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BUILDING NORMS OF TURKMENISTAN

Typical norms of cement consumption


for preparation of concrete, built-up and monolithic
concrete, ferroconcrete products and
structures

SNT 5.01.01-93*

THE BUILDING AND BUILDING MATERIALS INDUSTRY


MINISTRY OF TURKMENISTAN
Ashkhabad 2006 y.
SNT 5.01.01-93* Typical norms of cement consumption for preparation of concrete,
built-up and monolithic concrete, ferroconcrete products and structures

Are developed: Scientific research institute of Seismology of Building and building materials
industry ministry of Turkmenistan.

Head of theme: k. t. n. Dubajev V. G.

Responsible executor: Grigorevskaja I.V.

Are prepared for the statement by governance of architecture, town building and science
of Building and building materials industry ministry of Turkmenistan.

With introduction in action SNТ 5.01.01-93* “Typical norms of cement consumption for
preparation of concrete, built-up and monolithic concrete, ferroconcrete products and structures”
expires in territory of Turkmenistan SNТ 5.01.01-93 “Typical norms of cement consumption for
preparation of concrete, built-up and monolithic concrete, ferroconcrete products and structures”

@ Building and building materials industry ministry of Turkmenistan

- A.: - 2006
Buildings norms of Turkmenistan SNТ 5.01.01-93*
Building and building
materials industry ministry of Typical norms of cement consumption
Turkmenistan for preparation of Instead of SNТ
concrete, built-up and 5.0
monolithic concrete, 1.0
ferroconcrete products 1-
and structures 93

1. GENERALITIES.
1.1. The present typical norms are intended for estimation of validity of operating
industrial norms of cement consumption for preparation of heavy, fine-grained, cellular and easy
concrete on porous fillers of concrete at enterprises for production of built-up concrete and
ferroconcrete products and at erection of monolithic structures for all kinds of building in
territory of Turkmenistan.
Classification and general technical requirements for concrete are defined according to
ТДС 25192-82.
1.2.Typical norms should not be used for direct appointment of local standards of work of
cement consumption and working concrete composition.
1.3.Typical norms regulate cement composition in 1 м3 of concrete, providing to it set
properties at rational use of cements and aggregates at optimum ways of concreting and
hardening of products and structures.
Typical norms define pure сement composition in concrete and do not include industrial
losses of cement and concrete mix, and also loss of cement in the process of transportation and
storage.
1.4 Typical norm is established by multiplication of table value of cement composition
on coefficients given in corresponding points of the present rules, considering project
characteristics of concrete, kind and quality of cement and fillers, and also features
"Know-how" in the conditions of dry hot climate.

2. TYPICAL NORMS OF СEMENT COMPOSITION FOR


HEAVY CONCRETE OR BUILT-UP CONCRETE AND
FERROCONCRETE PRODUCTS AND STRUCTURES OF
MASS PRODUCTION
2.1. Norms of сement composition are extended on products from heavy concrete made
in line-aggregate, container, bench or cassette technology with application for consolidation of
concrete and formation of products of all kinds of vibrocompression or centrifugation, and
intended for work in operating conditions under usual static constant or variable loading in the
nonaggressive water or air environment.
Typical norms of сement composition for the concrete applied in seismic areas, are
regulated by additional requirements to a concrete class on durability at calculation of aseismic
structures (SNT 2.03.02-04), and for concrete maintained in excited environments, additional
requirements to concrete mark on water resistance, water absorption and quality of initial
components (СНТ 2.03.11-99*).
Norms do not extend on the products produced:
with application of methods of consolidation of concrete mix by pressing,
vibrocompression, hire, vibrovacuumizing;
with application of thermal processing at raised (over atmospheric) pressure;
From concrete marks more than М600 and special kinds of concrete: heat resisting and
heatproof, acidproof, decorative, and also intended for operation in chemically aggressive water
or gas environment, for radiating protection, etc.

APPROVED
By decision of Building and building Introduction term in action
materials industry ministry
th since Novruz, 1st 2007
26 Baydak 2007y № MB-24

2.2. Norms of сement composition in 1м of heavy concrete of built-up and monolithic


ferroconcrete products and structures contain сement composition differentiated with the
account:
project mark and normalized sizes of handling and transfer (for products with
preliminary strained armature) strength of concrete;
project marks in frost resistance and water resistance (under condition of introduction
of additives in TDS-24211); kind and mark of cement, a kind and limiting fineness of grains of
fillers, and also other properties of these materials; castability of concrete mix and conditions of
formation of products; conditions of hardening.
2.3 For structures, projected according to requirements TDS 25192, TDS 26633, TDS
25820 norms of cement consumption should be accepted with reference to concrete classes in
durability at compression.
The relation between classes and concrete marks in durability at compression at standard
factor of variation of 13,5 %, and for massive hydraulic engineering constructions of 17,0 % is
resulted in the appendix 1.
Norms are developed for the concrete which uniformity corresponds to TDS-18105.1 to
the average level of durability equal of 100 % of the normalized.

Cements

2.4 Norms provide use of the cements which are meeting the requirements TDS-10178
and TDS-22266, with the exception of pozzolatic.
The cement kind should be accepted according to appointment of structures and
conditions of their operation on the basis of instructions of standards or specifications in
products and structures.
For the summer period in the conditions of dry and hot climate it is recommended to
apply Portland cement with content of tricalcium silicate (C3S) not less than 50 % and
tricalcium aluminate (С3А) no more than 8 %.
Application of pozzolatic Portland cement, slag Portland cement of marks 400 and lower
and aluminous cement for concreting of land struc is not allowed. The specified cements cannot
provide demanded durability of land and concrete structures in conditions of dry and hot climate.
Slag Portland cement of marks 400 and lower can be applied on level with usual Portlan
cement of the same marks at building of underground constructions not subjected to influence of
climatic factors.
Table 1
Recommended and supposed marks of cement for heavy concrete
in hardening of conditions
Project class natural thermal processing at handling strength of concrete
(mark) of 70% project 80-100% project
concrete
recommended supposed recommende supposed recommend supposed
d ed

В7,5 (М 100) 300 300


В10312,5 (М 300 400 300 400 400 300,500
150)
В15 (М 200) 400 300,500 400 300,500 400 500
В20 (М 250) 400 300,500 400 300,500 400 500
В22,5 (М 300) 400 500 400 500 500 400
В25 (М 350) 400 500 400 500 500 400
В30 (М 400) 500 400,550,600 500 400,550,60 550 400,500,600
0
В35 (М 450) 550 500,600 550 500,600 600 500,550
В40 (М 500) 600 550,600 600 550,500 600 550
В45 (М 600) 600 550 600 550 - -

The note: For concrete of mark М400 is supposed to use cement of mark М400 with
activity not less than 400 kgs/sm2 under condition of application of complex additives and the
fillers which are meeting the requirements TDS-26633.
2.5 Recommended and supposed marks of cement should be accepted in conformity with
instructions of tab. 1 taking into account structure and handling strength of concrete, conditions
of its hardening, and for fine-grained concrete - according to instructions of tab. 2.

Table 2
Project mark of concrete Mark of cement for fine-grained concrete
recommended supposed
В7,5 (М 100) 300 400
В10312,5 (М 150) 400 500
В15(М 200) 400 500
В20 (М 250) 400 500
В22,5 (М 300) 400 500
В25 (М 350) 400 500
ВЗО(М 400) 500 400

2.6 In norms is provided application of cements with normal density of paste of 25-27 %.
If normal density of paste of cements below 25 % or exceeds 27 %, tabular norms of cement
consumption are multiplied by factors specified in table 3.

Table 3
Normal density of Factor for concrete of project mark
cement paste, % to В22,5 (М 300) В25 (М 350)-В30 (М 400) В35(М 450)-В45(М 600)
less than 25 0,97 0,95 0,92
from 25 to 27 1 1 1
more than 27 to 30 1,03 1,05 1,08
more than 30 1,05 1,08 1,12

2.7 Norms resulted in tables for conditions of hardening of concrete at thermal processing,
provide application of cements with average activity at steaming, corresponding to given mark of
cement. At application of cements, activity sizes at steaming which in TDS-310.4 differ from the
averages accepted for unit, norms are multiplied by the factors specified in table 4.

Table 4
Groups Kind of Activity of cement at steaming МPа, at mark of Factor
efficiency of concrete cement
steaming 300 400 500 550-600
1 PC more than 23 more than 27 more than 32 more than 38
SPC more than 21 more than 25 more than 30 - 0,93
II PC 20-23 24-27 28-32 33-38 1,0
III SPC 18-21 22-25 26-30 -
PC less than 20 less than 24 less than 28 less than 33 1,07
SPC less than 18 less than 22 less than 26 -
Factors of tab. 4 do not extend on concrete of marks М400 and above with handling
strength of 70 % and lower for structures hardening at modes of thermal processing, specified in
item 2.20.

For production of built-up structures subjected to thermal processing, is necessary to apply


cements I and II groups of efficiency at steaming on TDS-30515. Application of cements of III
group on TDS-26633 is supposed at the coordination with specialized scientific research
institutes, technical0-economical explanation and the consumer consent.
Cements at concreting in dry hot weather should meet following additional requirements:
a) normal density of cement paste, prepared from Portland cement according to TDS-310.3
"Cements. Methods of definition of normal density, terms of stiffening and uniformity of change
of volumes»should not exceed 27 %;
b) the beginning of stiffering of cement should be not earlier than 1 h. 30 min. from the
beginning of tempering;
c) cement should not find out false setting;
d) cement should not have the temperature exceeding 50 ° as it results to substantial
increase of water requirement of concrete mix and cement over-expenditure;
e) subtlety of grinding of the cement, defined on a specific surface, according to TDS-
22236, should be not less than 250 m of/kg and no more than 15 % of the rest on sieve №008
from weight of sifted test;
f) by quantity content of alkalis in cement at test should not provide with occurrence on an
open surface concrete and solutions of wall saltpetre.

