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International Journal of Advances in Mechanical and Civil Engineering, ISSN: 2394-2827 Volume-3, Issue-3, Jun.

-2016

STUDY OF MIX DESIGN FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE


SACHIN PATIL

E-mail: jay40308@rediffmail.com

Abstract— In present research work a thorough study and analysis of Mix Design of High Performance Concrete has been
done. Initially VSI Coarse Aggregate ( having size 20 & 10 mm ) and VSI Crushed Stone Sand, Pozzocrete-100 and
Pozzocrete-60 Fly Ash Samples and Microsilica 920 D are collected. In the first phase of research study, for High
Performance Concrete Mix design, total 27 trial mixes have been carried out by using 10 mm VSI aggregate along with
75%,70%,65% Cement and fly ash replaced in three different percentage i.e. 25, 30 & 35 % and microsilica replaced in two
different percentage i.e. 5% & 10%. In second phase using combination of 20 mm and 10 mm VSI aggregate, 8 trial mixes
has been carried out. In Second phase P-60 & P-100 type of fly Ash and microsilica is utilized in different percentage to
achieve the targeted strength (M-80). Initially aggregate proportioning was done on maximum density approach. Trial mixes
were carried out to fix the water content, sand percent and required slump. After finalizing the water content, sand percent
and slump, final mixes were run and specimens casted. Cubical specimens of size 150 mm X 150 mm were cast for
compressive strength, 150 mm X 150 mm cylinders for permeability test. The specimens were tested at 7 & 28 days age for
Compressive strength and 28 days age for Permeability test. Results of all the tests were thoroughly studied and analyzed.

Keywords— Fly ash, Microsilica, Aggregate.

I. INTRODUCTION 4) To make a database of High Performance


Concrete, this will be useful for further High
American Concrete Institute defines High Performance Concrete research studies.
Performance Concrete as “Concrete meeting special
combination of performance and uniformity III. METHODOLOGY
requirements that cannot always be achieved
routinely using conventional material and normal 1) Collection of materials.
mixing, placing and curing method. 2) Testing of materials for their physical &
High Performance Concrete can be termed as chemical properties.
concrete having grade greater than M-45 (As IS: 3) Proportioning of aggregates on maximum
10262-2009 caters for the concrete up to the grade M- density approach.
40). Also it has to perform satisfactorily on properties 4) Mix design calculations for given cementitious
like strength, permeability, workability, durability content by blending of fly ash and microsilica
and cohesive mix which give a response to long term in different percentage.
environmental effects. 5) Finding water content for a given mix.
As far as Water Resources Department is concerned, 6) Calculating fine aggregate ( crushed sand ) %.
mostly dams are designed as solid gravity dam. 7) Fixing the % of various sizes of coarse
Therefore High Performance Concrete with greater aggregate ( i.e. 20-10, 10 - 4.75 mm ) based on
strength may not be required while designing solid maximum density approach.
gravity dams. However different parts of dam 8) Carry out trial mixes to get required slump &
(Spillway Bridge) and big structure on canal attract homogenous concrete mix without
High Performance Concrete for thinner and honeycombing & segregation.
economical sections. 9) Casting of samples for various cementitious
contents with different percentage of fly ash
In view of the above it was thought of to develop a and microsilica.
mix having characteristic strength of 80 MPa. 10) Testing of samples at 7 & 28 days age.
11) Results and discussions.
II. OBJECTIVES
IV. MATERIALS
1) To find the optimum % of mineral admixture
like fly ash and microsilica this is to be used in 1) Cementitious materials: It is a combination
High Performance Concrete mix for given of cement and fly ash, micro silica in certain
cementious content. specified %.
2) To develop M-80 grade of concrete within 2) Cement: Ultratech OPC 53 grade cement is
cement consumption limit set by IS: 456-2000 used in this study. It is tested for physical
(maximum cement is 450 kg/cum). properties as per IS : 12269:1981.
3) To make ready reference for various grades of 3) Fly ash: P-100 and P-60 type of Fly ash
concrete above M-45 grade of Concrete. were used in High Performance Research

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International Journal of Advances in Mechanical and Civil Engineering, ISSN: 2394-2827 Volume-3, Issue-3, Jun.-2016

