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Grades 2–3

Text-Marking Lessons
for Active Nonfiction Reading
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Reproducible Nonfiction Passages With Lessons That Guide Students to


Read Strategically, Identify Text Structures, and Activate Comprehension

Judith Bauer Stamper

New York  •  Toronto  •  London  •  Auckland  •  Sydney


Mexico City • New Delhi • Hong Kong • Buenos Aires

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Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

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Editor: Mela Ottaiano


Cover design: Brian LaRossa
Interior design: Melinda Belter
Interior illustrations and photos: page 20: Kinetic Imagery/Bigstock.com; page 21: morganlstudios/Bigstock.
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ISBN: 978-0-545-28817-0

Copyright © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper


All rights reserved. Published by Scholastic Inc.
Printed in the U.S.A.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 40 18 17 16 15 14 13 12

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Contents

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Connections to the Common Core State Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
How to Use the Co m p a n i o n F o l d e r F i l e s With an Interactive Whiteboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

How to Use the Lessons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6


Teaching Routine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Lesson 1: Read for Details • White House Pets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10


Reading 1: First Dogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Reading 2: Wild Pets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Reading 3: Family Pets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Lesson 2: Main Idea & Details • U.S. Coins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14


Reading 1: Coins in Your Pocket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Reading 2: Jefferson’s Nickel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Reading 3: State Quarters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Lesson 3: Sequence of Events • Kids Save the Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18


Reading 1: Kids Recycle Sneakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Reading 2: Kids Save a Beach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Reading 3: Kids Plant Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Lesson 4: Summarize • Camping Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22


Reading 1: Setting Up Camp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Reading 2: Cooking on a Campfire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Reading 3: Finding Your Way . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Lesson 5: Cause & Effect • Caves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26


Reading 1: Hidden Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Reading 2: Underground Wonders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Reading 3: Cave Explorers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

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Lesson 6: Make Predictions • Nature’s Ways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Reading 1: Picnic in the Park . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Reading 2: Sand Castles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Reading 3: Snow Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Lesson 7: Problem & Solution • Dogs on Duty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34


Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Reading 1: Python Pete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35


Reading 2: Huskies to the Rescue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Reading 3: Guarding Lady Liberty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Lesson 8: Compare & Contrast • All Kinds of Pets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38


Reading 1: Pet Snakes and Lizards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Reading 2: Pet Hamsters and Guinea Pigs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Reading 3: Pet Canaries and Parrots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Lesson 9: Make Inferences • Ready for Rescue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42


Reading 1: Fire Alarm! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Reading 2: Blackout! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Reading 3: Emergency! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Lesson 10: Fact & Opinion • Healthy Habits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46


Reading 1: Snack Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Reading 2: Feeling Fit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Reading 3: Milk or Soda? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Lesson 11: Context Clues • Chinese New Year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50


Reading 1: Celebrate the New Year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Reading 2: The Chinese Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Reading 3: A Dragon Parade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Lesson 12: Author’s Purpose • Alaska and Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54


Reading 1: Our Two Newest States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Reading 2: Visit a Volcano!/Under the Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Reading 3: The Biggest State/Ride the Whale Watcher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Lesson-by-Lesson Connections to the Common Core State Standards . 64

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Introduction
Students at all grade levels must use reading comprehension skills in every class, every
day. Therefore, the ability to comprehend text is an essential ingredient for academic
success. To help students achieve their academic goals, introduce them to text
marking—a proven, powerful tool for building comprehension skills.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading provides engaging, ready-to-


use readings for 12 key comprehension skills. The readings are organized around
high-interest topics connected to the curriculum. They are specially written to engage
students’ interest and specially formatted to provide practice with text marking. When
enhanced with an interactive whiteboard, the readings allow students to “get into” and
comprehend text in new and rewarding ways.
Why is text marking such an effective tool for comprehension? Marking a text focuses
students’ attention by giving them concrete tasks. Circling a cause, underlining its
effect, and boxing the signal word puts students inside the text. They become involved
in active reading as they mark key comprehension elements. Text marking also helps
students make the cognitive transfer between the text and comprehension. In addition,
it highlights the importance of justifying an answer with evidence from the text.
For teachers, text marking provides quick and concrete evidence of whether or not
students are on task and an accurate snapshot of skills students have mastered and
skills they need to work on. Assessment is both concrete and constructive. The lessons
in Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading provide readings for teaching and
modeling a skill, practicing a skill, and applying the skill. The gradual release instructional
model is easy to follow and provides best practices for comprehension learning.
Text marking gives you an effective way to help students interact with text and
improve their reading comprehension.

Connections to the Common Core State Standards


The Common Core State Standards emphasize the importance of close attention to the
text and its features. Text marking provides an extremely effective tool to focus students
on the dimensions of text complexity. For example, the lessons guide students to analyze
meaning and purpose by making inferences and identifying author’s purpose. Students
focus on text structure by text marking sequence of events, cause and effect, and
problem and solution. Most important, text marking helps students identify evidence in
the text to support their comprehension.

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All 12 lessons in this book meet the following College and Career Readiness Anchor
Standards for Reading:
R.CCR.1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical
inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to
support conclusions drawn from the text.
R.CCR.4: Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

For a breakdown of how each lesson connects to the Common Core State Standards
for English Language Arts, refer to the chart on page 64. Please visit www.corestandards.
org for more details about the standards.

How to Use the Companion Folder Files With an Interactive Whiteboard


The Companion Folder includes 12 PDF files—one for each lesson—that contain all of the
passages from the printed book. As soon as possible, transfer these files to the computer
connected to your interactive whiteboard. Once they are in your computer, you can then
import them into the whiteboard software for interactive use with your students. Taking
care of this step in advance saves valuable class time and also helps when you want to
save edited samples for future reference.
If you are using SMART Notebook™ software for the SMART Board® or any other
interactive whiteboard software, be sure you have installed the latest version. (This
product was tested using the following software: Notebook for the SMART Board, version
10.7.154.0, and ActiveInspire for the Promethean ActivBoard, version 1.5.37817.)

How to Use the Lessons


Each lesson consists of four pages of instruction, readings, and text-marking activities.

The Teaching Plan gives Lesson 2 Teaching Plan

you specific instructions


Main Idea & Details • U.S. Coins
and tips for teaching each
1. Introduce the Skill
skill through a set of Ask students what they know about U.S. coins.
Prompt a discussion with these questions: Whose
Materials

n Reading 1: “Coins in Your Pocket”


face is on the front of a penny? What coin shows

three readings.
• page 15
the history of the fifty states? As they read about

Prompts for engaging


U.S. coins, students should look for the following: n Reading 2: “Jefferson’s Nickel” • page 16

• The main idea, or the most important point n Reading 3: “State Quarters”• page 17
about a topic.

prior knowledge • Supporting details, or information that tells


more about the main idea.
Continue following the Teaching Routine (page 7)
3. Practice
Guide students to mark the main idea and details
Prompts for
and use the tips for each remaining step. in “Jefferson’s Nickel” by asking the following
questions. practicing the skill
2. Model PARAGRAPh 1:

Definitions for
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Model for students how to find the main idea and • What is the main idea about U.S. coins
supporting details in “Coins in Your Pocket.” in this paragraph?

introducing the skill


• To find the main idea, I’ll look for the most • What is a supporting detail about why
important point about the topic. The topic a nickel is called a nickel?
is U.S. coins. The main idea of this reading • What were five-cent coins called
is that each coin has history stamped on its before 1866?
front and back. I’ll circle the first sentence as
the main idea. PARAGRAPh 2:

• To find the supporting details, I’ll look for • What is the main idea about U.S. coins in

Language for pieces of information that tell more about


the main idea. One detail is that Abraham
Lincoln is on the penny. I’ll underline that
this paragraph?
• How long has Jefferson been on the nickel?
Tips for applying
modeling the skill the skill and
• What do the backs of new nickels show?
because it is a supporting detail. I’ll also
underline the words that are on the back of
many pennies. 4. Apply
have students complete Reading 3 independently
and then share their answers with partners or the
group. Conclude by asking: If you could collect one
concluding the
kind of coin, which would it be? Explain why.
lesson
14

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Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Main Idea & Details • U.S. Coins • 1


Reading 1 introduces the
topic for the lesson and
To find key information as you read,
Main Idea & Details
remember:

l The main idea is the most important


Text Marks Text marks for identifying
provides a passage for you to point about a topic.

l Supporting details give information


Circle the main idea.

Underline supporting details.


the skill
model the comprehension skill.
that tells more about the main idea.

Read “Coins in Your Pocket.”


Find the main idea and supporting details. Definitions for reinforcing
Then mark the text.
the skill

Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Coins in Your Pocket


Passage to model the Each U.S. coin has history stamped on its
Mark the Text

Directions for marking


Find the main idea and

comprehension strategy
supporting details.
front and back. The face of a president is on the front
C
ircle the
of many coins. Abraham Lincoln is on the penny.

George Washington is on the quarter. The back of


main idea.

U
nderline the
president whose
the text
each coin has a picture and words. The backs of face is on the
penny.
many pennies show the Lincoln Memorial. The words Underline the
words on the
“one cent” are below it.
back of many
pennies.
Do you know whose face is on a dime? Check

out the change in your pocket!

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Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Reading 2 provides a longer Main Idea & Details • U.S. Coins • 2

text for you to use with students Read “Jefferson’s Nickel.”


Find the main idea and supporting details.

to practice the skill together. Then mark the text.

It elaborates on the lesson topic. 1


Jefferson’s Nickel
The nickel has a long history. Why is it called
Mark the Text
1 Find the main idea
Directions for marking
the text
and supporting
a nickel? It is partly made of the metal nickel. The first details.
nickels were made in l866. Before then, five-cent coins C
ircle the
main idea.
were silver. They were called “half-dimes.”

Passage to practice the 2 The face on the nickel belongs to Thomas


Underline why a
nickel is called a

Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources
nickel.

comprehension strategy Jefferson. Jefferson has been on our nickel since l938.

The backs of many nickels show Jefferson’s home. In


Underline what
five-cent coins
were called before
1866.
2004, the U.S. Mint made new nickels. Jefferson is still

on the front. Pictures of the American West are on 2 Find the main idea
and supporting
the back. One shows a buffalo. Take a look in your details.

C
ircle the
pocket. What is on the back of your nickels?
main idea.

Underline how
long Jefferson
has been on the
nickel.

Underline what
the backs of new
nickels show.

16

Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Reading 3 provides another


Main Idea & Details • U.S. Coins • 3
text for students to use
independently to apply the skill.
Read “State Quarters.”
Find the main idea and supporting details.
Then mark the text.

It extends the lesson topic. State Quarters


1 In 1999, the U.S. Mint began making state
Mark the Text
1 Find the main idea
and supporting
Directions for marking
the text
quarters. It made 5 new quarters each year for ten details.

Passage to apply the years. There were 50 in all. Which state’s quarter was

first? It was Delaware, the first state to join the Union.


C
ircle the
main idea.

comprehension strategy
Underline why
The quarter for Hawaii came last. Delaware was the
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

first state quarter.


2 The back of each state quarter has a picture for
2 Find the main idea
the state. It is an important person, place, or event in and supporting
details.
the state’s history. The Alaska quarter shows a bear and
C
ircle the
a salmon. Florida’s quarter shows a ship and the main idea.

Underline what
space shuttle.
is on the back of
Alaska’s quarter.
What is on the back of your state’s quarter?

17

7
Teaching Routine
Follow this routine for each lesson, using the specific instructional suggestions
in the teaching plan and the three readings for the lesson.

1. Introduce Engage Prior Knowledge


Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Prompt students with questions to discuss what they know about the
lesson topic.

Teach the Skill


Introduce the skill using the student-friendly definitions provided for each
lesson. These definitions also appear on the Reading 1 page.

2. Model Model the Skill


Display Reading 1 on the whiteboard and provide students with a copy.
Direct students’ attention to the board. Point out the text markings they
will be using for the skill as you review the skill definitions.

Read the Passage


Ask students to follow along as you read aloud the first reading. Tell them
to think about the skill and look for it in the text as they read.

Mark the Text


Use the modeling language in the teaching plan to demonstrate how to ask
questions about the text and then apply the skill by marking the text on the
board. Have students add these marks to their own copy for reference.

3. Practice Practice the Skill


Display Reading 2 on the whiteboard and provide students with a copy.
Point out the instructions for text marking.

Read the Passage


Have students read the passage along with you. Ask them to think about
the skill and look for its elements in the text as they read.

Mark the Text


Guide students to mark the skill in the text by asking the comprehension
questions provided in the teaching plan.

Review Text Markings


Help student volunteers mark the text on the whiteboard.

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4. Apply Apply the Skill
Display Reading 3 on the whiteboard and provide students with a copy.
Have them briefly review the text markings before reading.

Read the Passage


Direct students to read the passage independently. If you think students
would benefit, have them read with a partner.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Mark the Text


Ask students to follow the text-marking instructions and monitor their
progress as they work independently or with a partner.