Fillers

2.8 Norms provide application of coarse aggregates which are meeting the requirements
TDS-26633. TDS-8267.
2.9 The norms containing in tables, are defined for concrete with rubble application. At
application of gravel is necessary to multiply by the factors specified in tab. 5.
Table 5
Class (mark В7,5 В10,В12,5 В15 В20 В22,5 В25
of concrete) (М 100) (М 150) (М 200) (М 250) (М 300) (М 350)
Factor 0,91 0,94 0,96 0,97 0,98 1

2.10 Limiting fineness of grains of coarse aggregate at definition of typical norm of


cement consumption should be proved requirements TDS-26633, standards or specifications of
manufacture of the given kind of products and is accepted by greatest of the possible.
2.11 The norms resulted in tables, provide application of fillers with the greatest fineness
of grains of 20 mm. At application of fillers with other greatest fineness of grains is necessary to
apply the factors specified in tab. 6. Thus application of factors 1,1 and 1,07 is supposed only in
cases when use of fillers fineness of 10 mm are provided by standards or specifications on
products.
Table 6
The greatest fineness of Factor for concrete of project marks
grains of filler, мм to В25 (М 350) inclusive В30 (М 400) and over
10 1,1 1,07
20 1 1
40 0,93 0,95
70 0,9 0,92

2.12 Norms are defined for rubble with content (in weight) no more than 25 % of grains
lamellar (bottom) and prickly forms.
At use of rubble with other percent of the maintenance of grains lamellar and prickly
forms is necessary to apply the factors specified in tab. 7.
Table 7
Content of grains of lamellar (bottom) and Factor
prockly forms, % in weight
less than 0,98
25 25 and 1
more

2.13 Norms provide use as small filler for concrete of sand natural, meeting on grain
structure to requirements TDS-26633, TDS-8736, Т §-66.21.
2.14 t application of sand with the module of fineness 1,5-2 for concrete of class В15
(marks of M 200) and above is necessary to apply factor 1,05.
2.15 In special cases is supposed at corresponding technical and economic substantiation
application to typical norms of following factors at application:
a) rubble or gravel of the lowered durability or with the raised content of weak
differences (in comparison with sizes on TDS-26633) - 1,05;
b) sand with module of fineness less than 1,5 (including pulverescent sand) for concrete
of classes to В10, В12,5 (marks of M 150) inclusive-1,07, and for concrete of class В15 (marks
of M 200) and above - 1,12. Thus sand with the module крупности equal or less than 1,5 should
be used with the obligatory application of fluidizing additives;
c) fillers with raised (in comparison with sizes on TDS-26633) content of pulverescent,
clay or oozy particles - 1,05.
At simultaneous action of two and more factors the general meaning of the factors
specified in given point, should not be more than 1,15.
Remoulding effort of concrete mix
2.15 Remoulding effort of concrete mix should accept according to way of formation and
type of designs as directed in table 8.

________________________________________________________ Table 8
Name of products slump (см) or hardness (с) of concrete mix, accepted at:
Agregatу-line or stand technology (except cassette)
conveyor technology With consolidation In forms with hinged
with consolidation in by deep and vibrators at concreting
vibratory plate or superficial height, sm
vibratory nozzle vibrators to 80 more 80
Flat products with increased 1- 4 сm 1-.4 сm - -
requirements to quality of
their surfaces (wall panels
and partitions, plates and
panels of overlappings, etc.)
The same, at usual 5-10 s 1-4 сm - -
requirements to quality of
surfaces (plates of coverings
of buildings, road coverings,
plates of fastenings, slopes of
earthen constructions,
elements of retaining walls,
bunkers, etc.)
Panels and floorings with 11-20 s - - -
round, oval and other
emptiness and other similar
products
Ridge and caisson plates, 1-4 сm 1-4 сm 1-4 сm 5-9 сm
panels and other similar
elements (plates of
overlappings, ladder
platforms and marches, etc.)
Base and wall blocks and 5-10 s 5-10 s 5-10 s 1-4 сm
other similar products of
simple configuration _
Linear products of simple 5-10 s 1-4 сm 1-4 сm
profile (crossbars, beams,
columns, racks, crosspieces,
piles, etc.), and also tee
profile formed by shelf
upwards
Linear products of difficult 1-4 сm 5-9 сm 5-9 сm 5-9 сm
profile (tee and two-tee
beams, support of PL, masts,
farms, two-member columns,
etc.)
Curvilinear elements of 5-10 s 1-4 сm 5-9 сm 5-9 сm
coverings, tanks, trays, tunnel
lining, mine trunks, etc. _
Pipes, masts, rings of wells, 5-10 s 5-10 s 5-10s
etc.
The note: It is supposed to appoint applied ways of formation and remoulding effort of
concrete mix for various products proceeding from concrete conditions according to the
requirements resulted from tab. 3 СНТ3.03.02-2003 and from tab. 1 СНТ3.03.04-2001.

In all cases initial remoulding effort of concrete mix is established by practical


consideration in laboratory conditions.
For fine-grained concrete mixes instead of groups of remoulding effort, recommended for
usual concrete (tab. 8 see), is necessary to accept the nearest group with smaller remoulding
effort.
Mobility and the rigidity of concrete mix resulted in tab. 8, are defined in TDS-10181.1.
2.17 Production of concrete mixes with remoulding effort more, than it is specified in tab.
8, should be provided without increase of the expense of cement at the expense of application of
fluidizing additives.
2.18 Norms provide use of concrete mix with temperature not above than 25°С. At
application of concrete mix with more heat of norm is necessary to multiply in factors specified
in tab. 9.
Considering that in process of rise in temperature of concrete mix its water requirement,
for tab. 9 raises rough sizes of change of the expense of water in the concrete, necessary for
production of concrete mix of identical initial mobility depending on mix temperature are
resulted also.

Table 9
Temperature of concrete mix, С 20 25 26-29 30 35 and
more
Facotor 1 1 1,03 105- 1,06 108- 1,1 111-112
Water discharge, % 100 102-104 107 110

Production technology
2.19 Norms are developed proceeding from conditions, that hardening of national teams
concrete and ferro-concrete products in normal temperature-wet conditions occurs at
temperature plus 20 ° C (tab. 12,13). Thus handling strength of 60 % and less from design mark
is reached during 3-5 days, equal 70 % - during 6-10 days, in all cases at the age of 28 days is
provided design class (mark) of concrete.
2.20 Norms are defined for thermal processing of products by steaming electrowarming
up, heating in the gas environment, solar heat processing or contact heating at any heat-carriers
with application in all cases of optimum modes of thermal processing (duration of preliminary
keeping, speed of lifting of temperature, isothermal warming up, the cooling period), providing
the fullest use of activity properties of cements.
For the products made in Portland cement and slag Portlandcement, mode of steaming is
accepted identical in TDS-310.4, the general duration 12-13 h., for sulphate-resistant cement 15-
16 h. at temperature 80 ° C. Optimal mode of steaming in each concrete case is appointed factory
laboratory by results of technological tests.
Norms of expense for the specified modes of thermal processing are resulted in tab.
14,15,16,17.
2.21 For manufacturing in cassette installations of products from concrete with handling
strength, equal 70 of design class and more, the mode of thermal processing is considered of
general duration 12-16 h., and for products from concrete with handling strength less than 70 % -
10-12 h. (tab. 18).
2.22 Increase of cement consumption against the values resulted in tables with a view of
reductions of terms of thermal processing, as a rule, it is not supposed. Such reduction should be
reached by application of corresponding processing methods. For the enterprises with shorter,
than it is specified in the item of items 2.20 and 2.21, the modes of thermal processing caused by
design technology, at turnover forms not less than two times a day is supposed application to
norms of the factors specified in tab. 10.

Table 10
Design class (mark) of concrete at handling strength 70% and more Factor
В22,5 (М 300) and 1,1
lower В25 (М 350) 1,08
and over
2.23 In norms achievement by concrete of demanded handling strength in 4 h is
considered. After termination of thermal processing and a design class (mark) in 28 days at the
subsequent hardening in normal conditions.
Value of normalised handling strength of concrete should be accepted is differentiated
seasonally and no more the values resulted in the obligatory appendix 2.
2.24 For preliminary strained structures hardening in the conditions of the thermal
processings, at turnover forms more than 1,5 times day norms of cement consumption follow to
establish in size of the normalized transfer durability, corresponding the handling strength in tab.
15 and 16 with application of factor 1,05.
2.25 Norms of cement consumption for structures produced by method of centrifugation
with thermal processing, are accepted on tab. 19.
2.26 Norms for the products produced from fine-grained concrete, accept on tab. 20.
Application of fine-grained concrete is supposed at corresponding technical-economical
explanation.
2.27 At presentation to concrete of products and structures of requirements in frost
resistance and water resistance requirements should be provided with introduction of air-
entraining, out-gassing or complex additives. As typical norm cement consumption is necessary
to accept the consumption which will appear the greatest by comparison of typical norm of
cement consumption, design durability of concrete defined from conditions, and the typical norm
specified in tab. 21, providing application of the specified additives. Application of factors to
norms of tab. 21 is not supposed.

The minimum and maximum typical norms of cement consumption

2.28 The minimum typical norm of cement consumption in TDS-10178 and TDS-22266
is accepted according to TDS-26633 in tab. 11 depending on kind of structures and conditions of
their maintenance.
2.29 The typical norm of cement consumption, established by multiplication of tabular
norms to all applied factors, should not exceed 600 kg/m3.
2.30 For the purpose of economy of cement and improvement of quality of concrete is
necessary to enter the additives resulted in the appendix 3 into a concrete mix.
Kinds and volume (weight) of entered additives specify by practical consideration
depending on kind and quality of the initial materials applied at preparation of concrete mix, and
modes of hardening in the building laboratory.