Study. The physical & chemical properties 5) Based on various trial mixes, super plasticizer
are tested as per IS : 3812:1981. dosage by weight of cement is used to yield
4) Microsilica: 920 D Densified microsilica desired slump of concrete varied 75 to 100
were used in High Performance Concrete mm. The dosage has been kept in the range of
Research Study. 0.5 to 1.5 % of Cementitious content. (In lieu
5) Fine Aggregate (Crushed sand): For all the of limit of 2 % respectively by weight of
High Performance Concrete mixes 100 % cementitious materials as per IS: 456-2000.
VSI crushed sand was used. This materials
are tested for physical properties as per IS : VI. TESTING OF SPECIMENS
383 :1970.
6) Coarse Aggregate: VSI Coarse aggregate 1) The specimens cast for various tests were of
having size 20 mm and 10 mm was used and size,
tested for physical properties as per IS : 383  Compressive strength test:
:1970. Coarse aggregates were graded using 15 cm x 15 cm cubes.
maximum density approach and final  Permeability test:
proportion are as follows; 15 cm dia x 15 cm ht. Cylinders.
20 mm to 10 mm : 60 % 2) The specimens were cast in three equal
10 mm to 4.75 mm : 40 % layers of concrete each layer being
7) Admixture : In High Performance Concrete compacted on a vibrating table. Mixing time
research study water cement ratio is very for every mix was kept as 3 minutes to get
low, to achieve the desired workability and uniform mix. Then the specimens were
strength, a powerful retarding admixture cured in curing tank until the day of testing.
(Super Plasticizer) Master Glenium Sky  Compressive Strength Test
8855 was used, It satisfies requirements of ( as per IS 516-1959)
IS 9103 & ASTM C494 : Type B & D.  Permeability Test
8) Water : Potable water is used for mixing ( as per IS : 3085-1965 )
the concrete which is free from injurious
amounts of oil, acids, alkalis, salts, sugar, VI. OBSERVATIONS DURING HPC STUDY
organic materials or other substances that
may be deleterious to High Performance 3) There is a little variation in water content for
Concrete. all the mixes.
4) Mix Using P-100, P-60 Fly Ash and
V. MIX DESIGN Microsilica is flowy and homogeneous.
5) The Pozzocrete 100 mix and Pozzocrete was
It was required to make a concrete of grade M-80. found to be highly cohesive and easy to
The slump required was to the tune of 75 to 100 mm. work.
1) In this research study mix proportions of 6) Mix using combination of P-100 & P-60
different water cement ratio viz, 0.15, 0.20, with microsilica is harsh and sticky.
0.22, 0.25 and 0.30 included. 7) Specimens casting using P-100, P-60 &
2) For every water cement ratio cement is microsilica have best surface finish.
replaced by fly ash and microsilica is on 8) At every trial mix, constant flow measured
weight basis keeping cement in the limit 450 in the range 90-100 mm.
kg/m3 as per IS: 456-2000. 9) The Water Demand increases as the
3) For above study the proportion of coarse microsilica added in the mix.
aggregate and fine aggregate was determined 10) Specimen show cup and cone appearance
in the laboratory by running trial mixes for after failure for compressive strength.
various combinations.
4) The amount of coarse and fine aggregate used
were 60% and 40% by mass of total aggregates VII. RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS
and the amounts of different ingredients were
determined by using the solid volume Abstract for test results are shown in table 1 and
formulas. analysis of the test results are as below:

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International Journal of Advances in Mechanical and Civil Engineering, ISSN: 2394-2827 Volume-3, Issue-3, Jun.-2016

