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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHIP

STYLES AND TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL


CULTURE IN ORANGE AND UMNIAH
TELECOMMUNICATION COMPANIES
IN JORDAN: A COMPARATIVE RESEARCH

By

Hamza Mohammad Saleh AL-Elaumi

A Thesis Submitted in

Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the Degree of

Master of Business Administration

At

University of Petra

Amman-Jordan

March 2014
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHIP STYLES
AND TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
IN ORANGE AND UMNIAH TELECOMMUNICATION
COMPANIES IN JORDAN:
A COMPARATIVE RESEARCH

by

Hamza Mohammad Saleh AL-Elaumi

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Master of Business Administration

at

University of Petra,

Amman-Jordan

March 2014

Major Supervisor Signature

Prof. Hala Abdulqader ---------------------

Examination Committee
Name Signature

1. Prof. Najem Al-Azawi ----------------------

2. Dr. Musa Khair Eddin ----------------------

3. Dr. Abdel-Aziz Al-Nedawi ----------------------


II
ABSTRACT

The Relationship between Leadership Styles and Types of Organizational


Culture in Orange and Umniah Telecommunication Companies
In Jordan: A Comparative Research
by
Hamza Mohammad Saleh AL-Elaumi
University of Petra, 2014
Under the Supervision of Prof. Hala Abdulqader

This research aims to examine the relationship between leadership styles and

organizational culture in the Orange and Umniah telecommunication companies in

Jordan. It also aims to investigate and compare between the leadership styles and types of

culture in these companies. To achieve these objectives a random stratified sample of

(265) employees working at Orange and Umniah companies in Amman/Jordan, was

chosen. Leadership styles were measured by means of Burke (1983) instrument which

measures the transformational and transactional styles of leadership. Organizational

culture was measured by means of Harrison and Stokes (1992) “Diagnosing

Organizational Culture” instrument which measures four types of organizational culture:

power, role, achievement, and support.

The Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to test hypotheses and

analyze the research data. Results revealed the following:

1. There is no significant difference between the transactional and transformational

leadership styles at Orange Company. Mean scores show, however, that

transactional style was higher than the transformational in Orange company.

2. There is significant difference between the transformational and transactional

style at Umniah Company. The leadership style tends to be transformational style

than transactional style.


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3. There is significant evidence that the prevailing type of organizational culture at

orange is achievement culture and at Umniah is role followed by achievement

culture.

4. There is no significant difference between Orange and Umniah companies in

power and achievement cultures.

5. There is significant evidence that there are differences between the two

companies in role and support cultures. Meanwhile Umniah is higher than Orange

in role culture, Orange is higher than Umniah in support culture.

6. There is no significant evidence of the relationship between leadership styles and

types of organizational culture at both Orange and Umniah companies.

7. There is no significant evidence of the relationship between leadership styles and

types of organizational culture at Orange Company.

8. There is no significant evidence of the relationship between leadership styles and

types of organizational culture at Umniah Company.

9. There is no significant evidence regarding the differences between leadership

styles and organizational culture types between Orange and Umniah companies.

Key words: Leadership styles, Organizational culture, telecommunication companies,


Orange, Umniah, Jordan.

Major Professor
Prof. Hala Abdulqadr
Signature
Date

IV
‫العالقة بين أنماط القيادة وأنواع الثقافة التنظيمية في شركتي أورانج وأمنية‬
‫لالتصاالت في األردن‪ :‬بحث مقارن‬
‫ملخص‬
‫يهدف هذا البحث إلى اختبار وتحليل العالقة بين أنماط القيادة وأنواع الثقافة التنظيمية في شركتي أورانج‬

‫وأمنية لالتصاالت السلكية والالسلكية في األردن‪ .‬كما يهدف إلى إجراء مقارنة فيما بين هاتين الشركتين‬

‫بهدف التحقق من أوجه الشبه وأوجه االختالف بين أنماط القيادة وأنواع الثقافة السائدة في هاتين الشركتين‪.‬‬

‫لتحقيق هذه األهداف تم اختيارعينة عشوائية طبقية مؤلفة من (‪ )562‬موظفا ً ممن يعملون في المركز‬

‫الرئيسي لشركتي أورانج وأمنية في مدينة عمان‪/‬األردن‪ .‬لقياس أنماط القيادة تم استخدام استبانة ورنر بيرك‬

‫(‪ )3891‬والتي تقيس نمطي القيادة التحويلية والتبادلية‪ .‬ولقياس أنواع الثقافة التنظيمية تم استخدام استبانة‬

‫هاريسون وستوكس(‪) 3885‬المعنونة "تشخيص الثقافة التنظيمية" والتي تقيس أربعة أنواع للثقافة التنظيمية‪:‬‬

‫السلطة‪ ،‬والدور‪ ،‬واإلنجاز والدعم‪.‬‬

‫إلختبار الفرضيات وتحليل البيانات تم استخدام الحزمة اإلحصائية للعلوم االجتماعية ( ‪.)SPSS‬‬
‫بينت نتائج البحث ما يلي ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .3‬رغم عدم توفر داللة احصائية عن وجود فروقات فيما بين نمطي القيادة التبادلية والتحويلية في‬

‫شركة أورانج إال أن قيمة الوسط الحسابي للنمط التبادلي هي أعلى من النمط التحويلي‪.‬‬

‫‪ .5‬هناك داللة احصائية بأن نمط القيادة السائد في شركة أمنية هو النمط التحويلي‪.‬‬

‫‪ .1‬هناك داللة احصائية بأن الثقافة التنظيمية السائدة في شركة أورانج هي ثقافة اإلنجاز والثقافة السائدة‬

‫في شركة أمنية هي ثقافة الدور وتليها ثقافة االنجاز‪.‬‬

‫‪ .4‬ليس هناك داللة احصائية على وجود فروقات فيما بين شركتي أورانج وأمنية في ثقافة السلطة‬

‫وثقافة اإلنجاز‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬هناك داللة احصائية على وجود فروقات فيما بين الشركتين في ثقافة الدور وثقافة الدعم‪ .‬حيث أمنية‬

‫أعلى من أورانج في ثقافة الدور وأورانج أعلى من أمنية في ثقافة الدعم‪.‬‬

‫‪V‬‬
‫‪ .6‬ليس هناك داللة احصائية على وجود عالقة فيما بين نمطي القيادة التبادلية والتحويلية وأنواع الثقافة‬

‫التنظيمية في شركتي أورانج وأمنية‪.‬‬

‫‪ .7‬ليس هناك داللة احصائية على وجود عالقة بين نمطي القيادة التبادلية والتحويلية وأنواع الثقافة‬

‫التنظيمية في شركة أورانج‪.‬‬

‫‪ .9‬ليس هناك داللة احصائية على وجود عالقة فيما بين نمطي القيادة التبادلية والتحويلية وأنواع الثقافة‬

‫التنظيمية في شركة أمنية‪.‬‬

‫‪ .8‬ليس هناك داللة احصائية على وجود فروقات فيما بين نمطي القيادة التبادلية والتحويلية وأنواع‬

‫الثثافة التنظيمية في شركتي أورانج وأمنية‪.‬‬

‫الكلمات الدالة‪ :‬أنماط القيادة‪ ،‬الثقافة التنظيمية‪ ،‬شركات االتصاالت السلكية‪ ،‬أورانج‪ ،‬أمنية‪ ،‬األردن‪.‬‬

‫‪VI‬‬
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to thank everyone who helped me in the accomplishment of this research,

starting with my research supervisor Prof. Hala Abdulqader, who guided me all through

this research till it is completed.

My gratitude also goes to everyone who dedicated some of his time to help me go

through the process of finalizing this thesis. To all the friends who helped through this

process till it is finally materialized.

I also acknowledge my brothers, and sister for their encouragement and support. Finally

my deepest gratitude goes to my parents for their dedication and many years of support,

and being the ultimate educators in my life, I credit them for being the foundation that

has allowed me to pursue and have me being able to achieve my goals.

Hamza Mohammad Saleh AL-Elaumi

Date: March 2014

VII
AUTHORIZATION

I, Hamza Mohammad Saleh AL-Elaumi, authorize the University of Petra to supply

copies of my research to libraries or establishment or individuals whenever is required.

Signature

Hamza Mohammad Saleh AL-Elaumi

Date: March 2014

VIII
TABLE OF CONTENTS

III
ABSTRACT IN ENGLISH
V
ABSTRACT IN ARABIC
VII
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
VIII
AUTHORIZATION FORM
IX
TABLE OF CONTENTS
XIV
LIST OF TABLES
XVI
LIST OF FIGURES

CAHAPTER I
1
INTRODUCTION, SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Context and Scope Of The Research 3

1.3 Problem Statement 4

1.4 Significance Of The Research 4

1.5 Research Objectives 4

1.6 Research Questions 5

1.7 Definition Of Terms 6

1.7.1 Leadership 6

1.7.2 Transformational Leadership 7

1.7.3 Transactional Leadership 7

1.7.4 Culture 7

1.7.5 Organizational culture 8


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1.7.6 Power Culture 8

1.7.7 Role Culture 9

1.7.8 Achievement Culture 9

1.7.9 Support Culture 9

1.8 Research Hypotheses 10

1.9 Limitations Of The Research 11

1.10 Methodological Framework of the research 13

CHAPTER II 14
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND PREVIOUS
STUDIES

2.1 Introduction 14

2.2 Literature Review 16

2.2.1 Development of Leadership Theories 16

2.2.2 Great Man Theory, Trait Theory and Behavioral Theory 17

2.2.3 Contingency Theory 21

Modern Approaches of Leadership Transformational and 22


2.2.4 Transactional Leadership

Characteristics of the Transformational And Transactional 31


2.2.5 Leadership Styles

2.2.6 Organizational Culture 34

2.2.6.1 Culture 34

2.2.6.2 Organizational Culture 36

2.2.6.3 Difference Between Organizational Culture, Corporate 40


Culture and Organizational Climate

2.2.6.4 Creating Organizational Culture 41


X
2.2.7 Types of Organizational Culture: Harrison's Typology Of 46
Organizational Culture

2.2.7.1 Power Culture Orientation 48

2.2.7.2 Role Culture Orientation 49

2.2.7.3 Achievement Culture Orientation 50

2.2.7.4 Support Culture Orientation 51

2.2.8 Leadership and Organizational Culture 55

2.2.9 Leader's Role in Creating Organizational Culture 60

2.3 Previous Studies 66

2.3.1 Arabic Studies 66

2.3.2 International Studies 74

2.4 Contribution of the Research to Knowledge 87

CHAPTER III
89
METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Methodology 89

3.2 Research Design 92

3.3 Statistical Techniques in Data Analysis 92

3.4 Population and Sample 93

3.4.1 Population 93

3.4.2 Sampling and Sampling Methods 94

3.5 Research Instrument 94

3.6 Procedure for Data Collection 96

XI
3.7 Validity and Reliability 97

3.7.1 Validity 97

3.7.2 Reliability 98

CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION OF RESULTS, DISSCUSSION AND 100
INTERPRETAION

4.1 Introduction 100

4.2 Demographic Profile of Research Sample 100

4.3 Results Pertaining to Examination of Hypotheses 1 and 2 105

4.4 Results Pertaining to Examination of Hypotheses 3 and 4 106

4.5 Results Pertaining to Examination of Hypotheses 5 and 6 108

4.6 Results Pertaining to Examination of Hypotheses 7 and 8 111

4.7 Results Pertaining to Examination of Relational Hypotheses A and B 112

4.8 Conclusion 123

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 126

5.1 Summary 126

5.2 Conclusion 128

5.3 Recommendations 131

5.4 Suggestions For Further Research 133

134
REFERENCES

XII
APPENDICES 160

APPENDIX 1 General Background Of The Research Respondents 160

APPENDIX 2 Leadership Styles Questionnaire 161

APPENDIX 3 Diagnosing Organizational Culture Questionnaire 163

XIII
LIST OF TABLES

Table Table Caption Page


No. No.
1 Development of The Major Theories Of Leadership 18

2 Questionnaires’ Response Rate at Orange and Umniah companies 94

3 Harrison and Stokes culture Measure Scale 95

4 Reliability Test of The Research Instrument 98

5 Demographic Characteristics of the Sample at Orange company 100

6 Demographic Characteristics of the Sample at Umniah company 103

7 criteria of evaluating the leadership styles and types of 105


organizational culture at Orange and Umniah companies

8 T-test to detect the difference between the leadership styles at 106


Orange and the leadership style at Umniah Companies
9 One Sample t-Test to Examine The Organizational Culture in each 107
of Orange and Umniah Companies

10 T-test, Means and Standard Deviations to detect differences in the 108


types of Organizational Culture between Orange and Umniah
Companies
11 Pearson Correlation to Examine the Relationship between 109
Leadership Styles and types of Organizational Culture At Orange
Company
12 Pearson Correlation to Examine the Relationship between 110
Leadership Styles and types of Organizational Culture At Umniah
Company
13 Independent T-Test To Examine The Differences Between 111
Leadership Styles And types of Organizational Culture Between
Orange And Umniah Companies

14 Analysis Of Variance ANOVA of The Leadership Styles In Terms Of 112


Experience

15 Analysis Of Variance ANOVA Among The Leadership Styles In Terms 113


Of Age

XIV
16 Results Of The T-Test Analysis Among The Leadership Styles In 113
Terms Of Gender

17 Analysis Of Variance ANOVA of The Leadership Styles In Terms 114


Of Educational level
18 Analysis Of Variance ANOVA of The Leadership Styles In Terms Of Job 115
level

19 Scheffe' Test of The Leader Ship Styles In Terms Of Job level 116

20 Analysis Of Variance ANOVA of The Organizational Culture In Terms 117


Of Experience

21 Scheffe' Test Among The Organizational Culture In Terms Of Experience 117

22 Analysis Of Variance ANOVA of The Organizational Culture In 118


Terms Of Age
23 Scheffe' Test of The Organizational Culture In Terms Of Age 119

24 Results Of The T-Test Analysis AMONG Organizational Culture In 120


Terms Of Gender
25 Analysis Of Variance ANOVA of The Organizational Culture In 121
Terms Of Educational level
26 Analysis Of Variance ANOVA of The Organizational Culture In Terms 122
Of Job level

27 Scheffe' Test of The Organizational Culture In Terms Of Job Level 123

XV
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No. Figure Caption Page No.


1 Methodological Framework Of The Research 15

2 Organizational culture model by Homburg and Pflesser 42


(2000)
3 Schein Organizational culture model (1985) 42

4 Handy Cultures types 47

XVI
CAHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION, SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Since the eighties of the last century, organization culture has become an important topic

of discussion among a broad audience of leaders including operational managers,

organization development, human resources, and training professionals. Culture is

considered now an important consideration for organization's strategic planning and

throughout change management initiatives (Schein, 2004)

Employees are considered the organization's most valuable capital that accomplish its

goals and success, especially in light of the new economic environment of globalization

and free trade, where employees’ qualities, attitudes and behaviors in the workplace

affect the organizational success. Therefore, it is important to analyze what factors impact

this valuable capital and how they act to accomplish the organizations goals.

People communicate with each other using various ways like verbal or written words,

actions, or expressions in order to convey a message. Humans do not depend only on the

face-to-face communication, but also on the means of communications that bridge the

gap between people in mere seconds across vast distances. Every house and company are

now reached by the telecommunication facilities that makes life faster and minimize the

pace transfer. People become closer and knowledge has become available in every place.

Telecommunication sector is a growing trade in the world and in Jordan. When an

organization is in its infancy stage where the primary purpose and structure are being

1
developed, there is usually no organizational culture. At the point of staffing the

organization, the founder establishes the expectations that will govern the business.

While leadership may influence organizational culture, organizational culture can also

influence leadership behavior, although the most effective type of leadership can be

debated; creating organizational change requires leadership changing the organizational

culture (Lakomski, 2001).

Schein (1992) found that leaders are largely responsible for creating, developing,

maintaining, and destroying culture, and must come to recognize both the importance of

organizational culture, and their own ability to shape it in order to foster an

organizational culture; that yields high performance and efficiency overall. Leadership

and culture are intertwined and are best examined as if they were two sides of one coin.

The impact of culture will reflected on the employee's behavior and influences them

toward achieving the required goals of the organization, and that’s needed for the

telecommunication sector in order to move forward in the continuous development. The

telecommunication sector considered one of the most growing sector in the world and in

Jordan it upstream to the state treasury and supportive of the national economy. The

percentage contribution of this sector to gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008 accounted

for 14.3% (Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation).

As the researcher has an interest to explore the degree that leaders play in designing their

organizational culture in this sector, this research is a contribution to examine this notion

at two telecommunication companies in Jordan Orange and Umniah.

2
1.2 Context and Scope Of The Research

This research examines the relationship between leadership styles (transformational

leadership style, transactional leadership style), and the types of organizational culture

(power, role, support, achievement), In Orange and Umniah telecommunication

companies operating in Jordan. It also examines if there are significance differences

between these two companies in their leadership styles and types of organizational

culture.

The researcher adopts both qualitative and quantitative approaches to achieve the

objectives of the research. The qualitative approach focuses on reviewing the available

literature, and quantitative approach is followed to collect data about the leadership styles

and existing organizational culture by means of scientific questionnaire, from employees

working in Orange and Umniah companies. Leadership style is measured by the field-test

questionnaire developed by (W. Warner Burke 1983, as cited in Schermerhorn, 2002).

The organizational culture is measured by Harrison and Stokes (1992) instrument entitled

'Diagnosing Organizational Culture'. The researcher believes that utilizing an

international and previously tested questionnaire design to collect the data, is an efficient

way that will support the results of the research.

The sample consisted of employees working at the head offices of Orange and Umniah

companies within the greater Amman municipality-Jordan.

The research offers a method that can be used by the managers to compare their

leadership style with their organizational culture.

3
1.3 Problem Statement

Different research has discussed leadership styles on one hand and organizational culture

on the other hand, although some the research is being conducted on the leadership styles

alone and organizational culture alone, little researches focused on examining the relation

between the leadership styles and the organizational culture. Moreover, as

telecommunication companies operate in dynamic environment that need special

leadership style and organizational culture, little research, however, has examined the

topic in telecommunication companies and more specifically in Jordan.

1.4 Significance of the Research

Management scholars and researchers are becoming more interested in learning more

about the relation between the leadership styles and types of organizational culture in

order to enhance employees’ motivation and organization performance. However,

although most of the researches focused on the topic in the developed countries, little is

being produced in the developing countries and specifically in the Arab world. Hence,

this research highlights the impact of leadership styles on the organizational culture in an

Arab country, namely Jordan. Hence, it is hoped that the research will be a staring base,

for those who are eager to expand the topic and do similar research on other sectors in

Jordan or in other countries of the region.

1.5 Research Objectives

This research aims to achieve the following objectives:

1.5.1 To investigate the leadership styles in the Orange and Umniah

telecommunication companies in Jordan.

4
1.5.2 To examine the types of organizational culture in the Orange and Umniah

telecommunication companies in Jordan.

1.5.3 To analyze the relationship between leadership styles and organizational

culture in the Orange and Umniah telecommunication companies in Jordan.

1.5.4 To find out if there are significant differences in the leadership styles and

types of organizational culture between Orange and Umniah telecommunication

companies in Jordan.

1.5.5 To investigate if there is significant statistical evidence among respondents

from Orange and Umniah companies with regard to their perception of the

leadership style (transformational and transactional) and types of organizational

culture according to their (experience, age, gender, educational level, and job

level)?

1.6 Research Questions

1. Is there significant relationship between the leadership styles and the types of

organizational culture in Orange and Umniah telecommunication companies?

2. What is the existing leadership style in Orange and Umniah companies?

3. What is the type of organizational culture in Orange and Umniah companies?

4. Is there significant difference between the leadership style of Orange company

and the leadership style of Umniah company?

5. Is there significant difference between the existing type of organizational culture

at Orange company and the existing type of organizational culture at Umniah

company?

5
6. Is there significant relationship between the leadership style and the existing type

of organizational culture at Orange company?

7. Is there significant relationship between the leadership style and the existing type

of organizational culture at Umniah company?

8. Are there significant differences among the members of the research sample with

regard to their perception of the leadership styles (transformational and

transactional) according to their demographic variables of(experience, age,

gender, educational level, and job level?)

9. Are there significant differences among the members of the research sample with

regard to their perception of the organizational culture (power, role, achievement,

and support) according to their demographic variables (experience, age, gender,

educational level, and job level)?

1.7 Definition of Terms

1.7.1 Leadership

Bass (1990b: 4), described leadership as a “universal phenomenon”, and defined it as "an

interaction between two or more members of a group that often involves a structuring or

restructuring of the situation and the perception and expectations of the members".

Leaders are agents of change persons whose acts affect other people more than other

people’s acts affect them. Leadership occurs when one group member modifies the

motivation or competencies of others in the group. Howard (2005: 385) has also defined

leadership as the “process of communication (verbal and non verbal) that involves

coaching, motivating/inspiring, directing/guiding, and supporting/counseling others, this

result in the timely production of predetermined organization goals”.

6
1.7.2 Transformational leadership

Burns (1978) was the first one who defined transformational leadership as an attempt to

stimulate and encourage individuals, groups and organizations to change better. Bass and

Riggio (2006:3) indicated that "a transformational leader focuses on "transforming"

others to help each other, to look out for each other, to be encouraging and harmonious,

and to look out for the organization as a whole. In this leadership, the leader enhances the

motivation, morale and performance of his follower group".

1.7.3 Transactional leadership

Aronson, (2004); Bass, (1990b); and Burns, (1978) agreed on that the basis of

transactional leadership is an exchange or quid pro quo relationship between a leader and

a follower, where each receives something of value in exchange for a particular action or

behavior. Bass and Riggio (2006) indicated that transactional leaders are considered to

concentrate on compromise, intrigue, and control; therefore they are more likely to be

seen as more inflexible, detached, and manipulative than transformational leaders.

1.7.4 Culture

Hofstede (1980) defined culture as the collective thinking of minds which creates a

difference between the members of one group from another. Schein(1986: 29) defined

culture as ‘‘the sum total of all the shared, taken-for-granted assumptions that a group has

learned throughout its history’’. Schein (1992: 12) added another definition of culture as

" a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of

external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered

valid, and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive think,

and feel in relation to those problems". Schein (1992: 19) also indicated that a culture "is

7
a set of basic tacit assumptions about how the world is and ought to be that a group of

people share and that determines their perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and to some degree

their over behavior."

1.7.5 Organizational Culture

Schein (1999) argued that organizational culture is the property of a group, and it is a

powerful, latent, and often unconscious set of forces, that determine both our individual

and collective behavior, ways of perceiving, thought patterns, and values. Van Fleet

(1991) indicated that organizational culture is the set of values, often taken for granted,

that helps people in an organization understand which actions are considered acceptable

and which are considered unacceptable. Cooke and Rousseau,(1988); King and Byers,

(2007); Zhang et al.,( 2009), argued that a commonly used definition of organizational

culture is the set of shared, taken-for-granted, implicit assumptions that a group holds and

that determine how it perceives, thinks about, and reacts to its various environments.