Table 11
Kind of Conditions of Kind and cement consumption, кг/м3
construction maintenance PC-DO SSPC-DO PC-D20 SSPC-D20 SHPCSSSHPPCPPC
1 2 3 4 5
Unreinforced Without Don’t standardize Don’t standardize Don’t standardize
atmospheric
forcing
At atmospheric 150 170 170
forcing
Reinforced with Without 150 170 180
atmospheric
nonprestressed forcing
armature
At atmospheric 200 220 240
forcing
Reinforced with Without 220 240 270
atmospheric
stressed forcing
armature
At atmospheric 240 270 300
forcing

The note: is supposed production of the reinforced concrete with the cement consumption
less minimum admissible under condition of preliminary check of maintenance of protective
properties of concrete in relation to steel armature.

The minimum cement consumption for concrete of the designs maintained in excited
environments, define taking into account requirements СНТ2.03.11-99*.

Concrete on Portland cement and its variations, rapid-hardening slag


Portland cement and sulfate-resistant Portland cement at hardening of
products in natural conditions
Table 12
Design class Remoulding effort of Cement
(mark) of concrete mix consumption, кг/м3,
concrete marks
slump, сm hardness, s 400 500 550 600
1 2 3 4 5 6 7_
В7,5 (М 100) 5-9 225
1-4 - 210 - - -
- 5-10 200 - - -
В15 (М 200) 5-9 265 235 - -
1-4 - 245 210 - -
1-4 5-10 235 200 - -
11-20
_ 220 - - -
В20 (М 250) 5-9 310 275 - -
1-4 - 285 250 - -
- 5-10 270 235 - -
- 11-20
_ 255 220 - -
В22,5 (М 300) 5-9 355 315 - -
1-4 - 325 290 - -
- 5-10 305 270 - -
- 11-20 285 250 - -
В25 (М 350) 5-9 - 400 360 - -
1-4 - 365 325 - -
- 5-10 345 310 - -
- 11-20
_ 320 290 - -
В30(М400) 5-9 - 405 390 365
1-4 - - 365 350 330
- 5-10 - 340 330 310
- 11-20
_ _- 320 305 290
В35 (М 450) 5-9 440 420 405
1-4 - - 400 385 365
- 5-10 - 375 360 340
- 11-20
_ _- 350 330 315
В40 (М 550) 5-9 495 470 445
1-4 - - 450 425 400
- 5-10 - 420 400 375
- 11-20 _- 390 370 350
В45 (М 600) 5-9 - 600 555
1-4 - - - 540 495
- 5-10 - - 500 455
- 11-20 - - 455 420

Concrete on slag Portland cement and sulfate-resistant


Portland cement at hardening of products in natural conditions

Table 13
Design class Remoulding effort of Cement
(mark) of concrete mix consumption,
concrete кг/м3, marks
slump, см hardness, с 300 400 500
1 2 3 4 5 6
В7,5 (М 100) 5-9 210
1-4 _- 200 - _-
В10,В12,5 5-9 265 235
(М 150) 1-4 - 245 215 -
- 5-10 230 205 -
- 11-20 210 - -
В15 (М 200) 5-9 315 280 245
1-4 - 290 260 225
- 5-10 270 245 210
- 11-20
_ 255 230 -
В20 (М 250) 5-9 370 330 290
1-4 - 340 305 265
- 5-10 320 285 245
- 11-20
_ 295
_ 260 225
В22,5 (М 300) 5-9 370 335
1-4 - - 345 305
- 5-10 - 325 285
- 11-20
_ _- 305 260
В25 (М 350) 5-9 425 375
1-4 - - 390 345
- 5-0 - 360 320
- 11-20
_ - 340 295
ВЗО (М 400) 5-9 - - 420
1-4 - - - 385
5-10 - - 360
- 11-20
_ _- _- 335
В35 (М 450) 5-9 470
1-4 - - - 425
- 5-10 - - 395
- 11-20
_ _- - 370
В40 (М 550) 5-9 520
1-4 - - 470
- 5-10 - - 435
­ 11-20 - - 405

Concrete with handling strength of 50-60 % of design class (mark)


in conditions of thermal processing
Table 14
Design class Remoulding effort of Cement consumption, кг/м3, marks
(mark) of concrete concrete mix
slump, сm hardness, s 300 400 500
1 2 3 4 5 6
В10,В12,5 (М 5-9 - 265 235
150)
1-4 - 245 215 -
- 5-10 230 200 -
- 11-20 215 - -
В15 (М 200) 5-9 - 310 275 240
1-4 - 285 250 220
- 5-10 270 235 205
- 11-20 250 220 200
В20 (М 250) 5-9 - 350 315 275
1-4 - 330 290 255
- 5-10 310 270 240
- 11-20 285 250 220

Concrete with handling strength of 70 % of design class (mark)


in conditions of thermal processing
Table 15
Design class Remoulding Cement
(mark) of concrete effort of consumption, кг/м3,
concrete mix marks
slump, сm hardness, s 300 400 500 550 со 600
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
В7,5 (М 100) 5-9 - 240 - - - -
1-4 - 220 - - - -
- 5-10 200 - - - -
- - - - -
_-
11-20
_ _ _
В10,В12,5 (М 5-9 280 250
150)
1-4 - 255 225 - - -
- 5-10 240 210 - - -
- 11-20
_ 225 200 - - -
_
В15(М 200) 5-9 325 285 250
1-4 - 300 260 230 - -
- 5-10 280 245 215 - -
- 11-20
_ 260 230 200 - -
В20 (М 250) 5-9 370 325 285 -
1-4 - 340 300 265 - -
- 5-10 320 280 245 - -
- 11-20
_ 295
_ 260 225 - -
В22,5 (М 300) 5-9 365 325 -
1-4 - - 335 300 - -
- 5-10 - 315 280 - -
- 11-20 - 295 255 - -
В25 (М 350) 5-9 - - 410 365 -
1-4 - - 375 335 - -
- 5-10 - 350 315 - -
- 11-20 - 325 295 - -

Continuation of table 15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

со
В30 (М 400) 5-9 - - - 405 390 365
1-4 - - - 365 350 330
- 5-10 - - 340 330 310
- 11-20 _- -_ 320 305 290
_
В35 (М 450) 5-9 440 420 405
1-4 - - - 400 385 365
- 5-10 - - 375 360 340
- 11-20 - -_ 350 330 315
_ _
В40 (М 550) 5-9 495 470 445
1-4 - - - 450 425 400
- 5-10 - - 420 400 375
- 11-20 - - 390 370 350
_
В45 (М 600) 5-9 - 600 555
1-4 - - - - 540 495
- 5-10 - - - 500 455
- 1 1-20 - - - 455 420

Concrete with handling strength of 80-85 % of design class (mark)


in conditions of thermal processing
Table 16
Remoulding effort of Cement consumption, кг/м3,
Design class (mark) concrete mix marks
of concrete slump, сm hardness, s 300 400 500 550 600
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
со

В10,В12,5 (М 150) 5-9 - 320 275 245 - -


1-4 - 290 250 220 - -
- 5-10 270 235 205 - -
- 11-20
_ 250 220 200 - -
В15 (М 200) 5-9 - 315 280 - -
1-4 - - 290 260 - -
- 5-10 - 276 240 - -
- 11-20
_ _- 255 225 - -
В20 (М 250) 5-9 360 325 - -
1-4 - - 335 295 - -
- 5-10 - 310 280 - -
- 11-20 - 290 260 - -
В22,5 (М 300) 5-9 410 360 - -
1-4 - - 375 335 - -
- 5-10 - 350 315 - -
- 11-20 - 325 295 - -
В25 (М 350) 5-9 - - 465 410 - -
1-4 - - 420 370 - -
- 5-10 - 395 350 - -
- 11-20
_ _- 365 320 - -
В30 (М 400) 5-9 - 450 415 390
1-4 - - 410 380 355
- 5-10 - - 380 355 325
- 11-20 - - 355 325 300

Continuation of table 16

со
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
В35 (М450) 5-9 - - - 510 470 435
1-4 - - - 455 420 390
- 5-10 - - 420 390 360
- 11-20
_ -_ - 390 365 340
В40 (М 500) 5-9 . 525 480
1-4 - - - 525 470 430
- 5-10 - - 480 435 400
- 11-20
_ _- _- 435
_ 410
_ 375
В45 (М 600) 5-9 600
1-4 - - - - - 550
- 5-10 - - - - 500
- 1 1-20 - - - - 460

Concrete with handling strength of 90-100 % of design class (mark)


in conditions of thermal processing
Table 17
Design class Remoulding effort of Cement consumption, кг/м3,
(mark) of concrete concrete mix marks
slump, сm hardness, s 300 400 500 550 600
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
В10,В12,5 (М 150) 5-9 - 330 290 265 - -
1-4 - 305 275 245 - -
- 5-10 290 255 230 - -
- 11-20 270
_ 235 215 - -
В15 (М 200) 5-9 - 345 310 - -
1-4 - - 320 285 - -
- 5-10 - 300 270 - -
- 11-20
_ _- 280 250 -_ _-
В20 (М 250) 5-9 405 360
1-4 - - 370 330 - -
- 5-10 - 345 310 - -
- 11-20
_ _- 325 285 - -
В22,5 (М 300) 5-9 465 410 - -
1-4 - - 420 370 - -
- 5-10 - 395 350 - -
- 11-20 -_ 370 325 - -_
В25 (М 350) 5-9 540 465
1-4 - - 495 425 - -
- 5-10 - 460 400 - -
- 11-20
_
- 420
_
370 - ­
В30 (М 400) 5-9 540 465 430
1-4 - - - 485 420 390
- 5-10 - - 450 390 360
- 11-20 -_ _- 410
_ 365 340
В35 (М 450) 5-9 535 500
1-4 - - - 570 485 450
- 5-10 - - 520 455 420
- 11-20 - - 470 420 390
В40 (М 550) 5-9 - - - - 600 580
1-4 - - - - 565 525
- 5-10 - - - 530 485
- 11-20 ­ - - 485 454
The products made in cassette installations

