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Objective

To determine the “end state” properties of air and water from the tables or charts and to determine
energy and mass balances using steady flow equation on the selected system.

Equipment and materials

Item Description Item Category Estimated quantity


Cooling tower demonstration Equipment 1 unit
unit
Distilled water Consumable 8 liter
Beaker (500ml) Labware, glassware, tool and 2 piece
components
Procedure

1)Set the system to the required operating conditions:

 Water flow rate 2.0 LPM


 Air flow: maximum
 Cooling load: 1.0kW

2)Determine (in intervals of 10 minutes)

 Make-up water supply


 Temperatures T1-T7
 Orifice differential pressure
 Heater Power (Q)

Start-up

1. V1 to V6 is closed, while V5 is opened and V7 is partially opened.

2. The make-up tank is filled with distilled water until the zero mark.

3. The wet bulb sensor reservoirs is filled up with distilled water if required.

4. The temperature controller is set to set point 50 °C. The 1.0 kW water heater is switched on and
the water temperature is heated up to 40 °C before the experiment is conducted.

5. The pump is switched on and V1 is opened slowly to set the flowrate to 2.0 LPM. A steady
operation is obtained when the water is evenly distributed and flowing uniformly through the
packing.

6. The fan damper is fully open, then the fan is switched on. The pressure differential sensor is
checked for the given reading while the valve manifold is switched to measure the orifice
differential pressure.

7. The unit is let to run for 10 – 15 minutes for the float valve to be correctly adjust the level in the
load tank. The make-up tank is refilled if required.

8. The unit is ready


Shut down

1. The heater is switched off and the water is let to circulate through the cooling tower system for
3 – 5 minute until the water is cooled down.

2. The fan is switched off and the fan damper is fully close.

3. The pump and power supply is switched off.

4. The water in the reservoir tank is kept for the next experiment or the water is completely drain
off the unit if it’s not in used.

Result and calculation

Time interval for each run= 10 minute

Water level, l (cm) Initial Final Difference


0.0 4.7 4.7
0.0 5.1 5.1
0.0 5.1 5.1
Average 5.0
Table 1

Attempt First Second Third Average

Temperature 1 25.7 25.6 25.6 25.6


(°C) 2 23.2 23.5 23.8 23.5
3 27.8 27.7 27.7 27.7
4 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3
5 30.9 30.7 30.9 30.8
6 25.3 25.1 25.2 25.2
7 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8
Orifice Pressure (Pa) 75 75 75 75
Heater power (W) 961 958 960 960
Pump Power (W) 40
𝑇1 = 𝐷𝑟𝑦 𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑏 𝐼𝑛𝑙𝑒𝑡 𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟e

𝑇2 = 𝑊𝑒𝑡 𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑏 𝐼𝑛𝑙𝑒𝑡 𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒

𝑇3 = 𝐷𝑟𝑦 𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑏 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑙𝑒𝑡 𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒

𝑇4 = 𝑊𝑒𝑡 𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑏 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑙𝑒𝑡 𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒

𝑇5 = 𝐼𝑛𝑙𝑒𝑡 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒

𝑇6 = 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑙𝑒𝑡 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒

𝑇7 = 𝑀𝑎𝑘𝑒 𝑢𝑝 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑜𝑖𝑟 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑘 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒

Inlet and outlet temperature (°C) Humidity ratio, Enthalpy, h Specific volume
ω (g/kg) (kJ/kg) (𝑚3 /𝑘𝑔)
𝑇1 𝑎𝑣𝑔 Dry bulb 25.6 17.3 70.5 0.8725
𝑇2 𝑎𝑣𝑔 Wet bulb 23.5
𝑇3 𝑎𝑣𝑔 Dry bulb 27.7 23.0 87.0 0.8865
𝑇4 𝑎𝑣𝑔 Wet bulb 27.3

Specific volume is taken through the psychometric chart by doing interpolation using wet bulb
temperatures.

To get the specific volume for 𝑇1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑇2 ,

23.50 − 25 𝑉 − 0.88
=
23 − 25 0.87 − 0.88

𝑉 = 0.8725

To get the specific volume for 𝑇3 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑇4 ,