Mullins (1999) defined organizational culture as the collection of traditions, values,

beliefs, policies, and attitudes that constitute a pervasive context for everything one does

and thinks in an organization.

1.7.6 Power culture

Harisson and Stokes (1992) the power oriented organization is based on inequality of

access to resources. A 'resource' can be anything one person controls that another person

wants. Martin (2001) argued that the main features of a power culture in organizational

culture include: single mindedness in approach; dominated by the leader or central person

and their personality; with a lack of bureaucracy in operations.

8
1.7.7 Role Culture

Harisson and Stokes (1992) the role orientation assumes that people work most

effectively and efficiently when they have relatively simple, clearly defined,

circumscribed and measurable tasks. Clarity and precision of roles and procedures are

striven for in order to fit the parts of the organization together like a machine. Harmse

(2001) said that in the role orientation culture is that employees of an organisation are

able to allocate more energy to do their work than without the rules and structures of the

role orientation.

1.7.8 Achievement Culture

Harisson and Stokes (1992) Achievement orientation relies on self motivating strategies

and is based on competence. It also creates a high energy environment and a greater

probability of satisfying employee needs. An achievement orientated culture is one in

which employees are internally motivated. The Achievement-oriented organization

makes high demands on its people's energy and time, assuming that people actually enjoy

working at tasks which are intrinsically satisfying.

1.7.9 Support Culture

Harisson and Stokes (1992) Support culture is based on a mutual trust between the

employee and the organization, employees who work in this culture believe that they are

valued as human beings, not only served to complete the work. The support culture is

criticized for being too idealistic and humanistic. In the interest of harmony, this culture

tends towards conflict avoidance.

9
1.8 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses are formulated to reveal the leadership styles and the types of

organizational culture in the Orange and Umniah telecommunication companies in Jordan

and to recognize if specific relationships and differences exist between the leadership

styles and organizational culture in Orange and Umniah companies

Hypotheses
Null Hypothesis (Ho) 1.8.1: There is no significant difference at (α ≤ 0.05, µ=2.5) level

of significance between the leadership style of Orange company and the leadership style

of Umniah company.

Alternate Hypothesis (H1) 1.8.2: There is significant difference at (α ≤ 0.05,

µ=2.5) level of significance between the leadership style of Orange company and

the leadership style of Umniah company.

Null Hypothesis (Ho) 1.8.3: There is no significant difference between the existing type

of organizational culture at Orange company and the existing type of organizational

culture at Umniah company at (α ≤ 0.05, µ=2.5) level of significance.

Alternate Hypothesis (H1) 1.8.4: There is significant difference between the

existing type of organizational culture at Orange company and the existing type of

organizational culture at Umniah company at (α ≤ 0.05, µ=2.5) level of

significance.

Null Hypothesis (Ho) 1.8.5: There is no significant relationship between the leadership

style and types of organizational culture at Orange and Umniah companies at (α ≤ 0.05,

µ=2.5) level of significance.

10
Alternate Hypothesis (Ha) 1.8.6: There is significant relationship between the

leadership style and type of organizational culture at Orange and Umniah

companies.

Null Hypothesis (Ho) 1.8.7: There is no significant evidence at (α ≤ 0.05) regarding the

differences between leadership styles and types of organizational culture between Orange

and Umniah companies.

Alternate Hypothesis (Ha) 1.8.8: There is significant evidence at (α ≤ 0.05)

regarding the differences between leadership styles and organizational culture

types between Orange and Umniah companies.

Relational Hypotheses, these include:

Hypothesis (A):There are significant differences at(α ≤ 0.05, µ=2.5) among respondents

with regard to their perception of the leadership style (transformational and transactional)

according to experience, age, gender, educational level, and job level.

Hypothesis (B): There are significant differences at (0.05) among respondents with

regards to their perceptions of the types of the organizational culture (power, role,

achievement, and support) according to experience, age, gender, educational level, and

job level.

1.9 Limitations of the Research

1. The researcher has faced some difficulties collecting the required data from the two

studied companies as some individuals of the research sample did not fully cooperate

in completing the questionnaire.

11
2. The instruments used to examine leadership and organizational culture may have

been influenced by the subjectivity of the respondents and their individual

perceptions.

3. The findings of this research are limited to companies covered by two

telecommunication companies Orange and Umniah and the time period that this

research was conducted. The research started in January 2013 and completed in

November 2013.

4. Some of the respondents did not fill their questionnaires; this issue decreases the

response rate of the study below 50%.

12
1.10 Methodological Framework of The Research
Figure 1: Methodological Framework Of The Research

Independent Variables Dependent Variables

Leadership
IndependentStyles:
Variables: Organizational Culture:

-Power Culture
- Transactional Leadership Style -Role Culture
And -Achievement Culture
-Transformational Leadership Style
-Support Culture

Demographic variables

Experience

Age

Gender

Educational level

Job level
CHAPTER II

13
CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

AND PREVIOUS STUDIES

2.1 Introduction

In the shape, rise and diversification of the nation's values, attitudes, behaviors, and

beliefs, that lead to create what we call culture that reflects how people will behave in

each nation, all of this had managed the business environment and how people

(employees, managers, leaders) act and interact with each other inside the work

environment(Beach et.al., 2005).

Bauer and Elder (2006) Culture is the most important factor that shapes the organizations'

members attitudes, which comes at first from their heritage, values, and beliefs; they

bring it to the organization whom they work in, and affect the organization and

organization members. However, every organization has its own goals and vision which

tries to accomplish in its own way side by side with the employee's different beliefs, so

here come the role of the organization leader, specifically; the transformational leader

who offers a purpose that transcends short-term goals and focuses on higher order

intrinsic needs (Burns, 1978).

Leaders raise the bar by appealing to higher ideals and values of followers who will try to

change, manipulate and shape the organization culture (Burns, 1978). When we talk

about the values, purpose, meaning of the followers in the organization we have to

mention the leaders who strongly affect inside the organization who will shape their

values, behaviors and attitudes inside the organization. Leaders are the corner stone of the

14
organization culture, and we have to distinguish between the cultures types to know what

the dominant culture that control and reflect the people way in behaving, and through it

will be possible to judge the type of the dominant leadership style in the organizations.

The researcher has an interest in telecommunication sector, which is considered one of

the most important sectors in Jordan for many reasons. The telecommunication sector in

Jordan is growing at a very fast pace, and its infrastructure is updated constantly and

broadened (www.Wikipedia.com). Telecommunication sector in Jordan is also the most

competitive in the Middle East, which support many media include: phone, radio,

television, and the Internet. The telecommunication sector in Jordan is growing at a very

fast pace, and its infrastructure is updated constantly and broadened. Doubled the size of

returns for telecommunications and information technology within five years, of $ 450

million in 2000 to one billion dollars in 2005 and still growing (www.Wikipedia.com), it

is worth mentioning that, the telecommunication sector and information technology in

Jordan, is one of the most important sectors upstream to the state treasury and supportive

of the national economy.(Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation 2013) The

percentage contribution of this sector to GDP in 2008 accounted for 14.3%, and

estimated employment opportunities provided by the sector with 82 thousand jobs are

cumulative, which indicates the important role played by the sector in contributing to

upgrading the community career in Jordan, as well as its role in providing thousands of

jobs, where a large number of companies invested in the software development industry,

which has become a major source in the region.

15
2.2 literature review

2.2.1 Development of Leadership Theories

Chapman (2013) indicated that leadership is centrally concerned with people. Leadership

involves decisions and actions relating to all sorts of other things, but leadership is

special compared to any other role because of its unique responsibility. Leadership can be

performed with different styles. Some leaders have one style, which is right for certain,

situations and wrong for others. Some leaders can adapt and use different leadership

styles for a given situations. Adaptability of style is an increasingly significant aspect of

leadership, because the world is increasingly complex and dynamic.

Scouller and Chapman (2013) argued that leadership is a vast and important subject, yet

full of confusing ideas and terminology, open to widely different interpretations

leadership definitions and descriptions also vary enormously. Scouller and Chapman

(2013) argued that we can find leadership in every sort of work and play, and in every

sort of adventure and project, regardless of scale, and regardless of financial or official

authority. And so, given the many ways in which leadership operates, it is no surprise that

leadership is so difficult to define and describe.

Bass (1999) contended that leadership theory began with the great man theories and

continued with trait theories, situational theories, personal-situational theories,

psychoanalytic theories, political theories, humanistic theories, interaction and social

learning theories, interactive process theories, perceptual and cognitive theories, and

hybrid theories.

Parry (1999) mentioned that there are many types of leaders each having a specific sets of

characteristics, which become evident in performing their functions of leadership. For

16
example, if you were to ask ten different people what it means to be a leader, you will

more likely received ten different answers or opinions on leadership.

Bass (1999) argued that leadership is a multifaceted issue. He asserted that there are

business leaders, political leaders, and community leaders. Leadership is defined as a

process of social change; a process of persuasion by which an individual or team induces

a group to pursue objectives held by the leader or shared by the leader and his or her

followers (Gardner, 1990; Higgs, 2003). Howard (2005: 385) defined leadership as the

“process of communication (verbal and non verbal) that involves coaching,

motivating/inspiring, directing/guiding, and supporting/counseling others, this result in

the timely production of predetermined organization goals”. Daft (2005) defined

leadership as an influence relationship among leaders and followers, who intend real

changes and outcomes, that reflect their shared purposes. Leadership prevalently exists

within people and organizations. Hughes et.al., (1996) sustained that leadership has a

range of definitions, but at its simplest it is concerned with the ability to influence others

to achieve goals. There is an established literature that describes the personal attributes of

leaders, including having a big picture vision, that is effectively shared and decision

making is clear and decisive based on assessment of available information. Leaders have

a commitment to capacity building and empowering others, are respectful and

consultative but willing to make tough decisions when required.

2.2.2Great Man Theory, Trait Theory and Behavioral Theory

Rost (1999) argued that leadership a much more complex phenomenon than either the

great man or great event approaches considered. An historical review by Chemers (1997)

indicated that the first theories of leadership were introduced, from the mid-19th to early

17
20th centuries by the authors Thomas Carlyle and Francis Galton (1888). Van Wart

(2003) mentioned that in the 19th century, the basis of the predominant leadership

paradigm was the great man theory. These early leadership scholars proposed the Great

Man theory, which stated that great leaders possessed unique traits, personalities, or

characteristics that resulted in their special ability to become recognized as super leaders,

as indicated in table 1.

Table 1: Development of The Major Theories Of Leadership

Era Primary Theories Basic Description

Up to 1900 Great Man Theory Talent, heroism; one great leader influencing the
Carlyle (1860) masses.

1900-1947 Trait Theory/Behavioral Individuals' traits, talents, and skills.


Daft (1942), Spotts (1976), and
Lippitt (1938)
1948-1980s Contingency Theory Situational variables and moderators, leaders must
Fiedler (1969) address.

1978-present Transformational Leadership/ Leaders initiating change through superior charisma,


influence,
communication and culture transformation.

Transactional Leadership Leaders exchange relationship between a leader and a


follower, where each receives something of value in
Burns (1978) exchange for a particular action or behavior.
(Developed by the researcher)

Denmark (1993) argued that the ‘‘Great Man’’ theory assumed that personal attributes of

the great man ‘‘determined the course of history’’ (Denmark, 1993:344). Bass (1990)

indicated the great man was believed to have unique and exceptional features and

qualities that distinguished him from his followers. Denmark (1993) said only very few

people were thought to have such abilities, which were believed to be innate, i.e. leaders

were born with these qualities. While the trait theory focus was on the unique and

exceptional abilities and traits of certain individuals (Spotts, 1976). Originally large lists

18
of traits believed to be possessed by leaders were proposed in this theory (Spotts, 1976).

The list was distilled to include self confidence, need for achievement, the ability to have

motives to carry out an action, and self monitoring (Ellis, 1988). Once again, these traits

were thought to be inborn, and unique to leaders. While behavioral theories of leadership

do not seek inborn traits or capabilities. Rather, they look at what leaders actually do.

Behavioral theory is a big leap from trait theory, in that it assumes that leadership

capability can be learned, rather than being inherent.

Lewin and Lippitt (1938) argued that there were four main behavioral studies:

1) The University of Iowa researchers isolated three behavioral dimensions; these were

the democratic, autocratic, and laissez-faire styles. Among these dimensions, the

democratic style was believed to be most effective (Bass, 1990).

2) A study by Ohio State University in the 1940s and 1950s advanced this body of

thought, by dividing the behavioral theories into two dimensions which they termed

‘‘consideration’’ and ‘‘initiating structure’’ (Kerr et al., 1974). Consideration was

explained as being considerate of followers’ ideas and feelings. Initiating structure

referred to structuring work relationship to meet job goals.

3) The third study by the University of Michigan described ‘‘employee oriented’’ and

‘‘production oriented’’ dimensions (Kahn and Katz, 1960). The findings of the third

study concluded that, employee-oriented employers fostered high group productivity and

job satisfaction amongst their employees (Kahn and Katz, 1960).

Blake and Mouton proposed a Managerial Grid, using behavioral dimensions which

included ‘‘concern for people’’ and ‘‘concern for production’’ as the two dimensions of

assessing leadership behaviors' (Blake and Mouton, 1964). The idea that there is one best

19
leadership style was explored, and the researchers proposed that by incorporating the two

dimensions of concern for people and concern for production, the most effective way of

leading could be achieved (Blake and Mouton, 1964),in which concern for both people

and productivity is maximized. Just as committed and happy employees are needed to

produce high quality goods or services, so concern for production is considered essential

to maintain job security and a desired standard of living (Ouchi, 1981).The 'Managerial

Grid' model 1964, identified five kinds of leadership behavior with two axes concern for

people and concern for production, and the five leadership behavior as follows (review by

Scouller and Chapman, 2013):

*Country Club Style - High People: Low Task - Here the leader has a high concern for

and usually involvement with people, but a low concern for the task.

* Impoverished Style - Low People: Low Task - Here the leader has both a low concern

for people and a low concern for the task.

* Middle-of-the-Road Style - Mid People: Mid Task. This is essentially ineffectual

compromise. There is some concern for the task and, equally, some concern for people,

but we might also say there is not enough of either.

* Produce or Perish Style - Low People: High Task. Here we see a high focus on the task

with little or no concern for people. This style is often referred to as autocratic. Leaders

using this style seek to control and dominate others.

* Team Style - High People: High Task. This style combines a high concern for and

involvement in the group with a strong well-organized and communicated focus on

achieving the task.

20
2.2.3Contingency Theory

Fiedler (1969), developed an influential approach in leadership theory, the contingency

theory (Bass, 1990a), indicated that each situation necessitates a different leadership

approach, either task oriented or relationship oriented. Daft (2002: 79) indicated that

“The effectiveness of leader behavior is contingent upon organizational situations. Aptly

called contingency approaches, these theories explain the relationship between leadership

styles and effectiveness in specific situations".

There are several theories that fall under the broad heading contingency approaches

including:

1. Fiedler’s contingency model—designed to enable leaders to diagnose both leaderships

style and organizational situation with a leader's effectiveness dependent upon how well

the leader's style fits the situation.

2. Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory—premise that subordinates vary in

readiness level and thus need different leadership styles, and based upon directive and

supportive dimensions.

3. Goal-path theory—premise that the leader’s responsibility is to increase subordinates

motivation to attain personal and organizational goals by emphasizing the relationship

between the leader’s style, the subordinate’s style, and the work environment.

4. Vroom-Jago model—development-driven model that permits leaders to adopt a

participation style by answering diagnostic questions in sequence.

Daft (2008) contended that contingency theories are still embedded in contemporary

leadership theories. These look at the ways in which leaders analyze their situations and

tailor their behavior to improve effectiveness. Daft (2002) said these contingency

21
approach models assumed that, there was no one best approach to leadership, but rather

that a leader could identify the appropriate leadership style by reflecting upon the

subordinates’ capability and willingness.

2.2.4 Modern Approaches of Leadership Transformational and Transactional


Leadership
The term Transformational Leadership was introduced by Burns (1978) in his analysis of

political leaders. His conclusions centered around the differences between management

and leadership. Burns communicated the two basic concepts of "transformational" and

"transactional" leadership.

Transformational Leadership: Leaders initiating change through superior charisma,

influence, communication and culture transformation.

Transactional Leadership: Leaders exchange relationship between a leader and a

follower, where each receives something of value in exchange for a particular action or

behavior.

In the 1980s, researchers explored the concept of charismatic leadership (Bass, 1990a)

and the transactional and transforming or transformational leadership styles described by

Burns (1978).Bass (1998) later modified Burns’ (1978) theory of leadership and proposed

a model with three types, namely: transformational, transactional, and charismatic

leadership. Schein (2004) said that two leadership approaches still have merit today and

are widely used: situational and contemporary (Transformational

leadership/Transactional leadership).While Stephen and Judge (2011) described two

contemporary leadership theories charismatic leadership and transformational leadership,

charismatic leadership that states followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary

leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors, while transformational leaders
22
those who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests and who are capable of

having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers. Burns (1978) argued that

leadership at its most basic level can be categorized as transformational or transactional

in nature. Burns (1978) indicated that a transactional leader engages others in the

reciprocal activity of exchanging one thing for another (participatory/dynamic), while

Transformational leader examines and searches for the needs and motives of others

while seeking a higher agenda of needs (visionary/change agent).

Bass (1990a: 53) and Burns (1978) as cited by Harter (2003) argued that as leadership

theories evolved throughout the 20th century, but transformational leadership became

“the dominant paradigm for the study of leadership”. Burns (1978) was the first one who

defined transformational leadership as an attempt to stimulate and encourage individuals,

groups and organizations to change better. Transformational leadership looked at the

ability of leaders to be classed into different theories; researchers believed that qualities

could be learned when becoming a transformational leader. Bass (1985) was the first one

to work in this theory and incorporated this theory into business settings, which looked at

leaders who could project their vision of the future, and could inspire their employees to

perform at high levels. Transformational leaders are those who transform their followers

into becoming leaders themselves. From Wikipedia, "Transformational leadership is a

leadership approach that is defined as leadership that creates valuable and positive change

in the followers. A transformational leader focuses on "transforming" others to help each

other, to look out for each other, to be encouraging and harmonious, and to look out for

the organization as a whole. In this leadership, the leader enhances the motivation, morale

and performance of his follower group."From Bass and Riggio (2006:3),

23
"Transformational leaders are those who stimulate and inspire followers to both achieve

extraordinary outcomes and, in the process, develop their own leadership capacity.

Transformational leader's help followers grow and develop into leaders by responding to

individual followers' needs, by empowering them and by aligning the objectives and

goals of the individual followers, the leader, the group, and the larger organization.

Evidence has accumulated to demonstrate that transformational leadership can move

followers to exceed expected performance, as well as lead to high levels of follower

satisfaction and commitment to the group and organization" Bass and Riggio (2006:3).

Tichy and Devanna (1990) pointed that transformational leadership associated with

change, creativity and leadership, which transformational leadership realized by

recognizing the need for a new determination and creation of a new vision for

institutional change. The transformational leadership means the way to improve the

higher level for task request of employee so that it is available to inspire the potential

capability of employee and it shall allow subordinates with larger responsibility to

become an employee with self orientation and self enhancement capability. According to

Torpman (2004), transformational leadership is a form of new thinking in leadership

theory and practices. It moves away from using the ‘stick and carrot’ to get the job done.

Ling, et. al., (2003) argued that in companies with transformational leaders, there is

greater decentralization of responsibility, managers have more propensities to take risks,

and compensation plans are geared toward long-term results, all of which facilitate

corporate entrepreneurship. Gerome (2008) indicated that the importance of

transformational leadership behavior is highlighted here because transactional leaders

tend to follow “existing rules, procedures and norms” that may not necessarily be

24
beneficial for the future of the organization (Bass and Avolio: 112) as cited by Germore

(2008). Bass (1985) "asserted transformational leaders change cultures while

transactional leaders tend to operate within them. An illustration of this can be seen

where a transactional leader might accept what is talked about in an organization, a

transformational leader changes what people talk about. Bass further asserted that

transformational leaders invent, introduce, and moves cultural forms forward whereby

individuals develop strong identifications with the organization and its goals."Burns

(1978) and Yukl (1998), pointed that a vital concept that differentiates transformational

leadership from other leadership definitions is morality a true transformational leader

endeavors to meet both the requirements of the mission statement and the needs of

followers. This distinction is vital in understanding transformational leadership.

Carless (1998) and Yukl (1999) argued that transformational leadership style also has

numerous flaws. Mentioned that transformational leadership style lacks conceptual clarity

and that there appears to be some overlapping of factors such as idealized influence,

inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration. The

factors correlate highly with each other, implying that these factors are not separate.

Banerji and Krishnan (2000) indicated that from an ethical perspective, transformational

leadership theory holds a great promise for leaders both in the public and private sectors,

transformational leadership promotes strong ethics in leaders by motivating and up lifting

moral values in human conduct and ethical aspirations for both leaders and followers.

Podsakoff and colleagues (1990), ascertained from the literature, six key behaviors

associated with transformational leaders. Those six behaviors included (a) identify and

articulate a vision, (b) provide an appropriate model, (c) foster the acceptance of group

25
goals, (d) set high performance expectations, (e) provide individualized support and

recognize accomplishments, and (f) provide intellectual stimulation.(Avolioet al., 2004),

in the light of findings throughout the years, mentioned some characteristics of

transformational leaders can be stated as follows:

They change the core values of followers for the benefit of the common interest by

committing people and seeing them as ends not as means, they inspire followers to go

beyond their own self-interests for the good of the organization with their vision.

According to Bass and Yukl (1998), the transformational leader has the ability to:

(1) Transform his followers from the focus on personal interest into the group interest.

(2) Make their followers more aware of the importance of the result of the work.

(3) Activate the followers’ needs into higher needs.

(Aronson, 2004; Bass, 1990b; DeVore, 2006) agreed that transformational leaders have

referent and expert power and their followers perceive them as powerful role models who

can implement a shared organizational vision. Bass (2008) mentioned that the main

orientation of transformational leadership is to develop followers’ full potential into

leaders, but transactional leaders focus more on resource exchanges and on monitoring

and controlling employees through rational or economic means. Therefore, we expect

that transformational leadership would have a more positive impact on followers’

organizational identification and psychological empowerment than transactional

leadership. The researcher show that the transformational leader raises staff member’s

level of awareness and level of consciousness about the significance and value of

designated outcomes, and gets staff members to transcend their own self-interest for the

sake of the team department and organization.

