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fluids

2 courses

1

Non-Newtonian fluids

Types of non-Newtonian fluids

this law.

Therefore, For non-Newtonian fluids,

is not linear through the origin.

2

Types of Non-Newtonian fluids

Time independent fluids

Shear stress is independent of time or

duration of shear.

Time dependent fluids

Shear stress is dependent of time or

duration of shear.

3

Time independent fluids

In time-independent fluids, the shear stress is independent of duration of shear.

rx 0

dr

4

Time independent fluids

2. Pseudoplastic fluids.

n Notice:

dv

K n 1 For Newtonian fluids, n = 1

dr and K =

K: consistency index And n: flow behavior index

5

Time independent fluids

3. Dilatant fluids.

starch in water.

n

dv

K n 1

dr

Laminar Flow of Power Law Fluid

Power Law Model:

dvz

n L

rz K

Combined

p 2 rz

dr r

1 p 1 n

1n

dvz

r

dr 2 KL

B.C.: At r R vz 0

7

By Integrating and Applying B.C.:

1 p n

1n n 1 n 1

vz R n

r n

2 KL n 1

1/ n

n p0 pL

The Average

vx av 0

R n 1/ n

velocity is:

3n 1 2 KL

8

Velocity profiles for non-Newtonian fluids

At the center of the pipe (r = 0), the velocity is maximum (vx = vx max)

n p0 pL

1/ n

n 1/ n

r n 1/ n

vx v x max 1

R

vx max R

n 1 2 KL

0

0

n 1 / n

vx 3n 1 r

1

vx av

Describe figure 3.5-4

n 1 R0

9

the generalized Reynolds number is

defined as:

D nV 2n D nV 2n D nV 2 n

N Re, gen

K 8 n1

n 1 3n 1

n

K8

4 n

n n

3n 1

n

K K

4n

10

Laminar Flow of Time-Independent Non-Newtonian

Fluids

3. Friction factor method

An alternative way of calculating the pressure drop due to friction is to use the Fanning

factor method, as in section 2.10 for Newtonian fluids, but using the generalized Reynolds

number:

16

f

N Re, gen

L v 2

p f 4 f SI system

D 2

L v 2

p f 4 f English system

D 2 gc

11 Example 3.5.1

Friction Losses in Contractions, Expansions and Fittings

in Laminar Flow

Since non-Newtonian power law fluids flowing in conduits are often in laminar flow

because of their highly effective viscosity, losses in sudden changes of velocity and fittings

are important in laminar flow.

The kinetic energy term in the total Mechanical Energy Balance equation is:

V2

Average kinetic energy/kg

2

For Newtonian fluids: = ½ for laminar flow.

(2n 1)(5n 3)

For power-law non-Newtonian fluids:

3(3n 1) 2

12

Friction Losses in Contractions, Expansions and Fittings

in Laminar Flow

2. Losses in contractions and fittings

The frictional pressure losses for pseudoplastic and Bingham plastic fluids are very similar

to those for Newtonian fluids at the same NRe, gen in laminar and turbulent flow.

2

J

hc 0.551 Kc

equation:

A1 2 2 kg

With = 1 for turbulent flow and calculated in term of n for laminar flow

2

J

remains applicable:

hf K f

2 kg

For Kf use values from table 2-10-1.

13

Friction Losses in Contractions, Expansions and Fittings

in Laminar Flow

2. Losses in sudden expansion

For a non-Newtonian fluid, the friction loss in laminar flow through a sudden expansion

from D1 to D2 diameter, Skelland gives:

3n 1 2 n 3 D1 D1 33n 1

4 2

hex V1

2n 1 25n 3 D2 D2 25n 3

14

Turbulent flow and generalized friction factors

In turbulent flow of time independent fluids the Reynolds number at which turbulent flow

occurs varies with the flow properties of the non-Newtonian fluid.

L v 2

p f 4 f

D 2

In figure 3.5-3, for different values of n’, the fanning friction factor f is plotted versus the

generalized Reynolds number for non-Newtonian fluids flowing through a smooth, round

tubes.

15

Turbulent flow and generalized friction factors

16

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