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Kasaysayan

- Salaysay na may saysay sa isang pangkat ng tao na inuulat sa kanyang sariling wika
- Epiko, awit, korido, etc are part of kasaysayan; they may not give events but they tell us values and
lessons

History
- Each group has their own word for history; it must be told in their own language

Shared consciousness
- Set of shared beliefs common to a social group or society

When the Spaniards occupied the Philippines, it was their perspective of how things happened that got passed
down // Kasaysayan ng kwento ng stay nila dito sa Pilipinas, hindi yung kasaysayan ng Pilipinas mismo

Bipartite View of Philippine History (Dilim -> Liwanag)


- Kasaysayan ng Pilipinas vs Espanya
- Naniniwala mga colonizers dito (Spain, America, Japan)
- Dilim: pre-colonization, lahat ng galing sa Pilipino (masama)
- Liwanag: colonization, lahat ng galing sa mga dayuhan (mabuti)
- Basically: guminhawa ang buhay ng mga Pilipino noong dumating sila
- Steals away our identity as people
- “Foreigners will bring light”

Tripartite View of Philippine History (Liwanag -> Dilim -> Liwanag)


- Accdg to Rizal
- Propagandists (ex. Bonifacio) agree
- “Filipinos will bring back the light”
- Baka nakuha din nina Rizal sa labas
- Existed pre-Rizal (Florante at Laura)

Kapag papasok sa Katipunan itatanong sayo:


1) Ano ang kalagayan ng Pilipinas noon (may liwanag at kalayaan)
2) Ano ang kalagayan ng Pilipinas ngayon (madilim)
3) Ano ang kalagayan ng Pilipinas sa kinabukasan (magkakaroon ulit ng liwanag)

Florante at Laura
- By Francisco Balagtas
- Favorite book nina Rizal
- Structure of the narrative is very important
- Rizal wants us to look at what we already have (which is, this book) to contradict what the colonizers
are saying

Pasyon
- Gaspar Aquino de Belen
- The life of Christ, which is also tripartite
Rizal: “We should return to ourselves, our histories, to discover who we really are and to forget who the
colonizers said we were.”

Antonio de Morga
- Sucesos De Las Islas Filipinas <-Liwanag

Jose Rizal
- Noli Me Tangere <- Dilim
- El Filibusterismo <- Liwanag

Historical Narrative has 3 elements


- Timeline
- Evidences
- Narrative

1. Time
- Di lang yan yung minemeasure natin
- Diff. from time in school, games, etc.
- Fernand Braudel
- Social time
- Pagbabago sa loob ng isang lipunan
- Nagbabago ang panlasa, etc.
- Pag-uugnay sa ibang tao
- Political time
- Fastest
- Formulation and implementation of laws, change of presidents
- Ex. May new laws, rebellion
- Geographical time
- Slowest
- Geography ng Pilipinas ay nagbabago
- Ex. Sierra Madre (wala raw ganyan dati)
- Geographic changes influence changes in lifestyle

2. Evidences
- Can be classified as:
- Primary: artifacts (man made), fossils (natural), eyewitness accounts
- Secondary: Textbooks, Documentaries, Passed down stories
- Epics & Legends: sinaunang kasaysayan, may not depict accurate situations but they show values and
lessons
- Combine internal (consistency sa loob) and external (may kumokontra) criticsms to get the complete
picture of what happened

B.C. - Before Christ


B.P. - Before Present, use 1950 as basis kasi this was the year the printing press was first calibrated (?)