27.3 − 28 𝑉 − 0.89
=
26 − 28 0.88 − 0.89
𝑉 = 0.8865

Calculation

to understand the system well, a diagram is being drawn

Air and vapor out,𝑚𝑎2


̇ ,𝑚𝑣2
̇

Water in, 𝑚𝑤1


̇
𝑚𝑎2
̇
Type equation here.
Water out, 𝑚𝑤2
̇

Air and vapor in, 𝑚𝑎1 ̇


̇ ,𝑚𝑣1

The total mass of air in and out of the cooling tower system is the same, so we ignore and
assume the mass of air is balanced from the calculation, 𝑚𝑎2̇ = 𝑚𝑎1
̇ = 𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑟
̇
By assuming the water mass is balance,
Water and vapor in= water and vapor out
𝑚𝑣1
̇ + 𝑚𝑤1
̇ = 𝑚𝑣2
̇ + 𝑚𝑤2
̇
then sub 𝑚𝑣1
̇ = 𝑚̇ 𝑎 𝜔1 and 𝑚𝑣2
̇ = 𝑚̇𝑎 𝜔2 , we will obtain
𝑚̇𝑎 𝜔1 + 𝑚𝑤1
̇ = 𝑚̇ 𝑎 𝜔2 + 𝑚𝑤2
̇
𝑚𝑤1
̇ − 𝑚𝑤2
̇ = 𝑚̇ 𝑎 𝜔2 − 𝑚̇ 𝑎 𝜔1
𝑚𝑤1
̇ − 𝑚𝑤2
̇ = 𝑚̇ 𝑎 (𝜔2 − 𝜔1 )
Makeup tank water balance/ make-up rate, 𝑚𝑚𝑢
̇ = 𝑚𝑤1
̇ − 𝑚𝑤2
̇
= 𝑚̇ 𝑎 (𝜔2 − 𝜔1 )
Radius of makeup tank = 3.75cm
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑢𝑝 water= 𝑉𝑚𝑢 = 𝜋𝑙𝑟 2
= 𝜋(5)(3.752 )
= 220.89 𝑐𝑚3
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠
𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 = , 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑤𝑒 𝑔𝑒𝑡 𝑚 = 𝜌𝑣
𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑢𝑝 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
𝑀𝑎𝑘𝑒 − 𝑢𝑝 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒, 𝑚𝑚𝑢
̇ =
𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒
𝜌𝑣
=
𝑡
1(220.89)
=
10 × 60𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑠
𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚
= 0.368 = 3.68 × 10−4 𝑘𝑔/𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑
𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑
Second method to calculate the make-up rate is by using the equation,
𝑚𝑚𝑢
̇ = 𝑚̇ 𝑎 (𝜔2 − 𝜔1 )

𝑥
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟, 𝑚̇ 𝑎 = 0.0137√
(1 + 𝜔)𝑉𝑎𝑏

𝜔 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑙𝑒𝑡 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 𝑤ℎ𝑖𝑙𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑉𝑎𝑏 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑙𝑒𝑡 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒
𝑥 𝑖𝑠 𝑂𝑟𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑚 𝑜𝑟 𝑚𝑚 𝐻𝑔,
1 𝑚𝑚 𝐻𝑔
= 𝑂𝑟𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 ×
9.80665𝑃𝑎
1 𝑚𝑚 𝐻𝑔
= 75 𝑃𝑎 ×
9.80665𝑃𝑎

= 7.6479 𝑚𝑚 𝐻𝑔

7.6479
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟, 𝑚̇ 𝑎 = 0.0137√
(1 + 0.023)0.8865

= 0.03978 𝑘𝑔/𝑠
𝑚𝑚𝑢
̇ = 𝑚̇ 𝑎 (𝜔2 − 𝜔1 )
= 0.03978 (0.023 − 0.0173)
= 2.267 × 10−4 𝑘𝑔/𝑠
̇ = 3.68 × 10−4 𝑘𝑔/𝑠 ≠ 2.267 × 10−4 𝑘𝑔/𝑠
Compare the two values of 𝑚𝑚𝑢

𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑜 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 − 𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒


Percentage error = | | x 100
𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

2.267×10−4 −3.68×10−4
=| | x 100
3.68×10−4

= 38.40%

Assuming the energy of the cooling tower system is balance,


𝑚̇𝑎 𝜔1 + 𝑚𝑤1
̇ = 𝑚̇ 𝑎 𝜔2 + 𝑚𝑤2
̇
𝑚̇𝑎 ℎ1 + 𝑚𝑤1
̇ ℎ𝑤1 = 𝑚̇ 𝑎 ℎ2 + 𝑚𝑤2
̇ ℎ𝑤2
𝑚𝑤1
̇ ℎ𝑤1 − 𝑚𝑤2
̇ ℎ𝑤2 = 𝑚̇𝑎 (ℎ2 − ℎ1 )
Energy change within a system is equal to the energy in and out of the system
𝑄 − 𝑃 = 𝑚𝑤1
̇ ℎ𝑤1 − 𝑚𝑤2
̇ ℎ𝑤2 = 𝑚̇ 𝑎 (ℎ2 − ℎ1 )
𝑄 − 𝑃 = 0.927𝑘𝑊 − (−0.04𝑘𝑊)
= 0.967 𝑘𝑊
𝑚̇𝑎 (ℎ2 − ℎ1 ) = 0.03978 (87 − 70.5)
= 0.6564 𝑘𝑊
0.967 𝑘𝑊 ≠ 0.6564 𝑘𝑊

𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑜 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 − 𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒


Percentage error = | | x 100
𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

0.6564−0.967
=| | x 100
0.967

= 32.12%