Review Text Markings


Have several students volunteer to mark the text on the whiteboard.
Encourage students to use the academic language of the skill to explain
how they marked the text.

Conclude the Lesson


Wrap up instruction with a prompt that challenges students to apply the
topic to their own lives.

Assessment
See the Answer Key on pages 58–63 for annotated versions of each exercise. You may want
to be flexible in your assessment of student answers, as the text marks and responses in the
annotated exercises do not always represent the only possible answers.
Encourage students to self-assess and correct their answers as you review the text
markings on the whiteboard.
Provide additional support to students who need further instruction in the skill by using a
fresh copy of the readings.

9
Lesson 1 Teaching Plan

Read for Details • White House Pets

1. Introduce
Materials
Ask students what they know about White House
pets. Prompt a discussion with these questions:
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

n Reading 1: “First Dogs” • page 11


Who lives in the White House in Washington, D.C.?
Do you know about any pets that live in the White n Reading 2: “Wild Pets” • page 12
House? As they read about White House pets, n Reading 3: “Family Pets” • page 13
students should look for the following:

• The topic, or what the text is mostly about.


• T he details, or important information that when, why, and how. For example, “President
tells more about the topic. James Buchanan had the biggest dog”
answers a “who” question. I’ll underline
• T he answers to questions such as who,
that detail.
what, where, when, why, and how.
Continue following the Teaching Routine (pages
8–9) and use the lesson-specific tips for each
3. Practice
remaining step. Guide students to mark the topic and important
details in “Wild Pets” by asking the following
questions.
2. Model
Paragraph 1:
Model for students how to find the topic and sup-
porting details in “First Dogs.” • What is this reading mostly about?

• To find the topic, I’ll ask myself what the •W


 hat animals did explorers send to
reading is mostly about. The first sentence President Jefferson?
says “The White House is home to the Paragraph 2:
President, his family, and their dogs.” The
rest of the text tells about dogs that lived in • Who had a pet alligator?
the White House. I’ll box “The White House is • How many pets did Teddy Roosevelt have?
home to the President, his family, and their
dogs,” as the topic. 4. Apply
• To find important details, I’ll look for pieces Have students complete Reading 3 independently
of information that tell more about the and then share their answers with partners or
topic. One detail is “President Obama gave the group. Conclude by asking: Compare the life
his daughters a big, playful puppy.” I’ll of a White House pet with the life of any other
underline that. pet. How would it be different? How would it be
• To find more details, I’ll also look for the the same?
answers to questions like who, what, where,

10
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Read for Details • White House Pets • 1

When you read for details, remember:


Read for Details
l A topic is what a text is mostly about. Text Marks
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

l A detail is important information that


tells more about the topic. Box the topic.

Underline important details.


l Details answer questions such as who,
what, where, when, why, and how.

Read “First Dogs.”


Find the topic and important details.
Then mark the text.

First Dogs
Mark the Text
The White House is home to the President, his Find the topic and
important details.
family, and their dogs! Many dogs have lived in the
Box the topic.
White House. President Obama gave his daughters a
Underline what
big, playful puppy. They named it Bo. President James pet President
Obama gave to his
Buchanan had the biggest dog. It was named Lara. daughters.

Underline who
Lara weighed 170 pounds! Other White House dogs
had the biggest
were Fido, Big Ben, and Buddy. dog.

11
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Read for Details • White House Pets • 2

Read “Wild Pets.”


Find the topic and important details.
Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Wild Pets
1 Some Presidents had wild animals for pets.

Thomas Jefferson sent explorers out west. They sent


Mark the Text
back a big box. Two bear cubs were inside. The 1  Findthe topic and
important details.
President made the bears his pets. He built a cage on
Box the topic.
the White House lawn. He walked the bear cubs in
Underline what
the garden. animals explorers
sent to President
Jefferson.
2 John Quincy Adams had a pet alligator. The

alligator was a gift from a friend. The President kept it 2  Find important
details.
in the East Room. It snapped its jaws at visitors. Teddy
Underline who
Roosevelt had 40 pets in all. He loved wildlife. His had a pet alligator.

Underline how
pets included a zebra, a lion, and five bears. many pets Teddy
Roosevelt had.

12
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Read for Details • White House Pets • 3

Read “Family Pets.”


Find the topic and important details.
Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Family Pets
1 The children of some Presidents had pets that
Mark the Text
caused trouble in the White House. President Abe
1  Findthe topic and
Lincoln had a young son named Tad. Tad owned a important details.

pair of goats. They were named Nanny and Nanko. Box the topic.

Underline Tad
The goats ran all over the White House. They pulled Lincoln’s pets’
names.
chairs like racing carts.
2  Underline the
2 Teddy Roosevelt’s children had all kinds of
important details.
pets. His daughter Alice had a green snake. Alice Who had a green
snake for a pet?
loved to carry it to parties. She would let the snake
How did Archie
loose. Then she waited for the screams. Alice’s Roosevelt’s
brothers make
brother was named Archie. He had a pony called him feel better?

Algonquin. Once, Archie became very sick. His

brothers knew how to cheer him up. They put the

pony in the White House elevator. Then they took

him up to Archie’s room. Archie felt better. But the

pony didn’t want to leave!

13
Lesson 2 Teaching Plan

Main Idea & Details • U.S. Coins

1. Introduce the Skill


Materials
Ask students what they know about U.S. coins.
Prompt a discussion with these questions: Whose
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

n Reading 1: “Coins in Your Pocket”


face is on the front of a penny? What coin shows
• page 15
the history of the fifty states? As they read about
U.S. coins, students should look for the following: n Reading 2: “Jefferson’s Nickel” • page 16

• The main idea, or the most important point n Reading 3: “State Quarters”• page 17
about a topic.
• Supporting details, or information that tells
more about the main idea. 3. Practice
Continue following the Teaching Routine (pages Guide students to mark the main idea and details
8–9) and use the lesson-specific tips for each in “Jefferson’s Nickel” by asking the following
remaining step. questions.

Paragraph 1:
2. Model •W
 hat is the main idea about U.S. coins
Model for students how to find the main idea and in this paragraph?
supporting details in “Coins in Your Pocket.” •W
 hat is a supporting detail about why
• To find the main idea, I’ll look for the most a nickel is called a nickel?
important point about the topic. The topic •W
 hat were five-cent coins called
is U.S. coins. The main idea of this reading before 1866?
is that each coin has history stamped on its
front and back. I’ll circle the first sentence as Paragraph 2:
the main idea. •W
 hat is the main idea about U.S. coins in
• To find the supporting details, I’ll look for this paragraph?
pieces of information that tell more about • How long has Jefferson been on the nickel?
the main idea. One detail is that Abraham
• What do the backs of new nickels show?
Lincoln is on the penny. I’ll underline that
because it is a supporting detail. I’ll also
underline the words that are on the back of 4. Apply
many pennies. Have students complete Reading 3 independently
and then share their answers with partners or the
group. Conclude by asking: If you could collect one
kind of coin, which would it be? Explain why.

14
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Main Idea & Details • U.S. Coins • 1

To find key information as you read,


Main Idea & Details
remember:
Text Marks
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

l The main idea is the most important


point about a topic. C
 ircle the main idea.
l Supporting details give information Underline supporting details.
that tells more about the main idea.

Read “Coins in Your Pocket.”


Find the main idea and supporting details.
Then mark the text.

Coins in Your Pocket


Mark the Text
Each U.S. coin has history stamped on its Find the main idea and
supporting details.
front and back. The face of a president is on the front
Circle the
of many coins. Abraham Lincoln is on the penny. main idea.

George Washington is on the quarter. The back of Underline the


president whose
each coin has a picture and words. The backs of face is on the
penny.
many pennies show the Lincoln Memorial. The words Underline the
words on the
“one cent” are below it.
back of many
pennies.
Do you know whose face is on a dime? Check

out the change in your pocket!

15
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Main Idea & Details • U.S. Coins • 2

Read “Jefferson’s Nickel.”


Find the main idea and supporting details.
Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Jefferson’s Nickel
Mark the Text
1 The nickel has a long history. Why is it called 1  Find the main idea
and supporting
a nickel? It is partly made of the metal nickel. The first details.
nickels were made in 1866. Before then, five-cent coins Circle the
main idea.
were silver. They were called “half-dimes.”
Underline why a
nickel is called a
2 The face on the nickel belongs to Thomas
nickel.
Jefferson. Jefferson has been on our nickel since 1938. Underline what
five-cent coins
The backs of many nickels show Jefferson’s home. In were called before
1866.
2004, the U.S. Mint made new nickels. Jefferson is still

on the front. Pictures of the American West are on 2  Find the main idea
and supporting
the back. One shows a buffalo. Take a look in your details.

Circle the
pocket. What is on the back of your nickels?
main idea.

Underline how
long Jefferson
has been on the
nickel.

Underline what
the backs of new
nickels show.

16
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Main Idea & Details • U.S. Coins • 3

Read “State Quarters.”


Find the main idea and supporting details.
Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

State Quarters
Mark the Text
1 In 1999, the U.S. Mint began making state 1  Find the main idea
and supporting
quarters. It made five new quarters each year for ten details.
years. There were 50 in all. Which state’s quarter was Circle the
main idea.
first? It was Delaware, the first state to join the Union.
Underline why
The quarter for Hawaii came last. Delaware was the
first state quarter.
2 The back of each state quarter has a picture for
2  Find the main idea
the state. It is an important person, place, or event in and supporting
details.
the state’s history. The Alaska quarter shows a bear and
Circle the
a salmon. Florida’s quarter shows a ship and the main idea.

Underline what
space shuttle.
is on the back of
Alaska’s quarter.
What is on the back of your state’s quarter?

17
Lesson 3 Teaching Plan

Sequence of Events • Kids Save the Earth

1. Introduce the Skill


Materials
Ask students what they know about helping to
save the environment. Prompt a discussion with
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

n Reading 1: “Kids Recycle Sneakers”


these questions: What have you done to help save
• page 19
the environment? What projects can kids do to
help the Earth? As they read about protecting n Reading 2: “Kids Save a Beach” • page 20
the environment, students should look for n Reading 3: “Kids Plant Trees” • page 21
the following:
• The events, or important things that happen
in the text. the events in the order they happened.
• The sequence, or the order in which things The first event is that they asked kids for
happen. their old sneakers. The last event is that
they finally made the bottoms into a big
• Signal words that help explain the order in
rubber mat.
which things happen, such as first, next, last,
yesterday, tomorrow, and finally, plus times
and dates. 3. Practice
Continue following the Teaching Routine (pages Guide students to mark the sequence of events
8–9) and use the lesson-specific tips for each in “Kids Save a Beach” by asking the following
remaining step. questions.
• What signal words tell when events
happened?
2. Model
• What important events happened when they
Model for students how to find a sequence of
saved the beach?
events in “Kids Recycle Sneakers.”
• What happened first? What happened next?
• First, I’ll look for signal words that help me
What happened last?
understand the order of events. I see the
word first. I’ll put a box around that. Next, I’ll
box the other signal words like next, then, 4. Apply
and finally. Have students complete Reading 3 independently
• To identify the events, I’ll look for important and then share their answers with partners or the
things that happened, like when the class group. Conclude by asking: Which one of these
asked kids for their old sneakers. I’ll environmental projects did you like best?
underline the events. Explain why.

• To find the sequence, I’ll ask myself what


happened first, next, and last. I’ll number

18
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Sequence of Events • Kids Save the Earth • 1

To determine the sequence of events as


Sequence of Events
you read, remember:
Text Marks
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

l Events are important things that happen.

l The sequence is the order in which Box the signal words.


things happen. Underline the important
events.
l Signal words help explain the order
Number the events in the
in which things happen, such as first,
sequence they happened.
next, last, yesterday, tomorrow, and
finally, plus times and dates.

Read “Kids Recycle Sneakers.”


Find the sequence of events.
Then mark the text.

Kids Recycle Sneakers


Mark the Text
Can old sneakers help the environment? Find the sequence
of events.
A fourth-grade class learned how. First, they asked
Box the times,
kids for their old sneakers. Next, they put an ad in dates, and signal
words.
a newspaper. Then, they collected the shoes and
Underline the
counted them. The total was 471 pairs! Next, they important events.

Number the
recycled the sneakers. Finally, the bottoms were made
events according
into a big, rubber mat. It became the surface for a to the sequence
in which they
new playground. happened.

19
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Sequence of Events • Kids Save the Earth • 2

Read “Kids Save a Beach.”


