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1.

Magna Carta of 1215 and King John


- Important Landmark in the creation of a limited monarchy in England
- Subordinates the Kind to the law
- Signed by King John

2. Domesday Book and William the Conqueror


- Book that contains the national census of every person, field, livestock, and other resources within
the kingdom
- Written by William the Conqueror

3. Jury System and Henry II


- Henry II standardized the system throughout England
- Provided the people a court of last resort

4. Model Parliament and King Edward I


- Parliament summoned by King Edward I that brought together various estates making it the most
comprehensive assembly ever summoned in England.

5. Babylonian Captivity and Pope Urban VI & Pope Clement VII


- Period in Church History when Pope Urban VI alienated the College of Cardinals and when Pope
Clement VII ruled Avignon

6. Hundred Years’ War and Joan of Arc


- War that started with the goal of the French Monarchs to reclaim their territorieslike Aquitaine and
Gascony
- Joan of Arc was a female champion who led armies and defeated her enemies like the Battle of
Orleans

7. Black Plague and Giovanni Boccaccio


- Devistating Plague that decimated about 1/3 of Europe’s Population
- Main cause were the infected rats that came from the east
- Giovanni Boccaccio was a famous writer who wrote the Decameron

8. Plantagenet vs Capetian Kings


- Plantegent
- Powerful Family throughout Europe
- Richest Family in Europe
- First Kinds were the Angevins
- Capetian
- Powerful Family in France
- Laid the foundation of the French nation-state

9. Absolutism vs Constitutionalism
- Absolutism
- Belief in absolute principles in political, philosophical, ethical, or theological matters
- Constitutionalism
- Complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority
of the government derives from
10. Scholasticism vs Humanism
- Scholasticism
- Philosophy based on Aristotelian logic and the writings of the early Church Fathers
- Humanism
- Philosophical and Ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings
- prefers critical thinking

11. Lorenzo de Medici


- one of the most prominent patrons of art during the Renaissance Period
- Started a sponsorship of artists like Botticelli and Michelangelo
- He was a magnate, diplomat, politician, and patron of scholars, artists and poets.

12. Johannes Gutenberg (PRINT PICTURE FOR LATER)


- Made the Invention of the movable metal type printing

13. Francesco Petrarch


- Wrote in the vernacular because this made his works accessible to a greater number of people
during his time

14. Niccolo Machiavelli


- Became a second chancellor and secretary of the Republic of Florence
- Wrote “The Prince” which is a book that focused on political power and how the ruler must gain,
maintain, and increase it

15. Baldassare Castiolione


- Wrote the book “Book of the Courtier” where he expounded on the elements that distinguished a
Renaissance gentleman from others

16. Leonardo de Vinci


- He was a Scientist, engineer, architect, painter, inventor, and a sculptor
- Made paintings like the Mona Lisa and The Vitruvian Man

17. Michelangelo Buonarroti


- idealist who sought to express in his works abstract truths.
- His works are the Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and the Creation of Adam

18. Rafael Sanzio


- Painter known for the painting of the Sistine Madonna

19. Donatello
- Florentine sculptor of the Early Renaissance Period
- His works contain the “Young David” and the equestrian statue of the general Gattamelata

20. Desiderius Erasmus


- Considered the greatest dramatist in the world
- Most famous work was “The Praise of Folly”’
21. Sir Thomas More
- Lord Chancellor to Henry VIII of England
- His most significant work was “Utopia”
- Executed for his refusal to acknowledge Henry VIII as the head of the Church

22. Francois Rabelais


- Monk who studied medicine after leaving the monastery
- His most important works were “Gargantua” and “Pantagruel”

23. William Shakespeare


- Also considered the greatest dramatist of the world
- One of his most well-known works is the play, “Romeo and Juliet”

24. Pieter Bruegel the Elder


- Most significant artist of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting
- One of his famous works include “The Hunters in the Snow”

25. Albrecht Durer


- Perfected the technique of woodcut and engraving
- This is shown in his work, “Apocalypse”

26. Jan and Hubert van Eyck


- Early Netherlandish painters who painted “The Three Martyrs at the Tomb”