26
Transactional leadership theory believed that leaders had to be more flexible to

accomplish the goals of the organization. Bass (1995) was one of the major supporters of

transactional theory, which allowed more feedback from differing levels of the

organization. Bass (1985) theoretically, transactional leadership is purported to be a less

effective form of leadership than transformational leadership. Bass and Riggio (2006)

indicated that transactional leaders are considered to concentrate on compromise,

intrigue, and control; therefore they are more likely to be seen as more inflexible,

detached, and manipulative than transformational leaders. Burns (1978) reported that

transactional leaders focused more on course work, task-oriented goals and work

standards. Additionally, transactional leaders place their energies on ensuring that

students complete assignments and comply with the demands of the organization or the

actual classroom requirements (Hinkin and Tracey, 1998; Hood, et.al., 2009). Avolio

et.al., (1999) indicated transactional leadership is based more on “exchanges” between

leaders and followers, in which followers are rewarded for meeting specific goals or

performance criteria. Aronson, (2004); Bass, (1990b); and Burns, (1978) agreed on that

the basis of transactional leadership is an exchange or quid pro quo relationship between

a leader and a follower, where each receives something of value in exchange for a

particular action or behavior. Jung (2001) discussed that rewards and positive

reinforcement are provided or mediated by the leader. Thus transactional leadership is

more practical in nature because of its emphasis on meeting specific targets or objectives.

An effective transactional leader is able to recognize and reward followers’

accomplishments in a timely way. However, subordinates of transactional leaders are not

necessarily expected to think innovatively and may be monitored on the basis of

27
predetermined criteria. Poor transactional leaders may be less likely to anticipate

problems and intervene before problems come to the fore, whereas more effective

transactional leaders take appropriate action in a timely manner. Burns (1978) also found

that in systems that subscribe to the transactional theory of leadership, for example in

classes students are rewarded for their performance on tests, assignments and projects

with a high letter grade. In a transactional system, rewards are more extrinsic and may

come in the form of positive ratings or grades or exemptions from final exams. For

example, instructors may exempt students from taking a final exam because of their

performance on assignments throughout the semester (Hood, et al., 2009). Burns’ (1978)

findings were also supported in later work by Stewart (2006) who concluded that

dedicated and successful professors in an organization that embraces transactional

leadership are often rewarded with an increase in salary, tenure, and promotion.

House et. al., (1988) argued that while the transactional leader motivates subordinates to

perform as expected, the transformational leader typically inspires followers to do more

than originally expected. Transformational leadership theories predict followers'

emotional attachment to the leader and emotional and motivational arousal of followers

as a consequence of the leader's behavior. A better understanding of transformational

leadership can follow from contrasting it with transactional leadership. Burns (1978)

argued that transactional leadership entails an exchange between leader and follower.

Followers receive certain valued outcomes (example wages, prestige) when they act

according to their leader's wishes. Taking the work of Burns as his starting point, Bass

(1985) noted that leadership in research has generally been conceptualized as a

transactional or cost-benefit exchange process. Transactional leadership theories are all

28
found on the idea that leader-follower relations are based on a series of exchanges or

implicit bargains between leaders and followers. The general notion is that, when the job

and the environment of the follower fail to provide the necessary motivation, direction,

and satisfaction, the leader, through his or her behavior, will be effective by

compensating for the deficiencies. The leader clarifies the performance criteria, in other

words what is expected from subordinates, and what they receive in return (House, et. al.,

1988).

Jung (2001) as cited by Aarons (2006) argued that transactional leadership style is

appropriate in many settings, and may support adherence to practice standards but not

necessarily openness to innovation. A transformational leadership style creates a vision

and inspires subordinates to strive beyond required expectations, whereas transactional

leadership focuses more on extrinsic motivation for the performance of job tasks. Thus it

is likely that transformational leadership would influence attitudes by inspiring

acceptance of innovation through the development of enthusiasm, trust and openness,

whereas transactional leadership would lead to acceptance of innovation through

reinforcement and reward. (Hater and Bass, 1988: 695) stated that "The dynamics of

transformational leadership involve strong personal identification with the leader, joining

in a shared vision of the future, or going beyond the self-interest exchange of rewards for

compliance". Transformational leaders broaden and elevate the interests of followers,

generate awareness and acceptance among the followers of the purposes and mission of

the group and motivate followers to go beyond their self-interests for the good of the

group (Yammarino and Bass, 1990; Burns, 1978). (Yammarino and Bass, 1990: 151)

stated that "The transformational leader articulates a realistic vision of the future that can

29
be shared, stimulates subordinates intellectually, and pays attention to the differences

among the subordinate". Tichy and Devanna (1990) highlighted the transforming impact

these leaders can have on organizations as well as on individuals. By defining the need

for change, creating new visions, mobilizing commitment to these visions, leaders can

ultimately transform the organization. According to Bass (1985) this transformation of

followers can be achieved by raising the awareness of the importance and value of

designed outcomes, getting followers to transcend their own self-interests and altering or

expanding followers' needs.

Bass (1985) disagreed with Burns’ (1978) argument that “transformational and

transactional leadership represent opposite ends of a single continuum”. Judge and

Piccolo, (2004:756) posited good transformational leaders can occasionally engage in

transactional exchange activities, a position shared by Felfe and Schyns (2004). Hallinger

(2003:338) initially emphasized the dichotomy between transactional and

transformational leadership based on top-down and bottom-up participation and on the

nature of leader follower relationships, he finally concluded “effective leadership requires

both transactional and transformational elements”. Judge and Piccolo added that

transformational leadership augments transactional leadership, known as the

augmentation effect. The researcher show that the transactional leader recognizes what it

is that staff members want to get from work and tries to ensure that they get it, and

exchanges rewards and promises for staff member’s efforts.

Smith et.al., (2004) argued that the transformational leadership model was proven to be

an effective form of leadership. Duckett and Macfariane (2003) confirmed that

transformational leadership has consistently been shown to be superior to transactional

30
leadership with respect to criteria such as trust and respect for those who are being led.

Also Aronson, (2004); Bass,(1990b); and Jaskyte, (2004),said that the literature indicated

transformational leaders take a step further than transactional leaders to gain the trust of

their followers, to engage them in the decision making process, and to create a shared

vision.

Bass and Avolio (1993:121) revealed that descriptors for both transactional and

transformational culture can be formulated, however most organizational culture

demonstrates characteristics from both. It is the belief of Bass and Avolio that

organizations should move toward obtaining transformational qualities in their

environment but on the other hand should maintain transactional qualities. The researcher

finds that the organizations have to mix between the transformational leadership and the

transactional leadership according to the situation.

2.2.5Characteristics Of The Transformational And Transactional Leadership

styles

Bass and Avolio (1993) mentioned that transformational leaders have been characterized

by four separate components, or characteristics denoted as the four factors(four I's) of

transformational leadership (Avolio et.al., 1991). These four factors include idealized

influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized

consideration. Transformational leaders integrate creative insight, persistence and energy,

intuition and sensitivity to the needs of others to "forge the strategy culture alloy" for

their organizations. In contrast, transactional leaders are characterized by contingent

reward and management-by exception styles of leadership. Essentially, transactional

leaders develop exchanges or agreements with their followers, pointing out what the

31
followers will receive if they do something right as well as wrong. They work within the

existing culture, framing their decisions and action based on the operative norms and

procedures characterizing their respective organizations.

According to Bass et.al., (2003), the dimensions of transformational leadership are as the

following:

1. Idealized influence (attributed).

2. Idealized influence (behavior).

3. Inspirational motivation leaders motivate and inspire those around them.

4. Intellectual stimulation.

5. Individualized consideration.

Bass and Riggio (2006), agreed that transformational leadership includes four

components, namely idealized influence (II), inspirational motivation (IM), intellectual

stimulation (IS), and individualized consideration (IC). Idealized influence encompasses

charisma, and is associated with the leader’s personification of a role model/exemplar.

Inspirational motivation refers to the transformational leader’s articulation of an enticing

and meaningful vision to be shared and targeted. Intellectual stimulation involves the

encouragement of followers to think inventively and challenge the status quo, and

individualized consideration includes concern for the followers’ needs. According to

Harland et.al., (2005), there are five behavioral dimensions of transformational

leadership: Attributed Charisma, Idealized Influence, Inspirational Motivation,

Intellectual Stimulation and Individualized Consideration.

1. Attributed Charisma – the leader’s behavior exemplifies confidence, respect and pride

among the employees.

32
2. Idealized Influence – the leader’s behavior demonstrates a higher purpose that draws

attention to the common good.

3. Inspiration Motivation – the leader’s behavior typifies enthusiasm and the ability to

articulate the vision.

4. Intellectual Stimulation – the leader finds creative ways to solve problems with critical

ways of thinking.

5. Individualized Consideration – the leader’s behavior illustrates value for the employee

as an individual.

Avolio et.al.,(2004) and Van Wart (2003) discussed the three distinct types of

transactional leadership identified in the literature were contingent reward, active

management by exception, and passive management by exception. In the contingent

reward type of transactional leadership, the leader agrees on rewards followers will

receive for completing specific tasks (Aronson, 2004; Avolio and Bass, 2004). In passive

management by exception, the leader intervenes to reestablish direction only when

followers severely deviate from the plans or standards, whereas in active management by

exception the leader closely monitors followers’ progress and intervenes with

adjustments to prevent any significant divergence (Aronson, 2004; Avolio et al., 2004).

Transactional leaders derive power by their followers’ desire for rewards or fear of

punishment (Aronson, 2004); Bass, 1990b).Also Bass and Avolio (1989) discussed the

dimensions of transactional leaders the first dimension of transactional leadership is

contingent reinforcement or contingent reward. The leader rewards followers for

attaining the specified performance levels. Reward is contingent on effort expended and

performance level achieved. There is considerable research and literature on the

33
association between this kind of leader behavior and subordinate performance and

satisfaction (Bass, 1990; and Yukl, 1994). Hater and Bass (1988) indicated the two types

of management-by-exception, active and passive. The active form characterizes a leader

who actively seeks deviations from standard procedures and takes action when

irregularities occur. The passive form characterizes leaders who only take action after

deviations and irregularities have occurred. The difference between the two is that in the

active form the leader searches for deviations, whereas in the passive form the leader

waits for problems to materialize.

Measurement Of Leadership

Leadership style describes the manner and approach leaders use to provide direction,

implement plans, and motivate people to deliver. It is determined by a number of factors

and considerations over which we have some degree of control. Leaders choose their

leadership style either consciously or unconsciously for reasons that allow them to

express their values and to reinforce those things in which they believe.

In this research leadership measured utilizing the field-tested questionnaire developed by

(Burke 1983, as cited by Schermerhorn, 2002). The questionnaire contains twenty items

measuring transformational and transactional leadership styles ,which ten questions

represent the independent variables that have been identified in the light of ten factors

describing the transformational leadership (represented by A in each question), and ten

other factors describe transactional leadership (represented by B in each question).

34
2.2.6Organizational Culture

2.2.6.1 Culture

The term culture was first used in this way by the pioneer English Anthropologist Edward

B. Tylor in his book, "Primitive Culture", published in 1871. Tylor indicated that culture

is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and

any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society" (1:1). Of

course, it is not limited to men; women possess and create it as well.

Laurent and Bouard (1997) tried to describe the culture so they indicated that the idea

developed recently is that the success of the organization could depend on something

intangible, mysterious and inaccurate, and is not a technical or economic, but more

prevalent in the minds of individuals, and in the values that are looking for the key to

success, this thing is in the culture. O'Neil (2006) indicated that the word culture has

many different meanings. For some it refers to an appreciation of good literature, music,

art, and food. For a biologist, it is likely to be a colony of bacteria or other

microorganisms growing in a nutrient medium in a laboratory Petri dish.

Schein is considered one of the most well-known theorists working with organizational

culture. Schein (1992: 12) defined culture as:

"A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of

external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered

valid, and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think,

and feel in relation to those problems".

(Hofstede, 1980: 87) defined culture as the "collective thinking of minds which create a

difference between the members of one group from another". (Schein, 1992: 19)indicated

35
that a culture is "a set of basic tacit assumptions about how the world is and ought to be

that a group of people share and that determines their perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and

to some degree their over behavior". Kotter and Heskett (1992) mentioned that culture

means fairly established set of beliefs, behaviors and values of society contain generally.

In simple words we can understand that culture is gained knowledge, explanations,

values, beliefs, communication and behaviors of large group of people, at the same time

and same place. The definition of the Islamic, Educational, Scientific and Cultural

Organization (ISESCO) is the bowl of civilization that preserves the nation and its unity,

and ensures consistency, and gives personality intellectual characteristics, it is a symbol

identity, and a pillar of its existence, and is intercourse thinking, feed, creativity, and

warehouse genius, and is the source of its strength, and the source of excellence between

the nations. Robbins and Sanghi (2007) suggested that culture may defines as system of

common values which can be estimated that people describe the similar organization

culture even with different background at different levels within the organization.

Schein (1994) argued that these definitions suggest it is difficult to assess culture because

it is not directly observable. Culture is concerned with values, meanings, and norms.

While some manifestations of culture are observable at times (e.g., symbols and rituals),

these are merely symptoms of culture, and should not be confused with the underlying

culture itself. Understanding a group's culture requires an extended interval of immersion

in order to delve deeper than these surface manifestations of culture. Without such in-

depth exposure, outsiders who are not well-versed in a given culture may draw false

conclusions about its member's beliefs and behavior.

36
2.2.6.2 Organizational Culture

organizational culture has become a topic of great interest in the areas of organizational

behavior and human resource management as it is consider one of the main determinants

of the success of organizations or failure, which connected between success theory and

focus on values and concepts that drive members to commitment , hard work, innovation,

modernization, and to participate in decisions and work to maintain the quality , improve

service and achieve competitive advantage and rapid response appropriate to the needs of

customers and related parties in the work environment organization.

Nowadays, no organization can go on its mission and last in the world of competition

without maintaining a strong advantageous culture. The researches on the impacts of

organizational culture was started in 1980s, today is matching itself with new human

values and styles of development which have brought new era in enterprises.(Barney,

1986; Bass and Avoilo, 1992) mentioned that organizational culture have become

increasingly popular topics over the past 10 years.

The concept of organizational culture was first noted as early as the Hawthorne studies

(Mayo, 1933; Roethlisberger and Dickson, 1939) which described work group culture. It

was not until the early 1980s, however, that the topic came into its own. Several books

on organizational culture were published, including Deal and Kennedy’s "Corporate

Cultures" (1984), Ouchi’s "Theory Z" (1981), and Peters and Waterman’s "In Search of

Excellence" (1982). These books popularized organizational culture, and researchers

began in a serious to study the topic. Kurdi (2010)indicated that there is multiple

definitions of the concept of organizational culture to include the basic value system

adopted by the organization, and philosophy governing policies toward employees and

37
customers, and the way in which tasks are completed, and the assumptions and beliefs

that are shared to get around the organization's members. Without repeating definitions

can be argued that organizational culture refers to system of meanings and symbols and

beliefs, rituals, and practices that have evolved and stabilized with the passage of time,

and become a special feature of the organization to create a general understanding among

members of the organization about what the organization is and the expected behavior of

its members. Van Fleet (1991) suggested a definition which most authors would probably

agree. That is “organizational culture is the set of values, often taken for granted that

helps people in an organization understand which actions are considered acceptable and

which are considered unacceptable”. Cameron and Quinn (1999), indicated that the

contemporary definition of organizational culture includes what is valued, the dominant

leadership style, the language and symbols, the procedures and routines, and the

definitions of success that characterizes an organization. Organizational culture

represents the values, underlying assumptions, expectations, collective memories and

definitions present in an organization. While consensus does not exist on how to defined

organizational culture Cooke and Rousseau,(1988); King and Byers,(2007); Zhang

et.al.,(2009), mentioned a commonly used definition is “the set of shared, taken-for-

granted, implicit assumptions that a group holds and that determine how it perceives,

thinks about, and reacts to its various environments. Schein (2011) argued that the culture

of an organization is all the beliefs, feelings, behaviors, and symbols that are

characteristic of an organization. More specifically, organizational culture is defined as

shared philosophies, ideologies, beliefs, feelings, assumptions, expectations, attitudes,

norms, and values.

38
Schein (1996); Mitchell and Yate (2002), addressed that values, beliefs and feelings

shared by the groups in an organization are the basic assumptions of the organizational

culture. Organizational culture is the feelings and understandings of members in the

group and expresses in the organization. Therefore, organizational culture is regarded as

the resource of energy and hope of an organization, and it can make leaders and followers

to recognize their role in an organization. Organizational culture is a media for leaders to

model members’ commitments and constructs visions (Tunstall, 1985). Also McNamara

(2000) argued that basically organizational culture is the personality of the organization.

Culture is comprised of the assumptions, values, norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of

organization members and their behaviors. Culture is one of those terms that are difficult

to express distinctly, but everyone knows it when they sense it. For example, the culture

of a large, for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite

different than that of a university. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking

at the arrangement of furniture, what they brag about, what members wear, etc. -- similar

to what you can use to get a feeling about someone's personality. Schein (1990) argued

that if there are shared experiences within the organization, there can also be a total

organizational culture. Nevertheless, there is the tendency for subunits within a complex

organizational structure to have cultures that are independent and even in conflict with

each other.

Organizational culture connects the employees in the organizations, and creates the frame

that the employees work in. Martin (2002) maintained that organizational culture

provides its members an understanding to work through the basic problems, of survival in

and adaptation to the external environment, as well as to develop and maintain internal

39
processes. Tichy (1982) suggested that organizational culture is known as “normative

glue” means to hold the overall organization together. Drucker (2004) proposed that

organizational culture acts as a very important bridge in an organization. It can prompt

the identification, the cohesiveness and the consensus of the followers. It can be a

mechanism to lead or model the followers’ commitments and organizational visions.

Schein (1999) indicated that organizational culture is the property of a group, and it is a

powerful, latent, and often unconscious set of forces, that determine both our individual

and collective behavior, ways of perceiving, thought patterns, and values.

Brache (2002) indicated that by understanding organizational culture, employers are able

to create an environment where employees want to work and where employees are

successful. Barney (1986) argued that positive organizational culture have been linked to

increased staff alignment, resulting in enhanced organizational effectiveness, heightened

consensus regarding strategic direction, increased employee productivity, and advanced

levels of employee commitment. Lee (2006) pointed that many job seekers consider

organizational culture as important as financial compensation; employers who focus on

just salary and ignore the effects of organizational culture are missing half the battle for

talented employees.

2.2.6.3Difference Between Organizational Culture, Corporate Culture and

Organizational Climate

Deal and Kennedy (1982) mentioned that sometimes, organization culture is also known

as “corporate culture”. “Corporate Culture” is used to denote the more “commercialized

"meaning of organizational culture. Wallach (1983) referred that corporate culture as the

shared understanding of an organization’s employees, as to how things are done in the

40
organization. In addition, organizational culture is viewed as the rules of the game for

getting along in an organization, or as the ropes that newcomers must learn in order to

become accepted members (Sriramesh, et.al. 1996).While Abu-Jarad et.al., (2010)

proposed that organizational/corporate culture referred to something that is holistic,

historically determined (by founders or leaders), related to things anthropologists study

(like rituals and symbols), socially constructed (created and preserved by the group of

people who together form the organization), soft, and difficult to change.

Schneider et.al (1994); Zohar and Luria (2010) agreed that organizational climate, in

contrast, is defined as employee's shared perceptions regarding an organization’s policies,

procedures, and practices, which in turn serve as indicators of the types of behavior that

are rewarded and supported in work settings. Organizational culture is a broader concept

than organizational climate, and organizational culture can be used to explain why an

organization focuses on certain priorities.

2.2.6.4 Creating Organizational Culture

Hatch and Cunliffe (2006) argued that the essence of culture is a core of basic

assumptions. Behavioral norms and values are a manifestation of these assumptions, and

values and norms, in turn, encourage activities that represent the expression of

organizational culture. Also Stewart (2010) indicated that organization’s norms and

values have a strong affect on all of those who are attached with the organization. It is

considered by him that norms are invisible but if the organizations want to improve the

performance of the employees and profitability, norms are places first to look (see figure

2). Schein’s (1985) model of organizational culture it mainly consists of three domains:

(a) basic underlying assumptions, (b) espoused values, and (c) artifacts. Schein

41
(1985) distinguishes between observable and unobservable elements of culture. From

Figure 3, it becomes clear that there is a certain hierarchy between these domains. Visible

behavior influences and is influenced by unobservable assumptions through rules,

standards, and prohibitions.

Figure 2: Organizational culture model by Homburg and Pflesser (2000)

Source: Homburg and Pflesser (2000)

Figure 3: Schein organizational culture model (1985)

Source: Schein (1985)

Deal and Kennedy (1984) identified four elements of organizational culture: values, heroes,

rites and rituals, and communication networks. These four elements play a key role in

creating organizational cultures.

42
Values

Several recent studies have suggested that values and practices are important elements of

culture (Karahanna, et al. 2005), with values being closer to the core how individuals

think, and shared practices being more peripheral. Karahanna et al. (2005) indicated that

values are acquired early in life through childhood socialization and education, and are

often ‘‘stable in nature but can change over time reflecting changes in culture’’. Jones

(2010) said that values are general criteria, standards, or principles that guide the

behavior of organization members. There are two kinds of values: terminal and

instrumental. Bulach et.al. (2012) said that terminal value is a desired outcome that

organization members seek to achieve. Lunenburg and Ornstein (2012) indicated that an

instrumental value is a desired mode of behavior. Thus, an organization’s culture consists

of outcomes that the organization seeks to achieve (its terminal values) and the modes of

behavior the organization encourages (its instrumental values). Ideally, instrumental

values help the organization achieve its terminal values.

Dasanayaka and Mahakalanda (2008) indicated that maximizing employee’s values are

considered as rational assets that required a culture to support their logical participation

both for individual and organizational learning, new knowledge formation and readiness

to share with others.

Heroes

Most successful organizations have their heroes. According to Deal and Kennedy (1984),

Heroes are born and created. The born hero is the visionary institution builder like Henry

Ford, founder of the Ford Motor Company, Walt Disney, creator of Disney Studios and

theme parks. Created heroes, on the other hand, are those the institution has made by

43
noticing and celebrating memorable moments that occur in the day-to-day life of the

organization. Thomas Watson, former head of IBM, is an example of a situation hero.

Heroes perpetuate the organization’s underlying values, provide role models, symbolize

the organization to others, and set performance standards that motivate participant

achievement. Deal and Kennedy (1982) said these heroes serve as role models and their

words and actions signal the ideal to aspire to.

Rites and Rituals

Deal and Kennedy (1984) indicated another key aspect in creating organizational cultures

is the everyday activities and celebrations that characterize the organization. Most

successful organizations feel that these rituals and symbolic actions should be managed.

Through rites and rituals, recognition of achievement is possible. The Teacher of the

Year Award and National Merit Schools are examples. Similarly, a number of ceremonial

rituals may accompany the appointment of a new superintendent of schools, including

press and other announcements, banquets, meetings, and speeches. Some organizations

have even created their own reward rituals.

Communication Networks

Deal and Kennedy (1984) said that stories or myths of heroes are transmitted by means of

the communications network. This network is characterized by various individuals who

play a role in the culture of the organization. Each institution has storytellers who

interpret what is going on in the organization. Their interpretation of the information

influences the perceptions of others. Priests are the worriers of the organization and the

guardians of the culture’s values. These individuals always have time to listen and

provide alternative solutions to problems. Whisperers are the powers behind the throne

44
because they have the boss’s ear. Anyone who wants something done will go to the

whisperer. Gossips carry the trivial day-to-day activities of the organization through the

communications network. Gossips are very important in building and maintaining heroes.

