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Generator Data
This dialog box includes the following areas and tabs:

Connection Information

Specifications

Power Flow

Impedance

TCC

Harmonics

Stability 1

Stability 2

Location

Imported Data

Comments

Hyperlinks

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Figure 1: Generator Data Dialog Box

Connection Information
Option Description

ID Uniquely identifies the generator. This ID name can be up to 16 characters long. The names default to GEN-1, GEN-2, GEN-3... as
Name you enter new generators on the one-line, but you can change those names to make them more descriptive if needed.

To The bus to which the generator connects, which must already exist on the one-line. You must be careful that the To Bus has
Bus approximately the same base kV as the generator. For your reference, the To Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.

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Option Description

Conn
This specifies the type of connection of the generator windings. This affects the symbol of the generator in the one-line. The options
are:

D: Delta connection

Y: Wye connection

YG: Wye connection with grounded neutral

For wye-grounded connections, you can attach CTs or relays to the ground as shown in the figure below.

Figure 2: Wye-grounded Connections

Specifications

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Option Description

Rated kV Generator rated kV.

MVA Generator nominal MVA. Generators may be represented as a group or individually.

Type
Generator type. This value is for reference only except for HG and SYN-SP types, which have their momentary reactances
determined by X’dv.

IND - Induction

SYN-DP - Distributed pole synchronous

SYN-SP - Salient pole without amortisseur winding

SYN-SPA - Salient Pole with amortisseur winding

SYN-COND - Condenser

HG w/o A - Hydro generator without amortisseur winding (same as SP)

Power Generator operating power factor. This value is for reference only and does not affect analysis.
Factor

Efficiency Generator operating efficiency. This value is for reference only and does not affect analysis.

RPM Revolutions per minute of the machine. This value is for reference only and does not affect analysis.

X/R Generator reactance to resistance ratio, which is used to determine resistance values in short circuit studies. Typical range is
30-150 for most generators greater than 10 MVA.

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Option Description

Calculate Fills in a representative computed value for the X/R field, based on ANSI C37.010. You can override this value by typing in a
different number.

GSU This field is available only when you configure your system to IEC short circuit. If the generator has a unit substation, then the
Transformer ID name of the unit transformer is specified in this field. This association is required in order to implement the impedance
correction on the generation station unit (GSU) or power station unit (PSU).

DC Generator Specifications

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Figure 3: DC Generator Specifications Tab

Option Description

Rated kV Name plate rated voltage in kV.

kW Name plate (rated) power in kW.

RPM Rated speed in revolutions per minute.

Efficiency Efficiency in per unit.

R (armature) Internal resistance of the DC generator in ohms.

Power Flow

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Figure 4: Power Flow tab of Generator Data Dialog Box

Option Description

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Option Description

Model
Generator bus type used in modeling the power flow simulation. When you select a particular model, those fields that do not apply
become unavailable.

Swing - A swing bus holds the bus voltage and angle constant. To do this there cannot be limits on the amount of MW or
MVAR the swing machine can accept or provide. (See Swing Sources.)

PV - Constant power, constant voltage generator. This is also known as a regulated generator. This model tries to hold a user-
specified bus voltage within generator MVAR limits.

PQG - Constant power, constant var generator. This is also known as an unregulated generator. This model holds the MVAR
generation within given voltage limits.

Ctl kV Desired control voltage for a regulated generator (PV). The generator will try to control the voltage at the controlled bus to a given
PU value. If the generator bus is the swing bus, this voltage serves as the reference voltage. The voltage is entered in per-unit.

Ctl Controlled angle is used only when a generator is designated as a swing bus. The value is entered in degrees.
Angle

Ctrl
For a PV generator (regulated), the bus that is to be controlled to the control voltage. If this field is blank in the database,
Bus
EasyPower fills it in with the name of the bus listed in the To Bus field. (Note that this does not take effect until you accept it by
clicking OK to close the database dialog box.) This field is ignored if the Model is set to Swing.

MW Generator output MW. This may be actual operating or a rated value. This applies only to a PV or PQG generator.

MVAR Generator output MVAR. This is only used when the generator is a constant power, constant var (PQG) machine or when a PV
generator MVAR limit has been reached and the machine automatically switches to PQG.

