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Journal of International Council on Electrical Engineering

ISSN: (Print) 2234-8972 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tjee20

Surge Analysis on a Long Underground Cable


System

Kazuki Kawamura, Akihiro Ametani & Unnur Stella Gudmundsdottir

To cite this article: Kazuki Kawamura, Akihiro Ametani & Unnur Stella Gudmundsdottir (2013)
Surge Analysis on a Long Underground Cable System, Journal of International Council on Electrical
Engineering, 3:2, 158-163, DOI: 10.5370/JICEE.2013.3.2.158

To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.5370/JICEE.2013.3.2.158

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Published online: 10 Sep 2014.

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Journal of International Council on Electrical Engineering Vol. 3, No. 2, pp.158~163, 2013
http://dx.doi.org/10.5370/JICEE.2013.3.2.158

Surge Analysis on a Long Underground Cable System


Kazuki Kawamura*, Akihiro Ametani and Unnur Stella Gudmundsdottir**

Abstract – This paper investigates a basic characteristic of fault surge in a long cable system based
on EMTP simulations. It is made clear from the simulation results that the sheath over-voltage is
higher on a cross-bonded cable than that on a normal-bonded cable. Also, a resonant overvoltage
appears when cables with shunt reactors are disconnected. It becomes clear that the period of the
beat becomes long as the compensation rate increases. From simulations with earth continuity
conductor (ECC), the ECC is effective to reduce an overvoltage in the case of a fault at an overhead
line connected to the cable.

Keywords: Earth continuity conductor (ECC), EMTP simulation, Cross-bonded cable, Shunt
reactor, Underground cable

1. Introduction a resistance (Rg) per major section. Lg are 10μH and Rg are
20 Ω. Also, A 100 Ω is connected to the receiving end of all
Recently, a number of cable projects in the world have the phases for a steady-state condition. Fig. 2 (a) illustrates
increased considerably. For example, A 400kV AC the cable arrangement, and (b) is the physical parameters.
submarine cable connecting Italian mainland and Sardinia The cables are placed in horizontal arrangement with the
Island is under construction[1]. In Denmark, all the 132kV- separation of 0.4m, and 3m below the surface. Fig. 3
150kV overhead lines will be undergrounded by the year illustrates a cross-bonded cable system. An EMTP
2040[2].This paper first carries out EMTP simulations[3,4]- simulation of on the above cable is carried out, when the
[5] in a 154 kV underground cable system to investigate the position of a core to a sheath fault is varied from the
surge characteristic during a core to sheath short circuit sending end to the receiving end.
fault. Then, a comparison of a transient in a normal-bonded
cable with that in a cross-bonded cable, and the effect of a
sheath protection arrester (CCPU) is investigated. Secondly,
EMTP simulations including a shunt reactor is carried out
to investigate the behavior of the resonant over-voltage.
Finally, simulations in a part of 400kV Danish cable
systems with an earth continuity conductor (ECC)[6]-[7],
which is used to reduce the sheath voltage and the earth
potential rise, are carried out.

2. Simulation for Large-Scale Cable Systems

2.1 Model Cable Systems Fig. 1. Model cable systems.

Fig. 1 illustrates a 154kV 3-single underground cable


system composed of 5 major sections. Each section is 1km 3m e = Ωm

long. The sheaths are grounded though a lead wire (Lg) and

† Corresponding Author: Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Enginee-ring, 0.4m 0.4m


Doshisha University, Japan (dtl0131@mail4.doshisha.ac.jp) (a) Cable arrangement (b) Physical parameters
* Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Doshisha University,
Kyoto, Japan Fig. 2. Cable arrangement and parameters.
** Energinet.dk, Erritso, 7000 Fredericia, Denmark
Received: December 27, 2012; Accepted: March 14, 2013