Find the sequence of events.
Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Kids Save a Beach


The town of Margate, New Jersey, sits on a

beautiful beach. Every winter, storms come off the


Mark the Text
Atlantic Ocean. Wind and waves sweep away sand Find the sequence
of events.
into the ocean. Fourth-graders in Margate decided to
Box the times,
save the beach. dates, and signal
words.
First, they asked the town to collect used
Underline the
Christmas trees and bring them to the beach. Then, important events.

workers dug long, deep holes in the sand. Next, the Number the
events according
students dragged the trees into the holes. Then, they to the sequence
in which they
buried the bottom halves of the trees in the sand. The happened.

top halves stood up. Finally, nature did the rest. The

trees caught sand blowing in the wind. Sand dunes

formed to protect the beach. Now the sand doesn’t

wash out to sea anymore.

20
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Sequence of Events • Kids Save the Earth • 3

Read “Kids Plant Trees.”


Find the sequence of events.
Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Kids Plant Trees


A Girl Scout troop in Oregon planted trees

to help the environment. First, they decided where

to plant the trees. They chose a neighborhood park.


Mark the Text
Then they bought trees at a local nursery. Next, they
Find the sequence
planted the trees. They dug a hole as deep as the tree of events.

Box the times,


roots and twice as wide. Then they put in the trees
dates, and signal
words.
and filled the holes with dirt. Finally, they watered
Underline the
the trees. important events.

How will the trees help the environment? Number the


events according
They make the air cleaner to breathe. They give a to the sequence
in which they
home to wildlife. And they make the earth a more happened.

beautiful place.

21
Lesson 4 Teaching Plan

Summarize • Camping Out

1. Introduce the Skill


Materials
Ask students what they know about camping out.
Prompt a discussion with these questions: What
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

n Reading 1: “Setting Up Camp” • page 23


would it be like to spend the night in nature? How
would you sleep, eat, and find your way around? n Reading 2: “Cooking on a Campfire”
As they read about camping out, students should • page 24
think about the following: n Reading 3: “Finding Your Way” • page 25
• The topic, or what the reading is mostly
about.
• The important details that tell more about 3. Practice
the topic.
Guide students to summarize “Cooking on a
• A summary, or short statement of the topic Campfire” by asking the following questions.
and important details of a reading.
• What is this reading about?
Continue following the Teaching Routine (pages
• What are several important details?
8–9) and use the lesson-specific tips for each
remaining step. • How will you summarize the reading in your
own words?

2. Model
4. Apply
Model for students how to summarize “Setting
Up Camp.” Have students complete Reading 3 independently
and then share their answers with partners or the
• First, I’ll find the topic, or what the reading is
group. Conclude by asking: Would you like to camp
mostly about. I’ll circle “When you camp out,
out in nature? Why or why not?
choose a good spot to pitch your tent.”
• Next, I’ll check important details that tell
about the topic. One important detail is “Find
a place that is on high, dry ground.” I’ll also
check other important details.
• To summarize, I’ll put together a short
statement about the topic and important
details in my own words. I’ll write: Find a
good place to pitch your tent. Choose a place
that is dry, cool, and flat.

22
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Summarize • Camping Out • 1

To summarize a passage you have


Summarize Text Marks
read, remember:
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

l The topic is what the reading is Circle the topic.


mostly about.
Check important details.
l The important details tell more about
the topic. 0
  rite a summary in your own
W
words.

l A summary is a short statement of the


topic and important details of a reading.

Read “Setting Up Camp.” Find the topic and important details.


Then mark the text and write a summary.

Setting Up Camp
Mark the Text
When you camp out, choose a good spot Summarize the text.

to pitch your tent. Find a place that is on high, dry Circle the topic.

ground. Camp away from a lake or river because Check important


details.
there are lots of mosquitoes around water. Next,
0 Write a summary
in your own words
pitch your tent under trees. The trees will block out on the lines.
the sun and their shade will keep you cool. Finally,

choose a spot that is smooth and flat. You don’t want

to sleep on a rock!

________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

23
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Summarize • Camping Out • 2

Read “Cooking on a Campfire.” Find the topic and important


details. Then mark the text and write a summary.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Cooking on a Campfire
You can help set up a fire pit to cook your

food. Begin by finding a piece of ground that has

bare soil. Use a shovel or trowel to dig a hole. Make

the hole about 2 feet wide and six inches deep. Then Mark the Text
gather up about 20 rocks. Circle the hole with the Summarize the text.

rocks to keep the fire inside the pit. Ask an adult to Circle the
topic.
build the campfire. You can help by gathering fuel.
Check important
details.
Pick up dried grass and small dead twigs.

Cooking over a campfire is fun, and the 0 Winrite a summary


your own words
on the lines.
food is delicious. You can roast hot dogs and

marshmallows. You can make flapjacks on a griddle.

But always be safe with your fire. Have a bucket of

water nearby. Also be safe with your food. Wrap

leftover food in bags. There may be bears around!

________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

24
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Summarize • Camping Out • 3

Read “Finding Your Way.” Find the topic and important


details. Then mark the text and write a summary.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Finding Your Way


You can use nature signs to find your way if

you are lost in the woods. First, look for the sun in the

sky. In the morning, the sun rises in the east. In the Mark the Text
evening, it sets in the west. Summarize the text.

Circle the
Moss grows more on the north side of a tree. topic.
That is because it is cooler there. In the spring, snow Check important

details.
melts faster on the south side of a tree. More snow is

left on the northern side.


0 Write a summary
in your own words
on the lines.
At night, look for the North Star to find your

way. First, find the Big Dipper and the Little Dipper.

The North Star is the top star in the Little Dipper’s

handle. It shines very brightly in the north part of

the sky.

________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

25
Lesson 5 Teaching Plan

Cause & Effect • Caves

1. Introduce the Skill


Materials
Ask students what they know about caves. Prompt
a discussion with these questions: Where would
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

n Reading 1: “Hidden Places” • page 27


you find a cave? What would it be like inside? As
they read about caves, students should look for n Reading 2: “Underground Wonders”
the following: • page 28

• A cause, or a reason something happened. n Reading 3: “Cave Explorers” • page 29


• An effect, or what happened as a result.
• Signal words that help identify the cause
and effect. Examples are therefore, as a 3. Practice
result, because, so, and for this reason. Guide students to mark the cause-and-effect rela-
Continue following the Teaching Routine (pages tionships in “Underground Wonders” by asking the
8–9) and use the lesson-specific tips for each following questions.
remaining step. Paragraph 1:
• What do acid and water do?
2. Model •W
 hat signal word tells you there is a cause-
Model for students how to find a cause-and-effect and-effect relationship?
relationship in “Hidden Places.”
•W
 hat happens as a result of the acid and
• To find the cause, I’ll ask, “Why did water eating limestone rock?
something happen?” The text says that wind
and weather wear down rock. I’ll circle that Paragraph 2:
sentence because it is the cause. • What does the dripping water do?
• I see the signal words as a result. I’ll draw a •W
 hat signal word tells you there is a cause-
box around the words because they tell me and-effect relationship?
that an effect is next. •W
 hat happened as a result of the dripping
• To find the effect, I’ll ask “What happened as water with minerals?
a result?” It says that caves were formed. I’ll
underline that because it is the effect.
4. Apply
Have students complete Reading 3 independently
and then share their answers with partners or
the group. Conclude by asking: Would you like to
explore a cave? What effect would being in a cave
have on you?

26
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Cause & Effect • Caves • 1

To identify the cause and effect as you


Cause & Effect
read, remember:
Text Marks
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

l A cause is the reason something


happened. Circle the cause.
l An effect is what happened as a result. Box the signal word.

l Signal words help identify the cause Underline the effect.


and effect. Examples are: therefore, as a
result, because, so, and for this reason.

Read “Hidden Places.”


Find a cause-and-effect relationship.
Then mark the text.

Hidden Places
Mark the Text
Caves are deep. They are dark. They are Find a cause-and-effect
relationship.
hidden from sight. Amazing things are hidden inside
Circle the
a cave. A process called weathering creates caves. cause.

Wind and water wear down rock. As a result, caves Box the signal
word.
are formed. It takes thousands of years to form
Underline the
effect.
a cave.

A cave can be a narrow tunnel, or it can be

a huge room called a cavern. Big or small, all caves

have hidden mysteries to explore.

27
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Cause & Effect • Caves • 2

Read “Underground Wonders.”


Find the cause-and-effect relationships.
Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Underground Wonders
1 Water can form beautiful limestone caves.
Mark the Text
  1  Find a cause-
As rain falls, it soaks into the ground. There, the and-effect
relationship.
water mixes with acid. The mixture can eat through
Circle the cause.
limestone rock. Over time, the acid and water eat
Box the signal
bigger and bigger holes in the rock. As a result, a word.

Underline the
limestone cave forms. effect.

2 Limestone caves are underground wonders.   2  Finda cause-


and-effect
They have rocks with amazing shapes. Some hang
relationship.
from the ceiling. They look like stone icicles. Others Circle the cause.
rise up from the floor. They look like stone spikes. B
 ox the signal
word.
Dripping water leaves minerals behind. As a result,
Underline the
the minerals turn into the amazing rocks. effect.

28
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Cause & Effect • Caves • 3

Read “Cave Explorers.”


Find the cause-and-effect relationships.
Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Cave Explorers
1 Would you like to explore a cave? Scientists Mark the Text
  1  Finda cause-
explore caves to study them. Other people explore and-effect
relationship.
caves, too. Caves are dark and dangerous. As a result,
Circle the cause.
explorers need special equipment. They wear boots
Box the signal
and hard hats. They carry flashlights and compasses. word.

They bring along food, water, and a first aid kit. Underline the
effect.

2 What animals do cave explorers see? Bats


  2  Finda cause-
are the best-known cave animals. The bats hang and-effect
relationship.
from the cave ceiling by their feet. As a result, they
Circle the cause.
sleep upside down! At night, the bats fly out of the Box the signal
word.
cave. They hunt for insects to eat. There are over two
Underline the
hundred caves you can visit in the United States. A effect.

guide will lead you through their deep, dark world.

29
Lesson 6 Teaching Plan

Make Predictions • Nature’s Ways

1. Introduce the Skill


Materials
Ask students what they know about how nature
works. Prompt a discussion with these questions:
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

n Reading 1: “Picnic in the Park” • page 31


What would you predict was going to happen if
you heard thunder and the sky was full of dark n Reading 2: “Sand Castles” • page 32
clouds? What would you predict was going to hap- n Reading 3: “Snow Day” • page 33
pen if you left a bottle of water out in the freez-
ing weather? As they read about nature’s ways,
students should do the following:
3. Practice
• Look for clues that tell what might happen
Guide students to make a prediction about “Sand
next in a story.
Castles” by asking the following questions.
• Use their own experience or knowledge to
Paragraph 1:
add to the story clues.
•W
 hat story clues give hints about what might
• Make a prediction, or guess, about what is
happen to the sand castle?
going to happen next in a story.
•W
 hat experience or knowledge do you have
Continue following the Teaching Routine (pages
about how the ocean tides work?
8–9) and use the lesson-specific tips for each
remaining step. •M
 ake a prediction about what Ricky and
Maria saw when they came back to the
beach.
2. Model
Model for students how to make a prediction
4. Apply
about “Picnic in the Park.”
Have students complete Reading 3 independently
• To make a prediction about what Sam’s
and then share their answers with partners or the
family saw when they came back to the
group. Conclude by asking: Do you think you can
picnic table, I’ll look for clues in the text.
always predict what will happen in nature? Why or
It says that squirrels were jumping from
why not?
branch to branch and that the squirrels were
chattering. I’ll underline those clues.
• Next, I’ll think about my own experience and
knowledge. I know that squirrels like to
eat nuts.
• I’ll put together the story clues with my own
experience and make a prediction. I predict
that Sam’s family saw that the squirrels had
been eating the nut cake.

30
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Make Predictions • Nature’s Ways • 1

To help you make a prediction as you


Make Predictions
read, remember:
Text Marks
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

l A story clue hints at what might


happen next. Underline the story clues.

l Your experience or knowledge is what Think about your experience


you already know. or knowledge.

l A prediction is a guess about what will


happen next.
0
Write a prediction on

the lines.

Read “Picnic in the Park.” Mark the text and make a prediction.

Picnic in the Park


Mark the Text
Sam’s family packed a picnic for the park.
Make a prediction. What
Sam brought along his soccer ball. At the park, did Sam’s family see?

Underline story
they found a table under a big tree. Squirrels were
clues.
jumping from branch to branch in the tree. Sam’s
T hink about your
experience and
mom unpacked the sandwiches, apples, and a nut knowledge.

cake. As they ate, the squirrels chattered above them.


0 Write
a prediction
on the lines.
Sam’s mom decided to save the cake for later. They

all jumped up to play soccer.

When they came back, what do you think they saw?

________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

31
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Make Predictions • Nature’s Ways • 2

Read “Sand Castles.” Mark the text and make a prediction.

Sand Castles
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Ricky and Maria ran across the beach to

the ocean. The tide was just going out. The waves

left seashells behind on the sand. Maria ran to pick

up shells. Ricky sat down and started to build. He

scooped up wet sand and made the walls of a


Mark the Text
Make a prediction. What
sand castle. did Ricky and Maria see?