Table 18
Thickness Design class 3
Cement consumption, кg/m , at handling strength,% of design marl
of (mark) of concrete 70 85 100
products,
сm and mark of concrete
300 400 500 300 400 500 300 400 500
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
10 and В10,В12,5 (М 150) 350 305 - 380 340 320 430 370 330
less В15 (М 200) 405 360 320 455 400 355 - 445 395
В22,5 (М 300) - 465 415
_ - - 465 - - 530
more than В10,В12,5 (М 150) 320 285 355 315 300 395 345 310
10
В15 (М 200) 380 325 300 425 370 330 470 415 365
В22,5 (М 300) - 435 385 - 485 435 - - 485
Concrete for structures produced by method of
centrifugation with thermal processing
Table 19
3
Design class Handling strength of Cement consumption, кг/м ,
(mark) of concrete, % from design marks
concrete mark 400 500 550 600
_ _
В2,5 (М 300) 70 415 390
85 440 410 - -
100 460
_ 425 - -
ВЗО (М 400) 70 415 395 -
85 - 440 410 -
100 _- 460 435 -
В40 (М 550) 70 460 435 415
85 - 500 480 455
100 - 535 510 485

Fine-grained concrete in sand with module


of fineness 2,1 and more

Table 20
Remoulding effort Cement consumption, кg/m3,
Design class of concrete mix marks
(mark) of concrete slump, сm hardness, s 300 400 500

m
1 2 4 5 6
В7,5 (М 100) 5-9 345 305 265
1-4 - 330 290 250
- 5-10 280 250 220
- 11-20
_ 250 225 200
В10,В12,5 (М 150) 5-9 - 365 320
1-4 - 350 305
5-10 - 305 270
- 11-20 - 270 230
В15 (М 200) 5-9 - - 430 370
1-4 - - 410 350
- 5-10 - 360 310
- 11-20
_ - 315 270
В20 (М 250) 5-9 490 420
1-4 - - 470 395

Continuation of table 20
1 2 3 4 5 6
- 5-10 - 415 350
- 11-20
_ - 360 305
В22,5 (М 300) 5-9 555 470
1-4 - - 530 445
- 5-10 - 470 390
- 11-20 - 410 340
В25 (М 350) 5-9 . 520
1-4 - - 590 485
- 5-10 - 525 435
- 11-20
_ - 455
_ 385
В30 (М 400) 5-9 595
1-4 - - - 540
- 5-10 - - 475
- 11-20 - - 415

Norms of cement consumption for concrete products to which demand in frost resistance
and water resistance requirements

Remoulding effort Cement consumption, кг/м3, for marks of cocnrete


of concrete mix in frost resistance in water resistance
slump, сm hardness, s F-100-150 F-200 F-300 and W4 W6 W8 and
more more
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
5-9 320 400 440 340 420 475
1-4 - 300 375 410 320 400 450
- 5-10 280 350 380 300 380 425
- 11-20 260 325 360 280 360 405

3. TYPICAL NORMS OF CEMENT CONSUMPTION FOR EASY


CONCRETE OF BUILT-UP CONCRETE AND FERROCONCRETE PRODUCTS
AND MASS PRODUCTION STRUCTURES

3.1 Norms of cement consumption extend on products from easy concrete produced
in line-aggregate, conveyor, stand or cassette technology with application for consolidations of
concrete mixes of vibrating influences and intended for work in nonaggressive air and water
environments.
Norms do not extend on the products produced with application of methods of
consolidation of concrete mix by pressing, vibratory pressing and centrifugation from special
concrete (heat-insulating, heat resisting, chemically proof, decorative), from concrete popcorn
structures, and also in concrete for manufacture of wall stones and small blocks, and in concrete
subjected to thermal processing at raised (over atmospheric) pressure.
3.2 Norms of cement consumption in 1 m3 of easy concrete of built-up concrete and
ferroconcrete products and structures contain cement consumption differentiated taking into
account kind of easy concrete to destination (constructional and constructional- heat-insulating),
design marks of concrete, design marks on frost resistance; a kind and cement mark; a kind and
characteristics of porous fillers; remoulding effort and structures of concrete mix; conditions,
tyerms and modes of hardening of concrete products and structures.

Indicators of quality of easy concrete


3.3 For structures, projected according to requirements TDS-26633, TDS-25820, norms
of cement consumption should be accepted with reference to concrete classes in conformity with
the appendix 1.
Norms are developed for the concrete which uniformity corresponds in TDS-18105.1 to
the average level of durability equal of 100 % of the normalised.
3.4 As characteristic of average density of easy concrete at definition of typical norm of
cement consumption is accepted its mark on average density in the dry condition, specified in
working drawings on products and structures.
3.5 For constructional- heat-insulating easy concrete of norm are given depending on
mark on the average density reached by application of porous fillers demanded on quality, at
optimum structure and dense structure of concrete with obligatory application of air-entraining
additives.
For constructional easy concrete of norm are given for mark on average density -
D.1800. At other values of design average density the typical norm is established with
application of the factors resulted in tab. 22.
Table 22
Design class (mark) of concrete Factors of change of typical norm at design class (mark) of
in durability concrete шn average density
D. 1300-1400 D. 1500-1600 D. 1700-1800
В10,В12,5-В15 (М 150-М 200) 1,1 1,05 1
В20-В22,5 (М 250-М 300) - 1,1 1
В25 -В30 (М 350-М 400) - - 1
3.6 For constructional-heat-insulating easy concrete of classes В7,5 (marks of M 100)
and lower the norm is calculated in provision of handling strength equal not below 80 % of
design not later than in 4 h. after termination of thermal processing.
For constructional easy concrete of classes В10, В12,5 (marks of M 150) and more
norms are given for handling strength not less than 70 % design.
3.7 It is necessary to apply factor to stressed structure according to item 2.24.
3.8 Norms of cement consumption for constructional-heat-insulating easy concrete are
calculated in provision of necessary frost resistance of such concrete in the protecting structures
and safety of armature from corrosion incondition of operation of structures in nonaggressive
environment with humidity to 75 %.
For constructional easy concrete to which along with durability is demanded
requirements on frost resistance, typical norms of cement consumption should be accepted
according to item 2.27 instructions.

Cements
3.9 In norms is provided use of the cements which are meeting the requirements TDS-
10178. Mark of cement should be accepted oi tab. 23 taking into account the positions stated in
item 2.4.
Table 23
Design class (mark) of concrete Marks of cement for easy concrete
recommended supposed
В3,5-В7,5 (М50-М 100) 400 300
В10-В15 (Ml50-М 200) 400 300,500
В20 (М 250) 400 500,550
В22,5 (М 300) 500 400,550,600

Thus for constructional easy concrete in application cases of clean clinker cements and
cements with normal density of the cement test which are distinct from 25-27 %, it is necessary
to be guided by item 2.6 instructions. And tab. 3. the size of activity of cement at steaming is
considered according to item 2.7 instructions.
In constructional-heat-insulating easy concrete instructions of item 2.6 and 2.7 do not
extend.
3.10 Norms of cement consumption for constructional easy concrete are differentiated
depending on mark of applied cement. For constructional-heat-insulating norms of concrete are
given for Portland cement or slag Portland cement of marks 400. In case of application of
cements of mark 300 is necessary to apply factors: for class В3,5 (mark М50) - 1,05; for class
В5 (marks of M 75) - 1,07; for class В7,5 (marks of M 100) - 1,10.
Fillers

3.11 In typical norms is provided application of the porous fillers which are meeting the
requirements TDS-9757, TDS-25820.
3.12 For constructional-heat-insulating easy concrete of norm are differentiated for
concrete on porous gravel (claydite, sintered thermoargalite, shungezite, cindery gravel)-tab. 27;
porous rubble (agloporite, slag pumice) - tab. 28. Norms provide application of large porous
fillers with mark on bulk density which are not exceeding requirements, stated in enc. 2 and 3
TDS-25820 at application of sand of the same kind, as a large porous filler.
3.13 At application of porous fillers with the raised bulk density norm of cement
consumption at the given design average density of concrete establish with application of the
factors resulted in tab. 24 depending on ways of decrease of density of concrete.
Table 24
Way of decrease in average Values of factors of change of cement consumption of design
density of constructional- classes (marks) of concrete
heat-insulating easy concrete В3,5 (М50) В5 (М 75) В7,5 (М 100)

Application of sintered 1,05 1,07 1,1


perlite sand
Porousation of foam or 1,15 1,2 -
gasifier (for nonsand
porous concrete)

For concrete on porous crushed aggregate norm of cement consumption in


application cases of sintered perlite sand does not change.
3.14 For constructional easy concrete of norm, resulted in tab. 29, of 20 mm and with the
least recommended mark on the durability resulted in tab. 25 are calculated on use as large filler
of porous gravel with the greatest крупностью grains. For concrete on porous щебнях with
similar mark on durability the typical norm is established by multiplication of tabular values to
the factors equal for concrete: classes В7,5-В10, В12,5 (marks of M 100-M150) - 1,1; classes
В15-В20 (marks М200-М250) - 1,05; classes В22,5 (mark of M 300) and more - 1,0.
Table 25
Design class (mark) of concrete Mark of durability of large porous fillers for
constructional easy concrete
recommended supposed
В10,В12,5 (М 150) П 100, П 125, П 150 П75, П200
В15 (М 200) П 125, П 150, П 200 П 100,П250
В20 (М 250) П 150, П 200, П 250 П 125, П 300
В22,5 (М 300) П 200, П 250, П 300 П 150, П 350

3.15 Is necessary to apply factors resulted in tab. 26 at use for constructional easy
concrete of large porous fillers with mark on the durability which distinct from are specified in
item 3.14
Table 26
Design class Values of factors of change of cement consumption at use of porous
(mark) of concrete fillers of marks on durability
П75 П 100 П 125 П 150 П200 П250 ПЗОО П350
В10,В12,5 (М 150) 1,15 1 0,92 1 0,89 0,86 0,77 0,76 0,8
В15 (М 200) В20 1,15 1,20 0,92 1 0,85 0,8 0,82
(М 250) В22,5 (М 1,25 0,9 1 0,86
300)

3.16 Typical norms of cement consumption for constructional-heat-insulating easy


concrete are accepted without dependence from the greatest fineness of filler grains. For
constructional concrete in need of application of porous rubble or gravel with the greatest
finenenss 10 mm it is necessary to enter factors according to item 2.11 instructions.
3.17 As a small filler for constructional-heat-insulating easy concrete typical norms
provide use of the porous sand which are meeting the requirements TDS-9757 of the same kind,
as applied large porous fillers.
In case of use of other kinds of small fillers (harms ТPS, sintered perlite sand,
building sand) typical norms at the given durability and average density of concrete do not vary,
except for the cases specified in item 3.13.
3.18 For ceramsite concrete classes В5 and В7,5 (marks of M 75 and M 100) with
average density 1200-1400 kg/m3 intended for single-layered panels of socle parts of buildings or
constructive layers of the multilayered panels prepared on dense sand, typical norm of cement
consumption is established in tab. 27 with application of factor 1,15.
3.19 As small filler of constructional easy concrete by norms is provided application
of building sand with the module of fineness 2,1, meeting the requirements TDS-26633. At
application of sand with the module of fineness 1,5 - 2 and less, with raised maintenance sand,
oozy and clay particles apply factors in conformity sp.p.2.14 and 2.15.
At application as small filler of porous sand meeting requirements TDS-9757, norms of
cement consumption do not change, except cases when decreases the design average density of
concrete (see tab. 22).