3. Perspective
- Nakatingin lang, walang bias
- Can change the rendition or pagkwento ng pangyayari
- History can be revised with different perspectives

* Revisionism - continuous revisal of history, only problematic if biased

Theories of the Peopling of the PH


1. Wave Migration Theory
- H. Otley Beyer
- PH was populated by migrants (Negritos, Indos, etc)

2. Core Population Theory


- F. Landa Jocano
- PH was long populated by people before it was discovered (Tabon Man by Robert Fox)

3. Austronesian/Nusantao
- Wilhelm Schmidt (missionary, German-Austrian) went around the Pacific Islands right after the
PH revolution nung early ‘20s
- “Auster” means south, “Neisos” means island so Austronesian means people from the southern
islands
- Also by Peter Bellwood and Wilhelm Solheim

Debunking the Theories


1. Wave Migration Theory
- Possibility the “Tabon Man” (Old human fossil 45k BC) is a woman and is also not a negrito
- Indos never went here (Maragtas is fake)
- Maragtas: narrative of the 10 Bornean datus, they purchased Panay from Negrito King
Marikudo and his wife Maniwantiwan
- Tabon man also outdated Malay by a significant time span
- Tabon Man (45,000 - 42,000 B.P.) is older than the Perak Man (11,000 B.P.)
- TL;DR: No evidence for Wave Migration Theory

2. Core Population Theory


- The Callao Man (67,000 B.P.) supports this. (Oldest human fossil in PH)
- Fossil is too old to trace back to modern Filipinos

3. Austronesian Theory
- Highly probable
- Mas na-enrich yung kultura noong dumating sila compared sa core population
- Basis: Language called “Proto-Austronesian”
- Has similar words in other languages which can be explained by common ancestry
- Centered on religion

Pananampalataya - pananalig na may kalikasang nasa loob ng isang tao; subjective

Relihiyon - shared consciousness, institutionalized; pananampalatayang naitatag sa isang institusyon


2 Realms/Larangan to study the faith of the Filipinos

1. Larangang Pangkasaysayan (Ileto, Rafael, Schumacher)


- 3 books divided into different aspects
- Ileto: Pasyon and Revolution (SEA history, outstanding books)
- Nagbigay ng lenggwahe sa rebolusyon
- Rafael: Contracting Colonialism
- Both of these books are looking into indigenous religion and how they reacted to
Christianity
- Used language to fight colonialism
- Schumacher: Ang Rehiliyong Pilipino bilang resulta ng pagkakamali sa PIlipinas rooted on the
political controversy of Spain
- How the church reacted

2. Larangang Sikolohikal
- Bulatao: “Split-level Christianity”
- Level of pag-iral ng sinaunang pananampalatayang Pilipino vs pananampalatayang Kristiyano is not
equal
- Always look at the religion of the Austronesians and Filipinos as a result of the East and West

Zeus A. Salazar
- You can understand Philippine religion if you observe not the Christian faith but Animism (Anituismo)
- Don’t study how the Philippines was Christianized, understand the concept of Anitos instead

Anituismo
- Religion of Filipinos before Spaniards came
- Not Paganism (Pagans: people who live in the outskirts)

Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce


- Anthony Reid (1993)
- Its a 2 part book on the urbanization, commercialization and state development.
- Its about the whole South east asia so I’m not sure what's important with it Commented [1]: hmm baka it's not important talaga

Dempwolff (1938)
- First to document salita ng mga Anito
- Anitu: “souls of the ancestors”
- Pag namatay ka pwede ka maging nuno o anito

In General:
- Anito: spirit of our ancestors. Images of anitos are just images, not the actual anitos
- When our ancestors die they just go “sa kabilang buhay/ sa sinaunang paglalarawan/ sa kabilang
ibayo/ sa kabilang pampang”
- They put the remains in a jar

Ang Kwento ng Pajo (Mangifera Altissima)


- Luis de Jesus (1681) and Juan de la Concepcion (1788)
- May special tree, di nila kinukuha yung fruits nito bc aninos own it daw
- When the priests exorcised the tree one of them climbed it and ate the fruit and didn’t die
- Since then people started believing in the priests because they believed that the cross on the priests’
necks were more powerful than the anito in the tree

Manipulasyon
- Rooted on the theory that people create what they worship and fear
- Projection lang ng takot

Pakikipagkapwa
- Rooted on the theory that others are not different from ourselves and we have a duty to maintain peace
and comfort of one another

Continuity and Change


- Refers to culture (kalinangan)
- Material
- Ideational (Pangkaisipan)
- Just bc it changes doesn’t mean na it won’t continue na

Kastila: “Anyone who wants to prevent us from spreading Christianity is a demon.”