Maria joined him. She dribbled sand on top Underline story


clues.
of the walls. She made towers out of sand. Their dad
T hink about your
came up to take photos. Ricky and Maria stood by experience and
knowledge.
their sand castle and grinned. Then they went inside
0 Write a prediction
on the lines.
to get out of the hot sun.

Late that afternoon, Ricky and Maria came

back to the beach. The water was much closer now.

They looked for their sand castle. What do you think

they saw?

________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

32
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Make Predictions • Nature’s Ways • 3

Read “Snow Day.” Mark the text and make a prediction.

Snow Day
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Mark the Text


The snow fell all night long. By the morning,
Make a prediction. What
it was 12 inches deep. The town closed the schools did Tony and Matt see?

Underline story
and called a snow day! Tony and Matt slept an extra clues.
hour in the morning. Then they put on hats, gloves, Think
 about your
experience and
boots, and warm coats and ran into their backyard. knowledge.

The sun was warm and bright.


0 Write a prediction
on the lines.
The boys rolled the snow into three big balls.

They put the balls on top of each other. They used

rocks for eyes and a carrot for a nose. Then they

added a hat and scarf. The sun became warmer and

warmer. Tony and Matt played outside all day. When

they went inside, their snowman looked smaller.

The next morning, they had to go back to

school. The temperature was up to 50 degrees! Tony

and Matt went to the window to check on their

snowman. What do you think they saw?

________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

33
Lesson 7 Teaching Plan

Problem & Solution • Dogs on Duty

1. Introduce the Skill


Materials
Ask students what they know about dogs on
duty. Prompt a discussion with these questions:
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

n Reading 1: “Python Pete” • page 35


Where have you seen a dog working with the
police? What other jobs can dogs do? As they read n Reading 2: “Huskies to the Rescue”
about working dogs, students should look for the • page 36
following: n Reading 3: “Guarding Lady Liberty”
• A problem, or a difficult situation that needs • page 37
to be fixed.
• A solution, or way of dealing with a problem
or difficulty. 3. Practice
• Signal words that describe the problem and Guide students to mark the problem and solution
solution, such as problem, challenge, solve, in “Huskies to the Rescue” by asking the following
fix, and solution. questions.
Paragraph 1:
Continue following the Teaching Routine (pages
8–9) and use the lesson-specific tips for each •W
 hat signal words give you clues about the
remaining step. problem and solution?
•W
 hat problem do the rangers have in winter?
2. Model • What is the solution to the problem?
Model for students how to find a problem and
Paragraph 2:
solution in “Python Pete.”
•W
 hat signal words give you clues about the
• First, I’ll look for signal words that give me
problem and solution?
clues about the problem and solution: I’ll box
problem and solve the problem. •W
 hat problem do the rangers have with the
huskies in the summer?
• To find the problem, I’ll look for the difficult
situation that has to be fixed. The text says • How is the problem solved?
that the huge snake is killing and eating the
other animals. I’ll circle that. 4. Apply
• To find the solution, I’ll look for how the Have students complete Reading 3 independently
problem was solved. I read that a brave and then share their answers with partners or
beagle is helping to solve the problem. I’ll the group. Conclude by asking: Which dog do you
underline that sentence. think has the most dangerous job? The best job?

34
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Problem & Solution • Dogs on Duty • 1

To help you identify a problem or


Problem & Solution
solution as you read, remember:
Text Marks
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

l A problem is a difficult situation that


needs to be fixed. Box the signal word.

l A solution is a way of dealing with a Circle the problem.


problem or difficulty.
Underline the solution.
l Signal words such as problem, challenge,
solve, fix, and solution help describe the
problem and solution.

Read “Python Pete.”


Find the problem and solution.
Then mark the text.

Python Pete
Mark the Text
Everglades National Park is full of wildlife.
Find the problem and
There are alligators, birds, and snakes. Now another the solution.

Box the signal


animal has moved in. It is the Burmese python. This
words.
huge snake is causing a big problem. It is killing and Circle the
problem.
eating the other animals. A brave beagle is helping
Underline the
to solve the problem. The dog’s name is Pete. Pete solution.

tracks the python through the swamp. He lets rangers

know when he finds one. They remove the python.

And Pete gets a treat.

35
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Problem & Solution • Dogs on Duty • 2

Read “Huskies to the Rescue.”


Find the problems and solutions.
Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Huskies to the Rescue


1 Denali National Park is in Alaska. In the

winter, it is covered with snow and ice. Park rangers Mark the Text
  1  Findthe problem
have a big problem getting around. They can’t
and the solution.
ride ATVs in parts of the park. So what do they do? Box the signal
words.
Alaskan husky dogs solve the problem. A team of
Circle the
about 30 huskies lives in Denali. They pull rangers on problem.

sleds through the park. Underline the


solution.

2 There isn’t as much snow in the summer. The


  2  Find
the problem
rangers want to keep the dogs busy. How do they and the solution.

Box the signal


solve the problem? They have the huskies entertain
words.
visitors. The dogs put on shows for about 50,000 Circle the
problem.
visitors a year. People learn about the husky breed.
Underline the
They see the dogs’ sleds. Best of all, they can pet the solution.

dogs and have their pictures taken with them.

36
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Problem & Solution • Dogs on Duty • 3

Read “Guarding Lady Liberty.”


Find the problems and solutions.
Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Guarding Lady Liberty


1 Dogs also work at the Statue of Liberty.

The statue sits on an island near New York City.


Mark the Text
Rangers have to keep Lady Liberty safe from damage.
  1  Findthe problem
A team of special dogs solves the problem. The dogs and the solution.

Box the signal


can sniff out harmful materials. They search the boats
words.
going to Liberty Island. Circle the
problem.
2 The Statue of Liberty has other visitors.
Underline the
Thousands of geese land on the island. They eat the solution.

grass on the park’s lawn. They leave behind over a   2  Find


the problem
and the solution.
pound of droppings each day. That’s big trouble! The
Box the signal
solution is a border collie named Misty. Misty patrols words.

Circle the
the park. She chases away the geese. Best of all, Misty
problem.
loves people. She welcomes visitors to see Underline the
solution.
Lady Liberty.

37
Lesson 8 Teaching Plan

Compare & Contrast • All Kinds of Pets

1. Introduce the Skill


Ask students what they know about pets that Materials
aren’t cats and dogs. Prompt a discussion with
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

these questions: What kind of pets do owners n Reading 1: “Pet Snakes and Lizards”
keep in cages? What is the difference between • page 39
a hamster and a guinea pig? As they read about n Reading 2: “Pet Hamsters and Guinea Pigs”
different kinds of pets, students should do • page 40
the following:
n Reading 3: “Pet Canaries and Parrots”
• Compare, or tell how two or more things • page 41
are alike.
• Contrast, or tell how two or more things
are different. about their different diets. I’ll box the signal
• Look for signal words such as both, too, word different.
alike, in addition, same, but, rather than,
however, and different.
3. Practice
Continue following the Teaching Routine (pages
Guide students to mark the comparisons and
8–9) and use the lesson-specific tips for each
contrasts in “Pet Hamsters and Guinea Pigs” by
remaining step.
asking the following questions.
Paragraph 1:
2. Model
•H
 ow are the homes of hamsters and guinea
Model for students how to find comparisons and
pigs the same?
contrasts in “Pet Snakes and Lizards.”
•H
 ow are their homes different?
• To compare, I’ll ask myself how two things
are the same. I’ll look for signal words such Paragraph 2:
as both, too, alike, and in addition. I’ll circle •H
 ow are hamsters and guinea pigs the
the sentences that tell how snakes and same?
lizards have the same kind of scaly skin and
• What are two ways they are different?
they both eat other animals for food. I’ll box
the signal words same and both.
• To contrast, I’ll ask myself how two things 4. Apply
are different. I’ll look for signal words such Have students complete Reading 3 independently
as but, rather than, however, and different. and then share their answers with partners or the
I’ll underline the sentences that tell that group. Conclude by asking: Which of these pets
a lizard has legs and a snake is legless. would you most like to have? Explain your choice.
I’ll also underline the sentences that tell

38
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Compare & Contrast • All Kinds of Pets • 1

To help you compare and contrast


information as you read, remember: Compare & Contrast
Text Marks
l To compare means to tell how two or more
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

things are the same.


Circle ways that things are the
same.
l To contrast means to tell how two or more
things are different. Underline ways that things are
different.
l Signal words help describe a comparison
Box the signal words.
or a contrast. Examples are both, too,
also, in addition, same, but, rather than,
however, and different.

Read “Pet Snakes and Lizards.” Compare and contrast


the two kinds of pets. Then mark the text.

Pet Snakes and Lizards


Mark the Text
Would you like a pet snake or lizard? These Compare and contrast
pet snakes and lizards.
unusual pets are reptiles. They both have the same
 ircle two ways
C

kind of scaly skin. They both eat other animals they are the same.

for food. Underline two


ways they are
Snakes and lizards are different in many ways. different.

 ox the signal
B
A lizard has legs, but a snake is legless. Small pet lizards
words.
eat insects or worms. However, a snake has a different

diet. It likes to eat small live animals like mice.

These reptile pets aren’t for everyone. But 13

million owners love their scaly friends.

39
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Compare & Contrast • All Kinds of Pets • 2

Read “Pet Hamsters and Guinea Pigs.”


Compare and contrast the two kinds of pets.
Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Pet Hamsters and Guinea Pigs Mark the Text


  1  Compare and
1 Hamsters and guinea pigs are small, caged
contrast the
pets. Both animals need a safe home to live in. They homes of
hamsters and
cannot run loose around a house. A hamster needs a guinea pigs.

Circle a way they


cage made of metal. It has sharp teeth and loves to are the same.
chew. However, a guinea pig needs a different kind of Underline a way
they are different.
home. It likes a hutch made of wood and wire.
Box the signal
words.
2 Hamsters and guinea pigs are both rodents.

They have sharp teeth to gnaw on hard foods. The   2  Compareand


contrast what
two animals have different diets. Hamsters eat meat they eat and their
personalities.
and vegetables, but guinea pigs eat only vegetables.
Circle two ways
Hamsters and guinea pigs are both good pets. they are the same.

Underline two
However, they have different personalities. Guinea
ways they are
different.
pigs are more loving. They like more attention.
Box the signal
Hamsters are more active. They like to run on their words.

wheels for miles a day!

40
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Compare & Contrast • All Kinds of Pets • 3

Read “Pet Canaries and Parrots.”


Compare and contrast the two types of birds.
Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Pet Canaries and Parrots


1 Many people have pet birds. A canary and
Mark the Text
a parrot are popular pets. Both birds live in cages.
  1  Compare and
However, the cages are different sizes. The smaller contrast the cages
of pet canaries
canary has a small cage. The larger parrot has a big and pet parrots.

cage. A canary needs to fly across its cage. A parrot Circle a way they
are the same.
needs to flap its wings for exercise.
Underline a way
they are different.
2 Both canaries and parrots make interesting
Box the signal
sounds. But the sounds are very different! Canaries words.

are songbirds. They can sing pretty songs. Parrots can   2  Compareand
contrast the
talk. They can repeat an owner’s words. sounds that they
make.
Which bird would you like better?
Circle a way they
are the same.

Underline a way
they are different.

Box the signal


words.

41
Lesson 9 Teaching Plan

Make Inferences • Ready for Rescue

1. Introduce the Skill


Materials
Ask students what they know about community
rescue workers. Prompt a discussion with these
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

n Reading 1: “Fire Alarm!” • page 43


questions: Who would save you in case of a fire?
Who would help if you had an accident? Who n Reading 2: “Blackout!” • page 44
might take you to the hospital? As they read about n Reading 3: “Emergency!” • page 45
community rescue workers, students should do
the following:
• Ask if there is an idea the author hints at, but There is lots of smoke. It takes a long time to
doesn’t state directly. put the fire out.
• Look for text clues that help them figure out • To make an inference, I’ll combine the
the unstated idea. text clues with my experience. I’ll write.
“There must have been a false alarm. The
• Combine the text clues with their own
firefighters checked and did not find a fire.”
knowledge and experience.
• Make an inference about something that
isn’t stated in the text. 3. Practice
Continue following the Teaching Routine (pages Guide students to make an inference about
8–9) and use the lesson-specific tips for each “Blackout!” by asking the following questions.
remaining step. • Why did Miguel’s mother have to direct traffic
for six hours?
2. Model • What text clues give you a hint?
Model for students how to make an inference • What can you add from your own knowledge?
about “Fire Alarm!” • What inference can you make?
• First, I’ll ask a question about the text. What
did the firefighters find inside the school? 4. Apply
• To find text clues, I’ll look for information Have students complete Reading 3 independently
that hints at the meaning of what happened. and then share their answers with partners or
It says that the firefighters went into the the group. Conclude by asking: If you heard an
school. They came back out twenty minutes ambulance coming down the street with its siren
later. Jenny’s father said the school is safe. on, what inference would you make?
I’ll underline those pieces of information.
• To use my own knowledge and experience,
I’ll think about what happens if there is a fire.