Remoulding effort of concrete mix

3.20 In norms of cement consumption for constructional-heat-insulating easy concrete


is provided application of concrete mixes with remoulding effort, optimum for manufacturing of
protecting structures in horizontally moved forms and rigidity corresponding, as a rule, 5-10
seconds. Provision of similar remoulding effort mixes at the demanded design average density of
concrete is reached by introduction of air-entraining or others gel-forming additives. In need of
application for such concrete of mixes with raised remoulding effort last should be provided with
the raised maintenance gel-forming additives without increase in the expense of cement, except
for the cases provided by tab. 24.
3.21 Remoulding effort of concrete mix for constructional easy concrete should accept
according to instructions of the item of item 2.

Production technology

3.22 In norms is provided hardening of easy concrete at optimum modes of thermal


processing (on temperature, duration, humidity of environment) by the general duration 12-16 h.,
providing achievement of demanded handling strength and humidity.
3.23 In the cases of application of the truncated modes of thermal processing provided
by item 2.22 to norms for constructional easy concrete, is supposed to apply factors on tab. 10.
For constructional-heat-insulating of easy concrete the norm is accepted in these cases without
factors.
3.24 Norms of cement consumption for impressive grout layers of corresponding marks
are accepted on tab. 30. At manufacturing of panels in chambers of dry warming up for a
solution of the top layer is necessary to apply factor 1,08.

The minimum and maximum norms of cement consumption

3.25 For products from constructional-heat-insulating easy concrete typical norm not
should be below 200 kg/m3. For constructional easy concrete the minimum typical norm of
cement consumption is accepted according to item 2.28., tab. 11. Is supposed decrease of
minimum cement consumption at application of ashes ТPS, claydite dust and other active
mineral additives.
3.26 Typical norm of cement consumption, established by multiplication of tabular norms
to all applied factors, should not exceed 600 kg/m3.

Constructional-heat-insulating easy concrete in gravel similar porous fillers

Table 27
Mark of concrete on Cement consumption of mark 400, kg/m3, depending on design
average density class (mark) of concrete on durability at compression
В3,5 (М50) В5 (М 75) В7,5 (М 100)
D.700 250 - -
D.800 230 260 -
D.900 220 240 280
D.1000 210 225 260
D.1100 200 215 240
D.1200 - 210 225
D.1300 - - 215
D.1400 - - 210

Constructional-heat-insulating easy concrete in crushed aggregate similar porous fillers

Table 28
Mark of concrete on Cement consumption of mark 400, kg/m3, depending on design class
average density (mark) of concrete on durability at compression
В3,5 (М50) В5 (М 75) В7,5 (М 100)
D.800 285 - -
D.900 265 320 -
D.1000 250 295 360
D.1100 240 275 330
D.1200 230 260 305
D.1300 225 250 280
D.1400 220 240 265
D.1500 215 230 255
D.1600 - 220 245
D.1700 - 235

Constructional easy concrete with handling strength of 70 % of design class (mark)

Table 29
Design class Remoulding effort of concrete Cement consumption, кг/м3, marks
(mark) of concrete mix
slump, сm hardness, с 300 400 500
1 2 4 5 6
В10,В12,5 (М 5-9 340 300 265
150)
1-4 - 310 275 245
- 5-10 295 260 230
- 11-20
_ 275 245 215
В15 (М200) 5-9 425 370 325
1-4 - 390 340 300
- 5-10 370 320 285
- 11-20 345 300 256
В20 (М 250) 5-9 - - 425 380
1-4 - - 400 350
- 5-10 - 370 330
- 11-20 - 340 305
В22,5 (М 300) 5-9 - - 500 420
1-4 - - 465 385
- 5-10 - 430 365
- 11-20 - 395 335
The note: Mobility of 5-9 cm is supposed only for monolithic concrete

Surface solution of external protecting structures with


handling strength of 70 % of design class (mark)
Table 30
Design class (mark) of 3
Cement consumption, кг/м , marks
solution 300 400 500
В5 (М 75) 320 300 230
В7,5 (М 100) 370 340 310
В12.5 (М 150) 430 390 350

4. TYPICAL NORMS OF CEMENT CONSUMPTION


FOR CONCRETE OF MONOLITHIC CONCRETE
AND FERROCONCRETE STRUCTURES
4.1 Norms of cement consumption extend on monolithic and built-up-monolithic
structures erected from heavy and easy concrete, intended for work in air or water environment.
Norms do not extend in structures erected from concrete of classes (marks) more В30
(М400), from special kinds of concrete: especially heavy, heat resisting and heatproof,
decorative, and also concrete on fillers from production wastes (slags, burnt breeds, etc.),
intended for operation in chemically aggressive water or gas environment.
4.2 Norms of cement consumption in 1 м3 of concrete of monolithic and built-up-
monolithic structures contain the expenses of cement differentiated taking into account a design
class (mark) and design term of its achievement, design marks on frost resistance and water
resistance; a kind and mark of cement, a kind and limiting крупности grains of fillers, and also
features of properties of these materials, remoulding effort of concrete mix.
4.3 As strengthening characteristics of concrete for definition of norm of cement
consumption is accepted design class (mark) of concrete defined at the age of 28,90 and 180
days, according to data of working drawings and other engineering specifications on structures.
For structures, projected according to requirements TDS-26633, norms of the expense of
cement should be accepted with reference to classes of durability of concrete according to the
appendix 1.
4.4 Norms are made for the concrete which uniformity corresponds on TDS-18105.2 to
the average level of durability equal of 100 % of the normalized.
4.5 For concrete of monolithic and built-up-monolithic structures to which along with
durability demands on frost resistance and water resistance are made, typical norms of the
expense of cement should be accepted according to item 2.27 instructions.

Typical norms of cement consumption in heavy concrete

4.6 Norms provide use of cements which are meeting the requirements TDS-10178 and
TDS-22266 taking into account item 2.6. Cement kind should be accepted according to
appointment of structures and constructions and conditions of their operation on the basis of
engineering specifications instructions in structures and constructions.
4.7 Recommended and supposed marks of cement for concrete of various classes (marks)
on durability and design age is necessary to accept according to instructions of tab. 31.
Table 31
Marks of cements for concrete of monolithic and built-up-monolithic structures
Design class recommended supposed
(mark) of concrete At design age of concrete, day.
28 90-180 28 90-180
В7,5 (М 100) 300 300 - -
В10,В12,5 (М 150) 300 300 400 -
В15(М 200) 400 300 500 400
В20 (М 250) 400 300 500 400
В22,5 (М 300) 400 400 500 400
В25 (М 350) 400 400 500 400
ВЗО(М400) 500 400 550,600 500,550

4.8 At application of pozzolatic Portland cement tabular norms of Portland cement


consumption are multiplied by factors: for concrete of design classes В22,5 (marks М300)
inclusive - 1,08 and for concrete of design classes В25-В30 (marks of M 350 - M 400) - 1,15.
4.9 In norms is provided application of fillers which meet the requirements TDS-26633
taking into account instructions of the item 2.9, 2.10 and 2.12-2.15.
The norms resulted in tables, provide application of rubble with the greatest fineness 40
mm. At application of fillers with other greatest fineness of grains tabular norms should be
multiplied by the factors specified in tab. 32.
Table 32
The greatest fineness of filler Factor for concrete of design marks
grains, mm to М 350 inclusive М 400 and more
20 1,08 1,05
40 1 1
70 0,97 0,97

4.10 Norms resulted in tab. 33-34, provide reception of design class of concrete (marks)
at design age 28 days At design age of concrete 90 and 180 days tabular values of norms should
be multiplied accordingly by factors, at use of Portland cement and its versions and early-
strength Portland cement and slag Portland cement - 0,9 and 0,85; at use of slag Portland cement
and its versions and pozzolatic Portland cement - 0,87 and 0,8.