158
Kazuki Kawamura, Akihiro Ametani and Unnur Stella Gudmundsdottir

2.2 Simulation Results arrester. Fig. 6 shows a simulation result when the sheath is
protected by the arrester or not. Fig. 6(a) is the core over-
Fig. 4 shows a core voltage waveform and Fig. 5 shows voltage waveform, and (b) is the sheath over-voltage
the sheath voltage waveform. Table 1 summarizes the waveform. Table 3 summarizes the maximum sheath over-
maximum core and sheath voltages when the position of a voltages when the position of a core to a sheath fault is
core to a sheath fault is varied from the sending end to the varied from the sending end to the receiving end. There is
receiving end. There is no significant difference of the core no significant difference of the core over-voltages in Fig.
voltage between normal-bonded cable and cross-bonded 8(a). On the other hand, the effect of the arrester is clear in
cable. However, the sheath over-voltage becomes much Fig. 8(b). It is found that the arrester could suppress the
higher in a cross-bonded cable. Table 1 shows that the node sheath over-voltage by 30%.
where the highest voltage appears becomes different
between the normal-bonded and the cross-bonded cables. It Table 1. Maximum voltages [p.u.]
is clear that the maximum core over-voltage appear when a Fault Normal-bonded Cross-bonded
point Core Sheath Core Sheath
fault occurs at the sending end.
M11-1A 2.059/M32C1C 0.068/M11S1A 2.066/M22C1C 0.363/M12S1A
M12-1A 2.009/ M32C1C 0.067/M11S1A 2.011/M22C1C 0.534/M13S1B
M13-1A 1.999/M32C1C 0.067/M11S1A 1.994/M11C1C 0.396/M22S1A
M21-1A 1.970/M32C1C 0.066/M11S1A 1.899/M11C1C 0.358/M12S1C
M31-1A 1.889/M22C1C 0.061/M11S1A 1.828/M11C1C 0.336/M32S1B
M41-1A 1.817/M32C1C 0.059/M11S1A 1.711/M11C1C 0.332/M33S1A
M51-1A 1.749/M22C1C 0.057/M11S1A 1.613/M11C1C 0.310/M52S1B
M53-1A 1.712/M22C1C 0.055/M11S1A 1.575/M22C1C 0.223/M42S1C
M61-1A 1.690/M32C1C 0.055/M11S1A 1.557/M13C1C 0.261/M52S1B

Table 2. I-V characteristics of the arrester


Fig. 3. Cross-bonded cable systems. Ⅴ Ⅰ
1 0.0 0.0
300 300
2 5000.0 0.0
3 6700.0 1.0
4 7200.0 10.0
voltage [kV]

voltage [kV]

0 0
5 7900.0 100.0
6 8400.0 1000.0
7 8800.0 2000.0
-300 -300 8 9800.0 10000.0
0 0.25 0.5 0 0.25 0.5
time [ms] time [ms] 9 11000.0 20000.0
10 12000.0 50000.0
(a) Normal-bonded cable (b) Cross-bonded cable
300 70
Fig. 4. Simulation results of a core voltage.
voltage [kv]

voltage [kv]

70 70 0 0
without arrester without arrester
arrester arrester
voltage [kV]

voltage [kV]

0 0 -300 -70
0 1 2 0 0.125 0.25
time [ms] time [ms]

-70 -70
(a) Core voltage (b) Sheath voltage
0 0.25 0.5 0 0.25 0.5
time [ms] time [ms]

(a) Normal-bonded cable (b) Cross-bonded cable Fig .6. Simulation result with an arrester by EMTP.

Fig. 5 Simulation results of a sheath voltage Table 3. Maximum sheath voltages in a double circuit
cross-bonded cable [p.u.]
The maximum core over-voltage reaches 260kV in Fig. 4. Fault point without arrester arrester
M11-1A 0.363 / M12S1A 0.283 / M13S1B
This value is less than the insulation level of a 154kV cable M12-1A 0534 / M13S1B 0.194 / M13S1B
system. However, the maximum sheath over-voltage M13-1A 0.396 / M22S1A 0.342 / M22S1B
reaches 60 kV. This result exceeds the sheath insulation M21-1A 0.358 / M12S1C 0.236 / M13S1A
M31-1A 0.336 / M32S1B 0.331 / M32S1A
level[8]. Thus, it is necessary to reduce the over-voltage. A M41-1A 0.332 / M33S1A 0.328 / M33S1A
simulation with an arrester for the sheath protection is M51-1A 0.310 / M52S1B 0.314 / M43S1A
carried out. Table 2 summarizes I-V characteristics of the M53-1A 0.223 / M42S1C 0.242 / M52S1B
M61-1A 0.261 / M52S1B 0.276 / M53S1A