42
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Make Inferences • Ready for Rescue • 1

To help you make inferences as you


Making Inferences
read, remember:
Text Marks
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

l An inference is a combination of text clues


and what you already know. Underline text clues.

l A text clue is a key word or detail that Think about what you already
know.
helps a reader figure out an unstated idea.

l Background knowledge is what you 0  Write an inference on


the lines.
already know about a topic.

Read “Fire Alarm!” Find text clues and combine them with your own
knowledge to make an inference. Then mark the text.

Fire Alarm!
Mark the Text
Jenny’s father is a firefighter. One day, the fire Make an inference:
What did the firefighters
alarm rang at Jenny’s school. Everyone left the building. find inside the school?

Soon, they heard the sound of sirens. A fire truck roared Underline the text
clues.
up. Firefighters jumped out and ran inside the school.
T hink about what
Jenny saw her dad with them. Twenty minutes later, the you already know.

firefighters came back out. 0 Write


your
inference on the
lines.
Jenny’s father walked up to her class. “You can go

back in, kids” he said. “The school is safe.” He gave Jenny

a quick hug and then jumped back on the fire truck.

________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

43
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Make Inferences • Ready for Rescue • 2

Read “Blackout!” Find text clues and combine them


with your own knowledge to make an inference.
Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Blackout!
Miguel’s mother is a police officer. She works

downtown in the city. Miguel goes to a day camp in

the summer. His mother usually drops him off and picks
Mark the Text
him up. But one day last summer, things were different.
Make an inference: Why
The temperature soared. Soon, it was over 100 degrees. did Miguel’s mother
have to direct traffic for
Suddenly, all the lights went off. There was no electricity six hours?

in the whole city. Underline text


clues.
That day, Miguel’s father picked him up from
T hink about what
camp. They drove home carefully. They had take-out you already know.

food for dinner.



0 Write your
inference on the
lines.
Miguel’s mother got home late. She had to

work until 10:00. She said her arms were really tired.

She directed traffic for six hours that day!

________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

44
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Make Inferences • Ready for Rescue • 3

Read “Emergency!” Find text clues and


combine them with your own knowledge to
make an inference. Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Emergency!
Ty’s father is an EMT. He works inside an
Mark the Text
ambulance. He takes care of people in an emergency.
Make an inference:
One evening, the phone rang. Ty’s father What happened in the
ambulance?
picked it up. He said he would be right there. Ty’s
Underline text
dad said that a young couple needed an ambulance. clues.

The woman had to get to the hospital right away. T hink about what
you already know.
Four hours later, Ty’s dad came home. He had
0 Write your
inference on the
a big smile on his face. He told Ty what happened. lines.

“We picked up two people. By the time we got to the

hospital, there were three of them!”

“Great work, Dad,” Ty said.

________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

45
Lesson 10 Teaching Plan

Fact & Opinion • Healthy Habits

1. Introduce the Skill


Materials
Ask students what they know about healthy eating
and exercise. Prompt a discussion with these
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

n Reading 1: “Snack Attack” • page 47


questions: How many hours of exercise do you
think you should get every week? Do you think n Reading 2: “Feeling Fit” • page 48
you eat healthy food? As they read about healthy n Reading 3: “Milk or Soda?” • page 49
habits, students should look for the following:
• A fact, or a statement that can be proven
true. cookies are the best snack” because that is
an opinion. It has the signal word think and
• An opinion, or a statement of someone’s
tells how someone feels. I’ll also underline
personal feeling or belief.
the sentence “They believe that fruit is the
• Signal words, such as believe, think, feel, better snack” and I’ll box believe.
and unfair, which can help them recognize
an opinion.
3. Practice
Continue following the Teaching Routine (pages
8–9) and use the lesson-specific tips for each Guide students to mark the facts and opinions in
remaining step. “Feeling Fit” by asking the following questions.
• What are two statements that are facts?
2. Model • How could you check to see that they
are true?
Model for students how to identify facts and
opinions in “Snack Attack.” • What are two statements that are opinions?
• To identify a fact, I’ll ask “Can this statement • What signal words tell you that they are
be proven true? Where or how would I check opinions?
whether it’s true?” I’ll circle the statement,
“A cookie can have about 140 calories.” 4. Apply
That is a fact because I can prove that it’s
Have students complete Reading 3 independently
true by checking in a book or on the Internet.
and then share their answers with partners or the
I’ll also circle the sentence, “An apple has
group. Conclude by asking: How can you get more
60 calories.”
exercise every week? What part of your diet would
• To identify an opinion, I’ll ask, “Is this you like to change?
someone’s belief, feeling, or judgment?” I’ll
also look for signal words, such as think,
believe, best, worst, fair, and unfair. I’ll
underline the sentence, “Many kids think

46
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Fact & Opinion • Healthy Habits • 1

To identify facts and opinions as you


read, remember: Fact & Opinion
Text Marks
l A fact is a statement that can be proved
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

to be true.
Circle a fact.
l An opinion is a statement of someone’s Underline an opinion.
personal belief or feeling.
Box the signal word.
l Signal words, such as believe, think, feel,
and unfair help you recognize an opinion.

Read “Snack Attack.”


Identify facts and opinions.
Then mark the text.

Snack Attack
Mark the Text
Many kids think cookies are the best snack. Identify facts and
opinions.
They want them every day after school. Many parents
Circle two facts.

do not agree. They believe that fruit is a better snack.
Underline two
They buy apples for snacks. opinions.

 ox the signal
B
A cookie can have about 140 calories. That
words.
is a lot for one snack. An apple has 60 calories. It

also has vitamins B and C. Which snack do you think

is better?

47
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Fact & Opinion • Healthy Habits • 2

Read “Feeling Fit.”


Identify facts and opinions.
Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Feeling Fit
Fitness is a hot topic. How do kids feel

about it? Should they exercise more? Some kids Mark the Text
say no. They believe they are fit enough. At home, Identify facts and
opinions.
they watch TV. Or, they play on the computer. On
Circle three facts.

average, kids watch about 28 hours of TV every week. Underline two
opinions.
If you add on computers and cell phones, it’s 53
Box the signal

hours a week. words.

Other kids think that more exercise is better.

They play sports after school. They walk, ride their

bikes, or run. Many doctors tell their kid patients to

get about 60 minutes of exercise every day. They

believe in fitness first.

What about you? Are you feeling fit?

48
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Fact & Opinion • Healthy Habits • 3

Read “Milk or Soda?”


Identify facts and opinions.
Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Milk or Soda?
What we drink is as important as what we eat.
Mark the Text
Drinks can be good for you or bad for you. They can
Identify facts and
opinions.
be full of vitamins or full of calories.
Circle three facts.
Some kids believe that milk is a great drink.
Underline two
They like to have it with peanut butter and jelly opinions.

sandwiches. Milk has several vitamins and calcium. Box the signal

words.
Calcium is a mineral that builds strong bones. Other

kids think soda tastes better. Soda doesn’t have any

vitamins. A can of soda has about 150 calories, all of

them from sugar.

What is your choice? Do you like milk or

soda better?

49
Lesson 11 Teaching Plan

Context Clues • Chinese New Year

1. Introduce the Skill


Materials
Ask students what they know about the Chinese
New Year. Prompt a discussion with these ques-
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

n Reading 1: “Celebrate the New Year”


tions: What do you know about the Chinese New
• page 51
Year? How is it celebrated? As they read about the
Chinese New Year, students should look for the n Reading 2: “The Chinese Calendar”
following: • page 52

• An unfamiliar word, or a word they don’t n Reading 3: “A Dragon Parade” • page 53
know the meaning of.
• The context, or words and sentences around
the unfamiliar word. 3. Practice
• Context clues, or specific clues in the Guide students to use context clues to find the
sentences that can reveal the meaning of meaning of an unfamiliar word in “The Chinese
the unfamiliar word. Calendar” by asking the following questions.
Continue following the Teaching Routine (pages Paragraph 1:
8–9) and use the lesson-specific tips for each • What does the word lunar mean?
remaining step.
•W
 hat context clues can you find for the
meaning of lunar?
2. Model • Can you describe the meaning of lunar?
Model for students how to use context clues
to find the meaning of an unfamiliar word in
4. Apply
“Celebrate the New Year.”
Have students complete Reading 3 independently
• I’ll circle the word symbol as an unfamiliar
and then share their answers with partners or
word to learn more about.
the group. Conclude by asking: Which year would
• To find context clues, I’ll look in the sentence you want to be born in: the rat, ox, tiger, rabbit,
the word is in, and the sentences around it. dragon, snake, horse, sheep, monkey, rooster,
I’ll underline the words “The color red” and dog, or pig?
“for happiness.” Next, I’ll underline “stands
for” in the next sentence.
• To identify the meaning of symbol, I’ll put
together the clues and write its meaning.
A symbol is a thing that stands for
something else.

50
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Context Clues • Chinese New Year • 1

To understand the meaning of unfamiliar


Context Clues
words as you read, remember:
Text Marks
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

l An unfamiliar word is a word that you


don’t know the meaning of. Circle the unfamiliar word.

l Context is the words and sentences Underline context clues.


around the unfamiliar word.

l Context clues are specific clues in the



0  rite the meaning of the
W
unfamiliar word on the lines.

sentences that can reveal the meaning of


the unfamiliar word.

Read “Celebrate the New Year.” Use context clues to figure out
the meaning of an unfamiliar word and mark the text.

Celebrate the New Year Mark the Text


Use context clues to
People celebrate the Chinese New Year all figure out the meaning
of the word symbol.
around the world. What do they do? Families give
Circle the word
each other red and gold envelopes. The envelopes symbol.

contain gifts of money. The color red is a symbol for Underline context
clues.
happiness. The color gold stands for wealth. Before
0 What
is the
meaning of
the New Year, families sweep their houses. They
symbol in this
sweep out all the bad luck. Best of all, everyone goes passage? Write it
on the lines.
to a Chinese New Year’s parade.

_________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

51
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Context Clues • Chinese New Year • 2

Read “The Chinese Calendar.” Use context clues to


figure out the meaning of an unfamiliar word
19
1995 20 96 1

and mark the text. 2007 08


20 997
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

20 994
09

06
1992 20 93 1

1998
2010
05
19

2011
2004

1999
20 000
03

2
12
20 991 2013
1 2002 2001
1990

The Chinese Calendar


When is the Chinese New Year? It is not on

January 1. In fact, it changes each year. The Chinese


Mark the Text
New Year begins on the first full moon of a new year. Use context clues to
figure out the meaning
The Chinese calendar is a lunar calendar. It is based
of the word lunar.
on how the moon circles the Earth. Circle the word
lunar.
There are 12 different years in the Chinese
Underline context
calendar. They are all named after animals. The first clues.

year is the Year of the Rat. Other years are named


0 What is the
meaning of lunar
after the ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, in this passage?
Write it on the
sheep, monkey, rooster, dog, and pig. The animal lines.

years always go in the same order. When one cycle

of years is done, another starts. Do you know which

year were you born in?

_________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

52
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Context Clues • Chinese New Year • 3

Read “A Dragon Parade.” Use context clues to figure out


the meaning of an unfamiliar word and mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

A Dragon Parade
Many U.S. cities celebrate the Chinese New

Year. They have colorful parades through the streets.

San Francisco has the biggest parade. It is over two

and a half miles long. What does the parade look


Mark the Text
Use context clues to
like? School children dress up to march in the parade. figure out the meaning
of the word vivid.
They wear vivid costumes of bright colors like red
Circle the word
and yellow. There are bands, floats, and firecrackers. vivid.

There are lion dancers and big puppets. Underline context


clues.
The Golden Dragon is a crowd favorite.
0 What is the
meaning of vivid
People break out in cheers when they see it. The
in this passage?
Write it on the
Dragon is over 250 feet long! One hundred men
lines.
and women carry it. They are members of a

martial arts school. They need to be strong to carry

the huge dragon.

_________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

53
Lesson 12 Teaching Plan

Author’s Purpose • Alaska and Hawaii

1. Introduce the Skill


Materials
Ask students what they know about the states
of Alaska and Hawaii. Prompt a discussion with
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

n Reading 1: “Our Two Newest States”


these questions: What states were the last to join
• page 55
the Union? What do you know about Alaska and
Hawaii? As they read about Alaska and Hawaii, n Reading 2: “Visit a Volcano!”/“Under the
students should identify the following: Sea” • page 56

• The author’s purpose, or the reason why the n Reading 3: “The Biggest State”/“Ride the
author is writing something. Whale Watcher” • page 57

• Text evidence that reveals the author’s


purpose.
3. Practice
• Whether the author’s purpose is to inform, to
persuade, or to entertain. Guide students to identify the author’s purpose in
“Visit a Volcano!” and “Under the Sea” by asking
Continue following the Teaching Routine (pages
the following questions.
8–9) and use the lesson-specific tips for each
remaining step. Paragraph 1:
• Is the author’s purpose in “Visit a Volcano!”
2. Model to inform, to persuade, or to entertain?