4.11 Norms resulted in tables 33, 34 provide application of fluidizing additives in number
of 0,2 % of weight of cement.
4.12 Mobility of concrete mix should be appointed according to way of formations and
type of structures.
Reception of cast concrete mixes (with slump more than 15 cm) should be provided with
dosage by increase of fluidizing additives or application of additives of superfluidifier.
4.13 Influence of temperature of concrete mix on norms of cement consumption should
be considered according to item 2.18 instructions.
4.14 For concrete mixes which packing is provided by concrete pumping installations,
norms of cement consumption should be multiplied by factor 1,05. Thus cement consumption
should be not less than 250 and no more 500 kg/m.
4.15 Norms are defined proceeding from a condition, that hardening of concrete of
monolithic structures occurs in normal temperature-wet conditions (natural hardening at
temperature 16-22 ° with to prevention of wet loss). At hardening of concrete in conditions of
temperature above 25 ° with and relative humidity of air less than 50 % of norm of the expense
of cement is necessary to appoint with the account «Managements on manufacture of concrete
works in conditions of dry hot climate», item 2.18.
For the purpose of provision of design class of concrete for the winter and summer
periods of manufacture of concrete works in norms is provided raised handling strength
according to the obligatory appendix 2.
4.16 Increase of norm of the expense of cement at duration increase transportations of a
concrete mix it is not supposed. Demanded on place of packing mobility of concrete mix at long
transportation it should be reached by application of additives of hardening retarder or softeners,
and also choice of way of transportation of a mix.
4.17 Norms of cement consumption for fine-grained concrete of monolithic concrete and
ferro-concrete structures are accepted in tab. 20.
4.18 The minimum typical norm of cement consumption is accepted in item 2.28.
4.19 The typical norm of cement consumption, established by multiplication of tabular
norms to all applied factors, should not exceed 600 kg/m3.
4.20 In heavy, fine-grained and easy concrete of additive are applied on the purpose:
- Improvements of technological properties of concrete mix: increases remoulding effort,
pumping, decrease of water-and solution compartment;
- Regulations of loss of concrete mix mobility in time, speeds of processes of stiffening,
hardening and thermal emissions;
- Reductions of duration of thermal processing of concrete, acceleration of terms of
striking and loadings of structures at natural hardening;
- Durability increas, water-and gas-tightness of concrete;
- Increases of frost resistance, durability of concrete and ferroconcrete in the various
aggressive environments;
- Increases of protective properties of concrete in relation to steel armature;
- Giving of waterproof properties of a surface of concrete;
- Reduction of cement consumption;
- Economy of fuel and energy resources.

4.21 As additives in concrete is recommended to apply separate substances or their


combinations which nomenclature is resulted in the appendix 3 and 4. Is supposed application of
other additives meeting requirements TDS-24211 recommended to application by results of
research works.
4.22 The additives specified in appendices 3 and 4 are necessary for entering into
structure of concrete taking into account the restrictions resulted in table 33.

Table 33
Products and designs, conditions of Introduction of additives is forbidden
their operation
1. The preliminary-strained ferroconcrete products and HK, HJ, NNHK, UPB, LMG, PVK
structures
2. The same, the groups reinforced by steel III (in table HK, HJ, NNHK, UPB, NK, NNK, LMG, PVK
9 SNT 2.03.11-99*)
3. Ferroconcrete products and structures: HK, HJ, LMG, PVK
3.1. With not strained working armature in diameter HK, HJ, NNHK, LMG, PVK HK, HJ, NNHK, SN,
5 mm and less; TNF, NK, NNK, LMG, BHK, PVK HK, HJ, SN, TNF,
3.2. Armatures with release or mortgages BHN, BHK, NN, NN, PVK, LMG
details; HK, HJ, PVK, LMG
3.2.1. Without special protection of steel; HK, HJ, NNHK, PVK, LMG
3.2.2. With zinc coverings on steel; HK, HJ, NNHK, NK, NNK, PVK, LMG
3.2.3. With aluminium coverings on steel. HK, HJ, SN, TNF, NN, NN, TBN, BHN, BHK, PVK,
3.3. Intended for operation: LMG
3.3.1. In aggressive gas environments; HK, HJ, NNHK, SN, TNF, SA, SJ, HK, NNK, NN,
3.3.2. In a zone of variable level and in operative NN, TBN, BHN, BHK, PVK, LMG
ranges of wandering direct currents from extraneous
sources;
3.3.3. In aggressive sulphatic waters and solutions of
salts and caustic alkalis in the presence of evaporating
surfaces;
3.3.4. In liquid and gas environments in normal,
damp and wet modes at presence in filler of inclusions
is reactionary-capable silica;
3.4. For the electrified transport and the industrial
enterprises consuming constant electric current.
4. Concrete products and the designs intended for SN, TNF, NN, NN, TBN, BHN, BHK, PVK, LMG
operation in conditions, specified in 3.3.4. the present
table
4.23 Concrete with additives, concrete mixes applied to them materials, manufacturing
techniques of products and structures should meet the requirements specified in the standard
technical and design documentation on concrete kinds of products and designs taking into
account their appointment.
4.24 Additives for heavy, fine-grained and easy concrete should be chosen on the basis of
requirements of the present section and technical and economic calculations.
Thus obligatory introduction of additives in following cases is necessary:
- For preparation cast (ОК> 21 sm) and plastic mixes, and also for reception of concrete
of classes В40 and more, concrete of marks on water resistance W8 and more – fluidizing of I
groups;
- For preparation of plastic mixes, and also for reception of concrete of classes В30-В40-
fluidizing of II groups;
- For preparation of concrete of the raised and high frost resistance and water resistance
if concrete of the set mark on durability of additives does not meet shown requirements on frost
resistance and density – fluidizing of III and IV groups, air-entraining and gas-forming additives;
- For decrease in power inputs at thermal processing of concrete, increase of rate of
growth of durability of concrete - the accelerator of hardening.
4.25 The choice of additives and appointment of their rational quantity are made
depending on the purpose of their application in concrete, technology of preparation of concrete
mix, way of manufacturing of designs and products, a kind of their reinforcing taking into
account influence of additives on properties of a concrete mix and concrete (table 34) and
restrictions on application of additives (table 33).

4.26 For reception of concrete mix with demanded technological properties in its
structure enter following additives:
- For improvement remoulding effort - fluidizing, air-entraining or complex additives on
their basis;
- For uniformity and coherence increase (nonravel) - stabilising fluidizing - air-
entraining, air-entraining or complex additives on their basis;
- For acceleration of hardening of concrete or decrease in specific electric resistance of
mix - additives accelerators of hardening and raising protective properties of concrete in relation
to steel armature;
- For increase of keeping of mix - the additives which are slowing down loss of mobility.

Typical norms of cement consumption for easy concrete

4.27 In norms is provided use of the cements which are meeting the requirements TDS-
10178. Mark of cement for easy concrete should be accepted according to instructions of item
3.9.
4.28 Mobility of a concrete mix should be appointed according to way of formations and
design type.
4.29 Norms of cement consumption for monolithic easy concrete accept on tab. 29 taking
into account item 2.17 item, 2.18, 3.4, 3.5, 3, 3.19, and also item 4.8 item, 4.10 and 4.14 at
hardening of concrete of monolithic structures in normal temperature-wet conditions according
to item 4.15.
4.30 The minimum and maximum typical norms of cement consumption in monolithic
easy concrete should correspond to requirements of the items 4.18 and 4.19.
4.31 At manufacturing of easy constructional concrete apply all additives by analogy to
heavy concrete taking into account the features stated in 4.
4.32 Application of fluidizing additives is recommended, first of all, at use of small fillers
(sintered perlite sand and others) from the raised water requirement. The reduction of the water
maintenance causing increase of density of concrete, as appropriate, it is necessary to
compensate increase in volume of involved air and accordingly the expense of air-entraining
additives.
4.33 At application of fluidizing additives for manufacturing of easy constructional
concrete is necessary to consider:
- Ability of ravel of plastic easy concrete mixes owing to distinctions in density of
components;
- Increase in average density of easy concrete in dry condition at water maintenance
reduction of fluidizing mixes;
-Reduction of quantity of actively operating additive owing to its absorption together
with water tempering by porous fillers;
- Presence of sand fractions in the porous sand reducing effect of plasticization;
- Effect of air-entraining at hashing of easy concrete mixes with fluidizing additives;
- The accelerated loss of mobility of fluidizing easy concrete mixes owing to water
absorption by porous fillers in the course of keeping and mix transportation.
4.34 Dosage fluidizing additives for easy constructional concrete with the small dense
filler should be in the same limits, as for heavy concrete and a little above for the concrete
prepared with a small porous filler.
4.35 For reduction of ravel of plastic and cast concrete mixes mainly is necessary to use
fillers of fractions of 5-10 mm with the density of grains close to the demanded density of
concrete, and as a small filler - porous sand and mixes of dense porous sand.
4.36 At manufacturing of products from constructional-heat insulating easy concrete of
classes В2,5-В7,5 it is necessary to apply air-entering additives on purpose:
-Decrease in 50-150 kg/m3 of average density of easy concrete of dense structure and on
5-10 % of its heat conductivity at the expense of reduction of the maintenance of a small filler;
-Improvements of remoulding effort, coherence, uniformity of a mix at transportation and
formation;
- Reduction of consumption of porous sand and decrease in handling or operational
humidity of concrete and increase of its durability.
4.37 At manufacturing of products from constructional-heat insulating easy concrete
simultaneously with air-entering additives is recommended to apply:
-fluidizing additives - for decrease on 10-20 % of the water maintenance of concrete mix
and handling humidity of concrete;
-waterproofing additives - for reduction of water absorption of concrete in the protecting
designs maintained in excited environments;
- Accelerators of hardening - for maintenance of demanded stripping strength at the
reduced modes of thermal processing.
4.38 At application air-entering additives for constructional-heat insulating easy concrete
the volume of involved air should provide demanded properties of concrete mix and concrete at
the moment of formation of products taking into account losses at transportation and, as rule,
should not exceed 12 % for mixes on porous sand and 15 % for mixes on the dense sand.
4.39 As air-entering additives is recommended to apply SDО, SNV, S, which rough
consumption for concrete mixes on porous gravel are resulted in the table 34. At use of rubble
consumption of additives raise in 1,5-2 times.
Application of others air-entering additives excluding the big losses of involved air (mix
transportation to ready-mix trucks, small time of the keeping, the raised maintenance in a mix of
cement and disperse particles), - application of fluidizing air-entering additives is supposed.