159
Surge Analysis on a Long Underground Cable System

3. Simulation with Shunt Reactor

3.1 Model Cable Systems

Fig. 7 illustrates a 154kV 3-single underground cable


system composed of 6 major sections. Each section is 5km
long. The sheaths are grounded through a lead wire (Lg) and
a resistance (Rg) per major section. Lg is 10μH and Rg is 20 (a) Cable arrangement (b) Physical parameters
Ω. A shunt reactor is installed at the sending end of the
cable. The capacitance of the cable is 0.245 μF/km. The Fig. 8. Cable arrangement and parameters.
total length of the cable is 30 km and the resonant 300 150

frequency is given by : 200

100 50

Voltage 「kV]

Voltage 「kV]
0

f0 = 1 C = 7.3 μF (1) ‐100 ‐50

2π LC , ‐200

‐300 ‐150
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
time [s] time [s]

Fig. 8 shows cable arrangement and parameters. (a) Circuit breaker voltage (b) Sending end core voltage
(i)Compensation rate 100%
3.2 Simulated results
300 150

200

Table 4 illustrates the compensation rate and inductance 100 50

Voltage 「kV]
Voltage 「kV]

of a shunt reactor. As the compensation rate becomes 0

‐100 ‐50

smaller, the inductance becomes higher. Fig. 9 shows the ‐200

simulation results of surge voltages for various compensa- ‐300


0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
‐150
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
time [s] time [s]
tion rates after the cable is switched off. The beat is
(a) Circuit breaker voltage (b) Sending end core voltage
observed on both the circuit breaker voltage and the core (ii)Compensation rate 90%
voltage. The period of the beat becomes long as the
compensation rate of a shunt reactor increases. The peak 300 150

200

value is inversely proportional to the shunt reactor 100 50


Voltage 「kV]
Voltage 「kV]

compensation. Moreover, when the compensation rate is 0

‐50
‐100

small, the resonance nature becomes clear and the ‐200

maximum over-voltage reaches 1.82 p.u. ‐300


0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
‐150
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
time [s] time [s]

(a) Circuit breaker voltage (b) Sending end core voltage


(iii)Compensation rate 80%

Fig. 9. Simulation results.

4. Earth Continuity Conductor (ECC)

4.1 Simulation Model

Fig. 10 shows the overall simulation model. The


simulation model consists of both overhead lines and cables.
Fig. 7. Simulation model. Shunt reactors are equipped at the both ends to compensate
for the capacitive reactive power in the circuit. The cables
Table 4. Compensation rate and value of inductance consist of 2 parallel 400kV three phase cable lines with 2
Compensation rate [%] Value of Inductance [mH]
100% 1378.52
major sections and ECC. The cable length is 4.8 km. The
95% 1447.45 overhead line has no ground wire. A frequency-dependent
90% 1516.37 line model is used both for the overhead line and the cable.
80% 1654.22
75% 1723.15
Fig.11 illustrates the cable arrangement. The cables are

160
Kazuki Kawamura, Akihiro Ametani and Unnur Stella Gudmundsdottir

horizontally arrangement and 1.3m below the surface.


Table 5 summarizes the physical parameters of the cable
and Table 6 summarizes the physical parameters of ECC.
Fig. 12 illustrates the cross-bonded cable with the ECC.
The sheaths are grounded through a 10Ω resistance per
major section. The ECC is grounded at each cross-bonded
point and between major sections. The inductance of a
cross-bonding is assumed to be 1μH per meter.

4.2 Simulation Case

Simulations are carried out with varying fault position, ti


me of the fault occurrence, fault type. Table 7 summarizes t
he simulation cases. The case of a cable fault includes the f
ault at the sending end, the middle of the cable, a cross-
Fig. 12. Cross bonded system (Major section).
Vin Vout

R=0 0.34167
0.34167
A
R=0 bonded point, the major section and the receiving end. The
time of fault occurrence is : at peak, zero and between
A 13.54648 V
V 13.54648
CB_source

CB_source
BRK2A
Timed
Breaker
Logic
Open@t0
zero and peak. Both single-phase and three-phase faults are
Shunt reactor 50 MVAr

considered. All the faults at the cable are a core-to-sheath


Timed Timed
A
V

Breaker Breaker
BRKA Logic Logic
A
V

BRK2B
Open@t0 Open@t0
Timed Timed

and ground fault, and a single-phase fault on a phase A1.


