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KASAYSAYAN NG PILIPINAS  Not 1-to-1 correspondence with reality, but gives

I. KASAYSAYAN lessons (values) from events


 Salaysay na may saysay ng isang pangkat ng  PROBLEM: naniniwala tayo sa sinasabi
tao na iniuulat sa kanyang sariling wika (promises) ng foreigners
 Passed on from what people heard; dialogue of c1. HISTORICAL NARRATIVE
each person - must have in writing history
 SHARED CONSENSUS - Elements
 Individually, we have our own kasaysayan.  Timeline
o Espanyol - Fernand Braudes (French)
 Kasaysayan in their POV (friars) o Social Time
o Amerikano  Pakikipag-ugnayan sa ibang tao
 Wrote history of America in PH  Mabagal bec attitude ng tao,
o Jose Rizal kaisipan, panlasa
 Started writing kasaysayan in  Pagbabago sa loob ng isang
Filipino’s POV lipunan
a. BIPARTITE VIEW OF KASAYSAYAN o Political time
 Dilim ---> Liwanag  Madalas nakikita
 Kastila said PH had nothing before they came,  Mabilis change
even vices came from them  Immediate effect to society; if
 Kastila stole our identity rebellion, baka diff president
 Learned wrong by retrieving treasures of o Geographical Time
Filipinos  Nagbabago ang heograpiya
o Florante at Laura  Pinakamabagal
 Francisco Balagtas  Ex: now may Sierra Madre,
o Pasyon which affects culture, etc.
 Epic  Happened millions of years
 Born everyone singing and (influence buhay ng tao)
praising  Ex: Central Luzon has diff way
 Tinaksilan and pinatay to plant rice than Ifugaos (rice
 Resurrection terraces)
 Went back to all epics and stories to prove Dilim o Bec of these changes in 3 types, dito
– Liwanag is wrong pumapasok importance of timeline
 SOLUTION: Return to who we are (epics,  Evidences
stories) o Primary
b. TRIPARTITE VIEW OF KASAYSAYAN  Artifacts (man-made)
 Liwanag ---> Dilim ---> Liwanag  Fossils (natural)
(precolonial) *Friar’s POV  Eyewitnesses accounts
*Filipino’s POV - pinalimot ang  Authors may write to
liwanag na meron clear their name
ang PH  SOLUTION: compare
 Jose Rizal’s 3 books with other sources
o Sucesos de Las Islas Filipinas with o Internal Criticism
Annotations [Liwanag]  Sulat
o Noli (Nolo) [Dilim] o External Criticism
o El Fili [Liwanag]  Others against
 Fighter (Simon)  Epics and legends (values of
 Simon people)
o Failed bec of vengeance  Ex: rhino remains in Cagayan
o Should think for kapakanan ng bayan Valley 700,000 BC suggest
like Bonifacio animals were systematically
 Bonifacio (Katipunan) slaughtered with tools
o Initiation  BC = Before Christ
 Kalagayan noon [Liwanag]  BP = Before present/ 1950 (year
 Ngayon [Dilim] carbon-dating machine was
 Kinabukasan [Liwanag] invented)
o Hindi lamang pinaglaban ang o Secondary
KALAYAAN, kundi PAGKATAO o identity  Perspective
c. KASAYSAYAN NG PILIPINAS o ONE only; based on facts
 Epiko, awit, korido o Combination of all OPINIONS
 Leah Salonga said mabait si  Believed to be population where Tabon
Marcos (bec she was supported Man came from
since young) o Laguna Copperplate Inscription
 People got mad but  900 AD
opinion lang niya  Oldest written document to come from
 Need to BALANCE opinions of the Philippines
everyone, through their eyes, so  Prehistoric
we can write a NARRATIVE  Before 900 AD
about what happened  Protohistoric
o CSI Film [Tony Candlewell]  After 900 AD
c2. THEORIES ON THE PEOPLING OF THE PH o Prehistoric (67,000 BP) is too far from
 Wave Migration Theory (H. Otley Beyer) Protohistoric (900 AD) to claim that they are
o PH was populated with different waves of our ancestors
migration, from Negritos, Indonesians, then  Austronesian
Malays o Auster (South in Latin)
o DEBUNKED by F. Landa Jocano 1. Wilhelm Schmidt
 Negritos/Aetas  Theory of Primitive Monotheism
 Used linguistics (similar Austronesian
 Tabon man
o oldest person revealed language)
 Missionaries went to diff islands
 Tabon man fossils should be them,
2. Peter Bellwood
but only fossilized bones remain  Used Schmidt’s
 Tabon man are women bec bones are  Southern Yangtze River
stronger; calcium comes from mother, ---> Madagascar
but cannot determine skin color ---> Eastern Island
 Indonesians 3. Wilhelm Solheim II
 Maragtas by Pedro Monteclaro  Borneo
o Document/narrative of 10 ---> Islands
Bornean datus migrating to island ---> Madagascar