Reduce Method/Reduccion
- Gathered Filipino communities in a town (Pueblo)
- Formed with a Plaza formation
- The powerful will be by the plaza (Church and Government)
- Christianity spread to those part of Reduccion
- If you’re part of a reduccion you’re part of an encomienda

Institutions
- Encomienda
- The encomendero would evangelize the people and offer protection, in return they would pay
tribute (tributo) by forced labor.
- Encomendero: representative of the king

- Tributo
- Taxes ordered by Carlos V in 1522
- Before Spain, Philippines had no money economy
- Service or animals were given in return

- Polo y Servicio
- Manual/Forced labor to benefit the state
- Men aged 16-60, manual labor for 60 days in a year (polo)
- Women aged 16-60, serve in the church for 60 days in a year (servicio)
- If not they should pay “falla”
- Bandala
- All Filipino owned property was sold to the Spanish

- Monopolyo
- Absolute control of the production and sale of products like tobacco

- Kalakalang Galyon
- Inter-island trading through sea fare
- Galleon: the ship
- Manila-Acapulco
Encomendero -> Evangelization and Protection -> Indigenas
Indígenas -> Tributo and Trabajo forzado -> Encomendero

Anituismo
- Pakikipagkapwa
- Shared innerself
- Respect for life
- Bawal ang pagkasira ng pakikipagkapwa

Sandugo
- Blood pact between the Spanish & Filipino
- Mutual peace is expected but failed (The ginhawa stuff)
- Christianity is kunwari ginhawa but pang-oppress lang talaga

Reaksyons
- Pagtanggap (Join reduccion)
- Pagtanggi (Not join reduccion; indigenous people; Those eskrimador guys)
- Pag-aalsa (Rebel against them)
- Politikal
- Relihiyoso - Kastila vs. Babaylan kasi they were being oppressed
- Agraryo - 18th century, prayle owns lupa and makes singil

Pag-aalsa noong 16th Century (Politikal)


- 1574-1575: Lakandula and Soliman vs Legazpi
- 1587-1588: “Sapakatan sa Tondo” or Tondo Conspiracy bc Magat Salamat was guilty of treason

Pag-aalsa noong 17th Century


- 1621-1622: Tamblot sa Bohol
- 1629-1631: Pag-aalsa ni Magalat sa Tuguegarao, Cagayan (Magalat Revolt)
- 1643: Pedro Ladia sa Bulacan
- 1649-1650: Sumuroy, son of a Babaylan and Pedro Caamug, a datu bc mas mataas ang bayad sa
militar
- 1660: Francisco Maniago of Pampanga and Andres Malong of Pangasinan
- 1663: Tapar, a Babaylan from Oron, Iloilo

Pag-aalsa noong 18th Century


- 1718: Bustamante got assassinated // Francisco Rivera also rebelled when they imposed an
encomienda in Cagayan
- 1719: Juan Caragay in Dagupan bc Spaniards were getting their lands
- 1744-1829: Francisco Dagohoy in Bohol, longest
- 1745: Maginoo in Silang Cavite; headed by Jose de la Vega, Francisco Santos de Medina etc, umabot
hanggang Bulacan and Batangas

Pag-aalsa noong 19th Century


- 1760: British invasion
- 1780: because of the Real Cedula, king wants to centralize gov’t to prevent British invasion 2.0
- 1789: want to get rid of the monarchies

Philippine Developments in the 19th Century


- Economic
- Galleon trade ended (Mexican independence cut the trade, Hidalgo headed the revolution)
- Spaniards in PH became scared of the secular priests and befriended religious orders so
they can control the people
- Encomienda to Hacienda (Feudalism-sorta)
- When encomendero dies, they give land to friars to wash away their sins and these
properties accumulated
- Haciendas divided into inquilinatos, managed by inquilinos who manage mga “kasama”
- Rizal’s father was an inquilino
- End to various monopolies
- Became private instead