They embellish the heroes’ past feats and exaggerate their latest accomplishments. And,

finally, spies are buddies in the woodwork. They keep everyone well informed about

what is going on in the organization. Each of these individuals plays a key role in

building and maintaining an organization’s culture.

According to Schein (1992) artifacts, espoused values, and basic underlying assumptions

are three levels in which cultural phenomenon are visible. Artifacts are those visible

attributes of an organization such as the building design; technology; products; dress

code; language; manners of addressing issues; emotional displays, myths, and historical

stories about the organization; and published values, rituals, and ceremonies.

Operationalizing and measuring organizational culture is a challenging task. If

organizational culture is created and established through symbols, ideology, belief, ritual,

and myth; then describing and documenting a given culture is methodologically complex

(Akin and Hopelain, 1986; Bate, 1984; Rousseau, 1990; Zamanou and Glaser, 1989).

New organizational culture is created according to Schein (1992) from three perspectives:

(a) the beliefs, values, and assumptions of founder of organizations; (b) the learning

experiences of group members as their organization evolves; and (c) new beliefs, values,

and assumptions brought in by new members and leaders. Of the three perspectives, the

most challenging for followers are new beliefs, values, and assumptions brought in by

new leaders. What must be remembered is that cultural change (transformation) is usually

slow and difficult (Stringer, 2002).

45
Another perspective of cultural formation was represented by Fombrun (1983) who

argued that organizational culture develops through two major levels: societal, industrial

and organizational. First, Fombrun (1983) argued that understanding the interplay

between societal and industrial levels of culture with the characteristics of the

organization, is vital for an accurate analysis of culture and its implication on

organizational performance. However, while the societal level of culture represents the

values, attitudes, and meanings that members bring to the organization, the industrial

level represents the similarities and differences that exist between industries.

Finally, culture researcher Louis (1985) articulated that an organizational culture not only

is strong in nature, but there are subcultures that often develop at different sites within

various levels in an organization. Conditions, problems, or personnel at different levels

can produce pressure for different cultures within the organization especially for the

distribution and allocation of scarce resources (O'Reilly, 1989; Robbins, 2006).

2.2.7 Types of Organizational Culture: Harrison's typology of


organizational culture
Harrison (1972) developed a typology for understanding organizational culture. This

typology suggested four organizational cultural orientations: (1) power orientation; (2)

role orientation; (3) task orientation and (4) person orientation (Harrison 1972, p121).

Harrison’s (1972) cultural orientations were adapted by Harrison and Stokes (1992) to

create the (1) power orientation, (2) role orientation, (3) achievement orientation and (4)

support orientation. Harrison and Stokes’s (1992) organizational culture typology is used

in this research to classify the different types of organizational cultures within the

selected companies.

46
Handy (1999) suggests that we can classify organizations into a broad range of four

cultures: power, role, task and person. The formation of ‘culture’ will depend upon a

whole host of factors including company history, ownership, organisation structure,

technology, critical business incidents and environment, etc.(see figure 4).

Figure 4: Handy cultures types

(Source: Brown 1998)

Harrison and Stokes (1992) believe that every organisation has a combination of the four

cultural types; with each type evoking different behaviors and each are based on different

human values.

In order to understand Harrison's four types of organizational culture (Power, Role,

Achievement and Support) included below are some features of each term concerning

organizational cultures as used by Harrison (1992):

47
2.2.7.1Power Culture Orientation

The Power oriented organization is based on inequality of access to resources. A

'resource' can be anything one person controls that another person wants. The people in

power use resources to control the behavior of others. Control resides in the hands of the

leaders and rests on their ability and willingness to administer rewards and punishments.

People in power-oriented organizations are motivated by rewards and punishments, and

by the wish to be associated with a strong leader. Generally, this type of culture is

appropriate for an entrepreneurial type of business where a leader's skills, knowledge,

and dominance is imperative for the success of the business, and therefore, the followers

are dependent upon him. In a power culture, certain persons are dominant and others

subservient. There is a 'relatively bounded and stable occurrence of social order based on

habits of deference to authority'. Harrison (1990) indicated:

"In the Power organizations at its best, leadership is based on strength, justice and

paternalistic benevolence. The leaders are expected to be all-knowing as well as all-

powerful. Subordinates are expected to be compliant and willing. At its worst, the Power

organization tends towards a rule by fear. Large Power oriented organizations are

inefficient, full of fear and confusion, unless the Power orientation is supplemented by

good structures and systems for getting work done. As the distance between leaders and

followers increases, effective control becomes more difficult. Because followers have

been conditioned to be dependent. When Power oriented organizations expand, they often

run short on leadership talent"(Harrison, 1990).

Martin (2005) mentioned that power culture is usually found in small organizations,

where everything revolves around the person in charge, and all the important decisions

48
are made by that person who has the single source of power, and that person retains

absolute authority in all matters. Martin (2001) argued that the main features of a power

culture in organizational culture include: single mindedness in approach; dominated by

the leader or central person and their personality; with a lack of bureaucracy in

operations. Brown (1995) and Martin (2001) mentioned that the greatest strength of the

power culture is the ability of the organisation to react quickly, although the success is

largely dependent upon the abilities of the leader, or people at the centre of power.

2.2.7.2 Role Culture Orientation

The Role orientation assumes that people work most effectively and efficiently when they

have relatively simple, clearly defined, circumscribed and measurable tasks. Clarity and

precision of roles and procedures are striven for in order to fit the parts of the

organization together like a machine. It also substitutes a system of structures and

procedures for the naked power of the leaders. This gives protection to the subordinates

and stability to the organization. The struggle for power is moderated by the rule of law.

The duties and rewards of the members' roles are defined in writing. In Role orientation

the whole organization forms a pyramid shape. The higher the layer, the fewer people

there are. Below the directors are several layers of managers and below them are the staff

and workers engaged in clerical and manual operations. The values of the Role culture

are order, dependability, rationality and consistency. The role culture substitutes a system

of structures and procedures for the naked power of the leaders. Structures and systems

give protection to subordinates and stability to the organization. The struggle for power is

moderated by the rule of law. The duties and the rewards of member’s roles are carefully

defined, usually in writing, and are the subject of an explicit or implicit contract between

49
the organization and individual. People perform specific functions in order to receive

defined rewards. Both the individual and the organization are expected to adhere to their

parts of the bargain. Thomas and Lindsay (2003) indicated that it is wholly appropriate to

some situations, but it could also impede the development of others. For example, some

employees of an airline company need to adhere strictly to agreed procedures to ensure

safety, accurate scheduling and efficient use of assets, however others must be

empowered to manage within a set of guidelines rather than strict rules so as to be able to

satisfy diverse customer needs.

Harmse (2001) said that an advantage of the role orientation culture is that employees of

an organisation are able to allocate more energy to do their work than without the rules

and structures of the role orientation. However, a weakness of this cultural type is that

employees are assumed not to be trusted and individual autonomy and discretion is not

given to lower level members (Harrison and Stokes 1992).

2.2.7.3 Achievement Culture Orientation

Unlike both the Power and Role cultures, that use the rewards and punishment system to

guide people, along with impersonal systems and structures to control their members, the

Achievement orientation relies on self motivating strategies and is based on competence.

These strategies come from the nature of the employee and/or the nature of the

workplace. It also creates a high energy environment and a greater probability of

satisfying employee needs, by using the mission to attract and release its members'

energy in pursuit of the common goals. An achievement orientated culture is one in which

employees are internally motivated. To be internally motivated, employees need to feel

valued and appreciated for their personal contribution and potential. They need the freedom

50
to interpret situations and apply what they believe to be the correct solution. Well-selected,

well-trained and empowered employees who operate in an environment of trust and support,

therefore, are essential ingredients for the creation and maintenance of such a culture .

In an Achievement culture, people are interested in the work itself, and have a personal

stake in seeing that it is done well. Harrison (1992) indicated:

The Achievement-oriented organization makes high demands on its people's energy and

time, assuming that people actually enjoy working at tasks which are intrinsically

satisfying(Harrison, 1992).Still, structure and systems are necessary in Achievement

oriented organization. They augment the mission rather than becoming laws unto

themselves. Power, also, has a place in such culture. People, who have power, usually

establish the mission and then serve it. They are also judged by the same standards as is

applied to everyone else within the organization, involved in the advancement of the

mission.

This culture provides deep personal satisfaction and evokes personal commitment. But

control in these organizations is difficult. It is retained by top management by means of

allocating projects, people and resources. Structures and systems are necessary but

allocation of resources is a problem. Reliance is on the common vision to organize the

work rather than subjecting themselves to the discipline of systems and procedures.

Therefore, these cultures are frequently under organized, relying on high motivation to

overcome its deficiencies in structures, systems and planning.

2.2.7.4 Support Culture Orientation

The support culture is based on a mutual trust between the employee and the

organization, employees who work in this culture believe that they are valued as human

51
beings, not only served to complete the work (Harrison, 1993; Harrison and Stokes,

1992). Like the achievement culture, the Support oriented organization assumes that

people want to contribute rather than extracting their contribution through a common

purpose, the Support-oriented organization offers its members a satisfaction stemming

from relationships, mutuality, connection and belonging. The support culture is based on

mutual trust between the individual and the organization. In such an organization, people

believe that they are valued as human beings, not just as cogs in a machine or

contributors to a task. A support culture fosters warmth and even love, not just driving

enthusiasm. An organisation that has a support culture has a warm and caring

atmosphere, where the assumption is that a sense of belonging will create a sense of

commitment to the organisation and therefore employees will contribute more within the

organisation (Harmse, 2001; and Harrison and Stokes, 1992).

While achievement culture fuses the human will of its members in the service of the

organization's tasks, The Support culture evokes human love for the nurturing of the

organization's members, and stimulates strong motivation in the service of the group. The

Support culture is criticized for being too idealistic and humanistic. In the interest of

harmony, this culture tends towards conflict avoidance. Sometimes favoritism affects

decisions about people's performance, and injustice results. Differences in skills and

abilities may be ignored in the interest of 'equal treatment'. Harrison (1990) asserted that

all organizations have some combination of these four cultural orientations. Each evokes

different behaviors and rests on different human values. Each has a unique way of

decision making; a characteristic way of motivating people to work, a typical

management style and a set of underlying values and beliefs about work and about human

52
nature. However, Harrison concluded that the four cultures are only partially compatible

with one another, and the benefits of one can only be achieved at the expense of some of

the benefits of the others. As postulated by Handy (1993) these four types of culture all

have different implications to the success of a business where the power culture is

dependent on a central power source with rays of power and influence spreading out from

the central figure. These types of cultures are proud and strong and have the ability to

move quickly and can react well to threat and danger.

The role culture, according to Harrison (1993) gives protection to subordinates and

stability to the organization. He also claimed that people are protected in their jobs in a

role orientation, and need to spend less time looking out for themselves and can devote

more energy to their work. The achievement culture organization expects its employees

to contribute their personal energy in return for rewards. This type of organization is

known as an aligned organization because it, lines people up, behind a common vision or

purpose. Harrison and Stokes (1993)confirmed that quality and service often show in

support - orientated organizations, since successful approaches to quality improvements

are often based on small work teams.

Measurement Of Organizational Culture

In order to understand how groups of people are likely to respond in different

environments and to different situations, tools have been developed to measure cultural

values. Harrison and Stokes (1992) asserted that the culture of every organization is made

up of a combination of four distinct cultural orientations: power, role, achievement, and

support. Each of the four culture orientation would have a distinct leadership style that

would evoke a characteristic response from employees. Thomas and Lindsay (2003)

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argued that none of the four orientations is right or wrong, some would be more

appropriate for particular work environments than others.

The researcher used the instrument developed by Harrison and Stokes entitled

'Diagnosing Organizational Culture' which focused on how people treat one another, the

value that they live by, how people are motivated to produce and how people use power

in the organization, the researcher feels that Harrison and stokes instrument is more

appropriate for the current research, and it is easily understood. Also the instrument was

used on several studies conducted to measure the culture of organizations in different

national cultures. In Europe and the United Kingdom, by the Roffey Park Institute. In the

United States by Harrison(1990) and Anderson(1995), in Australia and New Zealand by

Harrison(1990), in South Africa by Serfontein (1990),and in Saudi Arabia by Al-

Salem(1996), which made it verifiable and comparable in Jordan by Sabri (2004,2013)

The instrument had fifteen questions, each of which was followed by four options (a, b, c

and d). The respondents were asked to read each item, and then rank each of the four

options as follows: In a column entitled 'Existing Culture', rank which was the most

dominant, and the least dominant culture in their organization:

Score 4: For the most dominant (Existing) view.

Score 3: For the next most dominant (Existing) view.

Score 2: For the next most dominant (Existing) view.

Score 1: For the least dominant (Existing) view.

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2.2.8 Leadership and Organizational Culture

The 21st century has been obsessed with trying to identify certain characteristic traits that

are associated with effective leaders (Higgs, 2003). It has also been argued that

leadership theory has been studied more extensively than almost any other area of human

behavior (Goffee & Jones, 2000; Higgs, 2003; Higgs & Rowland, 2001).

Wolinski (2010) argued that most theories view leadership as grounded in one or more of

the following three perspectives: leadership as a process or relationship, leadership as a

combination of traits or personality characteristics, or leadership as certain behaviors or,

as they are more commonly referred to, leadership skills. In virtually all of the more

dominant theories there exist the notions that, at least to some degree, leadership is a

process that involves influence with a group of people toward the realization of goals.

Montana and Charnov (1993) indicated that leadership is the process of inspiration or

influence others to make them High work commitment and perseverance in achieving and

perform tasks required of them. Leadership is interested in how to build commitment and

motivate others, to induce them to use their skills in the implementation of activities and

the achievement of the millennium. Robbins (2003) described leadership as a process of

influencing the behavior of groups, and directing them toward achieving the desired

objectives, and expressed leadership as a process of influencing the behavior of groups

and directing them toward and over achieves the desired goals.(Bass, 1990a: 8),

contended that “leadership is often regarded as the single most critical factor in the

success or failure of institutions” and presented the historical roots of leadership.

Kotter (1990) said that leadership deals with the interpersonal aspects of a manager's job.

Interpersonal aspects include change, inspiration, motivation, and influence. In contrast,

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management deals with the administrative aspects planning, organizing, and controlling,

for carrying out the organization's goals and maintaining equilibrium. Kotter (1990)

indicated that a leader can be a manager, but a manager is not necessarily a leader.

According to managers must know how to lead as well as manage. Organizations may

face the threat of extinction if leadership and management are not given top priority. The

definition of management is a process of setting and achieving goals of an organization

through planning, organizing, directing (or leading), and controlling. Although leading is

a major part of a manager’s job, a manager should also plan, organize, and control.

Block (2003) noted that the concept of leadership and culture are extremely central to

understanding organizations and making them effective, and that the combined

phenomenon cannot be taken for granted. McLaurin and Al Amri (2008) indicated that

researchers have determined the relationship between leadership and culture for over 20

years. Complex relationships exist between the two because of the plethora of definitions

of each that have been published. Leadership has been described as a mutual influence

relationship. The relationship between leadership and organizational culture are presented

by (Bass, and Avolio, 1993) who indicated that leadership, particularly transformational

leadership can build a higher innovation and a satisfactory organizational culture. Schein

(1992) observed that organizational culture and leadership are intertwined. He illustrated

this inter-connection by looking at the relationship between leadership and culture in the

context of the organizational life cycle. Thus, during the process of organizational

formation, the founder of a company creates an organization which reflects their values

and beliefs. In this sense, the founder creates and shapes the cultural traits of their

organization. However, as the organization develops and time passes, the created culture

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of the organization exerts an in influence on the leader and shapes the actions and style of

the leader. Through this dynamic ongoing process, the leader creates and is in turn shaped

by the organizational culture. There is a reciprocal relationship between leadership and

culture. Also Bass and Avolio (1993) have concurred and suggested that the relationship

between leadership and culture is an ongoing interplay in which the leader shapes the

culture and is, in turn, shaped by the resulting culture. Thus, leaders must have a good

understanding of organizational culture; the influence they have on the organizational

culture; and, in turn, the way culture influences them. Leaders should know the key

elements of organizational culture which include rite, ritual, ceremony, myth, saga,

legend, stories, folktale, symbol, language, gesture, physical setting, and artifact (Bass,

1990).Blackwell (2006) noted the importance of culture and leadership by arguing that

organizational culture influences organizational behavior, and helps frame and shape the

use of leader behavior.

Bass (1985) examined the impact of different styles of leadership on culture. He has

suggested that transactional leaders tend to operate within the confines and limits of the

existing culture, while transformational leaders frequently work towards changing the

organizational culture in line with their vision. Bass and Avolio (1991) also asserted that

a purely transformational culture is conceptualized as having a close net relationship with

organizational members. In this relationship, commitments are long-term; individuals

share mutual interests; have a sense of shared fates and interdependence across divisions

and departments. Barnett and McCormick, (2004); Corrigan et.al.,(2002), indicated that

organizational culture may even be one of the mechanisms, through which

transformational leadership affects (perceived and objective) firm performance.

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Accordingly, some recent studies have shown that transformational leadership is related

to organizational culture. Bass (1999) postulated the idea that organizational culture can

become more transformational if the leadership of public sector organizations articulates

the changes that are required. Such changes can be the conceptualization of a shared

vision with emphasis on the particular leadership style that is to be encouraged. Also

Bass (1999) pointed out that changes consistent with the new message should be

implemented at the inception of the growth stages of the organization. In this way, “the

desired role models of leadership begin at the top and are encouraged at every successive

level below” (Bass, 1999:16). Thus, the behavior of the leaders set the tone of the

organization’s new culture.(Bass, 1985: 24) wrote the following in his original work on

transformational leaders: “The transactional leader works within the organizational

culture as it exists; the transformational leader changes the organizational culture”, (Bass,

1985: 154) adds “Transformational leadership is more likely to reflect social values and

to emerge in times of distress and rapid change; transactional leadership, in a well-

ordered society.”

Sarroset.al., (2002) argued that the relationship between leadership and organizational

culture has been consistently demonstrated and most empirical studies, has yielded results

that highlighted the significance of the relationship. For example, in a study of 1,918

participants from the Australian Institute of Management, strong and positive

relationships between leadership and organizational culture were reported. These findings

have been replicated in other studies which reported that leaders have an impact on the

organizational culture. Furthermore, the style of leadership produces a certain

organizational culture. For example, one study noted that individualized consideration

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was the prominent leadership style of executives, and performance orientation was the

prominent organizational culture (Sarros et.al., 2002). Organizational cultures with a

focus on supportiveness and social responsibility were best predictors of transformational

leadership. Therefore, results lend strong support to the theory that leadership is crucial in

shaping the culture. Schein (2004) suggested that currently organizational culture is a key

factor for knowledge management, creativity, participatory management and leadership.

Schein (2004) also indicated that leadership and culture are synonymous, it is almost

impossible to compare between leadership and organizational culture and the dynamics

process of the birth of the organizational culture and management is the essence of

leadership that making leadership and organizational culture are like two sides of the

same coin. There is a direct correlation between leadership and organizational culture

(Atkins, 2006; Bass and Avolio 1993; Block, 2003; Schein, 1985). When an organization

is in its infancy stage where the primary purpose and structure are being developed, there

is usually no organizational culture. At the point of staffing the organization, the founder

establishes the expectations that will govern the business. Armandi et.al., (2003) said that

understanding the relationship between leadership style and organizational culture

becomes paramount in creating change within the organization. The change will

demonstrate the employees’ willingness to do what has been asked rather than doing

because they are required to.

The relationship between leadership and organizational culture has been studied in public

and private organizations (Block, 2003; Kest, 2007; Walsh, 2004). Lakomski (2001) said

that while leadership may influence organizational culture, organizational culture can

also influence leadership behavior although the most effective type of leadership can be

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debated; creating organizational change requires leadership changing the organizational

culture.

2.2.9Leader's Role in Creating Organizational Culture

Nahavandi, and Malekzadeh (1993) indicated that a Leader, especially the founder of the

organization, leaves a core value that guide members of the organization from its

inception up to the future. The main values that guide members of the organization are

called the organizational culture. The characteristics and orientation brought by the

leaders in the organization will affect the culture adopted in his or her organization. Yukl

(1994) indicated that researches on leadership were focused on how leaders create and

strengthen the organizations during 1980’s.

Scholars found that the average time for a culture to change is 10 to 15 years. This is too

long of a time span when organizations need to change quickly to adjust to rapidly

changing business and social conditions (Stringer, 2002). Organizational culture is the

interaction between individuals within the Context of its artifact, values, basic

assumptions, beliefs, traditions, and norms derived from the founders and top

management who have taught employees how to perceive, think, and act in definite

situations. When the organization faces challenges that foster innovation and change,

cultural change is usually indicated. Therefore, leaders must fully understand the

organizational culture for change to be effective. Ogbonna and Harris (2000) alleged that

the founder of the organization creates and shapes the cultural characteristics of the

organization. At the same time, as the organization develops and time passes, the created

culture of the organization exerts an influence on the leader and shapes the actions and

style of the leader. Schein (1992) argued that does culture determine leadership

60
behaviors? Or do leadership behaviors determine the culture? Leaders have been credited

as the creators, transformers and managers of organizational culture. Schein (1992) found

that leaders are largely responsible for creating, developing, maintaining, and destroying

culture, and must come to recognize both the importance of organizational culture, and

their own ability to shape it in order to foster an organizational culture; that yields high

performance and efficiency overall. Leadership and culture are intertwined and are best

examined as if they were two sides of one coin.

Howard (1998) mentioned that the organization culture constantly changes as the

organization itself changes. Weick and Quinn (1999), described change as either episodic

or continuous. Episodic change in organizations is described as infrequent, discontinuous

and intentional. It occurs most often when the organization is moving away from

equilibrium and is characterized as dramatic and externally driven. The role of the leader

in this situation is to create change. On the other hand, the role of the leader in an

organization that is in continuous change is to be a sense-maker who directs change.

Continuous change reflects organizational changes that are ongoing, evolving and

cumulative. Heathfield (2013) indicated that you cannot change the organizational culture

without knowing where your organization wants to be or what elements of the current

organizational culture need to change. What cultural elements support the success of your

organization, or not? As an example, your team decides that you spend too much time

agreeing with each other rather than challenging the forecasts and assumptions of fellow

team members, that typically have been incorrect. Heathfield (2013) also mentioned a

second example by, your key management team members, who must lead the company,

spend most of their time team building with various members of the team on an

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individual basis, and to promote individual agendas, to the detriment of the cohesive

functioning of the whole group. Third, your company employees appear to make a

decision, but, in truth, are waiting for the "blessing" from the company owner or founder

to actually move forward with the plan. The two most important elements for creating

organizational cultural change are executive support and training. Blackwell (2006) noted

the importance of culture and leadership by arguing that organizational culture influences

organizational behavior, and helps frame and shape the use of leader behavior.