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Option Description

MVAR Minimum and maximum MVAR limits for regulated generators (PV). The generator will switch to type PQG if these limits are
Limits violated. If there is only one swing generator (Model = “Swing”) on a bus, it should not have any MVAR limits. If there are more than
one swing generators on a bus, at least one of them must be unlimited.

DC Generator Power Flow

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Figure 5: DC Generator Power Flow tab

Option Description

Model
DC generators have three control modes:

Swing (Regulated): The voltage is controlled directly on the terminal of the generator. A regulated DC generator has the
ability to be the single source that enables a system to enter power flow and solve the system.

Swing (Un-Regulated): The voltage is held constant internally as a Thevenin source. The terminal of the generator changes
with loading. An un-regulated DC generator has the ability to be the single source that enables a system to enter power flow
and solve the system.

Constant Power: The generator is modeled as a constant power generator, similar to a PQ generator in the AC power flow. A
constant power DC generator DOES NOT have the ability to be the single source that enables a system to enter power flow
and solve the system. To enter power flow focus, at least one other source must be modeled that supplies the system with stiff
internal or external source.

Impedance

Figure 6: Impedance Tab of Generator Data Dialog Box

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Option Description

X”dv Subtransient reactance in percent on generators MVA base. Most synchronous generators have subtransient reactances in the 9-
20% range1. The subtransient reactance is used for ½ cycle, 5 cycle and 30 cycle short circuit calculations in accordance with
ANSI Standards.

X’dv Transient reactance in percent on generators MVA base. This value typically ranges from 15-30%. The transient reactance is not
used in ANSI standard calculations except for hydro and salient pole generators without amortisseur windings (Xpu = 0.75X’).

X0v Zero sequence reactance in percent on generators MVA base. This value may range from 3-15% for typical generators. Zero
sequence values are used in all ground fault calculations.

Xlr Locked rotor impedance for induction machines. When actual data is not available, use 16.7%.

Ground
Generator neutral ground resistance in ohms. This is the most common method of grounding generator neutrals and is usually
R
given in amperes. The impedance is found from the following equation.

R = Vln / I

If the generator is grounded through a grounding transformer with a secondary resistance, this resistance must be converted to the
primary winding. If you know the Amp value for the resistor, you can enter the amp value in the Amp Class field and use the
Calculate button to find the resistance.

Ground Generator neutral ground reactance in ohms.


jX

Amp This is the current in amps through the ground impedance at the rated voltage. You can enter data in this field directly in Amps or
Class calculate it based on the voltage and ground impedance R +jX using the Calculate button.

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TCC

Figure 7: TCC tab of Generator Data dialog

Option Description

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Option Description

Plot
You can plot short circuit decrement curves “with” and “without” excitation field forcing for comparison purposes.
Generator
Decrement Without Field Forcing: Plots TCC for “without field forcing” option.

Curves With Field Forcing: Plots TCC for “with field forcing” option.

Maximum Plot Time: The amount of time in seconds that the generator can sustain overcurrents without exceeding safe
temperature limits.

Synchronous

Xd Synchronous reactance of the generator, expressed as a percent.

T”d Direct axis sub-transient short circuit time constant.

T’d Direct axis transient short circuit time constant in seconds.

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Option Description

Ta
Armature time constant in seconds.

A typical generator datasheet will provide the Ta value. However, some manufacturers may not provide Ta in the datasheet. The
armature time constant is associated with the rate of change of dc current in the stator when the generator is subjected to a 3-
phase fault. Ta for different types of generators is provided in the book “Power System Control and Stability,” by Paul M.
Anderson and A. A. Fouad, IEEE Press, 1994.

Ta = (Ld’ + Lq) / 2r

Where Ld’ is the d axis transient inductance and Lq is q axis inductance. A typical value of Ta is 0.15 seconds for fault on the
machine terminal.

Prabha Kundur’s book “Power System Stability and Control”, McGraw-Hill, 1994, provides the following equation for Ta:

Ta = (Ld” + Lq”) / 2/ Ra

Typical value for Ta lies between 0.03 and 0.35s.

Forcing
Forced excitation current at a given load expressed as per unit value of field current at no load, Ifd0.
Field

Thermal Damage Curve

This section allows you to plot “I^2t” thermal damage curve for the generator.