Model for students how to find the author’s pur- •W


 hat text evidence shows that the author’s
pose in “Our Two Newest States.” purpose is to persuade?

• To find the author’s purpose, I’ll ask Paragraph 2:


questions about why the author wrote this •W
 hat is the author’s purpose in “Under
text. Then I’ll look for text clues that can the Sea”?
answer my questions.
•W
 hat text evidence shows that the author’s
• Is the author trying to persuade me, or purpose is to entertain?
convince me of something? No, I don’t see
language that is full of opinions or trying to
persuade me. 4. Apply
• Is the author trying to entertain me? No, the Have students complete Reading 3 independently
language is serious and formal. and then share their answers with partners or the
group. Conclude by asking: If you could choose
• Is the author trying to inform me about
between a trip to Alaska and a trip to Hawaii,
something? Yes, the text is full of facts about
which would you choose? Explain why.
Alaska and Hawaii. I’ll check the box “to
inform” and underline sentences that
give information.

54
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Author’s Purpose • Alaska and Hawaii • 1

To help you figure out the author’s


Author’s Purpose
purpose as you read, remember:
Text Marks
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

l The author’s purpose is the reason why


the author is writing something. Check the author’s purpose:

l The author’s purpose can be to inform, to o to inform


persuade, or to entertain. o to persuade

l Text clues are words or sentences that o to entertain


reveal the author’s purpose. Underline text clues.

Read “Our Two Newest States.” Identify the author’s


purpose and mark the text.

Our Two Newest States Mark the Text


Alaska and Hawaii are new states. They joined Identify the author’s
purpose.
the U.S.A. in 1959. The two states are special. Neither
 heck the
C

one is part of the U.S. mainland. Hawaii is in the author’s purpose:

middle of the Pacific Ocean. It is a chain of islands o to inform

o to persuade
made by volcanoes. Alaska stretches north of the
o to entertain
Arctic Circle. Much of it is covered by snow and ice.
Underline three
examples of text
The two states are famous for their sights.
clues for the
purpose.

55
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Author’s Purpose • Alaska and Hawaii • 2

Read “Visit a Volcano!” and “Under the Sea.” Identify the


author’s purpose for each reading. Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Visit a Volcano!
1 Do you want a red-hot vacation? Come see
Mark the Text
Hawaii with Top Tours. Hawaii has the most active
  1  Identifythe
volcano in the world. Our volcano tour explodes with
author’s purpose.
fun. You can see black sand beaches. You can walk Check the

author’s purpose:
across lava fields. You might even see red-hot lava.
o to inform
Call us today!
o to persuade

o to entertain
Under the Sea Underline two
examples of text
2 Today, we went to Hanauma Bay on the clues.

island of Oahu. It is famous for its tropical fish. Dad   2  Identifythe


author’s purpose.
rented snorkeling gear for us. We put on goggles and
 heck the
C

flippers. We fastened our breathing tubes. Then we author’s purpose:

dove into the water. o to inform

o to persuade
Wow! Fish were all around us. We saw red,
o to entertain
blue, yellow, and striped fish. They swam right by my
Underline two
goggles. Pretty soon, I felt like a fish myself. examples of text
clues.
I love Hawaii!

56
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________

Author’s Purpose • Alaska and Hawaii • 3

Read “The Biggest State” and “Ride the Whale


Watcher.” Identify the author’s purpose for
each reading. Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

The Biggest State


1 Alaska is the biggest state of all. It is over Mark the Text
twice the size of Texas. Alaska is about 1,400 miles   1  Identifythe
author’s purpose.
long. It is 2,700 miles wide. Everything in this state
Check the

is big. Most of the highest mountains in the country author’s purpose:

are here. Denali is the largest national park in o to inform

the country. You can see some really big grizzly


o to persuade

o to entertain
bears there!
Underline two
examples of text
clues.
Ride the Whale Watcher
  2  Identifythe
2 Are you planning a trip to Alaska? Don’t author’s purpose.

 heck the
C
forget to see the whales! Take the best trip ever
author’s purpose:
on one of our Whale Watcher boats. In the spring, o to inform

you’ll see gray whales. In the summer, you can spot o to persuade

humpback whales and orcas, or killer whales. See an o to entertain

Underline two
orca jump out of the water and do a back flip. The examples of text
clues.
whales are waiting for you in Alaska. Come for an

amazing ride on the Whale Watcher!

57
When you read for details, remember:
Read for Details
l A topic is what a text is mostly about. Text Marks

Answer Key
l A detail is important information that
tells more about the topic.
Name ________________________________________________
Box the topic.
Date ______________________
Name ________________________________________________ Date _________

•3

Read “First Dogs.” Read “Wild Pets.” Read “Family Pets.”


Find the topic and important details. Find the topic and important details. Find the topic and important details.
LESSON
Then mark1 the
PAGEtext.11 LESSON
Then mark1 the
PAGEtext.12 LESSON 1 the
Then mark PAGE text.13
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

First Dogs Wild Pets Family Pets


Mark the Text Mark the Text Mark
The White House is home to the President, his 1 the topic
Find SomeandPresidents had wild animals for pets. 1 1 Find the
Thetopic
children
and of some Presidents had pets that 1 Fin
important details. important details. imp
family, and their dogs! Many dogs have lived in the Thomas Jefferson sent explorers out west. They sent caused trouble in the White House. President Abe
Box the topic. Box the topic. Bo
White House. President Obama gave his daughters a back a big box. Two bear cubs were inside. The Lincoln had a young son named Tad. Tad owned a
Underline what Underline what U
n
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

big, playful puppy. They named it Bo. President James President made the bears his pets. He built a cage on
pet President pairanimals explorers
of goats. They were named Nanny and Nanko. Lin
Obama gave to his sent to President nam
Buchanan had the biggest dog. It was named Lara. the White House lawn. He walked the bear cubs in
daughters. TheJefferson.
goats ran all over the White House. They pulled

Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources
2 Un
Underline who
the garden.
Lara weighed 170 pounds! Other White House dogs 2chairs
Findlike racing
important carts. imp
had the biggest
details.
were Fido, Big Ben, and Buddy. dog. W
h
2 John Quincy Adams had a pet alligator. The 2 Teddy Roosevelt’s children had all kinds of
Underline who sna
alligator was a gift from a friend. The President kept it pets.had a pet
His alligator. Alice had a green snake. Alice
daughter Ho
Underline how Ro
Name ________________________________________________ in the East Room. It snapped its jaws at visitors. Teddy
Date ______________________ loved to carry it to parties. She would let the snake
many pets Teddy bro
Roosevelt had. him
Roosevelt had 40 pets in all. He loved wildlife. His loose. Then she waited for the screams. Alice’s

pets included a zebra, a lion, and five bears. brother was named Archie. He had a pony called
Main Idea & Details • U.S. Coins • 1 11
Algonquin. Once, Archie became very sick. His

brothers knew how to cheer him up. They put the


To find key information as you read,
Main Idea & Details pony in the White House elevator. Then they took
remember:
Text Marks
him up to Archie’s room. Archie felt better. But the
l The main idea is the most important
point about a topic. Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________
Name ________________________________________________ Date _________
Circle the main idea. pony didn’t want to leave!
l Supporting details give information Underline supporting details.
that tells more about the main idea.
12 Main Idea & Details • U.S. Coins • 2 Main Idea & Details • U.S. Coins • 3

Read “Coins in Your Pocket.”


Find the main idea and supporting details. Read “Jefferson’s Nickel.” Read “State Quarters.”
Then mark the text. Find the main idea and supporting details. Find the main idea and supporting details.
LESSON 2 PAGE 15 LESSON
Then mark2 the
PAGE
text.16 LESSON 2 PAGE 17
Then mark the text.

Coins in Your Pocket Jefferson’s Nickel State Quarters


Mark the Text Mark the Text Mark
Each U.S. coin has history stamped on its 1 the main
Find Theidea
nickel
and has a long history. Why is it called 11 Find In
the1999, the U.S. Mint began making state
main idea 1 Fin
supporting details. and supporting and
front and back. The face of a president is on the front a nickel? It is partly made of the metal nickel. The first quarters. It
details. made 5 new quarters each year for ten
Circle the det
of many coins. Abraham Lincoln is on the penny. nickels
mainwere
idea.made in l866. Before then, five-cent coins years. There
Circle the were 50 in all. Which state’s quarter was C
ir
main idea. ma
George Washington is on the quarter. The back of U
nderline the
were silver. They were called “half-dimes.” first? It was Delaware, the first state to join the Union.
president whose Underline why a Un
each coin has a picture and words. The backs of face is on the
2 penny.The face on the nickel belongs to Thomas The nickel
quarteris called a
for Hawaii came last. De
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

nickel. firs
many pennies show the Lincoln Memorial. The words Jefferson. Jefferson has been on our nickel since l938.
Underline the 2 Underline
The back
what of each state quarter has a picture for
words on the five-cent coins 2 Fin
“one cent” are below it. The back
backs of many nickels show Jefferson’s home. In
of many the state. It is an
were called important person, place, or event in
before and
pennies. 1866. det
Do you know whose face is on a dime? Check 2004, the U.S. Mint made new nickels. Jefferson is still the state’s history. The Alaska quarter shows a bear and
C
ir
out the change in your pocket! on the front. Pictures of the American West are on Find the main idea
a2 salmon. Florida’s quarter shows a ship and the ma
and supporting
the back. One shows a buffalo. Take a look in your details. Un
space shuttle.
is o
C
ircle the Ala
pocket. What is on the back of your nickels?
15 mainWhat
idea. is on the back of your state’s quarter?

Underline how
long Jefferson
has been on the
nickel.

Underline what
the backs of new
nickels show.

16

58
Text Marks
l Events are important things that happen.

l The sequence is the order in which Box the signal words.


things happen. Name
Underline the________________________________________________
important Date ______________________
Name ________________________________________________ Date _________
events.
l Signal words help explain the order

•3

Read “Kids Save a Beach.” Read “Kids Plant Trees.”


Read “Kids Recycle Sneakers.”
Find the sequence of events. Find the sequence of events.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Find the sequence of events.


LESSON 3 PAGE 19 LESSON
Then mark3 the
PAGE
text.20 LESSON 3 the
Then mark PAGEtext.21
Then mark the text.

Kids Recycle Sneakers Kids Save a Beach Kids Plant Trees Mark
Mark the Text Mark the Text
Can old sneakers help the environment? The town of Margate, New Jersey, sits on a
Find the sequence A Girl Scout troop in Oregon planted trees Find the s
Find the sequence
1 of events. of events. 1 of events
A fourth-grade class learned how. First, they asked beautiful beach. Every winter, storms come off the to help the environment. First, they decided where
2 Box the times, Box the times,
Bo
dat
kids for their old sneakers. Next, they put an ad in Atlantic Ocean.
dates, Wind and waves sweep away sand
and signal to plant
dates,the
and trees.
signal They chose a neighborhood park.
3 words.
2 words. 3 wo
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

a newspaper. Then, they collected the shoes and into the ocean. Fourth-graders in Margate decided to Then they bought trees at a local nursery. Next, they
U
nderline the U
n
4
counted them. The total was 471 pairs! Next, they save important
the beach.events.
U
nderline the
planted the events.
trees. They dug a hole as deep as the tree
imp

Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources
important
5 1
Number the Number
roots
4
the as wide. Then they put in the trees
Nu
recycled the sneakers. Finally, the bottoms were made First, they asked the town to collect used and twice eve
events according
into a big, rubber mat. It became the surface for a to the sequence 2 events according
to the sequence 5 to t
Christmas trees and bring them to the beach. Then, and filled the holes with dirt. Finally, they watered in w
in which they
happened.
3 in which they
hap
new playground. workers dug long, deep holes in the sand. Next, the the happened.
trees.
4
students dragged the trees into the holes. Then, they How will the trees help the environment?
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________
buried the bottom halves of the trees in the sand. The They make the air cleaner to breathe. They give a
19
5
top halves stood up. Finally, nature did the rest. The home to wildlife. And they make the earth a more

Summarize • Camping Out • 1 trees caught sand blowing in the wind. Sand dunes beautiful place.

formed to protect the beach. Now the sand doesn’t

wash out to sea anymore.