Breaker Breaker
0 .3

0 .3

0 .3

BRKB Logic BRK2C Logic


Open@t0 Open@t0
0 .3

0 .3

0 .3

Timed
Breaker
BRKC Logic
The sheath voltage between phases to the ground are
1 0 .0 5 2

1 0 .0 5 2

1 0 .0 5 2

Open@t0
1 0 .0 5 2

1 0 .0 5 2

1 0 .0 5 2

CB_shuntreactor

CB_shuntreactor
calculated.
N o rre a d a le n

N o rre a d a le n

Timed
N o rre a d a le n

Breaker
0 .1

Logic
T je le

T je le

BRKSR_2A
Timed Open@t0
Bus1 Bus2
Breaker
Logic Timed
BRKSR_1A Breaker
Open@t0
0 .1

BRKSR_2B Logic
Timed Open@t0
Breaker
Logic Timed

4.3 Simulation Result


BRKSR_1B Breaker
Open@t0
BRKSR_2C Logic
Timed Open@t0
Breaker
BRKSR_1C Logic
Open@t0

The case of no ECC is compared with the case of ECC.


Fig. 10. Simulation model.
Fig. 13 shows a calculated result of the sheath voltage. A
clear difference is observed between the cases of ECC and
no ECC. Fig.14 shows simulation results for a fault on the
overhead line. The largest difference appeared in the case
of O-M-1(single phase fault on the OHL, occurring at peak
voltage).
The ECC reduces the maximum sheath over-voltage by
54%. Thus, the effective of the ECC is clear. When using
smaller surge voltage limiters with the withstand voltage
below 30kV at the cross bounding points, it is necessary to
install the ECC.As observed in the case of O-M-1 and O-
Fig. 11. Cable arrangement. M-3 in Fig. 14, the sheath over voltage is decreased in both
cases, when using an ECC. Also, the sheath over voltage is
Table 5. Physical Parameters of the cable
higher in the case of three-phase fault than that in the case
Parameter Value
Conductor r1=22.56㎜, ρc=3.00•10-8 of single-phase fault. Although the three phase fault is the
Inner insulation r2=55.57㎜, ε1=2.8, μ1=1.00 most serious case of a fault, it is found that ECC could
Sheath r3=57.00㎜, ρs=2.2•10-8 decrease the sheath over voltage. On the other hand, the
Outher insulation r4=61.30㎜, ε2=2.3, μ2=1.00 decreasing rate of the sheath over voltage in the case of
three-phase fault becomes lower than that in the case of
Table 6. Physical parameters of an ECC
single phase fault. This result shows a same tendency when
Parameter Value
Conductor r1=5.55㎜, ρc=3.00•10-8Ωm a fault occurs at the cable. The three phase fault is
Insulation thickness=0.1㎜, ε=2.8, μ=1.00 symmetrical, while the single phase fault is unsymmetrical.

161
Surge Analysis on a Long Underground Cable System

For the unsymmetrical fault, the ECC is more effective. overhead line, the decreasing rate of the sheath voltage is
ECC can reduce the sheath over voltage to the ground in low. Therefore, ECC is more effective when a fault occurs
case O-M-1 and Case O-B-1,when a fault occurs at zero on an overhead line than that on a cable. The other cases of
voltage, but the over voltage is very small. faults on a cable show no high the over-voltage. Therefore,
when a fault occurs at the cable, the ECC is not necessary.
40

30
Cross1SC_without ECC
40

30
Cross1SC_with ECC If ECC will be installed in a cable system, it is most cost
20 20 effective to install an ECC near to an overhead line.
Voltage [kV]

Voltage [kV]

10 10

0 0

‐10 ‐10
90
‐20 ‐20
80
‐30 ‐30
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 70
time [s] time [s] 60

Voltage [kV]
(a) ECC (b) No ECC 50
40
30 ECC
Fig. 13. The sheath voltage waveform. 20 Without ECC
10
0
45
40
35
30 Location
Voltage [kV]

25
20
15 ECC
Case C-M-1 (Fault at the sending end)
10
45
Without ECC
5 40
0 35
30
Voltage [kV]

25
20
Location ECC
15
10
Case O-M-1 5
Without ECC

70 0
60
50
Voltage [kV]

40 Location
30
20
ECC Case C-M-1(Fault at the receiving end)
Without ECC
10
0 Fig. 15. The simulation over voltage rate (Fault at the Cable).