Bass (1985) indicated that the organization's culture develops in large part from its

leadership while the culture of an organization can also affect the development of its

leadership. For example, transactional leaders work within their organizational cultures

following existing rules, procedures, and norms; transformational leaders change their

culture by first understanding it and then realigning the organization's culture with a new

vision and a revision of its shared assumptions, values, and norms. Schein (2004)

suggested that the leadership behaviors of leaders of organizations on influenced by the

culture of the organization, but on the other hand leadership in organization shaping and

changing the organizational culture within a company or organization. Sashkin (1988)

proposed that the creation of an organization’s culture is the essence of the

transformational leader’s task. Ultimately, what is most important is that leaders choose a

style of leadership that will create and foster a culture that will permit the leaders’ vision

to come to fruition. In addition, leaders must be able to influence followers to connect

with the vision so that they will effectively carry forward those strategies that will

support the vision. Bromley and Kirschner-Bromlye (2007), argued that transformational

leaders seek to transform the organization to an environment; that perpetuates the greater

62
good over individual interests. Employees are empowered to participate in the decision-

making process, as well as serve as champions for the vision. Challenging the status quo

becomes a regular occurrence for the transformational leader. A key element in a

transformed atmosphere is creativity. The leader takes on a personal commitment to help

develop the workforce and “foster a culture of creative change and growth rather than one

which maintains the status quo” (Bass and Avolio, 1993:113). Bass (1995) indicated that

transformational leaders in established firms tend to change culture by first understanding

it, and then realigning it with a new vision and a revision of its shared assumptions,

values, norms, and practices. Corrigan et.al., (2002) found a positive relation between a

cohesive organization culture and transformational leadership in mental health teams.

While Bryman (1992:161) pointed out that “the emphasis on change should not imply

that transforming organizations is the essence of leadership”. Because some writers Tichy

and Devanna, (1990) talked about the dramatic change or transformation of

organizations, “new leadership” is often associated with instilling a vision for

organizational change.

Trice and Beyer (1993), indicated that most of the work that links leadership and culture

has focused on how leaders establish or change cultures, with much less written about

how to maintain culture, it would appear that the role of transformational leadership

should also be considered as important for organizations that are in cultural maintenance,

or are characterized by continuous change as the role it would play in an organization in

turmoil or crisis. Bass (1985:24,154) wrote the following in his original work on

transformational leaders: “The transactional leader works within the organizational

culture as it exists; the transformational leader changes the organizational culture”.

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“Transformational leadership is more likely to reflect social values and to emerge in

times of distress and rapid change; transactional leadership, in a well-ordered society”. It

is generally assumed that transformational leadership is related to organizational culture.

Trice and Beyer (1993) concluded that there are two cultural consequences of leadership:

(a) Cultural innovation which is responsible for creating culture (attracting followers and

uniting them) and changing culture (weakening and replacing elements of the old

culture), and (b) cultural maintenance which embodies culture (keeps existing culture

vital) and integrates culture (reconciles diverse interests of subcultures). According to

most leadership scholars, leadership and organizational culture do affect each other (Bass

and Avolio, 1993; Barnett and McCormick, 2004; Corrigan et al.,2002).Morgan (1986)

asserted that leaders can shape and mould the culture in several ways, leaders act as role

models, demonstrating to others the best way to behave.

Peters (1987) highlighted that people observe what leaders pay attention to and what they

ignore as well as how leaders allocate resources, rewards and promotions. All these

signify and indicate to others the correct way to behave and what needs to be done to

achieve recognition and success. Leaders also act as symbols of the culture for both their

employees and people outside their organization. Bass and Avolio (1993) contend that an

organization’s culture develops in large part from its leadership while the culture of an

organization can also affect the development of its leadership. Schein’s (1992) indicated

that the researches on culture indicated that a new organization’s culture is impacted by

the leaders of the organization. On the other hand, leaders entering organizations in

which the culture was already established did not typically impact the culture in the same

way. In the latter cases, it appears that the established culture began to define the

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leadership. Bass and Avolio (1993) argued that not only is an organization’s culture

developed by its leaders, leaders are also influenced by organizational culture. Also Bass

and Avolio (1993) have suggested that the relationship between leadership and culture is

intertwined and is an ongoing process in which the leader impacts the culture; and

culture, in turn, affects leader behaviors. Eikenberry (2011) indicated that

organizational culture gets talked about a lot by people discussing success in

organizations. It is rightly considered an important determining factor in measurements

including retention, job satisfaction, trust levels, productivity and much more. Yet there

are some common misconceptions about where culture comes from and who is

responsible for it. Because of these misconceptions too many leaders ignore or deny their

role. Schein (1985: 314) warned that "organizational culture control the leader more than

the leader controls the culture. Yet, leaders can have a great impact on organizational

culture, especially through role-modeling". (Weichrich and Koontz, 2005) indicated that

in many successful companies in the world, leaders create a good organizational

environment. Organizational culture that created by the company leaders can result in a

good managerial function within the company. Schein (2004) discussed that he results

showed a significant positive impact of leadership on organizational culture. It means that

effective leadership role on the formation of organizational culture. This finding suggests

the enactment of "role model" theory. A leader is establishing or changing the culture

through mind, speech and behavior as shown on his or her dealing with problems or

paying attention to everything that is considered important. This finding is also consistent

with the findings of some previous researchers, namely: one of the functions of the leader

is to create and build a culture and climate within the organization.(Bass, 1990; Schein,

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1992), indicated that leaders are credited with building cultures, being founders of

cultures and subcultures, promoting change in culture and maintaining culture.

2.3 Previous Studies

2.3.1 Arabic Studies

1- Abbas, Munir (2008) Study entitled "leadership Styles effects in organizational

loyalty".

The study aimed to identify the leadership styles used in the organizations public and

private sectors, and the impact of these styles in the level of organizational loyalty, to

organizations workers both public and private sectors as well as to identify the impact of

certain types of personal and some external variables, in follow the administrative leaders

and leadership style in organizations, public and private sectors.

The most important results:

1. Transformational leadership style applied in the public sector companies.

2. Transformational leadership style applied in the private sector companies are largest

than the public sector companies.

3. The transformational leadership style has a greater positive effect than the impact of

interactive leadership style in the level of organizational loyalty to workers, public sector

organizations and private sector.

4. There is a relationship between some of the external variables such as laws and

regulations and in the central decision-making and the scope of supervision and follow

administrative leaders to a leadership style in the public and private sectors.

66
2- Abd ALelah, Sameer (2006) Study entitled "The reality of the organizational

culture existing in the Palestinian universities in the Gaza province and its impact

on the level of organizational development for universities: a comparative study".

The study aimed to identify the types of organizational culture prevailing at the Islamic

University, Al Azhar University and Al Aqsa University in the Gaza Strip. It also aimed

to identify the level of organizational development at the mentioned universities.

Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between the organizational culture and

organizational development .The researcher distributed 340 questionnaires. The sample

consisted of administrative, academics and top level management at the universities. The

number of respondents was 264. (77.6%) The analytical descriptive approach was

applied .The findings of study showed that the Islamic University was inclined to the

achievement culture. While the organizational culture at Al Azhar University and Al

Aqsa University was inclined to the role culture. In addition, the study revealed that the

top level management at the universities formulated the organizational culture. Further, it

showed that the level of organizational development at the Islamic University was very

high; at Al Azhar University was high, while at Al Aqsa University was moderate. The

study also showed that there was statistical significant relationship between the

organizational culture and organizational development . In light of the findings the

researcher suggested some recommendations including, the need to reduce the

authoritative management style at Al Azhar and Al Aqsa Universities. This can be

achieved through applying the necessary laws and regulations, increasing the level of

delegation and developing human resources.

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3- Al-Ahmad, Hussam (2008) Study entitled "The Impact of Organizational Culture

in the Development of Creative Behavior for Employees".

The study aimed to analyze the impact of organizational culture in the development of

creative behavior of workers in the spinning and weaving companies in the city of

Aleppo. The most important findings:

1. There is interest by the management of the textile companies in Aleppo encouraging

organizational culture of creativity.

2. Creative behavior is available in the spinning and weaving companies in Aleppo good

standard.

3. There is a clear impact of organizational culture in the development of creative

behavior of workers in the spinning and weaving companies.

4- Askar, Abdul-Aziz (2012)"Participatory Leadership And Its Relationship To The

Organizational Culture Of Public School Principals The Provinces Of Gaza From

The Perspective Of Teachers".

The study aimed to identify the participatory leadership and its relationship to

organizational culture managers have a public school in Gaza Governorates from the

perspective of teachers, and study population consisted of all teachers in government

schools in Gaza Governorates for the academic year 2011-2012 and who are (9900),

teachers, the study sample (727) teachers were selected randomly, and the researcher

used the descriptive method. The research found that:

1- The human relations in the highest echelons of participatory leadership relative

weight (77.6%), followed by the post commander of subordinates in the tasks of

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leadership got a second relative weight (73.9), followed by the delegation of authority

got the third position relative weight (73.4%).

2- There are no statistically significant differences between the mean estimates of

teachers to the pattern existing organizational culture among managers of public schools

in the Gaza provinces caused by sex (male, female).

3- The study also confirmed a statistically significant relationship at the level of (0.01)

between participatory leadership in all fields and its total score and between

organizational culture in all fields and its total score.

5- Elsaid, Eyad (2012) Study entitled "Culture and Leadership: Comparing Egypt

To The GLOBE Study Of 62 Societies".

The study aimed to improve the understanding of the western conceptions of leadership

in competition with emerging leadership paradigms in non-western societies. The study

examined the societal culture in Egypt using GLOBE’s nine cultural attributes and

dimensions. Paired sample t-tests were used to test for differences in the Egyptian data

that was collected. The data was collected from 142 Egyptian middle managers from 19

organizations from 2008 to 2011. It was compared to the data collected as part of the

GLOBE research project. The results showed that Egyptians are most interested in

reducing the power distance and increasing the future orientation aspects of their societal

culture.

6- Dmour, Ibtesam, Abu Saleh, M. S., and Al-Ali, A. M. (2010) Study entitled "The

Effects of Transactional and Transformational Leadership on Acquisition of

Critical Thinking of Employees in Jordanian Hospitals".

69
This study aimed to examine the impact of transactional and transformational leadership

styles as independent variables on acquisition of critical thinking skills as dependent

variable.

In order to achieve the objectives of the study two highly reliable and valid instruments,

the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Leader Form (Bass and Avolio, 1995,

1996), and Professional Judgment Rating Scale (Facione et al., 1998), were used.

Random simple sample selected from manager's Jordanian hospitals, consisted of (55)

managers.

The results of regression tests revealed that there is positive impact of transformational

leadership style on acquisition of critical thinking skills to employees in Jordanian

hospitals, superficial impact was found due to transactional leadership style and negative

impact of organizational dimension culture there was not significance.

7- Hajee, Zahra. E. (2012) Study entitled "Leadership Styles: A Study of Managers

in Bahraini Organizations".

This article examined the relationship between leadership and ability to establish

relationships and bonds, within the context of national and organizational culture in

Bahrain. The research covered five major organizations in Bahrain: petrochemicals,

petroleum, telecommunications, shipbuilding and repair, and banking. It examined the

relationship between six leadership styles (Coercive, Authoritative, Affiliation,

Democratic, Pacesetting and Coaching), and components of emotional intelligence (self-

awareness, self-management, social awareness and social skills) identified by Goleman

(2000). The research adopted a deductive approach using the Emotional Competency

Inventory as well as interviews with 103 executives and managers. The research found

70
that the six leadership styles were used by the executives. National and corporate culture

influenced such leadership styles. The standardized tests used need to be adjusted to suit

the culture in Bahrain. The findings of this research therefore add a new dimension

(namely, national and corporate culture in the Gulf Region) to the concept of emotional

intelligence.

8- Hamad, Eyad (2011) Study entitled "The Impact of Transformational Leadership

Style in the Management of Organizational Change: Field Study on the Red

Crescent Hospital Damascus".

The study aimed to identify the concept of transformational leadership and its elements,

and define the organizational change, and the most important Internal and external causes

that affect the process of change, and the study addressed to what extent the impact of

transformational leadership in the process of organizational change. The research found

that there is influence of transformational leadership in organizational change

management process within the studied hospital, and there is no specific dimension of

transformational leadership has the greatest impact in the management of organizational

change, but convergent effects were the dimensions of transformational leadership in the

process of organizational change.

9- Mohammad, Shelash (2011) Study entitled "The Relationship Between

Transformational Leadership and Employees’ Satisfaction At Jordanian Private

Hospitals".

The study has aimed at identifying the relationship between transformational leadership

and job satisfaction of registered nurses at Jordanian private hospitals, the population of

the study consisted of registered nurses at private hospitals located in Amman (capital of

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Jordan). There have been 200 surveys mailed out to registered nurses. One hundred and

sixty eight usable surveys have been returned with an 83% response rate. Regarding

transformational leadership, the survey was adapted from the Multifactor Leadership

Questionnaire (MLQ). The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) developed by

Weiss (1967) was adopted to measure the two factors of job satisfaction. The study has

shown a statistically significant positive relationship existing between the five

dimensions of transformational leadership and the two dimensions of job satisfaction, the

strongest relationship between internal job satisfaction and transformational leadership

has been visible among the intellectual stimulation dimension.

10- Randeree, Kasim (2007) Study entitled "Leadership in project managed

environments: employee perceptions of leadership styles within infrastructure

development in Dubai".

The study aimed to examine leadership styles in a rapidly growing industry in what is

also such a cosmopolitan city. Hence, the research undertaken aimed to study leadership

styles in construction project management in Dubai. The findings show that employees

feel that Consensus and Team Management leadership styles are predominant in the

industry and employees have shown preference for working under these leadership styles.

11- Varadarajan, Damodharan (2013) Study entitled "Relationship between

Leadership Styles and Leadership Virtues–An Investigation of Managers in UAE".

The study aimed to discuss the leadership styles and virtues of the top managerial level

executives in the UAE. The sample consisted of 115 managers of whom interviewed 75

females and 40 males. The age groups that we had in the dataset ranged from 21 to 50

years, dominated by the age group 21 to 30 years that comprised 64% of the data. The

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respondents were from various companies, departments, and at different managerial

levels. The study concluded that the successful managers in the UAE adopted a

Democratic Leadership Style, where education and work experience were the most

important factors amongst the managers of the UAE. Finally, the Leadership Virtues that

explained the leadership style amongst the top managers were their Judgment Score (at

99% confidence level) and their Enthusiasm Score (at 95% confidence level).

12- Yahchouchi, Georges (2009) Study entitled "Employees’ Perceptions of

Lebanese Managers’ Leadership Styles and Organizational Commitment".

The research investigated the employees’ perceptions of the prevalent leadership style in

Lebanon and its impact on organizational commitment. The Lebanese society with its

social complexity has much to offer to the understanding of the culture’s effect on

leadership style and organizational commitment. Moreover, the impact of religion and

gender on leadership style and organizational commitment is examined. Data were

collected in a survey on a sample composed of 158 respondents chosen among employees

working and living in two different areas in Lebanon. Results showed that Lebanese

leadership tends to be more transformational than transactional. Evidence supporting a

positive relation between transformational leadership and organizational commitment has

been found. A significant and curious difference in leadership perception and

organizational commitment between religious communities has also been noted.

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2.3.2 International Studies

1-Al- Sardieh, Eid (2012) Study entitled "Transformational Leadership and

Organizational Culture in Small-Scale Industries in The Governorate of Mafraq".

The study aimed to investigate the effect of transformational leadership on organizational

culture in small-scale industries in the governorate of Mafraq.

The study showed that there is a statistically significant effect and at the level of

significance (a£ 0.05) to the dimensions of transformational leadership on organizational

culture in small-scale industries, the researcher recommends working on the focus and

the dissemination and promotion of dynamics culture in the small-scale industries in the

governorate of Mafraq in order to enhance creativity and innovation, in order to reach an

acceptable level which improves competitiveness.

2- Ardichvili, Alexander (2002) Study entitled "Leadership styles and cultural

values among managers and subordinates: a comparative study of four countries of

the former Soviet Union, Germany, and the US".

This cross-cultural study utilized the full range leadership framework developed by Bass

and Avolio and Hofstede’s model of culture, and compared leadership styles and cultural

values of over 4,000 managerial and non-managerial employees in ten business

organizations in Russia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Germany, and the US.

Regarding socio-cultural dimensions, the study found that, compared to Germany and the

US, the four former USSR countries differed primarily by much lower levels of Power

Distance, higher levels of Masculinity and much longer planning horizons. The results on

leadership indicate that two dimensions – Contingent Reward and Inspirational

Motivation – produced the highest scores in all four countries of the former USSR. Two

74
less efficient leadership styles, Laissez-faire and Management by Exception, have

received significantly higher scores in the four former USSR countries, than in the US

and Germany. Finally, the study suggests that cross-cultural human resource development

issues cannot be described in terms of simplified dichotomies between the East and West.

For constructs measured in this study, significant differences were found not only

between the two groups of countries but also between individual countries within these

groups.

3- Berson, and Avolio (2004) Study entitled "Transformational Leadership and The

Dissemination of Organizational Goals: A Case Study of A Telecommunication

Firm".

The study examined how the leadership style of top and middle-level managers in a large

telecommunications organization was related to their effectiveness in conveying strategic

organizational goals. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, the study found that

transformational leaders perceived organizational goals as prospector oriented, and were

rated as more effective communicators by their direct reports. An exploratory analysis

indicated that managers who reported to transformational leaders tended to have higher

agreement on the strategic goals of the organization. Leaders who were effective

communicators had direct reports who were more familiar with the goals of the

organization.

4- Berson, Y., and Linton, J. D. (2005) Study entitled "An examination of the

relationships between leadership style, quality, and employee satisfaction in R and D

versus administrative environments".

Sample of this study was conducted in a telecommunication organization

75
The study examined the relationship between leadership style and the establishment of a

quality environment in a Rand D setting based on an empirical study of 511 research

engineers and scientists. It is found that both transformational leadership and

transactional contingent-reward leadership are related to the establishment of a quality

environment in the Rand D part of a telecommunications firm. However, the impact of

transactional contingent-reward leadership ceases to be significant once both leadership

styles are considered simultaneously using structural equations. A transformational

leadership style was also found to be related to employee satisfaction.

5-Casida, J. (2008) Study entitled "Leadership-Organizational Culture Relationship

in Nursing Units of Acute Care Hospitals".

The study aimed to explore the relationship between nurse managers’ leadership styles

and organizational culture of nursing units, within an acute care hospital that had

achieved excellent organizational performance, as demonstrated by a consistent increase

in patient satisfaction ratings. The data from this study found that transformational and

transactional contingent reward leaderships as nurse manager leadership styles, that are

associated with nursing unit organizational culture, that have the ability to balance the

dynamics of flexibility and stability within their nursing units, and are essential for

maintaining organizational effectiveness. It is essential for first-line nursing leaders to

acquire knowledge and skills on organizational cultural competence.

6- Irtaimeh, Hani (2011) Study entitled "Transformational Leadership and

Adhocracy Culture in Zain Cellular Communications Company Operating in

Jordan".

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The study aimed to investigate the impact of transformational leadership on adhocracy

culture. The target population for this survey comprised of employees working-full time

in Zain Cellular Communications Company Operating in Jordan. A total of 240 of the

questionnaires were completed and used in the data analysis representing a response rate

of 67 percent. Transformational leadership was measured by using Bass and Avolio’s

(1995) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ form 5X). Adhocracy culture was

measured by using Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) developed by

Quinn (1998). The research showed that 67.2 percent of the variance in Adhocracy

culture could be attributed to the transformational leadership of organizational leaders.

7- Jasim-Uddin (2013) Study entitled "The Impact Of Organizational Culture On

Employee Performance And Productivity: A Case Study Of Telecommunication

Sector In Bangladesh".

The study aimed to examine the impact of organizational culture on employee

performance and productivity from the perspectives of multinational companies operating

especially under the telecommunication sector of Bangladesh in South Asia. The paper

has applied qualitative methodology focusing on a case study of Grameen phone (GP) (a

subsidiary of Teleron in Norway), the leading telecommunication based subsidiary in

Bangladesh. The paper argued that organizational culture significantly influences

employee performance and productivity in the dynamic emerging context.

8- Kanungo, S. (1998) Study entitled "An Empirical Study of Organizational

Culture and Network-Based Computer Use an Empirical Study of Organizational".

The study investigated the influence of organizational culture on computer-mediated

communication and information access (CMCIA). A validated instrument to assess

77
CMCIA and organizational culture was used. Organizational culture was treated as a

shared set of norms and values.

Meaningful CMCIA occurs when computer-network technology is maximally exploited

to amplify individual information processing actions to foster organizational excellence.

CMCIA was measured by a weighted user-satisfaction importance rating. Both

organizational culture and CMCIA were measured empirically by administering

questionnaires to respondents in organizations that use computer networks. A non-

experimental field study was employed to test the hypothesis that particular types of

organizational cultures foster computer-network effectiveness while other types hinder it.

The usable response rate was 45%. Eight organizations were used for data analysis.

Statistically significant findings showed that organizational culture interacts with the

degree of use to affect user satisfaction with CMCIA. In task-oriented organizations, user

satisfaction with CMCIA was positively related to degree of use. People-oriented

organizations displayed a negative relationship between degree o fuse and user

satisfaction with CMCIA. These results can be used when designing implementation

strategies for information systems that have the potential to affect whole departments or

organizations.

9 - Kavanagh, Marie (2006) Study entitled "The Impact of Leadership and Change

Management Strategy on organizational Culture and Individual Acceptance of

Change during a Merger".

This study examined mergers between three large multi-site public-sector organizations.

Both qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis are used to examine the effect of

leadership and change management strategies on acceptance of cultural change by

78
individuals. Findings indicate that in many cases the change that occurs as a result of a

merger is imposed on the leaders themselves, and it is often the pace of change that

inhibits the successful re-engineering of the culture. In this respect, the success or

otherwise of any merger hinges on individual perceptions about the manner in which the

process is handled and the direction in which the culture is moved. Communication and a

transparent change process are important, as this will often determine not only how a

leader will be regarded, but who will be regarded as a leader. Leaders need to be

competent and trained in the process of transforming organizations to ensure that

individuals within the organization accept the changes prompted by a merger.

10- Kuchinke (1999) Study entitled "Leadership and Culture: Work‐Related Values

and Leadership Styles Among One Company's US and German Telecommunication

Employees".

The study aimed to investigate differences in leadership styles and work-related values

among managers, engineers, and production employees of one company's US and

German telecommunication employees, all these are examined based on survey results.

Using Bass and Avolio's (1991) Full-Range Leadership theory and Hofstede's (1980)

theory of culture, the results reveal lower levels of transformational leadership styles

among German employees, but no differences in leadership styles among different job

categories in either country. There were country-level differences in culture that

explained a portion of the variance in leadership scores. Job category also had a main

effect on cultural values. Patterns of work-related values different from those predicted in

earlier research are shown, as is the need for further refinement of research in leadership

theory and understanding of culture.