To summarize a passage you have
Summarize Text Marks
read, remember:

l The topic is what the reading is Circle the topic. Name ________________________________________________ Date ________
mostly about. Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________
Check important details.
l The important details tell more about
the topic. 0 Write a summary in your own
20
words.
Summarize • Camping Out • 2
Summarize • Camping Out • 3
l A summary is a short statement of the
topic and important details of a reading.
Read “Finding Your Way.” Find the topic and important
Read “Cooking on a Campfire.” Find the topic and important
Read “Setting Up Camp.” details. Then mark the text and write a summary.
LESSON 4 PAGE 23 Find the topic and important details.
LESSON 4 PAGE
details. Then 24text and write a summary.
mark the LESSON 4 PAGE 25
Then mark the text and write a summary.

Setting Up Camp Cooking on a Campfire Finding Your Way


Mark the Text
When you camp out, choose a good spot You can help set up a fire pit to cook your
Summarize the text. You can use nature signs to find your way if

to pitch your tent. Find a place that is on high, dry food. Begin
Circle by finding a piece of ground that has
the topic. you are lost in the woods. First, look for the sun in the

ground. Camp away from a lake or river because Check


bare soil.important
Use a shovel or trowel to dig a hole. Make sky. In the morning, the sun rises in the east. In the
Mark the Text Mark
details.
there are lots of mosquitoes around water. Next, the hole about 2 feet wide and six inches deep. Then evening,
Summarize theittext.
sets in the west. Summar
0 Winrite a summary
your own words C
ir
pitch your tent under trees. The trees will block out gather up about 20 rocks. Circle the hole with the C Moss
ircle the grows more on the north side of a tree.
on the lines. top
topic.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

rocks to keep the fire inside the pit. Ask an adult to


Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

the sun and their shade will keep you cool. Finally, That is because it is cooler there. In the spring, snow Ch
Check important
de
choose a spot that is smooth and flat. You don’t want build the campfire. You can help by gathering fuel. details.
melts faster on the south side of a tree. More snow is
to sleep on a rock! Pick up dried grass and small dead twigs. 0left
Winon
rite a summary 0 Winr
yourthe
ownnorthern
words side.
on
Find a good place to pitch your tent. Cooking over a campfire is fun, and the
________________________________________________________________________________
on the lines.
At night, look for the North Star to find your

Choose a place that is dry, cool, food is delicious. You can roast hot dogs and
____________________________________________________________________________ way. First, find the Big Dipper and the Little Dipper.
marshmallows. You can make flapjacks on a griddle.
and flat.
____________________________________________________________________________ The North Star is the top star in the Little Dipper’s
But always be safe with your fire. Have a bucket of
23 handle. It shines very brightly in the north part of
water nearby. Also be safe with your food. Wrap
the sky.
leftover food in bags. There may be bears around!
Use nature signs to find your way.
__________________________________________________________________
Make a fire pit with a hole and rocks to
________________________________________________________________________________
Look for the sun, moss, snow, and the
______________________________________________________________
cook hot dogs or other food. Be safe North Star.
____________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
with your fire and your food.
____________________________________________________________________________

24

59
To identify the cause and effect as you
Cause & Effect
read, remember:
Text Marks
l A cause is the reason something
happened.
Answer Key CircleName ________________________________________________
the cause. Date ______________________
Name ________________________________________________ Date _________
l An effect is what happened as a result. Box the signal word.

Read “Underground Wonders.” Read “Cave Explorers.”


Read “Hidden Places.”
Find the cause-and-effect relationships. Find the cause-and-effect relationships.
Find a cause-and-effect
LESSON 5 PAGE 27 relationship. LESSON 5 PAGE 28 LESSON 5 the
PAGE
Then mark the text. Then mark text.29
Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Hidden Places Underground Wonders Cave Explorers


Mark the Text Mark the Text Mark
Caves are deep. They are dark. They are 1 a cause-and-effect
Find Water can form beautiful limestone caves. 1
1 FindWould
a cause-you like to explore a cave? Scientists 1 Fin
relationship. and-effect and
hidden from sight. Amazing things are hidden inside As rain falls, it soaks into the ground. There, the explore caves to study them. Other people explore
relationship. rela
Circle the
a cave. A process called weathering creates caves. water mixes
cause. with acid. The mixture can eat through caves,
C too.the
ircle Caves
causeare
. dark and dangerous. As a result, Cir

Wind and water wear down rock. As a result, caves Box therock.
signal Over time, the acid and water eat Box the signal
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

limestone explorers need special equipment. They wear boots Box


word. word. wo
are formed. It takes thousands of years to form bigger and bigger holes in the rock. As a result, a and hard hats. They carry flashlights and compasses.

Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources
Underline the Underline the Un
effect. effect. eff
a cave. limestone cave forms. They bring along food, water, and a first aid kit.
A cave can be a narrow tunnel, or it can be 2 Limestone caves are underground wonders. 2
2
Find a cause-
What animals do cave explorers see? Bats 2 Fin
and-effect and
a huge room called a cavern. Big or small, all caves They have rocks with amazing shapes. Some hang relationship.
are the best-known cave animals. The bats hang rela

have hidden mysteries to explore. Circle the cause. Cir


from the ceiling. They look like stone icicles. Others from the cave ceiling by their feet. As a result, they
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________ Box the signal Box
rise up from the floor. They look like stone spikes. sleep word.
upside down! At night, the bats fly out of the wo

Dripping water leaves minerals


27 behind. As a result, cave.Underline
They huntthe for insects to eat. There are over two U
nd
effect. effe
Make Predictions • Nature’s Ways • 1 the minerals turn into the amazing rocks. hundred caves you can visit in the United States. A

guide will lead you through their deep, dark world.

To help you make a prediction as you


Make Predictions
read, remember:
Text Marks
l A story clue hints at what might
happen next. Underline the story clues. Name ________________________________________________ Date _________
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________
l Your experience or knowledge is what Think about your experience
you already know. or knowledge.
28
l A prediction is a guess about what will 0
Write a prediction on
Make Predictions • Nature’s Ways • 2 Make Predictions • Nature’s Ways • 3
the lines.
happen next.

LESSON 6 PAGE 31 LESSON 6 PAGE 32 LESSON 6 PAGE 33


Read “Picnic in the Park.” Mark the text and make a prediction. Read “Sand Castles.” Mark the text and draw conclusions. Read “Snow Day.” Mark the text and draw conclusions.

Picnic in the Park Sand Castles Snow Day


Mark the Text Mark the Text Mark
Sam’s family packed a picnic for the park. Ricky and Maria ran across the beach to The snow fell all night long. By the morning,
Make a prediction. What Make a prediction. What Make a p
Sam brought along his soccer ball. At the park, did Sam’s family see? diditRicky
wasand
12Maria see?deep. The town closed the schools
inches did Tony a
the ocean. The tide was just going out. The waves
Underline story Underline story Und
they found a table under a big tree. Squirrels were left seashells behind on the sand. Maria ran to pick andclues.
called a snow day! Tony and Matt slept an extra
clues. clue
jumping from branch to branch in the tree. Sam’s Think about your hour in about
the morning. Then they put on hats, gloves,
up shells. Ricky sat down and started to build. He Think your Thin
experience and experience and exp
mom unpacked the sandwiches, apples, and a nut knowledge. boots, and warm coats and ran into their backyard.
scooped up wet sand and made the walls of a knowledge. kno
cake. As they ate, the squirrels chattered above them.
0 Write a prediction
sand castle.
on the lines. 0TheWrite
suna was warm and bright.
prediction 0 Wri
on the lines. on t
Sam’s mom decided to save the cake for later. They
Maria joined him. She dribbled sand on top The boys rolled the snow into three big balls.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

all jumped up to play soccer.


of the walls. She made towers out of sand. Their dad They put the balls on top of each other. They used
When they came back, what do you think they saw?
came up to take photos. Ricky and Maria stood by rocks for eyes and a carrot for a nose. Then they
They saw that the squirrels had been eating
________________________________________________________________________________
their sand castle and grinned. Then they went inside added a hat and scarf. The sun became warmer and
the nut cake.
____________________________________________________________________________
to get out of the hot sun. warmer. Tony and Matt played outside all day. When
____________________________________________________________________________ they went inside, their snowman looked smaller.
Late that afternoon, Ricky and Maria came
31
back to the beach. The water was much closer now. The next morning, they had to go back to

They looked for their sand castle. What do you think school. The temperature was up to 50 degrees! Tony

they saw? and Matt went to the window to check on their

The castle was gone because the tide snowman. What do you think they saw?
________________________________________________________________________________
had washed it away. The snowman was gone because it
__________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
had melted.
_______________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

32

60
Problem & Solution
solution as you read, remember:
Text Marks
l A problem is a difficult situation that
needs to be fixed. Box the signal word.
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________
Name ________________________________________________ Date _________
l A solution is a way of dealing with a Circle the problem.
problem or difficulty.

•3

Read “Huskies to the Rescue.” Read “Guarding Lady Liberty.”


Read “Python Pete.”
Find the problems and solutions. Find the problems and solutions.
Find the7problem
LESSON PAGE and
35 solution. LESSON 7 PAGE 36 LESSON 7 the
PAGEtext.37
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Then mark the text. Then mark


Then mark the text.

Python Pete Huskies to the Rescue Guarding Lady Liberty


Mark the Text Mark
Everglades National Park is full of wildlife. Mark the also
Textwork at the Statue of Liberty.
1 the problem
Find Denaliand
National Park is in Alaska. In the 1 Dogs 1 Fin
There are alligators, birds, and snakes. Now another the solution. 1 Find the problem and
winter, it is covered with snow and ice. Park rangers The statue sits on an island near New York City.
Box the signal and the solution. Bo
animal has moved in. It is the Burmese python. This
havewords.
a big problem getting around. They can’t Rangers
Box have to keep Lady Liberty safe from damage.
the signal wo
huge snake is causing a big problem. It is killing and ride CATVs
ircle the words. Cir
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

in parts of the park. So what do they do? A team of special dogs solves the problem. The dogs
problem. Circle the pro
eating the other animals. A brave beagle is helping
Alaskan huskythedogs solve the problem. A team of can sniff out harmful materials. They search the boats
problem.

Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources
Underline U
n
to solve the problem. The dog’s name is Pete. Pete solution. Underline the Island. sol
about 30 huskies lives in Denali. They pull rangers on going
to Liberty
solution.
tracks the python through the swamp. He lets rangers Fin
sleds through the park. 2 The Statue of Liberty has other visitors.
2

Find the problem


2
and
know ________________________________________________
Name when he finds one. They remove the python. Date ______________________
2 There isn’t as much snow in the summer. The Thousands
and the of geese land on the island. They eat the
solution. Bo
And Pete gets a treat. Box the signal wo
rangers want to keep the dogs busy. How do they grass on the park’s lawn. They leave behind over a
words. Cir
Compare & Contrast • All Kinds of Petssolve
• 1the problem? They have the huskies entertain pound
of droppings
Circle the each day. That’s big trouble! The pro
35 problem.
visitors. The dogs put on shows for about 50,000 solution is a border collie named Misty. Misty patrols U
n
U
nderline the sol
To help you compare and contrast visitors a year. People learn about the husky breed. the park. She chases away the geese. Best of all, Misty
solution.
information as you read, remember: Compare & Contrast
Text Marks They see the dogs’ sleds. Best of all, they can pet the loves people. She welcomes visitors to see
l To compare means to tell how two or more
dogs and have their pictures taken with them. Lady Liberty.
things are the same.
Circle ways that things are the
same. Name ________________________________________________ Name ________________________________________________
Date ______________________ Date _________
l To contrast means to tell how two or more
things are different. Underline ways that things are
different.
l Signal words help describe a comparisons
Compare & Contrast • All Kinds of Pets •Compare
Box the signal words. 2 & Contrast • All Kinds of Pets • 3
or a contrast. Examples are both, too,
also, in addition, same, but, rather than, 36
however, and different.
Read “Pet Hamsters and Guinea Pigs.” Read “Pet Canaries and Parrots.”
Read “Pet Snakes and Lizards.” Compare and contrast Compare and contrast the two kinds of pets. Compare and contrast the two types of birds.
LESSON 8 PAGE 39 LESSON 8 PAGE 40
Then mark the text.
LESSON 8 the
Then mark PAGE
text.41
the two kinds of pets. Then mark the text.

