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Non-Newtonian

fluids

2 courses

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Non-Newtonian fluids
Types of non-Newtonian fluids

 Newtonian fluids are fluids which follow Newton’s law:    

 Non-Newtonian fluids do not follow

this law. 
 Therefore, For non-Newtonian fluids,

the plot of the shear stress vs. shear rate



is not linear through the origin.

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Types of Non-Newtonian fluids
Time independent fluids
Shear stress is independent of time or
duration of shear.
Time dependent fluids
Shear stress is dependent of time or
duration of shear.

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Time independent fluids
In time-independent fluids, the shear stress is independent of duration of shear.

 Linear as Newtonian fluids BUT does

not go through the origin.

 A finite shear stress (yield stress)

is needed to initiate flow.

 Examples :tooth past, soap, greases,

and chocolate mixtures.

 Follow the eqn.:  dvx 


 rx   0     
 dr 
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Time independent fluids
2. Pseudoplastic fluids.

 The majority of non-Newtonian fluids

are in this category such as polymer melts,

mayonnaise and paints

 Their apparent viscosities decrease with

increasing shear rate.

 Represented by a power-law eq.:


n Notice:
 dv 
  K  n  1 For Newtonian fluids, n = 1
 dr  and K = 
K: consistency index And n: flow behavior index

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Time independent fluids
3. Dilatant fluids.

 Less common than pseudoplastic fluids.

Examples are corn flour-sugar solutions,

starch in water.

 Their apparent viscosities increase with

increasing shear rate.

 Represented by the same power-law eq.:


n
 dv 
  K  n  1
 dr 
Laminar Flow of Power Law Fluid

Hagen – Poiseuille Eq.:


Power Law Model:

 dvz 
n L
 rz  K   
Combined
p  2  rz
 dr  r
 1 p  1 n
1n
dvz
   r
dr  2 KL 
B.C.: At r  R  vz  0
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By Integrating and Applying B.C.:

 1 p   n   
1n n 1 n 1
vz      R n
r n

 2 KL   n  1   
1/ n
 n  p0  pL 
The Average
vx av     0
R n 1/ n
velocity is:
 3n  1  2 KL 

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Velocity profiles for non-Newtonian fluids
At the center of the pipe (r = 0), the velocity is maximum (vx = vx max)

n  p0  pL 
1/ n
n 1/ n
  r n 1/ n 
  vx  v x max 1  
 R 
vx max   R 
n  1  2 KL 
0

  0  

n 1 / n
vx 3n  1   r  
 1    
vx av
Describe figure 3.5-4
n  1   R0  

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the generalized Reynolds number is
defined as:
D nV 2n  D nV 2n  D nV 2 n 
N Re, gen   
 K 8 n1
n 1  3n  1 
n

K8  
 4 n 

n  n
3n  1 
n

K  K 
 4n 

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Laminar Flow of Time-Independent Non-Newtonian
Fluids
3. Friction factor method

An alternative way of calculating the pressure drop due to friction is to use the Fanning
factor method, as in section 2.10 for Newtonian fluids, but using the generalized Reynolds
number:

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f 
N Re, gen

L v 2
p f  4 f SI system
D 2

L v 2
p f  4 f English system
D 2 gc

11  Example 3.5.1
Friction Losses in Contractions, Expansions and Fittings
in Laminar Flow
Since non-Newtonian power law fluids flowing in conduits are often in laminar flow
because of their highly effective viscosity, losses in sudden changes of velocity and fittings
are important in laminar flow.

1. Kinetic energy in laminar flow

The kinetic energy term in the total Mechanical Energy Balance equation is:

V2
Average kinetic energy/kg 
2
For Newtonian fluids:  = ½ for laminar flow.

(2n  1)(5n  3)
For power-law non-Newtonian fluids: 
3(3n  1) 2

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Friction Losses in Contractions, Expansions and Fittings
in Laminar Flow
2. Losses in contractions and fittings

The frictional pressure losses for pseudoplastic and Bingham plastic fluids are very similar
to those for Newtonian fluids at the same NRe, gen in laminar and turbulent flow.

So, for contractions, we can use the  A2  v2 2 v2


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 J 
hc  0.551    Kc  
equation:
 A1  2 2  kg 
With  = 1 for turbulent flow and calculated in term of n for laminar flow

As well as, for fittings and valves, the previous equation v1


2
 J 
remains applicable:
hf  K f  
2  kg 
For Kf use values from table 2-10-1.
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Friction Losses in Contractions, Expansions and Fittings
in Laminar Flow
2. Losses in sudden expansion

For a non-Newtonian fluid, the friction loss in laminar flow through a sudden expansion
from D1 to D2 diameter, Skelland gives:

3n  1 2 n  3  D1   D1  33n  1 
 4 2

hex  V1        
2n  1  25n  3  D2   D2  25n  3
 

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Turbulent flow and generalized friction factors
In turbulent flow of time independent fluids the Reynolds number at which turbulent flow
occurs varies with the flow properties of the non-Newtonian fluid.

L v 2
p f  4 f 
D 2

In figure 3.5-3, for different values of n’, the fanning friction factor f is plotted versus the
generalized Reynolds number for non-Newtonian fluids flowing through a smooth, round
tubes.

Describe the figure 3.5-3 and see example 3.5-2

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Turbulent flow and generalized friction factors

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