Table 1. Abstract of Test Details For Various Trial Mixes

8.1 Compressive Strength


1) From graph of 7 D & 28 Days Compressive shows the compressive strength is greater
Strength vs. water cement ratio the than 78 Mpa for 0.20 w/c ratio and for w/c
Compressive Strength increases as % of ratio 0.25c ompressive strength is greater
cement in cementitious content decreases. than 75 Mpa.
2) All the combinations ( Type A, Type B & 6) Mix D and E Shows compressive strength
Type C ) shows 28 days compressive greater than 75 Mpa for 0.20 water cement
strength greater than 70 Mpa with a ratio which however drops up to 67 Mpa for
maximum of 78 Mpa for water cement ratio water cement ratio 0.25.
0.15. 7) Mix A, B and C shows compressive Strength
3) For 0.20 water cement ratio 28 days greater than 66 Mpa at water cement ratio
compressive strength lies between 65 Mpa 0.20.
and 75 Mpa as well as for 0.25 water cement 8) From graph of 28 Days Compressive
ratio 28 days compressive strength lies Strength vs. cementitious material, the target
between 64 Mpa and 68 Mpa. of 80 Mpa the laboratory strength work put
4) From graph of 7 Days Compressive Strength to 89 Mpa.
vs. water cement ratio the increase in % of  The maximum strength with fly ash
microsilica (from 5 % to 10 % ) increase in (P-60 and P-100) is 85 Mpa and that
compressive strength is noticed. with blending of fly ash and Microsilica
5) From Graph of 28 Days Compressive is 87 Mpa.
Strength vs. water cement ratio, Mix F
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International Journal of Advances in Mechanical and Civil Engineering, ISSN: 2394-2827 Volume-3, Issue-3, Jun.-2016

 These laboratory strength shows the  It can be said that these mixes (A & B )
field strength with fly ash is ≈78 Mpa will give a field strength ≥ 75 Mpa
and that with blending with fly ash and ( 94 % of targeted strength i.e 89 Mpa ).
Microsilica is ≈80 Mpa which is not  Mixes F & G will give a field strength ≥
equal or closer to the target strength. 78 Mpa (97 % of targeted strength i.e
89 Mpa).

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International Journal of Advances in Mechanical and Civil Engineering, ISSN: 2394-2827 Volume-3, Issue-3, Jun.-2016

8.2 Permeability CONCLUSIONS

1) Permeability is very important test of any 1) Addition Of processed Fly Ash improves the
water retaining structure. Permeability is compressive strength of the Concrete. Percentage
also indirectly related to the durability of of compressive strength gain from 7 days to 28
concrete. days of concrete mix A, B and C is 8 %, 9% and
2) All the HPC mixes are very encouraging as 10 % respectively.
for a pressure of 10 Kg/cm2 there is 2) Keeping the quantum of cement (450 Kg/m3) in
absolutely no leakage from none of the permissible limits High Grade Concrete can be
samples for cementitious content. produced.

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International Journal of Advances in Mechanical and Civil Engineering, ISSN: 2394-2827 Volume-3, Issue-3, Jun.-2016

3) Use of VSI metal & artificial sand clubbed with a compacted concrete is increasing at tremendous
powerful chemical admixture like Master rate. In case of secondary concrete for radial
Glenium 8855 provides freedom to the producer gates and other gates in dams this type of self
of concrete to limit water content in the mix and compacted concrete may prove effective and
at the same time keeping water cement ratio as more useful.
low as 0.15
4) The aforesaid combination also provides required REFERENCES
flow for pumpable concrete.
5) Addition of High Grade Concrete in the [1] Mix Design Report No. 13/2013-14 Of Grade M-50 ( 20
structural design will reduce the size of the MSA ).
[2] Indian Standard: 456-2000 Plain and Reinforced Concrete-
members and thereby reducing quantum of Code Of Practice.
cement and aggregate in the mix. This will [3] Indian Standard: 10262-2009 Guidelines for Concrete Mix
eventually reduce carbon footprints. Design.
[4] Indian Standard: 383-1970 Specifications for Coarse and
6) The present study inspires to explore further in
Fine aggregate.
this direction. Therefore as sequel of this study [5] Indian Standard: 1489 ( Part-I ) 1991Specifications for
will shortly be in hand. Portland Pozzolana Cement.
7) It is observed that these mixes have adequate [6] Indian Standard :9103-1999 Specification For Concrete
Admixtures
flow and with some improvement and addition
[7] Concrete Technology: Author M.S. Shetty
can be converted in to self compacting concrete. [8] Properties Of Concrete by A.M. Neville.
As everybody knows applicability of self

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