Table 7. Simulation case


Location
Fault location Fault time Fault type Case number
Case O-M-3 Overhead Line Peak single-phase O-M-1
30
Overhead Line Zero single-phase O-Z-1
Between zero
25 Overhead Line single-phase O-B-1
and peak
20 Overhead Line Peak three-phase O-M-3
Voltage [kV]

15 Overhead Line Zero three-phase O-Z-3


Between zero
10 ECC Overhead Line three-phase O-B-3
and peak
Without ECC
5 Cable Peak single-phase C-M-1
0 Cable Zero single-phase C-Z-1
Between zero
Cable single-phase C-B-1
and peak
Location Cable Peak three-phase C-M-3
Cable Zero three-phase C-Z-3
Case O-B-1 Between zero
Cable three-phase C-B-3
Fig. 14 .The sheath over-voltage rate(fault at the OHL). and peak

Fig. 15 shows the simulation results in the case of a fault


on the cable. When a fault occurs at the sending end, the 5. Conclusion
largest difference appears between the cases with ECC and
This paper has carried out EMTP simulations in a
no ECC. ECC reduces the sheath over-voltage by 16% at a 154KV underground cable system with shunt reactors. Also,
maximum. However, in comparison with the fault at the the effect of the earth continuity conductor (ECC) is

162
Kazuki Kawamura, Akihiro Ametani and Unnur Stella Gudmundsdottir

investigated when a fault occurs in a system composed of Akihiro Ametani received Ph.D.
overhead lines and underground cables. From the degree from UMIST, Manchester, U.K.,
investigations in the paper, the following remarks have in 1973. He was with UMIST from
been obtained.
1971 to 1974, and with Bonneville
1. The sheath over-voltage is higher on a cross-bonded
Power Administration for summers
cable than that on a normal-bonded cable. Also, a sheath
from 1976 to 1981, and developed
protection arrester (CCPU) reduces the sheath over voltage
EMTP. He has been a Professor at
less than a sheath insulation level.
Doshisha University since 1985. He was a Visiting
2. A resonant overvoltage appears when cables are
Professor at the Catholic University of Leaven, Belgium in
disconnected. The period of the beat becomes long as the
1988. He was the Director of the Science and Engineering
compensation rate of a shunt reactor increases.
Institute of Doshisha University from Apr. 1996 to Mar.
3. It becomes clear that the ECC is more effective when a
1998, and the Dean of Library and Computer/Information
fault occurs at the overhead line than at the cable.
Center of the same University from Apr. 1998 to Mar. 2001.
4. If ECC is installed in a cable system, the ECC should
Dr. Ametani is a chartered engineer in the U.K., a
be installed at both the sending and receiving ends of the
distinguished member of CIGRE, and a fellow of both
cable.
IEEE and IET.

Unner Stella Gudmundsdottir received her M.Sc. and


References
PhD degree in 2007 and 2010 respectively, from Aalborg
[1] L. Colla, F. Iliceto : “400kV AC new submarine cable University in Denmark. Her PhD studies focused on
links between Sicily and the Italian mainland”, CIGRE modeling of underground cable system at the transmission
2008 level. She was a guest researcher at SINTEF in Norway in
[2] Energinet. dk, Cable action plan, 132-150 kV grids, November 2008 and at Manitoba HV/DC Research Centre
March 2009 in Canada during June-October 2009. Currently she holds a
[3] W. Scott Meyer : “EMTP Rule Book”, B.P.A. 1982 position as a cable specialist at Energinet.dk where she is a
[4] A. Ametani and C.T. Wan : “Sheath overvoltages due deputy manager for DANPAC, a research project focusing
to faults on an EHV cable”, IPST’95 Lisbon, 3-7 on undergrounding of almost the entire Danish transmission
September, 1995 system. U.S. Gudmundsdottir is a Member of IEEE.
[5] U. S. Gudmundsdottir : “Field Test and Simulation of a
400 kV Crossbonded Cable System”, IEEE Transactions
on Power Delivery, Vol.25(3), pp.1403-1410, 2011
[6] CIGRE WG B1.18 “Special Bonding of High Voltage
Power Cables”, Oct. 2005
[7] CIGRE Task Force B1.26 “Earth Potential Rises in
specially Bonded Screen Systems”, June. 2008
[8] Over Voltage of the Sheath for Electric Power Cable,
IEEJ, JEC-159, 1964

Kazuki Kawamura received the B.S.


degree from Doshisha University,
Kyoto, Japan, in March 2011. Since
April 2011, he has been a graduate
student at the School of Electrical and
Electronic Engineering, Doshisha
University.

163