, it may be detailed in the EIA.
34. What is the hierarchical system or administrative order of the company to deal with the
environmental issues and for ensuring compliance with the EC conditions. Details of this
system may be given.
35. Does the company have a system of reporting of non compliances I violations of
environmental norms to the Board of Directors of the company and I or shareholders or
stakeholders at large? This reporting mechanism should be detailed in the EIA Report.
36. Certificate of accreditation issued by the NABET, QCI to the environmental consultant
should be incorporated in the EIA Report.
The above TORS should be considered for the preparation of the EIA report in addition to all
relevant information as per the generic structure of EIA given in Appendix Ill in the EIA
Notification, 2006. The draft EIA report shall be submitted to the Gujarat Pollution Control Board
for conducting the public consultation process as per the provisions of the EIA Notification,
2006. The project shall be appraised on receipt of the final EIA report.