Table 34
Kinds of Quantity of air-entering additives in easy concrete in percentage of
additives weight of cement at application as small filler ща
porous sand compact sand Ashes and ashe slag
mixes ТPS
SDO 0,1-0,2 0,05- 0,15-0,3 0,08- 0,25-0,4 0,15-
SNV 0,15 0,1-0,15 0,15 0,15-0,2 0,25 0,2-0,3
S
Notes: Great values of consumption of additives concern structures of concrete with the
minimum consumption of small filler and according to the greatest volume of involved air;
smaller values - to structures with the maximum consumption of a small filler.

4.40 It is necessary to prepare a concrete mix in amalgamators of compulsory action.


Time of mix hashing should be 3-4 minutes.
Duration of mixing of concrete mix with air-entering additives or complex on their basis
should be established experimentally on reaching of preset value of air-entrainment.
4.41 Mode of transportation of concrete mix from the amalgamator to formation post
should to exclude possibility of stratification of mix and loss of involved air. Height of falling of
concrete mix at overloads should not exceed 1м, and their quantity should be no more than two.
Time from the moment of preparation before packing of easy concrete mixes should not exceed
30 minutes.

Concrete with fluidizing additive in Portland cement and its variations, rapid-hardening
slag Portland cement, sulfate-resistant Portland cement

Table 35
Design class Remoulding effort of Cement consumption, kg/m3, marks
(mark) of concrete concrete mix (slump, 400 500 550 600
сm)
1 2 3 4 5 6
В10,В12,5 (М 150) 10-15 225 - - -
5-9 210 - - -
1-4 200 - - -
В15 (М 200) 10-15 275 235 - -
5-9 250 220 - -
1-4 240 200 - -
В20 (М 250) 10-15 315 285 - -
5-9 295 260 - -
1-4 270 235 - -
В22,5 (М 300) 10-15 365 325 - -
5-9 335 300 - -
1-4 305 275 - -
В25 (М 350) 10-15 410 375 - -
5-9 375 345 - -
1-4 345 315 - -
В30 (М 400) 10-15 465 425 400 375
5-9 425 380 360 340
1-4 390 345 330 310

Concrete with fluidizing additive in slag Portland cement and sulfate-resistant slag
Portland cement

Design class Remoulding effort of Cement consumption, kg/m3, marks


(mark) of concrete concrete mix (slump, 300 400 500
сm)
1 2 3 4 5
В7,5 (М 100) 10-15 205
5-9 200
1-4 200
В10,В12,5 (М 150) 10-15 265 235
5-9 255 225
1-4 235 205
В15 (М 200) 10-15 325 285 260
5-9 305 265 235
1-4 275 240 210
В20 (М 250) 10-15 385 330 300
5-9 355 315 275
1-4 320 285 250
В22,5 (М 300) 10-15 _ 380 340
5-9 - 355 315
1-4 - 325 290
В25 (М 350) 10-15 _ 425 390
5-9 - 400 360
1-4 - 365 330
В30 (М 400) 10-15 - 475 445
5-9 - 440 405
1-4 - 415 365

Appendix 1
Reference

Correlation between classes and concrete marks


on durability in compression

Class of concrete on Average durability of Immediate mark of Deviation of immediate


durability in concrete concrete on mark of concrete from
compression in TDS- Кgs/cm2 MPа durability average durability of class,
26633, TDS-25820 %
M – R . 100
Р
В0,35 5,01 0,5 М5 +6,2
В0,75 10,8 1,1 М10 +7,8
ВJ 14,4 1,5 М15 -0,2
В1,5 20,8 2,1 М25 -1,9
В2 28,9 2,9 М25 +13,6
В2,5 32,7 3,3 М35 -6,9
В3,5 45,8 4,7 М50 +9,2
В5 65,5 6,7 М75 +14,5
В7,5 98,2 10,0 Ml 00 + 1,8
В10 131,0 13,4 М150 + 14,5
В-12,5 163,7 16,7 М150 -8,4
В15 196,5 20,0 М200 + 1,8
В20 261,9 26,7 М250 -4,5
В22,5 294,5 30,0 М300 + 1,9
В25 327,4 33,4 М350 +6,9
В27,5 359,9 36,7 М350 -2,7
ВЗО 392,9 40,0 М400 +1,8
В35 458,4 46,7 М450 -1,8
В40 523,9 53,4 М550 +5,0
В45 589,4 60,0 М600 + 1,8
В50 654,8 66,7 М700 +6,9
В55 720,3 73,4 М700 -2,8
В60 785,8 80,1 М800 + 1,8
В65 861,5 87,8 М900 +5,7
В70 917,0 93,5 М900 -1,8
В75 932,5 95,0 М1000 + 1,8
В80 1948,0 106,8 М1000 -4,9

Appendix 1
Obligatory

Value of normalised handling strength of concrete

Name of structures and products Nonnormalised handling stregth of


concrete (in percentage of class or
concrete mark on durability in
compression)
in warm period in cold and hot
periods of year
1 2 3
1 . Foundations 70 80
1.1. Plates and blocks of foundations, setting of 70 90
foundations
1.2.Foundations of socket-type, foundation beams

Continuation of appendix 2
1 2 3
2.Coloumns
2.1. Columns for one-storeyed buildings and 70 90
constructions
2.2. Columns for many-storeyed buildings 70 85
3. Beams and farms
3.1. Beams and crossbars of interfloor overlappings 70 85
3.2. Farms, beams and crossbars of coverings, runs 70 90
3.3. Beams of crane and banding 70 90
4. Plates of overlappings and coverings of buildings and 70 85
constructions
5. Elements of ladders
5.1. Marches, platforms, steps, basic frames 70 85
5.2. Laying treads 70 80
6. Elements of walls of buildings and constructions
6.1. Blocks of walls of cellars continuous from class
concrete
in 12,5 and above or marks M 150 and above 50 70
6.2. Blocks of walls of cellars continuous from class
concrete
in 10 and lower and marks M 100 and lower 70 90
6.3. Blocks of internal walls bearing, panels and blocks
of external walls from easy concrete of class in 10 and
lower or marks M 100 and lower 80 90
6.4. Blocks of internal walls bearing, panels and blocks
of external walls (except listed in item 6.3) 70 85
6.5. Panels and blocks of internal walls the bearing 70 90
7. Other structures of buildings
7.1. Elements of balconies, loggias, plates
coping and parapet 70 85
7.2. Sanitary-engineering cabins, ventilating blocks,
elements of mines of lifts, volume, elements of
buildings, console plates 70 80
7.3. Сambered archs 70 90
8. Pressure and nonpressure pipes 70 90
9. Elements of underground channels and collectors for 70 90
lining of communications; details of water throughput
pipes;
viewing wells, water supply and carriage constructions
10. Elements of illumination and contact networks of city
electrified transport; elements of contact networks of
railway
transportation; support of air-lines of an electricity 70 90
transmission
11. Plates of air field coverings and coverings of city
roads;
elements of pedestrian crossings; foot walk plates 90
and curbings 70
12. Trays of irrigating systems, plates for 70 80
facing of irrigation canals
13. Cross ties of railways 85 85

The note: If the normalized handling strength of concrete resulted in present table,
higher, than successfully applied in the given area for designs of concrete kinds last, in
coordination with manufacturer of designs, it is supposed not to increase.

Appendix 3
Reference
Basic additives for concrete
Single-component additives
Kind of addivities Conditional
in TDS-24211-91 Name сокращенное
designation
1 2 3
Fluidizing I group Plasticizer С-3 С-3
Flux oil 10-03 10-03
Superplasticizer «Dofen» DF
Plasticizer NKNS 40-03 40-03
Flux oil SMF SMF
Fluidizing II group Plasticizer SPS SPS
Plasticizer Aplassan APL
Fluidizing III group Technical modified lignosulphonates LSTM-2
Lignosulphonate plasticizer PLS-1
Additive for concrete mix LMG LMG
Fluidizing IV group Molasses after yeast steaming distillery dregs UPB
Water-soluble preparation VPR-1 VRP-1
Technical lignosulphonates of mark В LST
By-product kaprolactam SPSK-m
Modified SPSK-m
By-product kaprolactam SPSK SPSK
Soapnaphtha M1
Liquids GKJ-10, GKJ-11 GKJ -10, GKJ -11
Slowing down Feeding treacle КP
mobility loss Sodium tetroborate (borax) TBN
Technical lignosulphonates LST
Air-entering Neutralized air-entering resin SNV
Wood soap resin SDO
Adjunct preparation OP
Sulfonal S
Accelerating Potash P
mobility loss Liquid glass JS
Gas-forming Hydrophobic liquid 136-41 GKJ-94
Etilhydroseskvioksan PGEN
Aluminium pwder PАP
Aluminium paste PA
Mud Diethyleneglycol resin DEG-1
(sealing) Triethylene glycol resin TEG-1
Polyamine resin S-89
Asphalt emulsion BE
Aluminium sulphate SА
Ferric sulfate FS
Ferric cloride FC
Calcium nitrate CN
Accelerating hardening Calcium chloride CC
Calcium nitrate CN
Nitrite- calcium nitrate NCN
Sodium nitrite SN
Nitrite-nitrate-calcium chloride NNCC
Sodium sulphate SS
Threenatriumfospate TNF
Polymetallic water concentrate PVC
Waterproofing Waterproofing liquid 136-41 GKL-94
Etilhydroseskvioksan PGEN
Soapnaphtha M1
Liquids GKJ-10, GKJ-11 GKJ -10, GKJ -11
Raising protective properties of Sodium nitrite SN
concrete in relation to Sodium tetra borate STB
steel armature Sodium bichromate SBC
Potassium bichromate PBC
Katapin-ingibator KI-1