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Option Description

Plot Select this check box to enable plotting of the damage curve and to enter data for this section.
Thermal
Damage
Curve

I2t Value This defines the (I^2)t line for the damage curve. I is in per-unit of generator rated current and t is in seconds. If I2t Value is 20,
then the extrapolated damage curve line would intersect with the FLA of the generator at 20 seconds.

Plot The damage curve is drawn on the TCC plot within these values as the lower and upper limits in seconds.
From/To

Harmonics
Use the Harmonics tab to indicate whether this equipment item is introducing harmonics into your power system.

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Figure 8: Harmonics Tab

Option Description

Resistance
EasyPower offers two methods for calculating RH:
Factor
Resistance varying with a power of the harmonic (R-EXP):

RH = RFund * H R-EXP

Resistance varying with a percent eddy current factor (%ECF):

RH = RFund * (1+ECF*H2)/(1+ECF)

EasyPower defaults all skin effect correction to R-EXP and a value of 0.5.

R-EXP %ECF

Transformer 0.5-1.0 1.0-3.0

Utility 0.0-0.8 -

Generator 0.3-0.6 -

Line/Cable 0.5 -

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Option Description

R-EXP %ECF

Reactor 0.5-1.0 0.8-3.0

Motor 0.2-0.4 -

Typical Resistance Correction Factors

Fundamental
Use to set the fundamental amps. The options are as follows:
Amps
Equipment Rating sets Fundm Amps to the equipment rating of the item described in the Specifications tab.

User Specified activates the Fundm Amps field, enabling you to specify a value.

To use fundamental current calculated by power flow, select Calculated from Power Flow in the Summation Fundamental
Voltage area of the Harmonics Options > Control dialog box.

Stability 1

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Figure 9: Stability 1 Tab

Generator Model
Option Description

Enable Generator Enables stability data entry for the generator model.
Model

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Option Description

Mfr Provides a list of generator manufacturers available in the device library. If the desired manufacturer is not listed in the
device library, you can add it to the library.

Type Generator types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above. If the desired type is not listed, you can
add it to the library.

Model Lists available generator models in the library.

Lib Populates generator data from the library.

Exciter Model
Option Description

Enable Exciter Enables stability data entry for the exciter model.
Model

Mfr Provides a list of exciter manufacturers available in the device library. If the desired manufacturer is not listed in the device
library, you can add it to the library.

Type Exciter types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above. If the desired type is not listed, you can add it
to the library.

Model Lists available exciter models in the library.

Lib Populates exciter data from the library.

Governor Model

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Option Description

Enable Governor Enables stability data entry for the governor model.
Model

Mfr Provides a list of governor manufacturers available in the device library. If the desired manufacturer is not listed in the
device library, you can add it to the library.

Type Governor types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above. If the desired type is not listed, you can
add it to the library.

Model Lists available governor models in the library.

Lib Populates governor data from the library.

For details on the parameters, see Dynamic Stability . For information about the library, see EasyPower Device Library.

Stability 2

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Figure 10: Stability 2 Tab

Stabilizer Model
Option Description

Enable Stabilizer Enables stability data entry for the stabilizer model.
Model

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Option Description

Mfr Provides a list of stabilizer manufacturers available in the device library. If the desired manufacturer is not listed in the
device library, you can add it to the library.

Type Stabilizer types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above. If the desired type is not listed, you can
add it to the library.

Model Lists available stabilizer models in the library.

Lib Populates stabilizer data from the library.

For details on the parameters, see Dynamic Stability . For information about the library, see EasyPower Device Library.

Location
See Location for more information.

Imported Data
This tab is read-only and appears only if you have imported data from an SKM Data Format file. See Importing an SKM Format File for more
information.

Comments
See Comments for information.

Hyperlinks
See Hyperlinks for information.

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More Information
Database Technical Reference

www.easypower.com techsupport@easypower.com
EasyPower, LLC feedback@easypower.com
7730 SW Mohawk St. EasyPower Version 9.7
Tualatin, OR 97062 Copyright © 1991-2016 EasyPower, LLC. All Rights Reserved.
(503)655-5059 Help was last updated on 2/8/2016

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