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11- Kwantes, Catherine (2007) Study entitled "Perceptions of organizational

culture, leadership effectiveness and personal effectiveness across six countries".

Perceptions of which facets of organizational culture are related to leadership and

personal effectiveness were examined using archival data from Canada, Hong Kong,

New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Organizational

culture was strongly perceived as being related to both leadership effectiveness

(explaining 40% of the variance) and personal effectiveness (24% of the variance).

Aspects of organizational culture that promote employee fulfillment and satisfaction were

uniformly viewed as positively related to leadership and personal effectiveness. The

perceived relationship across samples was stronger between organizational culture and

leadership effectiveness than between organizational culture and personal effectiveness.

12- Lok, Peter (2004) Study entitled "The effect of organizational culture and

leadership style on job satisfaction and organizational commitment A cross-national

comparison".

This study examined the effects of organizational culture and leadership styles on job

satisfaction and organizational commitment in samples of Hong Kong and Australian

managers. Statistically significant differences between the two samples were found for

measures of innovative and supportive organizational cultures, job satisfaction and

organizational commitment, with the Australian sample having higher mean scores on all

these variables. However, differences between the two samples for job satisfaction and

commitment were removed after statistically controlling for organizational culture,

leadership and respondents’ demographic characteristics. For the combined samples,

innovative and supportive cultures, and a consideration leadership style, had positive

80
effects on both job satisfaction and commitment, with the effects of an innovative culture

on satisfaction and commitment, and the effect of a consideration leadership style on

commitment, being stronger in the Australian sample. Also, an “initiating Structure”

leadership style had a negative effect on job satisfaction for the combined sample.

Participants’ level of education was found to have a slight negative effect on satisfaction,

and a slight positive effect on commitment. National culture was found to moderate the

effect of respondents’ age on satisfaction, with the effect being more positive amongst

Hong Kong managers.

13- Lok, Peter (1999) Study entitled "The relationship between commitment and

organizational culture, subculture, leadership style and job satisfaction in

organizational change and development".

The concept of organizational commitment has been examined extensively in

organizational literature, yet the relationships between organizational culture, subculture,

and commitment have received little attention so far. Acknowledging the complexity and

the multifaceted nature of antecedents involved in organizational commitment, it is still

necessary to understand the dynamics of relationships between these variables. It was

found that organizational subculture was more strongly related to commitment than was

organizational culture. Satisfaction with the level of control over working environment

had the highest correlation with the level of commitment. The leadership style variable,

consideration, was also relatively strongly related to commitment when compared with

other variables. There was a small positive association between age and commitment.

However, participants' level of education, years in position and years of experience failed

to show any relationship with commitment.

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14- Lugo, Maria (2013) Study entitled "Cultural and Emotional Intelligences in the

Development of Global Transformational Leadership Skills".

The study examined the strength and direction of relationships between the self and

social dimensions of both emotional and cultural intelligences and transformational

leadership skills. Data was gathered from 171 students enrolled at Les Roches

International School of Hotel Management in Switzerland. Statistical analyses included

factor analysis, Cronbach’s Alpha, Pearson’ r, and regression. Results found a direct

correlation between the self and social dimension of transformational leadership and

emotional and cultural intelligence skills, supporting the study hypotheses.

15- Sabri, Hala (2008) Study entitled "Jordanian Managers' Leadership Styles in

Comparison with the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and

Prospects for Knowledge Management in Jordan".

The research aimed to examine the newer leadership styles and their implication for

implementing knowledge management in Jordanian organizations. The research

investigated Jordanian managers’ leadership styles and then compared them with

managers in other organizations with different cultures, such as the International Air

Transport association (IATA). A survey of 120 managers from Jordan and IATA was

undertaken using an established measurement instrument. Results revealed that

meanwhile IATA managers preferred transformational than transactional leadership style,

in Jordan, there was no clear preference for transactional or transformational style as both

were being used. But when compared with IATA managers Jordanian managers showed

more inclination towards transactional than transformational behaviors. However, like

other comparative research, the study shared the limitation of likely sampling bias.

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Moreover, it did not take into account the political realities of conducting social science

research in countries with long authoritarian histories, such as Jordan, which present the

likelihood of further response bias.

16- Sarros, James (2008) Study entitled "Building a Climate for Innovation

Through Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture".

Researchers have called for organizations to be more flexible, adaptive, entrepreneurial,

and innovative in meeting the changing demands of today’s environment. Appropriate

leadership to effect such change is required; however, there has been little empirical

analysis of the theoretical relationships among the key components that make up such

change strategy, including transformational leadership, organizational culture, and

organizational innovation. This study examined these linkages in terms of their

relationships with climate for organizational innovation in Australian private sector

organizations. Structural equation modeling based on responses to a survey of 1,158

managers explores the relationship between transformational leadership and climate for

organizational innovation and the extent to which a competitive, performance-oriented

organizational culture mediates this relationship. Strategies for building innovative

organizations are discussed. The evidence in the study suggested that transformational

leadership is associated with organizational culture, primarily through the processes of

articulating a vision, and to a lesser extent through the setting of high performance

expectations and providing individual support to workers.

17- Shiva, M. (2012) Study entitled "Transformational Leadership,

Organizational Culture, Organizational Effectiveness, And Programme

Outcomes In Non-Governmental Organizations".

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The study examined whether transformational leadership influences organizational

culture that furthers NGOs’ effectiveness. It also examines whether transformational

leadership at the top directly influences NGOs’ effectiveness. Further, it tests whether

NGO effectiveness improves the program outcomes in terms of health, income,

education, and happiness of villagers. Data were collected from 312 NGOs in Jharkhand

state (India). Transformational leadership, organizational culture, and NGO effectiveness

were assessed from NGO personnel using standard instruments, and program outcomes

on health, income, education, and happiness were evaluated from villagers using wooden

cubes. Findings reveal that transformational leadership builds organizational culture that

furthers NGO effectiveness. Transformational leadership does not influence directly

NGO effectiveness but it enhances NGO effectiveness promoting organizational culture.

Furthermore, NGO effectiveness improves the outcomes of programs undertaken by

NGOs in terms of better health, income, education, and happiness of beneficiaries.

18- Snipes Bennett (2006) Study entitled "The Effectiveness of a Diverse Workforce

within Nonprofit Organizations Serving Older Adults: An Analysis of the Impact of

Leadership Styles and Organizational Culture".

The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a relationship between leadership

styles, organizational culture (OC), and organizational effectiveness outcomes (OEO).

The relationship study applies data collection and scoring procedures developed by Bass

and Avolio. Leader/manager leadership styles were compared with organizational culture

and organizational effectiveness outcome. This quantitative study utilized bivariate

correlation techniques of Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation. Results determined that

some leadership styles were significantly correlated with organizational culture and

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organizational effectiveness outcomes and few were not correlated. Therefore, it is

hypothesized that leadership styles as perceived by staff have a significant impact on

organizational culture and organizational effectiveness outcomes. Additionally, the study

shows the self-assessed leader/manager leadership styles and the impact their leadership

styles have on organizational culture and organizational effectiveness outcomes. The

study also demonstrates that leaders’ self-assessed leadership style, organizational

culture, and organizational effectiveness outcomes were opposite from the perception of

staff.

19- Su-Chao Chang, Ming-Shing Lee (2007) Study entitled "Relationship Among

Leadership, Organizational Culture, The Operation Of Learning Organization And

Employees' Job Satisfaction".

Sample of this study was conducted in a telecommunication organization

The research results indicated that the various operations extent of learning organization

have significant differences under the dimensions of leadership, organizational culture

and the operation of learning organization. Both leadership and organizational culture can

positively and significantly affect the operation of learning organization. In addition, the

operation of learning organizations has a significantly positive effect on employees' job

satisfaction.

20- Sumarto and Andi Subroto, (2011). Study entitled "Organizational Culture and

Leadership Role for Improving Organizational Performance: Automotive

Components Industry in Indonesia".

The study built a research model in order to provide a comprehensive understanding not

only to know how the contribution of organizational culture and leadership to enhance

85
organizational performance, and how they are to each other, but also to answer the gaps

in previous research on Organizational culture and organizational performance. The study

was conducted on automotive component industry in Indonesia. Target population

consisted of 165 companies as members of GIAMM (Gabungan Industrial at Mobil dan

Motor/Joint Industrial Tool and Motor Car) throughout Indonesia. The sampling

technique used is the census sampling in which the entire target population to be

sampled. Results show that Leadership has a strong role in improving organizational

performance and in shaping organizational culture. While strong organizational culture

cannot be proved to improve organizational performance.

21- Tsui, Anne (2006) Study entitled "Unpacking the relationship between CEO

leadership behavior and organizational culture".

The study aimed to understand when and why decoupling between CEO leadership

behavior and organizational culture may occur. The study examined this issue in a novel

context, the People’s Republic of China, where there is large variance on leader

discretion in different types of firms. The study conducted two survey studies and an

interview study to unpack the nature of the relationship. The findings offer insights on

both leadership and institutional factors that may account for the decoupling between

CEO leadership behavior and organizational cultural values. The researcher offer

directions for future research on both leadership and organizational culture phenomena

and their potential relationships or lack of.

22- Zahari, Ibrahim et.al. (2012) Study entitled "The Effect of Organizational

Culture and the Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Job

Satisfaction in Petroleum Sector of Libya".

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The study aimed to investigate the effect of organizational culture on the relationship

between transformational leadership and job satisfaction in petroleum sector with a focus

on the National Oil Corporation of Libya (NOC). The findings indicate that the leaders of

National Oil Corporation of Libya follow transformational leadership style to manage

their organization, and the dominant culture in NOC of Libya is Hierarchy culture while

the relationship between transformational leadership style, job satisfaction and

organizational culture is positive significant relationship.

2.4 Contribution of the Research to Knowledge

The previous review of previous studies and researches showed a growing interest among

researchers of the important of leadership styles in creating culture. For example

Muhammad (2011), studied the relationship between the leadership styles

(transformational and transactional) on employees’ satisfaction at Jordanian private

hospitals and found a positive relationship between transformational leadership and

employee's satisfaction in Jordanian hospitals. Casida (2008) also studied leadership-

organizational culture relationship in nursing units of acute care, and found that

transformational and transactional contingent reward leaderships are the major leadership

styles of nurse manager, and they are associated with nursing unit organizational culture,

that have the ability to balance the dynamics of flexibility and stability within their

nursing units, and are essential for maintaining organizational effectiveness. While AL-

Saradieh, (2012) showed there is an effect of the dimensions of transformational

leadership on organizational culture in small-scale industries in the government of

Mafraq. Abbas, (2008) studied the effects of leadership styles on organizational loyalty.

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This research adds to management researchers and contributes in this field. It is also a

good base for those who are eager to expand the topic and do similar research in Jordan

or in other countries of the region. The research is also a good material to understand the

relation between leadership styles and organizational culture types, and to determine the

leadership styles that should prevail at telecommunication companies, and the type of the

organizational culture, to enhance employees’ motivation and organization performance.

In addition the research spotlight on the telecommunication sector in Jordan, to help the

decision makers in the Orange and Umniah companies to well understand their leadership

styles and the types of organizational culture.

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CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

This research sought to explore the relationship between the leadership styles and types

of organizational culture in the Orange and Umniah telecommunication companies in

Jordan. This chapter presents a description of these two companies followed by the

research design, statistical techniques in data analysis, and the data collecting

instruments. In addition, the chapter provides a description of the population and samples

as well as the survey instruments. The reliability and validity of the survey instruments

are also examined.

The research contains both primary and secondary data. The resources of the primary

data were collected using international survey instruments, to measure the leadership

styles and the types of organizational culture. The resources of the secondary data are

based on previous research, academic journals, dissertations, and the World Wide Web.

To measure if there is a significant statistical impact among respondents’ demographic

variables with regard to their perceptions to the leadership styles and organizational

culture, further exploration is required to assess how the variables of leadership styles

interact with the demographic variables of experience, age, gender, educational level, and

job level, and to assess the probable impact on the organizational culture.

Orange and Umniah Telecommunication Companies

1. Jordan Telecom Group (JTG) / Orange Company play a prominent role in the

information and communications technology sector (ICT). Its lineup of fixed, mobile, and

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internet services constitutes the real base for the Kingdom’s telecommunications

backbone and contributes to its integration with regional and world countries.

In the biggest integration of its kind in the market, JTG in 2006 combined its four

companies under one umbrella, becoming the sole integrated operator in Jordan

(Mobilecom) (www.orange.jo). In 2007, the Group adopted the Orange brand – the

commercial brand of France Telecom Group –for all its fixed, mobile, internet and

content services, marking another significant achievement for the ICT sector. This step

aimed at providing the Jordanian market with the standardized world class services

offered by the Orange brand, which has 190 million customers in 220 countries and

territories worldwide. Since then, Orange Jordan has made available the best

telecommunications services for its customers by offering various and comprehensive

services at affordable prices, – the most recent being the introduction of its 3G+ network,

which made Orange Jordan the exclusive mobile operator in Jordan authorized to provide

3G+ services in the local market.

In 2009, Orange launched the Information Security Operation Center – a revolutionary

project designed to provide imperative managed security services in accordance with

international standards and with the capacity to compete with global security centers.

Orange Jordan Techno Center serve as a principal access for all the France Telecom –

Orange affiliates in EMEA region that wish to acquire the high dedicated innovation

streams, which include voice products and services, portal and multimedia in addition to

broadband growth. With its ability to call upon the vast expertise of its French partner

and main shareholder, France Telecom, JTG continues to provide the market with all that

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the world telecom industry has to offer, supported by its state of the art digital network

that extends to cover the Kingdom in its entirety.

With an unwavering commitment to its local community, JTG has established business

goals that fall in line with sustainable development in the Kingdom, seeking to reconcile

growth and competitiveness with its commitment to social development and the

improvement of the quality of life for future generations. The Group now serves more

than 2.9 million customers with cutting edge technologies and world-class services

offered at highly affordable prices (www.orange.jo).

2. Umniah Company. Upon the official launch of its operations on June 26th 2005,

Umniah quickly succeeded in making a strong entrance into one of the region’s most

highly competitive markets, positioning itself as the most successful operator to enter

the Jordanian telecommunications market to date. A driving factor behind Umniah’s

success is its sound and calculated business strategies and its provision of a

comprehensive range of telecom solutions that include advanced mobile, Internet and

business solutions services at competitive prices, balancing quality with value for money

(http://www.umniah.com). Umniah’s devotion to serving its subscribers, whom are its first

priority, has driven it to keep abreast of the latest market developments and changing

needs of various consumer segments. Today Umniah, a subsidiary of Batelco Group, has

become Jordan's fastest growing mobile telecom operator with over two million mobile

subscribers and over 20,000 broadband subscribers , gaining a significant share of the

Jordanian telecom market in record time. Umniah has also been able to expand the

Jordanian mobile and Internet market penetration rate through its comprehensive

services, supporting the kingdom’s national agenda (http://www.umniah.com).

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3.2 Research Design

This research addresses the relationship between two leadership styles (Transformational

and Transactional leadership), and four types of organizational culture (Role, Power,

Support, and Achievement). To collect the data of the leadership styles (transformational

and transactional) the research adopts the questionnaire survey of leadership styles

developed by(W. Warner Burke 1983, as cited by Schermerhorn, 2002). It also adopts"

Diagnosing Organizational Culture" questionnaire developed by Harrison and Stokes

(1992) to assess the types of organizational culture (Power, Role, Achievement, and

Support). The two questionnaires are international instruments and have been used by

many researchers; they are more cost effective, there is a uniform question presentation,

no middle-man bias, and the researcher's own opinions do not influence the respondents

to answer the questions in a certain manner.

3.3 Statistical Techniques in Data Analysis

To examine the hypotheses which were formulated to examine the types of leadership

styles and the types of organizational culture at Orange and Umniah companies, the

Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used. The following statistical

techniques have been used in data analysis:

1. Descriptive Statistical Techniques: mean, standard deviation, range,

frequencies, percentage.

2. One Sample T-Test: To measure the dominant leadership styles and the types of

organizational culture.

3. Independent Sample t-test: To measure the differences between Umniah and

Orange companies regarding leadership styles and organizational culture.

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4. Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (Pearson correlation): was used to

examine the relationships between the leadership styles and the four types of

organization culture in Orange and Umniah companies.

5. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA): was used to test if significant differences exist

between groups.

6. Scheffe's multiple comparison procedure: was used to detect exactly where the

mean differences lie between the leadership styles and organizational culture in

Orange and Umniah companies.

7. Reliability Test: for the instruments of measurement (leadership styles and

organizational culture), the reliability of a measure highlights the stability and

consistency of the concepts which the instrument measuring, and helps to assess

the 'goodness' of a measure (Sakaran, 1992).The researcher assessed the reliability

of the leadership styles and organizational culture instruments and for each of the

instruments dimensions through the measure of reliability coefficient. The

reliability coefficient shows how congruent are the items in measuring accurately

which it is intended to measure. This can be achieved by applying either a test-re-

test experiment, or an alternate form using similar versions of the same

instrument. The value of reliability varies from zero to one, to be satisfactory it

should be around 0.70 or higher (Sakaran, 1992).

3.4 Population and Sample

3.4.1 Population

The research population consisted of the employees working at the head office of Orange

and Umniah telecommunication companies operating within greater Amman municipality

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in Jordan. Orange company employs around 600 employees at its head office and

Umniah Company employs around 250 employees at its head office in Amman-Jordan.

To cover the entire population of telecommunication companies in Jordan, the researcher

initially aimed to include Zain Telecommunication Company in this research. However

after communicating Zain's administration to include them in the study they apologized,

therefore the research population was limited to Orange and Umniah companies only.

3.4.2 Sampling and Sampling Methods

The research used random stratified sample of a size of 265 employees (Sekaran, 2007).

The sample has been derived into two strata as illustrated in Table 2. A total of 265

questionnaires have been distributed (188 for Orange, and 77 for Umniah). The returned

and accepted usable questionnaire were 125 (76 from Orange, and 49 from Umniah) at a

total response rate of 47%.

Table 2: Questionnaires’ Response Rate at Orange and Umniah companies

Company Population Percentage Sample Response Response


Name of Size Percentage
Population

Orange 600 71% 188 76 41%

Umniah 250 29% 77 49 63%

Total 850 100% 265 125 47%

3.5 Research Instrument

1. Measurement of Leadership Styles. The instrument developed by (W. Warner Burke

1983, as cited by Schermerhorn, 2002) was used. The instrument contains twenty items

measuring transformational and transactional leadership styles and it's available on the

World Wide Web (Schermerhorn, 2002).The questionnaire contains ten questions


94
represent the independent variables that have been identified in the light of ten factors

describing the transformational leadership (represented by A in each question), and ten

other factors describe transactional leadership (represented by B in each question). The

respondents were asked to read each item and then divide 5 points between A and B

statements in any one for the following ways:

5 for a, 0 for b; 4 for a, 1 for b; 3 for a, 2 for b; 2 for a, 3 for b; 1 for a, 4 for b; 0 for a, 5

for b, but not equally (2½) between the two. Weigh the respondent choices between the

two according to the one that characterizes them or their beliefs better.

2. Measurement of organizational culture: The instrument developed by Harrison

and Stokes (1992) entitled 'Diagnosing Organizational Culture' was used. This

instrument had fifteen questions, each of which was followed by four options (a, b, c and

d), each option describe one type of the four types of organizational culture developed

by Harrison and Stokes (Role, Power, Achievement, and Support).

Table 3: Harrison and Stokes Culture Measure Scale

A B C D

Power Role Achievement Support

The respondents were asked to read each item, and then rank each of the four options as

follows:

In a column entitled 'Existing Culture', rank which was the most dominant existing

culture and the least dominant culture in their organization

Score 4: For the most dominant (Existing) view.

Score 3: For the next most dominant (Existing) view.

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Score 2: For the next most dominant (Existing) view.

Score 1: For the least dominant (Existing) view.

Harrison and Stokes' instrument was used on several studies conducted to measure the

culture of organizations in different national cultures. In Europe and the United Kingdom,

by the Roffey Park Institute. In the United States by Harrison(1990) and Anderson(1995),

in Australia and New Zealand by Harrison(1990), in South Africa by Serfontein (1990)

and Van Stuyvesan (2008), in Singapore by Ong (2006), in Jordan by Sabri (2004), and

in Saudi Arabia by Al-Salem(1996).

Translation of The Research Instruments

To help respondents understand the terms used in the two instruments, it was necessary to

translate them into Arabic language. The researcher with the help of the supervisor did

the translation.

3.6Procedure for Data Collection

In order to get in-depth insights into the leadership style and types of organizational

culture, data were collected from telecommunication companies Orange and Umniah,

from the employees working at the two companies head offices in Amman-Jordan.

The researcher asked the respondents to fill in leadership style questionnaire, which

measures the type of leadership style even if it's transformational leadership style or

transactional leadership style. Also the researcher asked the respondents to fill

organizational culture questionnaire which measures the type of culture in the two

companies Orange and Umniah even its power culture, role culture, achievement culture,

or support culture.

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The researcher faced many difficulties while distributing the questionnaires. At Umniah

the management did not allow the researcher to pass through the offices and distribute the

questionnaires. The distribution process depended on the number of employees who

visited the company's cafeteria during their break, and many of them have apologized for

not completing the questionnaire due to shortage of time. To increase the number of the

respondents, the researcher convinced some of the respondents, who did not fill the

questionnaire to send it by e-mail which was good idea as the researcher has received

response from them.

At Orange the employees showed more cooperation than Umniah's employees however,

they did not have time to fill the questionnaire, so a number of employees opt to keep the

questionnaires to fill them later but did not return them to the researcher.

3.7 Validity and Reliability

3.7.1 Validity

Before conducting research and testing hypotheses, researchers have to ensure the

validity of the measurement instrument used. The validity of a measure refers to the

extent to which the research findings accurately represent what the measuring instrument

claims to measure (Bryman, 1995; Collis and Hussey, 2003; Punch, 2005). An instrument

is considered valid if it measures what the researcher claims it does (Collis and Hussey,

2003), which reflect the degree of reliability and the stability of the measurement tool.

The instruments are international instruments, that had been used and tested by different

researchers as indicated in the United States by Harrison(1990) and Anderson(1995), in

Australia and New Zealand by Harrison(1990), in South Africa by Serfontein (1990) and

Van Stuyvesan (2008), in Singapore by Ong (2006), Burke (1983), in Jordan by Sabri

97
(2004), and in Saudi Arabia by Al-Salem(1996), even though the researcher has did the

validity and reliability test.

3.7.2 Reliability

The mostly used reliability coefficient Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was determined for

the whole instrument, and was applied to each dimension to ensure inter-item consistency

reliability (Sekaran, 2003). Reliabilities ranging from 0.5 to 0.60 are sufficient for

exploratory studies (Nunnally, 1967 cited in Dimovski, 1994), in the range of 0.70 are

acceptable and over 0.80 are good (Sekaran, 2003). The values of Cronbach’s alpha

closer to 1 ensure the higher internal consistency reliability. Table 4 describes the

reliability of the research instruments.