Appendix 4

Complex additives for concrete

Kind of additives in TDS-24211-91 Complex additives


Conditional reduced Quantity of additives as a part of
designation complex in percentage of weight
of cement (counting on a solid)
1 2 3
Fluidizing S-3+LTS (0,3-0,45)+(0,15-0,25)
Fluidizing and fluidizing-air-entering S-З+SPSKм (0,3-0,45)+(0,15-0,25) (0,1-
LST+ SSP Kм (SPSK) 0,3)+(0,1-0,2)
Fluidizing and air-entering S-З+SNV LST+ (0,5-0,7)+(0,002-0,01) (0,1-
(SNV,S,OP) VRP-1+S 0,25)+( 0,002-0,01) (0,005-
0,02)+( 0,005-0,02)
Fluidizing and gas-forming LST+(GKJ-94,PGEN) (0,1-0,3)+(0,05-0,1)
Fluidizing and early-strength admixture (LST,UPB)+(SN, HK, (0,1-0,3)+(0,5-1,5)
NN,NK, NNHK)
Fluidizing-air-entering and air0entering SSPKм (SSPK)+(SNV, S, (0,1-0,3)+(0,002-0,01)
OP)
Fluidizing, air-entering and early-strength LST+SNV+(SN, NK) (0,1-0,15)+(0,01-0,03)+(0,5-1,5)
admixture
Fluidizing, air-entering and rise protective LST+SNV+NNK (0,1-0,15)+(0,01-0,03)+(0,5-1,5)
properties of concrete to relation to steel
armature
Fluidizing, gasforming and early-strength LST+(GKJ-94,PGEN)+SN (0,1 -0,15)+(0,01 -0,03)+(0,5-
admixture 1,5)
Fluidizing-air-entering SSPKм (SSPK)+(NK, SN,
TNF) (0,1-0,35)+(0,5-0,1) (0,1-
(GKJ-10, GKJ-11)+NK
0,2)+(0,5-0,1)
Air-entering and early-strength admixture SNV+(SN, NK, NNHK) (0,005-0,02)+(0,5-1,5)
Air-entering and and rise protective SNV+(NN, NNK) (0,005-0,02)+(0,5-1,5)
properties of concrete to relation to steel
armature
Gas-forming and early-strength admixture (GKJ-94,PGEN)+NK (0,05-0,1)+(0,5-1,5)
Condensing and retarders of set (NK, SA, HJ, SJ)+LST (0,5-2)+(0,15-0,25)
Early-strength admixture and raising HK+(NN, NNK) (0,5-3)+(0,5-3)
protective properties of concrete in relation
to steel armature
Raising protective properties of concrete in NN+(TNB, BHN, BHK) (1,8-2)+(0,2-0,5)
relation to steel armature
Fluidizing and early-strength admixtures S-З+SN S-З+LTS+SN (0,4-0,6)+(0,5-1) (0,35-
0,45)+(0,15-0,2)+(0,5-1,5)
The note - from the components specified in brackets in column 2, is applied only one
Notes: 1. In the present appendix the additives which release is mastered
by the industry are resulted.
2. Application of other additives which are meeting the requirements TDS-24211 is
supposed.

Appendix 3
Reference
The list of additives applied
at production of concrete, found practical application
in building of objects in Turkmenistan

№ п/п Kind of additives in TDS-24211 Name of additives


1 2 3
1. Fluidizing Reobild 900
Optima100
Pozolit 390 NE
Reobild 100
Reobild 181 К
Darasem 200
Sikament FFN
SP-7М
S-3
2. The additives which are slowing down setting of Reobild 900
concrete mixes and hardening of concrete Optima 100
Pozolit 250R
Daratard 17
Soapstok
3. The additives accelerating setting of concrete Pozolit PREFAVIT
mixes and hardening of concrete Reobild 181 К
Darasem 580
Reobild 554 YKS 181
Antifreeze «Sika»
4. Air-entering additives Lanko 322
S-3
SNV
Soapstok
5. Antifreeze additives YKS 181
Antifreeze «Sika»
Darasem 580
Pozolit PREFAVIT
6. Waterproofing additives Reobild 900
Krizofuj
Lanko 322
Reobild 181 К
Platocrete-N
S-3
Soapstok

Appendix 6

The list of standard documents with references in


the present building norms

1. TDS 25192-82 CONCRETE Classification and general technical requirements


2. TDS 24211-91 ADDITIVES FOR CONCRETE General technical requirements
3. TDS-26633-91 HEAVY AND FINE-GRAINED CONCRETE Specifications
4. TDS 18105.1, 18105.2 CONCRETE. Rules of durability control
5. TDS 10178-85 PORTLAND CEMENT AND SLAG PORTLAND CEMENT Specifications
6. TDS 22266-94 SULPHATE-RESISTANT CEMENTS Specifications
7. TDS 310.4-81 CEMENTS. Methods of definition of strength at bend and compression
8. TDS 30515-97 CEMENTS General specifications
9. TDS 8267-93 RUBBLE AND GRAVEL FROM DENSE ROCKS FOR
CIVIL WORK Specifications
10. TDS 310.3-76 CEMENTS Methods of definition of normal density, terms of stiffening and
uniformity of change of volume
11. TDS 8736-93 SAND FOR CIVIL WORK Specifications
12. TDS 10181.1-81 CONCRETE MIXES Methods of definition of remoulding effort
13. TDS 25820-2000 EASY CONCRETE Specifications
14. TDS 9757-90 ARTIFICIAL POROUS GRAVEL, RUBBLE AND SAND Specifications
15. SNT 2.03.02-94-04 ENGINEERING PROTECTION OF TERRITORIES AGAINST
FLOODING AND IMPOUNDMENT. Norms of designing
16. SNТ 2.03.11-99* PROTECTION OF BUILDING DESIGNS AGAINST CORROSION
17. SNТ 3.03.02-2003 PROTECTION OF BUILDING DESIGNS AND CONSTRUCTIONS
FROM CORROSION. Manufacture of works
18. SNT 3.03.04-2001 ROOFS AND HOUSETOP
19. ТS 66.21”CRUSHED ENRICHED SAND FOR CIVIL WORK”
CONTENT

1. GENERALITIES………………………………………………………………………….43
2. TYPICAL NORMS OF СEMENT COMPOSITION FOR HEAVY CONCRETE OR
BUILT-UP CONCRETE AND FERROCONCRETE PRODUCTS AND
STRUCTURES OF MASS PRODUCTION…………………………………………….43
Cements…………………………………………………………………………………… 44
Fillers……………………………………………………………………………………… 46
Remoulding effort of concrete mix………………………………………………………..47
Production technology……………………………………………………………………..48
The minimum and maximum typical norms of cement consumption……………………..49
Concrete on Portland cement and its variations, rapid-hardening slag Portland cement
and sulfate-resistant Portland cement at hardening of products in natural conditions…….50
Concrete on slag Portland cement and sulfate-resistant Portland cement at hardening of
products in natural conditions………………………………………………………………51
Concrete with handling strength of 50-60 % of design class (mark) in conditions of thermal
processing…………………………………………………………………………………..52
Concrete with handling strength of 70 % of design class (mark) in conditions of thermal
processing…………………………………………………………………………………..52
Concrete with holiday durability of 80-85 % of a design class (mark) in the conditions of
the thermal…………………………………………………………………………………53
Concrete with handling strength of 90-100 % of design class (mark) in conditions of
thermal processing …………………………………………………………………………54
The products made in cassette installations ……………………………………………….55
Concrete for structures produced by method of centrifugation with thermal processing ....55
Fine-grained concrete in sand with module of fineness 2,1 and more …………………….55
Norms of cement consumption for concrete products to which demand in frost resistance
and water resistance requirements………………………………………………………… 56
3. TYPICAL NORMS OF CEMENT CONSUMPTION FOR EASY CONCRETE OF
BUILT-UP CONCRETE AND FERROCONCRETE PRODUCTS AND MASS
PRODUCTION STRUCTURES CONCRETE AND FERRO-CONCRETE
PRODUCTS AND DESIGNS OF THE MASS MANUFACTURES …………………56
Indicators of quality of easy concrete……………………………………………………. .57
Cements…………………………………………………………………………………… 57
Fillers …………………………………………………………………………….………..58

Remoulding effort of concrete mix…………………………………………………….….59

Production technology……………………………………………………………………..59
The minimum and maximum norms of cement consumption …………………………….59
Constructional-heat-insulating easy concrete in gravel similar porous fillers …………….60

Constructional-heat-insulating easy concrete in crushed aggregate similar porous fillers…60

Constructional easy concrete with handling strength of 70 % of design class (mark)……..60

Surface solution of external protecting structures with handling strength of 70 % of design


class (mark)………………………………………………………………………………....61
4. TYPICAL NORMS OF CEMENT CONSUMPTION FOR CONCRETE OF
MONOLITHIC CONCRETE AND FERROCONCRETE STRUCTURES………….61
Typical norms of cement consumption in heavy concrete…………………………………61
Typical norms of cement consumption for easy concrete………………………………….64
Concrete with fluidizing additive in Portland cement and its variations, rapid-hardening slag
Portland cement, sulfate-resistant Portland cement ……………………………………….66
Concrete with fluidizing additive in slag Portland cement and sulfate-resistant slag Portland
cement ……………………………………………………………………………………..66
Appendix 1 Reference
Correlation between classes and concrete marks on durability in compression…………..68
Appendix 2 Obligatory
Value of normalised handling strength of concrete……………………………………….68
Appendix 3 Reference
Basic additives for concrete……………………………………………………………….70
Appendix 4
Complex additives for concrete…………………………………………………………...71
Appendix 5 Reference
The list of additives applied at production of concrete, found practical application
in building of objects in Turkmenistan……………………………………………………72
Appendix 6

The list of standard documents with references in the present building norms …………73
Building and building materials industry ministry of Turkmenistan

Building norms of Turkmenistan

SNТ 5.01.01-93* - Typical norms of cement consumption for preparation of concrete,


built-up and monolithic concrete, ferroconcrete products and structures.

Are developed by Scientific research institute of Seismology


of Building and building materials industry ministry of Turkmenistan

Head of theme: k. t. n. Dubajev V. G.


Responsible executor: Grigorevskaja I.V.

Technical edition – Sopyyeva M.K.

Are prepared by the government of methodology, pricing and budget rationing of


Building and building materials industry ministry of Turkmenistan

Is signed in seal 19.01.2007 Format 60х84 1/8 Print. Sh.


Tirage 100 exem.