- Political
- Change in rulers in Spain
- Conservatives (Pro-Spain) vs Liberals (Pro-Philippines)
- Filipinos were denied positions which were given to inexperienced Spaniards
- Graft & Corruption was present
- Spaniards knew they can easily be replaced, they didn’t want to go back to Spain poor so
they stole money
- Filipinos only reach a certain position even if they are better, so they stole money nalang
- Bands of “Tulisan” (bandits) were formed so gov’t established guardia civil
- Guardia Civil multiplies (They were worse than the tulisan)
- Kind of like sir’s tambay to MMDA story
- Guardia civil: symbol of Spanish oppression

- Cultural
- Educational reform - “Indios” can study
- Maestro - No fixed number of years
- Colegio - 4 years leading to “Bachiller en Artes”
- Universidad - 4+ years, Bachiller, Licenciado, Doctorado

- Religious
- Anti clerical sentiments
- Kastila treated with respect, called with formalities (Usted)
- Indios treated with disdain, called w/o formalities (Tu)
- Secularization
- Secular priests ready to take over the friars, Jesuits asked to leave
- De-Secularization
- Pilaez died, Burgos replaced him who was also pushing for re-secularization
- Re-Secularization
- Cavite Mutiny, Gomburza got executed

Things are v Hispanic (architecture, culture, etc) so what is the Filipino aspect?

1. Eskrimador
- Bladed weapons to fighting sticks (Blades were used before but switched to fighting sticks
since its more accessible)
- In the margins of the reduccion

2. Architecture
- Bahay kubo to bahay na bato
- Same structure but different materials (Built for the climate)
- Center of reduccion
- Rizal was here

These 2 groups united


and started the PH
revolution in 1896.
TL;DR: Spaniards used gov’t and church to colonize (reduccion), said beliefs were superstitions lang to gain
followers.

*Sala: hindi ka dapat nandoon kapag hindi ka nakakacontribute sa kaayusang panlipunan. If ganun, may “hindi
tama” sa buhay mo.

Ang pinuno na mahusay makipagkapwa sa anito ay mahusay rin makipagkapwa sa bayan.

TL;DR: Being a good person is good, virtue was found in the value of life and respect for others. Don’t be mean.

TL;DR: Bipartite view that we were sinners (darkness) and Jesus/Spaniards brought light.
TL;DR: If you don’t do the stuff they require and if you still follow anitos you’re a criminal. Those who rejected
reduccion/their ways were like outcasts and were shunned.

TL;DR: Basta same lang lahat even sa 19th century.

Rizal
- Very educated (Received much of the education abroad)
- “Pen is mightier than the sword”
- Wanted reform

Jacinto
- Midway ni Rizal and Bonifacio
- Kaginhawaan is v important, this is our great purpose in life ganun
- Wag ka mag-occupy ng space kung wala kang contribution
- If wala kang purpose, wala kang kwenta
Bonifacio
- Until maestro only
- “Fighting > Writing”
- Wanted Philippine independence
- KKK: Magdiwa
- Retrieved old Filipino ritual ng pakikipagkapwa
- Used Sandugo for Inang Bayan
- Not a lawyer or businessman, organized local units of the Katipunan
- Cry of Pugad lawin (tore their cedulas in revolt to spanish systems)

Rizal and Bonifacio are super different but they complement each other, naiintindihan ni Bonifacio si Rizal

Aguinaldo
- Claimed to read Rizal, but didn’t
- 1st president
- KKK: Magdalo
- Probably killed lots of filipinos

Anyway after everything hindi parin ma-achieve ang ginhawa until now bc
1. Gov’t mentality: preoccupied with how to be recognized by foreign countries
2. Americans got us almost right after
3. Lack of unity (Multiple independent revolts, 2 KKKs, etc)

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