Table 4: Reliability Test of The Research Instruments


Leadership Styles and Types of Organizational culture

Field
Field Value of (α)
Number

1 Power culture 0.969

2 Role culture 0.968

3 Achievement culture 0.974

4 Support culture 0.977

5 Transformational leadership style 0.933

6 Transactional leadership style 0.889

Total 0.952

After entering phrases component of the questionnaire, the results show that reliability

coefficient for both organizational culture and leadership style questionnaires equal to

98
(0.952). This means that there is stability in the form (approaching 1), and so on for the

organizational culture part where the reliability coefficient for the statements of this

section (0.972), while the leadership style part (0.911).

The total Cronbach's alpha for the research fields was (0.952).The maximum for

Cronbach's alpha was Support culture field (0.977), and the lower was at Transactional

leadership field (0.889). All the values in table 4 are more than (0.70) which is an

acceptable value (Sekaran, 2003), which will lead to the stability and reliability of the

results for this research.

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CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION OF RESULTS, DISSCUSSION AND

INTERPRETAION

4.1 Introduction

The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between leadership styles

and the organizational culture, at two telecommunication companies operating in Jordan

Orange and Umniah. This chapter presents the empirical findings of this research and

discusses these findings.

This research was accomplished through the use of survey instrument, for measuring

leadership style in Orange and Umniah. The instrument developed by (W. Warner Burke

1983, as cited by Schermerhorn, 2002) and the instrument developed by Harrison and

Stokes (1992) entitled 'Diagnosing Organizational Culture'. To examine the hypotheses

which were formulated to examine the leadership styles and types organizational culture

at Orange and Umniah companies the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was

used.

4.2 Demographic Profile of Respondents

Table 5 and table 6 shows the demographic profile of the research sample.

100
Table 5: Demographic Characteristics of the Sample at Orange company

Demographic Variables Frequency Percentage %

1. Experience 76 100%

Less than 5 Years 37 48.7

5-10 years 30 39.5

More than 10 years 8 10.5

Missing 1 1.30
2. Age 76 100%

Lower than 30 years 57 75.0

30-39 years 19 25.0

40-49 years 0 0.0

50 years and more 0 0.0

3. Gender 76 100%

Male 51 67.0

Female 25 33.0

4. Educational level 76 100%

Secondary 0 0.0

Bachelor 63 83.0

Graduate studies 13 17.0

(Master and PhD)

5. Job level 76 100%

Executive Manager 2 3.0

Manager 0 0.0

Head Department 13 17.0

Others (non managerial 61 80.0


employees)

101
Table 5 demonstrates that the majority of the employees sample of Orange company are

with seniority of less than 5 years with a (48.7%) of the respondents, and the majority of

the respondents were less than 30 years old as indicated in table 5, and that's an indication

that Orange company hires young people. The dominant age among groups participating

in the questionnaire at Orange company is less than 30 years, which represent (75.0 %) of

the respondents, and the second age group is between 30-39 years, which represent

(25.0%) that shows the general orientation for Orange telecommunication company is to

hire young people.

Table 5 also shows that (67.0%) of the respondents at Orange company were male, and

(33.0%) were female.

For the educational level, table 5 shows that the majority of the respondents were have

Bachelor degree with (83.0%), and the Graduated Studies were (17.0%), those results

showed that Orange company employees, have higher education so that they are able to

work within the local and global competition, keep abreast of developments in the

telecommunication sector, and keep up with the evolution in the world, including

reflected on their performance in their company that need this kind of staff that are highly

creative and innovative.

The results from table 5 shows that the majority of the sample respondents at Orange

company according to Job level were Others (non managerial employees) with (80.0%),

followed by Head Department achieved with (17.0%), of the respondents sample, its

noted that the managers and executives managers were the minority in the sample, and

this is due to the difficulty of access to them during the distribution of the questionnaires.

102
Table 6: Demographic Characteristics of the Sample at Umniah company

Demographic Variables Frequency Percentage %

1. Experience 49 100%

Less than 5 Years 21 43.0

5-10 years 26 53.0

More than 10 years 0 0.0

Missing 2 4.0
2. Age 49 100%

Lower than 30 years 26 53.0

30-39 years 17 35.0

40-49 years 1 2.0

50 years and more 5 0.10

3. Gender 49 100%

Male 32 65.0

Female 17 35.0

4. Educational level 49 3
100%

Secondary 3 6.0

Bachelor 37 75.6

Graduate studies 9 18.4

(Master and PhD)

5. Job level 49 100%

Executive Manager 0 0.0

Manager 5 10.0

Head Department 15 30.8

Others (non managers) 29 59.2

103
Table 6 demonstrates that the majority of the employees sample of Umniah company are

with seniority of less than 5 years with a (43.0%) of the respondents, and the majority of

the respondents were less than 30 years old as indicated in table 6, and that's an indication

that Umniah company hires young people. The dominant age among groups participating

in the questionnaire at Umniah company is less than 30 years, which represent (53.0 %)

of the respondents, and the second age group is between 30-39 years, which represent

(35.0%) that shows the general orientation for Umniah telecommunication company is to

hire young people.

Table 6 also shows that (65.0%) of the respondents at Orange company were male, and

(35.0%) were female.

For the educational level, table 6 shows that the majority of the respondents were have

Bachelor degree with (75.6%), and the Graduated Studies were (18.4%), those results

showed that Umniah company employees have higher education, so that they are able to

work within the local and global competition, keep abreast of developments in the

telecommunication sector, and keep up with the evolution in the world, including

reflected on their performance in their company that need this kind of staff that are highly

creative and innovative.

The results from table 6 shows that the majority of the sample respondents at Umniah

company according to Job level were Others (non managerial employees) with (59.2%),

followed by Head Department achieved with (30.8%), of the respondents sample, its

noted that the managers and executives managers were the minority in the sample, and

this is due to the difficulty of access to them during the distribution of the questionnaires.

104
The following criteria are used to test hypotheses in order to identify the leadership

styles, and organizational culture in Orange and Umniah companies (Hatamleh, 2006).

Table 7: criteria of evaluating the leadership styles and types of organizational culture in
Orange and Umniah companies

Extent Degree

1-1.99 Weak

2- 2.99 Medium

3 or more High
(Depicted from Hatamleh, 2006)

4.3 Results Pertaining to Examination of Hypotheses 1 and 2

In order to test hypothesis 1.8.1 which states that: "There is no significant difference at (α

≤ 0.05, µ=2.5) level of significance between the leadership style in Orange company and

the leadership style in Umniah company", and the alternate hypothesis (H1) 1.8.2 which

stated that: "there is significant difference at (α ≤ 0.05, µ=2.5) level of significance

between the leadership style in Orange company and the leadership style in Umniah

company", means and standard deviation were calculated for each leadership style of

both Orange and Umniah companies, then t-test was used to detect the difference. Table 8

shows the results.

Table 8 indicates that although mean score of transactional style is higher than the

transformational style at Orange Company, but the difference is not significant because

the significant value of 0.489 is higher than the significance level(α=0.05). Results show

significant difference between the transformational leadership and the transactional

105
leadership of Umniah company, as the significance value is 0.01 which is less than

(α=0.05).

Table 8: T-test to detect the difference between the leadership styles at Orange and the
leadership style at Umniah Companies
Leadership Std. t-value Sig- Value
Company Mean
style Deviation

Transformational 2.44 0.10


Orange 1.152 0.489
Transactional 2.60 0.10

Transformational 2.75 0.32


Umniah 4.14 0.01**
Transactional 2.38 0.32

4.4 Results Pertaining to Examination of Hypotheses 3 and 4

In order to test Hypothesis 1.8.3 which states that “There is no significant difference

between the existing type of organizational culture at Orange company and the existing

type of organizational culture at Umniah company at (α ≤ 0.05, µ=2.5) level of

significance and Hypothesis 1.8.4 which states that “There is significant difference

between the existing type of organizational culture at Orange company and the existing

type of organizational culture at Umniah company at (α ≤ 0.05, µ=2.5) level of

significance, t-test, means, and standard deviation were calculated for each, the

organizational culture of Orange and Umniah companies. Table 8 shows the results.

106
Table 9: One Sample t-Test to Examine The Organizational Culture in each of Orange
and Umniah Companies
Company Organizational Mean S.D t-value Sig-value
culture
Power 2.46 0.55 -.580 0.56

Orange Role 2.46 0.39 -.735 0.46

Achievement 2.59 0.38 2.17 0.03*

Support 2.47 0.49 -.467 0.64

Power 2.37 0.66 -1.46 0.15

Umnaih Role 2.71 0.36 4.21 0.00***

Achievement 2.74 .53 3.18 0.03**

Support 2.18 0.42 -5.35 0.00

Significance level (**α =0.05, ***α =0.00)

Table 9 illustrates that there is significant evidence at (α ≤ 0.05) for achievement culture

at Orange Company. The achievement culture indicates to a t-value of 2.17 which is

significant at 0.03. At Umnaih company results indicates that there is significant evidence

for role culture, and achievement culture. The role culture has a t-value of 4.21 which is

significant at (α=0.00), and the achievement culture has a t-value of 3.18 which is

significant at (α ≤ 0.05). However, even though support culture is significant but with

high negative t-value.

Table 10 shows that at a significant level of (α=0.05), there is no significant difference

between Orange and Umniah companies in the power culture since the significant level

indicates to (0.357). Moreover, results show that there is no significant difference

between Orange and Umniah in the Achievement culture as the significant level is

(0.079). But results indicate that there are significant differences between the two

companies in the role and support cultures. The difference in Role culture indicates to a

107
significant t-value of 3.599 which is significant at (α =0.00) level of significance. Umniah

company is higher in role culture with mean of (2.72) than Orange company with mean

of (2.47). Moreover, the difference in support culture indicates to a significant t-value of

3.433 which is significant at (α =0.01) level of significance. Orange company is higher in

support culture with mean of (2.47) than Umniah company with mean of (2.18).

Therefore, accept the alternate hypothesis, (H1) (1.8.4) which states that "there is a

difference between the existing type of organizational culture at Orange company and the

existing type of organizational culture at Umniah company".

Table 10: T-test, Means and Standard Deviations to detect differences in the types of
Organizational Culture between Orange and Umniah Companies

Organizational Std. t-value Sig-value


Company Mean
Culture Deviation

Umniah 2.36 0.66


Power 0.925 0.357
Orange 2.46 0.55

Umniah 2.72 0.37


Role 3.599 0.00***
Orange 2.47 0.40

Umniah 2.74 0.53


Achievement 1.770 0.079
Orange 2.60 0.38

Umniah 2.18 0.42


Support 3.433 0.01**
Orange 2.47 0.49

Significance level (**α =0.01, ***α =0.00)

4.5 Results Pertaining to Examination of Hypotheses 5 and 6

To examine the null hypothesis 1.8.5 which stated that: There is no significant

relationship between the leadership style and types of organizational culture in each of

108
Orange and Umniah companies at (α ≤ 0.05, µ=2.5) level of significance and the alternate

hypothesis (Ha) 1.8.6 which stated that: There is significant relationship between the

leadership style and type of organizational culture in each of Orange and Umniah

companies, Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to detect the relation between the

leadership style and organizational culture at orange company and Umnaih company.

Pearson Correlation Test aims to reveal the strength or the degree of relationship between

two variables. The degree of relationship between any two variables come between (+1

and -1), the more the degree of correlation close to 1, it means a positive correlation, and

the more the degree of correlation close to -1, it means a negative correlation. To

determine the relation it's shown in table 11 and 12.

Table 11: Pearson Correlation to Examine the Relationship between Leadership Styles
and types of Organizational Culture At Orange Company
Organizational leadership style
Culture Transformational Transactional

Pearson
Correlation .418 -.418
Power
Sig. (2-tailed) .229 .229
Pearson
Correlation -.129 .129
Role
Sig. (2-tailed) .722 .722
Pearson
Correlation -.414 .414
Achievement
Sig. (2-tailed) .235 .235
Pearson
Correlation -.136 .136
Support
Sig. (2-tailed) .708 .708

109
Table 11 shows that at Orange Company the significance values for the relationship

between the two types of leaderships and each of the four types of organizational culture

are higher than the significance level (α ≤ 0.05), which indicates that no significant

relationship between the leadership styles and any type of organizational culture is

confirmed at Orange company.

Table 12: Pearson Correlation to Examine the Relationship between Leadership Styles
and types of Organizational Culture At Umniah Company
Organizational leadership style
Culture Transformational Transactional

Pearson
Correlation -.287 .287
Power
Sig. (2-tailed) .165 .165
Pearson
Correlation -.213 .213
Role
Sig. (2-tailed) .307 .307
Pearson
Correlation .250 -.250
Achievement
Sig. (2-tailed) .227 .227
Pearson
Correlation .301 -.301
Support
Sig. (2-tailed) .144 .144

Table 12 shows that at Umniah Company the significance values of the relationship

between the two styles of leaderships and each of the four types of organizational culture

are higher than the significance level (α ≤ 0.05), which confirms that no significant

110
relation between the leadership style and any type of organizational culture at Umniah

Company.

4.6 Results Pertaining to Examination of Hypotheses 7 and 8

To examine the null hypothesis 1.8.7 which states that: There is no significant evidence at

(α ≤ 0.05) regarding the differences between leadership styles and types of organizational

culture between Orange and Umniah companies and the alternate Hypothesis (Ha) 1.8.8

which states that: There is significant evidence at (α ≤ 0.05) regarding the differences

between leadership styles and organizational culture types between Orange and Umniah

companies, Independent sample t-test has been used. Table 13 shows the results.

Table13: Independent T-Test To Examine The Differences Between Leadership Styles


And types of Organizational Culture Between Orange And Umniah Companies
Std. t-value Sig- Value
Variable Company Mean
Deviation

Orange 2.54 0.85


Transformational
Umniah 2.62 0.87 -0.69
0.46
Orange 2.46 0.27
Transactional
Umniah 2.38 0.322

Orange 2.19 0.85


Types of Culture
Umniah 2.22 0.87 0.69 0.46

Table 13 indicates that the differences between leadership styles and types of

organizational culture indicates to a significant value of 0.46 which is not significant at (α

≤ 0.05), accordingly Null Hypothesis 1.8.7 that there is no significant evidence at (α ≤

0.05) regarding the differences between leadership styles and types of organizational

culture between Orange and Umniah companies is accepted.

111
4.7Results Pertaining to Examination of Relational Hypotheses (A) and
(B)
Relational hypothesis (A) which stated that: There are significant statistical evidence at

(α ≤ 0.05) among respondents with regard to their perception of the leadership style

(transformational and transactional) according to their experience, age, gender,

educational level, and job level.

In order to test the hypotheses, the research used ANOVA analysis to know the

differences of the research sample among leadership styles and organizational culture

types according to the experience of the respondents.

- Experience:
In order to test the hypothesis, the researcher used ANOVA analysis to know the

differences of the research sample among leadership styles according to the experience of

the respondents.

Table 14 shows that there is no significant impact at the level of significance (α =0.05) of

the respondents experience on the leadership styles (transformational, transactional).

Table 14: Analysis Of Variance ANOVA of The Leadership Styles In Terms Of Experience

Dimensions Source of Degree of Significance


Sum of Square
variance Freedom F value
Squares means

Between
.125 2 .063
groups .577 .569
Transformational Within
2.493 23 .108
groups
Total 2.618 25

Between
.125 2 .063
groups
Transactional .577 .569
Within
2.493 23 .108
groups
Total 2.618 25

112
-Age

To determine the differences ANOVA analysis used to know the differences of the

research sample according to the age.

Table 15 shows that there is no significant impact at the level of significance (α =0.05)

according to the respondents age on the leadership styles (transformational,

transactional).

Table 15: Analysis Of Variance ANOVA Among The Leadership Styles In Terms Of Age

Dimensions Source of Degree of Significance


Sum of Square
variance Freedom F value
Squares means

Between
.116 3 .039
groups .362 .781
Transformational Within
2.554 24 .106
groups
Total 2.670 27
Between
.116 3 .039
groups
Transactional
Within .362 .781
2.554 24 .106
groups
Total 2.670 27

- Gender:

T-test analysis used to know the differences between the research samples according to
the gender.

Table 16: Results Of The T-Test Analysis Among The Leadership Styles In Terms Of
Gender
Gender Means T Sig.
Dimensions
Male 2.63 .390
Transformational 1.187
Female 2.43
Male 2.38
Transactional -1.187 .390
Female 2.58

113
Table 16 shows that according to the means males show more transformational leadership

style in Orange and Umniah companies than females with a mean value (2.63), while

females show more transactional leadership style in Orange and Umniah companies than

males with a mean value (2.58), but there is no significant impact at the level of

significance (α =0.05) of the respondents gender on the leadership styles

(transformational, transactional), as the significance value is (0.390) as shown in table18.

- Educational level:

To determine the differences ANOVA analysis used to know the differences of the

research sample according to the educational level.

Table 17 shows that there is no significant difference at the level of significance (α

=0.05) of the educational level on the leadership styles (transformational, transactional),

as the significance value is (0.141) as shown in table 17.

Table 17: Analysis Of Variance ANOVA of The Leadership Styles In Terms Of


Educational level
Dimensions Source of Degree of Significance
Sum of Square
variance Freedom F value
Squares means

Between
.387 2 .193
groups 2.118 .141
Transformational
Within
2.283 25 .091
groups
Total 2.670 27
Between
.387 2 .193
groups
Transactional
Within 2.118 .141
2.283 25 .091
groups
Total 2.670 27

114
- Job level:
To determine the differences ANOVA analysis used, to know the differences of the

research sample according to the job level.

Table 18 shows that there is a significant difference at the level (α =0.05) between the job

level and the leadership styles (transformational, transactional), as the significance value

is (0.021) as shown in table 18.

Table 18: Analysis Of Variance ANOVA of The Leadership Styles In Terms Of Job level

Dimensions Source of Sum of Degree of Square Significance


F value
variance Squares Freedom means
Between
.710 3 .355
groups 4.526 .021*
Transformational
Within
1.960 25 .078
groups
Total 2.670 28
Between
.710 3 .355
groups 4.526
Transactional .021*
Within
1.960 25 .078
groups
Total 2.670 28
Significance level (*α =0.05)

To determine the resources of the significant, Scheffe' Test was performed to determine

for whom the differences belong as shown in table 19.

By using Scheffe' test the researcher found that the differences was for the

transformational leadership style tend for (Head Department), and for the transactional

leadership style tend for (Others non managerial employees).

115
Table 19: Scheffe' Test of The Leader Ship Styles In Terms Of Job level

Fields Streams Mean Manager Head Others

Department

Transformational Manager
2.60
Head
2.70 -.100
Department

Others
2.30 .300 .400*
Transactional Manager
2.40
Head
2.30 .100
Department

Others
2.70 -.300 -.400*

Hypothesis 1.8.14: There are significant statistical differences at (0.05) among


respondents with regards to their perceptions of the types of the organizational culture
(power, role, achievement, and support) according to their experience, age, gender,
educational level, and job level.
- Experience
Table 20 shows that there is a significant difference at the level (α =0.01) between

experience and achievement culture, as the significance value is (0.01) as shown in table

20.

To determine the resources of the significant Scheffe' Test was performed to determine

for whom the differences belong as shown in the table 21.

By using Scheffe' Test the researcher found that the differences was at the Achievement

culture at the group of (5 to Less than 10 years).

116
Table 20: Analysis Of Variance ANOVA of The Organizational Culture In Terms Of Experience

Dimensions Source of Sum of Degree of Square Significance


F value
variance Squares Freedom means
Between
.901 2 .450
groups 1.255 .289
Power
Within
42.717 119 .359
groups
Total 43.618 121
Between
.080 2 .040
groups .245 .783
Role
Within
19.308 119 .162
groups
Total 19.387 121
Between
2.624 2 1.312
groups 6.992 .001**
Achievement Within
22.334 119 .188
groups
Total 24.958 121
Between
.856 2 .428
groups 1.827 .165
Support
Within
27.900 119 .234
groups
Total 28.757 121
Significance level(**α =0.01)

Table 21: Scheffe' Test Among The Organizational Culture In Terms Of Experience

More than
Less than 5 5 – Less
Streams Mean 10 years
years than 10
Dimensions years

Less than 5 years 2.51

Achievement 5 to Less than 10 2.81 -.469*


years

More than 10 years 2.61 .037 .507

117
-Age

To determine the differences ANOVA analysis used to know the differences of the

research sample according to the age.

Table 22 shows that there is no impact of the age variable on the types of organizational

culture except the power culture, which shows a significance difference at the level of

significant (α =0.01).

Table 22: Analysis Of Variance ANOVA of The Organizational Culture In Terms Of


Age
Dimensions Source of Degree of Significance
Sum of Square
variance Freedom F value
Squares means

Between
5.419 3 1.806
groups 5.635 .001**
Power
Within
38.787 121 .321
groups
Total 44.207 124
Between
1.814 3 .605
groups 4.018 .009
Role
Within
18.209 121 .150
groups
Total 20.023 124
Between
2.312 3 .771
groups 4.102 .008
Achievement Within
22.733 121 .188
groups
Total 25.045 124
Between
1.294 3 .431
groups 1.888 .135
Support
Within
27.638 121 .228
groups
Total 28.932 124
Significance level (**α =0.01)

To determine the resources of the significance, Scheffe' Test was performed to determine

for whom the differences belong as shown in table 23.

118
Table 23: Scheffe' Test of The Organizational Culture In Terms Of Age

Less than 30-39 40-49 More than


Dimensions Streams Mean
30 Years Years Years 50 Years

Less than 30 2.54

Power 30-39 Years


2.21 -.455*

40-49 Years
3.27 .038 .507

50 and over
1.80 -0.462 0.007 -0.5

Less than 30 2.49

Role 30-39 Years


2.69 -.469 *

40-49 Years
2.67 .037 .494

50 and over
2.96 -0.683 -0.228 -0.722

Less than 30 2.58

Achievement 30-39 Years


2.75 -.455*

40-49 Years
2.53 .038 .494

50 and over
3.20 -0.683 -0.228 -0.722

By using Scheffe' Test the researcher found that the differences was at the power culture

tend to be for the respondents whom (less than 30 years), while role culture the

differences tend to be of the respondents whom from (30 -39 years), and achievement

culture the differences tend to be for the respondents whom from (30-39 years).

- Gender:

T-test analysis used to know the differences of the research sample according to the

gender.

119
Table 24 shows that there is no significance impact of the gender on the organizational

culture, as the significance values are for power, role, achievement, and support as

follows (0.460), (0.840), (0.207), and (0.560) respectively. Although according to the

means female shows there were more power culture than male with a mean (2.66), while

male shows that there were more role, achievement, and support culture than female with

the following means respectively (2.62), (2.69), and (2.40), but there are no significant

difference between the organizational culture types and the gender of the respondents in

Orange and Umniah companies.