Pet Snakes and Lizards Pet Canaries and Parrots


MarkPet Hamsters
the Text and Guinea Pigs
Mark
Mark the Text
Would you like a pet snake or lizard? These Compare and contrast
1 Hamsters and guinea pigs are small, caged 11 Many people have pet birds. A canary and
Compare and 1 Co
pet snakes and lizards.
unusual pets are reptiles. They both have the same contrast the con
pets. Both
Circle animals need a safe home to live in. They
two ways
a parrot are popular pets. Both birds live in cages. of p
homes of
kind of scaly skin. They both eat other animals they are the same. hamsters and and
cannot run loose around a house. A hamster needs a However, the cages are different sizes. The smaller
guinea pigs.
for food. Underline two Cir
cage
waysmade of metal. It has sharp teeth and loves to
they are canaryCircle
has aaway
small
theycage. The larger parrot has a big are
Snakes and lizards are different in many ways. different. are the same.
chew. However, a guinea pig needs a different kind of cage. A canary needs to fly across its cage. A parrot Un
Box the signal the
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Underline a way
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

A lizard has legs, but a snake is legless. Small pet lizards


words.It likes
home. a hutch made of wood and wire. needs they
to flap its wings for exercise.
are different.
Bo
eat insects or worms. However, a snake has a different wo
Box the signal
2 Hamsters and guinea pigs are both rodents. 2 Both canaries and parrots make interesting
words.
diet. It likes to eat small live animals like mice.
sounds. But the sounds are very different! Canaries 2 Co
They have sharp teeth to gnaw on hard foods. The
These reptile pets aren’t for everyone. But 13 2 Compare and con
two animals have different diets. Hamsters eat meat are songbirds. They can sing pretty songs. Parrots can
contrast what sou
million owners love their scaly friends. they eat and their ma
and vegetables, but guinea pigs eat only vegetables. talk. They can repeat an owner’s words.
personalities.
Cir
39 Circle two ways are
Hamsters and guinea pigs are both good pets. Which bird would you like better?
they are the same.
Un
However, they have different personalities. Guinea Underline two the
ways they are
pigs are more loving. They like more attention. Bo
different.
wo
Hamsters are more active. They like to run on their Box the signal
words.
wheels for miles a day!

40

61
To help you make inferences as you
Making Inferences
read, remember:
Text Marks
Answer Key
l An inference is a combination of text clues Name ________________________________________________ Name ________________________________________________
Date ______________________ Date ___________

and what you already know. Underline text clues.

•3
the lines.
already know about a topic.
Read “Blackout!” Find text clues and combine them Read “Emergency!” Find text clues and combine them
with your own knowledge to make an inference. with your own knowledge to make an inference.
Read “Fire Alarm!” Find text clues and combine them with your own
LESSON 9 PAGE 43 LESSON
Then mark9 the
PAGE
text. 44 LESSON
Then mark9 the
PAGE
text. 45
knowledge to make an inference. Then mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Fire Alarm! Blackout! Emergency!


Mark the Text
Jenny’s father is a firefighter. One day, the fire Miguel’s mother is a police officer. She works
Make an inference: Ty’s father is an EMT. He works inside an
What did the firefighters Mark the Text
alarm rang at Jenny’s school. Everyone left the building. downtown
find inside in the city. Miguel goes to a day camp in
the school? ambulance. He takes care of people in an emergency. Mark t
Make an inference: Why
Soon, they heard the sound of sirens. A fire truck roared Underline
the summer.the text
His mother usually drops him off and picks did Miguel’sOne
motherevening, the phone rang. Ty’s father Make an inf
clues. have to direct traffic for What happe
up. Firefighters jumped out and ran inside the school. him up. Butwhat
one day last summer, things were different. sixpicked
hours? it up. He said he would be right there. Ty’s ambulance?
Think about
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

you already know.


Jenny saw her dad with them. Twenty minutes later, the The temperature soared. Soon, it was over 100 degrees. dadUnderline
said thattext
a young couple needed an ambulance. Under
clues. clues.
0Suddenly,
Write your

Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources
firefighters came back out. TheThink
woman
inference onall the lights went off. There was no electricity abouthad
whatto get to the hospital right away. Think
the line. you already know. you al
Jenny’s father walked up to her class. “You can go in the whole city. Four hours later, Ty’s dad came home. He had
Name kids” he said. “The school is safe.” He gave Jenny Date ______________________
back in,________________________________________________ That day, Miguel’s father picked him up from
0 Write your
a big smile on
inference onthe
his face. He told Ty what happened. 0 Write
infere
lines. lines.
a quick hug and then jumped back on the fire truck. camp. They drove home carefully. They had take-out “We picked up two people. By the time we got to the
Fact
There had&beenOpinion •
a false alarm. Healthy Habits
The firefighters• 1 food for dinner.
________________________________________________________________________________ hospital, there were three of them!”
did not find a fire.
____________________________________________________________________________
Miguel’s mother got home late. She had to “Great work, Dad,” Ty said.

To identify facts and opinions as you work until 10:00. She said her arms were really tired. The woman had a baby.
____________________________________________________________________
43
read, remember: Fact & Opinion
She directed traffic for six hours that day! _________________________________________________________________
Text Marks
l A fact is a statement that can be proved
Miguel’s mother had to direct traffic
________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
to be true.
Circle a fact.
because the stoplights didn’t work
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________
Name ________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________ Date _________
l An opinion is a statement of someone’s Underline an opinion.
personal belief or feeling. without electricity.
Box the____________________________________________________________________________
signal word.
l Signal words, such as believe, think, feel, Fact & Opinion • Healthy Habits • 2 Fact & Opinion • Healthy Habits • 3
and unfair help you recognize an opinion.
44

Read “Snack Attack.” Read “Feeling Fit.” Read “Milk or Soda?”


Identify facts and opinions. Identify facts and opinions. Identify facts and opinions.
Then mark the text. Then mark the text. Then mark the text.
LESSON 10 PAGE 47 LESSON 10 PAGE 48 LESSON 10 PAGE 49

Snack Attack Feeling Fit Milk or Soda?


Mark the Text Mark the Text Mark
Many kids think cookies are the best snack. Identify factsFitness
and is a hot topic. How do kids feel What
Identify facts andwe drink is as important as what we eat. Identify fa
opinions. opinions. opinions.
They want them every day after school. Many parents about it? Should they exercise more? Some kids Drinks can be good for you or bad for you. They can
Circle two facts. Circle three facts. Cir
do not agree. They believe that fruit is a better snack. say no. They believe they are fit enough. At home, be full of vitamins or full of calories.
Underline two Underline two Un
They buy apples for snacks. opinions.
they watch TV. Or, they play on the computer. On opinions.
Some kids believe that milk is a great drink. opi
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Box the signal Box the signal Bo


A cookie can have about 140 calories. That average, kids watch about 28 hours of TV every week. They like to have it with peanut butter and jelly
words. words. wo
is a lot for one snack. An apple has 60 calories. It If you add on computers and cell phones, it’s 53 sandwiches. Milk has several vitamins and calcium.

also has vitamins B and C. Which snack do you think hours a week. Calcium is a mineral that builds strong bones. Other

is better? Other kids think that more exercise is better. kids think soda tastes better. Soda doesn’t have any

They play sports after school. They walk, ride their vitamins. A can of soda has about 150 calories, all of

bikes, or run. Many doctors tell their kid patients to them from sugar.
47
get about 60 minutes of exercise every day. They What is your choice? Do you like milk or

believe in fitness first. soda better?

What about you? Are you feeling fit?

48

62
To understand the meaning of unfamiliar
Context Clues
words as you read, remember:
Text Marks
l An unfamiliar word is a word that you Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________
Name ________________________________________________ Date _________
don’t know the meaning of. Circle the unfamiliar word.

l
•3
l
sentences that can reveal the meaning of
the unfamiliar word. Read “The Chinese Calendar.” Use context clues to figure out
Read “A Dragon Parade.” Use context clues to figure out
the meaning of an unfamiliar word and mark the text. the meaning of an unfamiliar word and mark the text.
LESSON 11 PAGE
Read “Celebrate 51 Year.” Use context clues to figure
the New LESSON
out 11 PAGE 52 LESSON 11 PAGE 53
the meaning of an unfamiliar word and mark the text.
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Celebrate the New Year The Chinese Calendar A Dragon Parade


Mark the Text Mark the Text Mark
People celebrate the Chinese New Year all Use contextWhen
clues tois the Chinese New Year? It is not on Use contextMany U.S. cities celebrate the Chinese New
clues to Use conte
figure out the meaning figure out the meaning figure out
around the world. What do they do? Families give January 1. In fact, it changes each year. The Chinese
of the word symbol. of the word lunar. colorful parades through the streets.
Year. They have of the wor

each other red and gold envelopes. The envelopes NewCircle


Yearthe
begins
word on the first full moon of a new year. San Francisco has the biggest parade. It is over two
Circle the word Circ
symbol. lunar. vivid
contain gifts of money. The color red is a symbol for The Chinese calendar is a lunar calendar. It is based and a half miles long. What does the parade look
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading: Grades 2-3 © Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Underline context Underline context Und


happiness. The color gold stands for wealth. Before clues.the moon circles the Earth.
on how like? clues.
School children dress up to march in the parade. clue

Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources
the New Year, families sweep their houses. They 0 Write the meaning
There are 12 different years in the Chinese
of the word
0 Write the meaning
They wear vivid costumes of bright colors like red
of the word lunar
0 Writ
of th
symbol on on the lines. on t
sweep out all the bad luck. Best of all, everyone goes calendar. They are all named after animals. The first and yellow. There are bands, floats, and firecrackers.
the lines.
Name ________________________________________________ Date ______________________
to a Chinese New Year’s parade. year is the Year of the Rat. Other years are named There are lion dancers and big puppets.

A symbol is a thing that stands for after the ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse,
________________________________________________________________________________ The Golden Dragon is a crowd favorite.
Author’s
something else.Purpose • Alaska and Hawaii • 1sheep, monkey, rooster, dog, and pig. The animal
____________________________________________________________________________ People break out in cheers when they see it. The

years always go in the same order. When one cycle Dragon is over 250 feet long! One hundred men
____________________________________________________________________________
To help you figure out the author’s of years is done, another51starts. Do you know which and women carry it. They are members of a
Author’s Purpose
purpose as you read, remember:
Text Marks year were you born in? martial arts school. They need to be strong to carry
l The author’s purpose is the reason why
Lunar means having to do with the moon. the huge dragon.
________________________________________________________________________________
the author is writing something. Check the author’s purpose

l The author’s purpose can be to inform, to o ___________________________________________________________________


to ____________________________________________________________________________
inform
Vivid means bright and strongly colored.
Name ________________________________________________ Name ________________________________________________
Date ______________________ Date ________
persuade, or to entertain. o to persuade _______________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
l Text clues are words or sentences that o to entertain
_______________________________________________________________
reveal the author’s purpose. Author’s Purpose • Alaska and Hawaii • 2 Author’s Purpose • Alaska and Hawaii • 3
Underline text clues.

52

Read “Our Two Newest States.” Identify the author’s Read “The Biggest State” and “Ride the Whale Watcher.” Identify
Read “Visit a Volcano!” and “Under the Sea.” Identify the
purpose and mark the text. the author’s purpose for each reading. Then mark the text.
LESSON 12 PAGE 55 author’s purpose
LESSON 12 PAGE for each
56 reading. Then mark the text. LESSON 12 PAGE 57

Our Two Newest States Visit a Volcano! The Biggest State


Mark the Text
Alaska and Hawaii are new states. They joined 1 the author’s
Identify Do you want a red-hot vacation? Come see 1 Alaska is the biggest state of all. It is over

the U.S.A. in 1959. The two states are special. Neither


purpose. Mark thesize
Text Mark
Hawaii with Top Tours. Hawaii has the most active twice the of Texas. Alaska is about 1,400 miles
Check the 1 Id
one is part of the U.S. mainland. Hawaii is in the author’s Identify
1long. the
It is 2,700 miles wide. Everything in this state
volcano inpurpose
the world. Our volcano tour explodes with a
author’s purpose.
middle of the Pacific Ocean. It is a chain of islands fun.oYou can see black sand beaches. You can walk
to inform is big. Most of the highest mountains in the country C
Check the
o to persuade a
made by volcanoes. Alaska stretches north of the
across lava fields. You might even see red-hot lava. are author’s purpose
here. Denali is the largest national park in
Arctic Circle. Much of it is covered by snow and ice.
o to entertain o to inform o
Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

the country. You can see some really big grizzly


Text-Marking Lessons for Active Nonfiction Reading Grades 2–3 © 2012 by Judith Bauer Stamper, Scholastic Teaching Resources

CallUnderline
us today!
The two states are famous for their sights.
3
examples of text o to persuade o to persuade o
clues for the
bears there!
o to entertaino to inform o
Under the Sea
o to inform
purpose.
Underline 2 U
Ride the Whale Watcher
examples of text ex
cl
2 Today, we went to Hanauma Bay on the clues.

island of Oahu. It is famous


55 for its tropical fish. Dad 2 2 Identify
Aretheyou planning a trip to Alaska? Don’t 2 Id
author’s purpose. a
rented snorkeling gear for us. We put on goggles and forget to see the whales! Take the best trip ever
Check the C
on one of our
author’s Whale Watcher boats. In the spring,
purpose a
flippers. We fastened our breathing tubes. Then we
o see
you’ll to inform
gray whales. In the summer, you can spot o
dove into the water.
o to persuade o
Wow! Fish were all around us. We saw red, humpback whales and orcas, or killer whales. See an