Table 24: Results Of The T-Test Analysis AMONG Organizational Culture In Terms Of
Gender
Gender Means T Sig.
Dimensions
Male 2.30
-3.324 .460
Power Female 2.66
Male 2.62 .840
1.987
Role Female 2.47
Male 2.69 .207
1.379
Achievement Female 2.57
Male 2.40 .560
1.164
Support Female 2.29

- Educational level:

To determine the differences ANOVA analysis used to know the differences of the

research sample according to the educational level.

Table 25 shows that there is no significant impact at the level of significance (α =0.05) of

the educational level of the respondents on the types of organizational culture types, as

the significance value of power culture, role culture, achievement culture, and support

culture are (0.082), (0.964), (0.06), and (0.367) respectively as indicated in table 25.

120
Table 25: Analysis Of Variance ANOVA of The Organizational Culture In Terms Of
Educational level

Dimensions Source of Sum of Degree of Square Significance


F value
variance Squares Freedom means
Between 3.070 2 1.535
groups 4.552 .082
Power
Within 41.137 122 .337
groups
Total 44.207 124

Between .012 2 .006


groups .037 .964
Role
Within 20.011 122 .164
groups
Total 20.023 124

Between 1.405 2 .703


groups 3.626 .060
Achievement Within
23.640 122 .194
groups
Total 25.045 124

Between .471 2 .236


groups 1.010 .367
Support
Within 28.461 122 .233
groups
Total 28.932 124

- Job level:

To determine the differences ANOVA analysis used, to know the differences of the

research sample according to the job level.

Table 26 shows that there is a significant perception of the job level on power culture,

role culture, and achievement culture. Power culture at the level of significance (α =0.00),

while role culture and achievement culture at the level of significance (α =0.05) as

indicated in table 26.

121
Table 26: Analysis Of Variance ANOVA of The Organizational Culture In Terms Of Job level

Dimensions Source of Sum of Degree of Square Significance


F value
variance Squares Freedom means
Between
8.202 3 2.734
groups 9.189 .000***
Power
Within
36.004 121 .298
groups
Total 44.207 124
Between
1.370 3 .457
groups 2.962 .035*
Role
Within
18.653 121 .154
groups
Total 20.023 124
Between
2.696 3 .899
groups 4.865 .003*
Achievement Within
22.349 121 .185
groups
Total 25.045 124
Between
.941 3 .314
groups 1.356 .259
Support
Within
27.991 121 .231
groups
Total 28.932 124
Significance level (*α =0.05, ***α =0.00)

To determine the resources of the significant Scheffe' Test was performed to determine

for whom the differences belong as shown in the table 27. By using Scheffe' Test the

researcher found that the differences at the power culture for head of department

executive manager and others, but the differences tend to be for the executive manager,

while role culture the differences tend to be for the manager, and finally in the

achievement culture the differences tend to be for the head department.

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Table 27: Scheffe' Test of The Organizational Culture In Terms Of Job Level

Executive Head
Dimensions Streams Manager Others
Mean
manager department

Executive
3.17
manager
Power
Manager
2.09 1.073
Head
1.164*
2.00 .090
department

Others
2.56 .610 -.462 -.553*
Executive
2.27
manager
Role
Manager
2.92 -.653*
Head
2.68 -.411 .241
department

Others
2.52 -.251 .402 .160
Executive
1.80
manager
Achievement
Manager
2.15 -.346
Head
2.41 -.614* .220
department

Others
2.37 -.566 .352 .104

4.8Conclusion

To examine the leadership style and organizational culture in Orange and Umniah

companies and the relation between them, the Statistical Package for Social Sciences

(SPSS) were used.


123
The data collection process for this research was done by the researcher, the research

utilized surveys to receive data from (125) employees at Orange company and Umniah

company, the researcher used leadership style questionnaire to determine the leadership

styles in Orange and in Umniah, either if it's transformational leadership style or

transactional leadership style, and used diagnosing organizational culture questionnaire to

determine the types of organizational culture in Orange and Umniah, either if its power

culture, role culture, support culture or achievement culture.

The results provided support that:

The results provided support that:

 There is no significant evidence of the difference between the transformational

and transactional leadership styles at Orange company, but mean score of

transactional style is higher than transformational style.

 There is significant evidence at (α ≤ 0.05) that the dominant leadership style at

Umniah company is transformational.

 There is significant evidence at (α ≤ 0.05, µ=2.5) that the dominant

organizational culture at Orange company is achievement culture.

 There is significant evidence at (α ≤ 0.05, µ=2.5) that the dominant

organizational cultures at Umniah company are role followed by achievement

culture.

 There is no significant evidence at (α ≤ 0.05) of the relationship between

leadership styles and types of organizational culture at Orange Company.

 There is no significant evidence at (α ≤ 0.05) of the relationship between

leadership styles and types of organizational culture at Umniah Company.

124
 There is no significant evidence at (α ≤ 0.05) regarding the differences between

leadership styles and types of organizational culture between Orange and Umniah

companies.

 Relational hypothesis A): There is a significant statistical impact among

respondents at the level of significance 5% or less of the demographic variables

(experience, age, gender, educational level, job level) with regard to their

perceptions to the leadership styles (transformational, transactional). The results

found that there is no significant evidence of the demographic variables on the

leadership styles, except the job level variable.

 Relational hypothesis B): There is a significant statistical impact among

respondents at the level of significance of 5% or less of the demographic

variables (experience, age, gender, educational level, and job level) on

employees' perceptions toward the types of organizational culture (power, role,

achievement, support). The results found that experience variable have an

impact on the achievement culture. The age variable results found that, there is

no impact of the age variable on the types of organizational culture except the

power culture. According to gender variable and educational level variable the

result shows that, there is no significant impact of the gender and educational

level on the types of organizational culture. Finally according to the job level

variable, the result shows that there is a significant impact of the job level on

power culture, role culture, and achievement culture.

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CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary

This research has focused on two leadership styles, the transformational leadership style,

and the transactional leadership style, and on the four types of organizational culture

developed by Harrison and stokes 1992 (power culture, role culture, achievement culture,

and support culture), in the Orange and Umniah telecommunication companies in Jordan.

The primary objective of this research is to assess the relationship between

transformational and transactional styles of leadership and four types of organizational

culture: power, role, achievement, and support at Jordan Orange and Umniah Companies.

This research also aimed to investigate the leadership styles in Orange and Umniah

companies, and to determine the types of organizational culture in each of the two

companies. The first step in achieving the objectives was an in-depth theoretical research;

the second step was an empirical survey that was conducted at the selected

telecommunication companies.

Telecommunication sector have been used in this research; because of its importance in

Jordan, and the continuous development of the sector in Jordan and in the world. The

telecommunication companies in Jordan hire a specialized staff who can line with the

technological developments in the world; so that it was important to research the internal

environment of the telecommunication companies in terms of leadership and

organizational culture, because the leaders describe as the inspirational factor for the

126
employees whom put their soul and values in the organization, upon which the business

and the employees relation will take place.

A concise chapter by chapter overview of the manner in which the purpose and objectives

of this research was met presented below.

Chapter 1 served as an introduction and orientation to the research in terms of the

purpose, objectives and hypotheses, also contained a summary of the primary and

secondary sources related to the research which were obtained from both national and

international sources. Chapter 2 reviewed of related literature and previous studies of

leadership styles and organizational culture, transformational leadership has been defined

in chapter 2 by Burns (1978), who was the first one defined transformational leadership

as an attempt to stimulate and encourage individuals, groups and organizations to change

better, also transactional leadership has been defined by Avolio et.al. (1999), said that

transactional leadership is based more on “exchanges” between leaders and followers, in

which followers are rewarded for meeting specific goals or performance criteria.

Organizational culture definitions were discussed also, as Schein (2011), argued that the

culture of an organization is all the beliefs, feelings, behaviors, and symbols that are

characteristic of an organization. More specifically, organizational culture is defined as

shared philosophies, ideologies, beliefs, feelings, assumptions, expectations, attitudes,

norms, and values. The focus of Chapter 3 talked about the research methodology applied

in this research. The research population and sample, as well as the research method were

explained. The measuring instruments utilized in this research were discussed and the

reliability and validity of these research measuring instruments. Chapter 3 also examined

the way of data collection, and statistical analysis process. Chapter 4 dealt with the

127
empirical findings and results discussion of this research, with regards to the stated

hypotheses.

The research measured the impact of demographic variables (experience, age, gender,

educational level, job level) on the leadership styles and on the organizational culture

types, the research found that the demographic variables have no impact on the leadership

styles in Orange and Umniah companies except the job level variable, and the differences

was at the transformational leadership style tend to be for head department, and for the

transactional leadership style tend to be for others. The research determined that

experience, age, and the job level variables have an impact on some types of the

organizational culture, for the experience variable the impact was on the achievement

culture, at the group from 5-less than 10 years’ experience, the age variable impact was

on the power and achievement culture, at the group from 30-39 years’ experience, while

job level variable impact was on power culture on the executive manager level, and role

culture at the manager level, and achievement culture was at the head department level.

5.2Conclusion

This research determined the leadership styles and the existing organizational culture in

Orange and Umniah telecommunication companies. The results showed that:

1-In terms of leadership Orange company tends to follow a transactional leadership style,

while Umniah company tends to follow a transformational leadership style. Results

determined the dominant leadership style in each company, at Orange company the

leaders tend to follow transactional leadership style rather than transformational

leadership style. They are concerned in maintaining stability, and concerned to reward

equitably for their work. They also believed that what power they have to influence

128
others comes primarily from their status and position. Thus transactional leadership is

more practical in nature because of its emphasis on meeting specific targets or objectives.

While at Umniah company the leaders tend to follow transformational leadership style

rather than transactional leadership style. They believe that their primary mission is to

make changes, and spend considerable energy in arousing hopes, expectations, and

aspirations among their followers, their job is inspirational and the power they have to

influence others comes primarily from their ability to get people to identify with them

and their ideas. However, results showed no significant difference between the leadership

styles at Orange company, also no significant difference between the leadership styles

and Umniah companies.

2-Results determined that there are no significant relation between the existing type of

organizational culture at Orange company and the existing type of organizational culture

at Umniah company for both power culture and achievement culture, and the significant

relation was for both role culture and support culture. Umniah company is higher in Role

culture than Orange company, and Orange company is higher in support culture than

Umniah company.

3- Results determined that Orange company have achievement culture, while Umniah

company have role followed by achievement culture.

4- The results shows that there is no relationship between the power, role, achievement,

and support cultures and transformational leadership style and transactional style, at Orange

company as the significance values higher than the significance level (α =0.05), and that’s

determine that no relationship between the leadership styles and the types of

organizational culture at Orange company. For Umniah company results show that there

129
is no relationship between the role, achievement, and support cultures and

transformational leadership style and transactional style, as the significance values higher than

the significance level (α =0.05), and that’s determine that no relationship between the

leadership styles and the types of organizational culture at Umnaih company.

5- The demographic variables experience, age, gender, and educational level, have no

impact on the leadership styles at Orange and Umniah companies. However job level

showed an impact on the leadership styles, and the differences was at the

transformational leadership style tends to be for Head Department level, so that the head

department level have a tendency is toward a transformational leadership style. While for

the transactional leadership style tends to be for the others level, so that the others level

have a tendency toward a transactional leadership style.

6- The demographic variables experience, age, and the job level have an impact on

certain types of the organizational culture. The experience variable the impact was on the

achievement culture, at the group from 5 to less than 10 years experience, so this group

tendency is toward the achievement culture. The age variable impact was on the power

role, and achievement cultures, at the groups less than 30 years, from 30-39, and 30-39

years respectively, so these age groups tendency is toward power, role, and achievement

cultures. Job level variable impact was on power, role, and achievement cultures, for

power culture the differences at the executive manager level, so the executive manager

tendency is toward power culture. While role culture the differences at manager level, so

the manager level tendency is toward role culture. For the achievement culture the

differences was on head department level, so the head department tendency is toward

achievement culture.

130
5.3 Recommendations

With regards to the research findings and discussions, several recommendations related to

the selected telecommunication companies Orange and Umniah have been identified.

Results of the research have determined that the leadership style at Orange tend to be

transactional leadership style than transformational leadership. This style concentrates on

compromise, intrigue, and control; therefore the transactional leaders are more likely to

be seen as more inflexible, detached, and manipulative than transformational leaders.

Transactional leaders also tend to follow rules, procedures and norms that may not

necessarily be beneficial for the future of the organization. At Umniah company it was

found that their leadership style tends to be transformational leadership style, were

leaders have referent and expert power, and their followers perceive them as powerful

role models, who can implement a shared organizational vision, inspire subordinate to

strive beyond required expectations, and focus on building a higher innovation and a

satisfactory organizational culture.

It is recommended that for Orange company to move toward establishing a

transformational leadership style through:

 Focusing on making change in the organization, and not maintaining stability to

move forward toward, innovation and creativity.

 Focusing on the long term objectives and use the available resources to achieve

them.

 Broaden and elevate the interests of followers, generate awareness and acceptance

among the followers of the purposes and mission of the group, and motivate

followers to go beyond their self-interests for the good of the group.

131
 Decentralize of responsibility, where employees would have more desire to take

risks, and make their compensation plans geared towards long-term results, to

facilitate work and achieve results.

The organizational culture at Orange company tends to be achievement culture, followed

by role culture and support culture with the same means. While the organizational culture

at Umniah company tends to be role followed by achievement culture. Achievement

culture creates a high energy environment and a greater probability of satisfying

employee needs, by using the mission to attract and release its members' energy in pursuit

of the common goals. In role culture the whole organization forms a pyramid shape, the

higher the layer, the fewer people there are. The values of the role culture are order,

dependability, rationality and consistency. The support culture based on a mutual trust

between the employee and the organization, employees who work in this culture believe

that they are valued as human beings, not only served to complete the work.

The support culture based on a mutual trust between the employee and the organization,

employees who work in this culture believe that they are valued as human beings, not

only served to complete the work.

Umniah companies didn't show a drive toward support culture which is important

because the organisation that has a support culture has a warm and caring atmosphere,

where the assumption is that a sense of belonging will create a sense of commitment to

the organisation, and therefore employees will contribute more within the organisation.

Therefore, it is recommended for Umniah company to build support culture in order to

establish a mutual trust between the employee and the organization, and let employees

who work in this culture believe that they are valued as human beings, not only served to

132
complete the work. In order for Umnaih company to build support culture, it is

recommended that:

 Build within the members a satisfaction stemming from relationships, mutuality,

connection and belonging employees need to feel valued and appreciated for their

personal contribution and potential, so that they will be internally motivated.

 Fosters warmth and even love, not just driving enthusiasm.

 Evokes human love for the nurturing of the organization's members, and

stimulates strong motivation in the service of the group.

5.4 Suggestions for Further Researches

It is recommended that:

To extend the existing research, the researcher recommends that Zain telecommunication

company, the third operator in Jordan to conduct a research to understand the leadership

style and its organizational culture.

A recommendation for the future would be to conduct a research measuring the dominant

leadership style, and the preferred leadership style, and also measure the existing

organizational culture, and the preferred organizational culture at other sectors in Jordan.

The researcher believes that this research is a good base for those who are eager to

expand the topic, and do similar research in Jordan or in other countries of the region.

The door remains open for other researchers interested in the subject of leadership and

organizational culture, to continue the search when choosing another sample of other

institutions and countries with a different culture.

133
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APPENDICES

Appendix 1 General Back Ground Of The Respondents


Kindly provide the brief details about the following questions, please tick as appropriate:

1. Years of work in the company (experience):

Less than 5 years 5-10 years More than 10 years

2. Age

Lower than 30 Years 30-39 Years 40-49 Years Over 50 Years

3. Gender
Male Female
-Male

-Female

4. Educational levels

High School Graduate University Graduate High studies

5. Job level

Executive Manager Head of department Other

160
Appendix 2 Leadership Styles Questionnaire
Instructions:

For each of the following 10 pairs of statements, divide 5 points between the two
according to your beliefs, perceptions of yourself, or according to which of the two
statements characterize you better. Place the values in the appropriate boxes next to
each pair. The 5 points may be divided between the A and B statements in any one for
the following ways: 5 for A, 0 for B; 4 for A, 1 for B; 3 for A, 2 for B; 2 for A, 3 for
B; 1 for A, 4 for B; 0 for A, 5 for B, but not equally (2½) between the two. Weigh
your choices between the two according to the one that characterizes you or your
beliefs better.

Questions Value

1 A) As leader I have a primary mission of change.

B) As leader I have a primary mission of maintaining stability.

2 A) As a leader I must cause events.

B) As a leader I must facilitate events.

3 A) I am concerned about what my followers want in life.

B) I am concerned that my followers are rewarded equitably for their


work.

4 A) My preference is to think long range: what might be.

B) My preference is to think short range: what is realistic.

5 A) As a leader I spend considerable energy in arousing hopes,


expectations, and aspirations among my followers.

B) As a leader I spend considerable energy in managing separate but


related goals.

6 A) Although not in a formal classroom sense, I believe that a


significant part of my leadership is that of a teacher.

B) I believe that a significant part of my leadership is that of a


facilitator.

7 A) As a leader I must represent a higher morality.

161
B) As a leader I must engage with followers at an equal level of
morality.

8 A) I enjoy stimulating others to want to do more.

B) I enjoy rewarding followers for a job well done.

9 A) Leadership should be inspirational.

B) Leadership should be practical.

10 A) What power I have to influence others comes primarily from my


ability to get people to identify with me and my ideas.

B) What power I have to influence others comes primarily from my


status and position.

162
Appendix 3 Diagnosing organizational culture questionnaire
Please check your answers and make sure that you have assigned only one '4', one '3', one '2', and
one '1', for each phrase in the Existing column.

Key Ranking

4= The dominant view.

3= The next most dominant view.

2= The next most dominant view.

1= The least dominant view.

Phrases that describe the organizational culture Option


number
(1,2,3,4)
1. Members of the organization give first priority to:
A- Meeting the needs and demands of their supervisors and other high level
people in the organization.
B- Carrying out the duties of their own job; staying within the policies and
procedures related to it.
C- Meeting the challenges of the task, finding a better way to do things.
D- Cooperating with the people they work with, to solve work and personal
problems.
2. People who do well in the organization are those who:
A- Know how to please their supervisors, and are willing to use power and
politics to get ahead.
B- Play by the rules, work within the system and strive to do things correctly.
C- Are technically competent and effective, with a strong, commitment to
getting the job done.
D- Build close working relationships with others by being cooperative,
responsive and caring.
3. Organization treats individuals as:
A- 'hands' whose time and energy are at the disposal of persons at higher levels
in the hierarchy.
B- as 'employees' whose time and energy are purchased through a contract with
rights and obligations for both sides.
C- as' associates ' or peers, who are mutually committed to the achievement of
a common purpose.
D- as 'family' or' friends' who like being together and who care about and
support one another.
4. People are directed and influenced by:
A- people in positions of authority exercising their power through the use of
rewards and punishment.
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B- The systems, rules and procedures which prescribe what they should do and
the right ways of doing it.
C- Their own commitment to achieving the goals of the organization.
D- Their own desire to be accepted by others and to be a good member of their
work group.
Phrases that describe the organizational culture Option
number
(1,2,3,4)
5. The decision making processes are characterized by:
A- a- directives orders and instructions coming from higher levels.
B- b- the adherence to formal channels and reliance on policies and procedures
for making decisions.
C- c- decisions being made close to the point of action, by the people on the
spot.
D- d- use of consensus decision-making methods to gain acceptance and
support
for decisions
6. Assignments of tasks to individuals based on:
A- The personal judgments, values and wishes of those in position of power.
B- The needs and plans of the organization, and the rules of the
system(seniority, educational levels, etc.).
C- Matching the requirements of the job with the interests and abilities of the
individuals.
D- The personal preferences of the individuals and their needs for growth and
development.
7. Employees are expected to be:
A- Hard-working, compliant, obedient and loyal to the interests of those they
report to.
B- Responsible and reliable, carrying out the duties and responsibilities of their
job and avoiding actions that could surprise or embarrass their supervisors.
C- Self-motivated and competent, willing to take the initiative to get things
done: willing to challenges those they report to if necessary to get good
result.
D- Good team workers, supportive and cooperative, who get along well with
others.
8- Managers and supervisors are expected to be:
A- Strong and decisive, and firm but fair.
B- Impersonal and proper, avoiding the exercise of authority for their own
advantage.
C- Democratic, and willing to accept subordinates' ideas about the task.
D- Supportive, responsive, and concerned about the personal concerns and
needs of those whose work they supervise.
9- It is considered legitimate (in the company law) for one person to tell another what to do
when:
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A- He or she has more power, authority or 'clout' in the organization.
B- It is a part of the responsibilities included in his or her job description.
C- He or she has greater knowledge and expertise and uses it to guide or teach
other person do the work.
D- The other person asks for this or her, guidance or advise.
10- Work motivation is primarily the result of:
A- Hope for rewards, fear of punishment or personal loyalty to the supervisor.
B- Acceptance of the norm providing a 'fair day's work for a faire day's pay.
C- Strong desires to achieve, to create, to innovate, and peer pressure to
contribute to the success of the organization.
D- People wanting to develop and maintain satisfying working and wanting to
help others.
Phrases that describe the organizational culture Option
number
(1,2,3,4)
11- Relationships between work groups or departments are generally:
A- Competitive, with each other looking out for their own interests and helping
each other only when they can see some advantage for themselves by doing
so.
B- Characterized by indifference towards each other, helping each other only
when it is convenient, or they are directed by higher levels to do so.
C- Cooperative when they need to achieve common goals. People are normally
willing to cut red tape and cross organization boundaries in order to do so.
D- Friendly, with a high level of responsiveness to request for help from other
groups.
12-Inter -group and inter-personal conflicts are usually:
A- Dealt with by the personal intervention of people at higher levels of
authority.
B- Avoided by reference to rules, procedures and formal definition of authority
and responsibility.
C- Resolved through discussions aimed at getting the best outcomes.
D- Dealt with in a manner that maintains good working relationships and
minimize the chances of people being hurt.
13- The larger environment outside the organization respond to as though it were:
A- A jungle, where the organization is in competition for survival with others.
B- An orderly system in which relationships are determined by structures and
procedures and where everyone is expected to abide by
the rules.
C- A competition for excellence in which productivity, quality, and innovative
bring success.
D- A community of interdependent parts in which the common interests are the
most important.

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14- If rules, systems, or procedures get in the way, people:
A- Break them if they have enough clout to get by with it or if they think they
can get away with it without getting caught.
B- Generally abide by them or go through proper channels to get permission to
deviate from them or get them changed.
C- Tend to ignore or by-pass them to accomplish their task or perform their job
better.
D- Support one another in ignoring or bending them if they are felt to be unfair,
or create hardship on others.
15- A new person in the organization needs to learn:
A- Who really runs things, who can help or hurt them, who to avoid offending;
the norms (unwritten rules) that have to be observed if they are to stay out
of trouble.
B- The formal rules and procedures and abide by them to stay within the
formal boundaries of their jobs
C- What resources are available to help them do their job; to take the initiative
to apply their skills and knowledge to their job.
D- How to cooperate; how to be a good team member; how to develop good
working relationships with others.

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