of Panay and bartering it for o Most recent
golden salakot and kwintas, then  China
went to different places ---> Taiwan
o FORGERY ---> Batanes (stayed 1000 years)
 W. Henry Scott ---> Palawan (outrigger canoe)
 Dubious bec can’t find ---> West
texts and sources but  Proof is language
Monteclaro said based o Rice
on what he read  Nasi Goreng (Indonesia)
 F. Landa Jocano  Nasing Puti (Pampanga)
 No evidence of salakot  Religion is also the same
and kwintas c3. PANANAMPALATAYA AT RELIHIYON
 Malays  Pananampalataya
 Perak man o Anumang pananalig na may kalikasang
o 11,000 BP nasa loob ng isang tao
o Oldest known Malays  Relihiyon
 Tabon man o Pananampalatayang naitatag sa isang
o 45,000-42,000 BP institusyon
o Oldest known Filipinos  2 larangang pangunahing pag-aaral sa
 Perak man can’t be ancestors of pananampalatayang Pilipino
Tabon man o Larangang Pangkasaysayan
 Core Population Theory (F. Landa Jocano)  Ileto at Rafael
o Original Filipino race in the Philippines  Relihiyon ng Kastila
o Callao Man o ginamit para sa kolonisasyon ng
 67,000 BP Pilipinas
 Metatarsal found by Armand Mijaros in o ginamit ng Pilipino laban sa Kastila
Callao Cave in Cagayan, with butchered  Schumacher
animals  Relihiyon sa Pilipinas
 Sure homo erectus but not sure if homo o Resulta ng pagkakamali at
sapiens kaguluhang politikal na naka-ugat
sa kontrobersyang politikal ng kasinungalingan nito at ang katotohanan
Espanya ng Diyos
 3 books  Luis de Jesus (Rekolekto, 1681)
 Pasyon and Revolution  Nagalit kasi anito raw sa puno
o Salita ni Kristo ang rason at  Sabi niya ay demonyo, hindi anito
ginamit to reach out to others and  Exorcised tree with Christ on the
revolusyon cross, went up and got mango, ate it
 Contracting Colonialism then went down
o Wika ginamit against Kastila  Cut the tree
o Pasyon and Revolution and  People followed him believing he is
Contracting Colonialism looks at more powerful than anito
indigenous and reaction to o Luis thought he converted people
Christianity (Ileto at Rafael) to Christianity, but did not really
 Syncretism in Philippine Catholicism: remove belief of anituism
Its Historical Causes o Manipulasyon
o Napabayaan ng Kastila ang  Naka-ugat sa teoryang nilikha ng tao ang
pagturo ng relihiyon kaya naging kanyang sinasamba
synchretic o Pakikipagkapwa
o Pagkakamali (Schumacher)  Value of anituism
o Larangang Sikolohikal  Naka-ugat sa paniniwalang ang “iba” ay
 Phenomena and Their Interpretation hindi iba sa sarili kundi magkatulad
(Jaime Bulatao) lamang; may tungkulin ang bawat isa na
 Split-level Christianity panatilihin ang kaginhawaan ng bawat
o Synchretism isa
o Ex: bring home communion, let  Ex: we call strangers “ate” or “ale”
chicken eat to win in sabong  How we relate to anito
 Anituism  Mutual responsibility between anito and
o Zeus A. Salazar tao
o Religion of Filipinos before Kastila  Alagaan ang isa’t isa, or else, walang
o Diff from Paganism (Kastila called some this pakikipagkapwa
 Some anitos di na napapansin kasi di
for living in outskirts, not center)
o Manipulasyon sa mga espiritung tinatayang nakakapagbigay ng kaginhawaan
 Need bigyan kaginhawaan para
umiiral sa buong kapaligiran
bigyan sila
o Concept of Anito
o Sandugo/Sanduguan
 Pananampalataya ng sinaunang
 Institutionalized pakikipagkapwa
Pilipino  Official na ugnayan between 2 people, 2
 Binibigyan ng “offerings” at gumagawa
anito, etc.
ng “rituals” upang mabigyan ng  Pakikipagkapwa tungo sa kaginhawaan
“blessings”  Responsibility ng Espanyol sa Pilipino
o Pumpwolff  Not just economically well, dapat state
 Student of Wilhelm Schmidt na no need to ask for more
 Anitu  WELL-BEING
 Protoaustronesian term  Legaspi nakipagsandugo sa atin
 Souls of people who went ahead  Gov. gen. ng PH 1565
 Anito c4. ESKRIMA/KALI (film)
 Tagalog/Indones
 Art of the bum
 Ghosts from Gőtze
 Eskrima (fighting stick) ---> Kali (came from
 Vatu/Nitu
KERIS which means patalim)
 Melanesyano, Fijiano
o KRIS (present term of Keris)
 Stein (stone)
 Any asymmetrical dagger with
 Studied dialects of Bikol, Bisaya,
blade-like pattering
Tagalog, etc., and found out different
 Variants of Kali
terms that are potential anito
o Gising
 Bikol – diwata, divata
o Kalahating tulog
 Bisaya – anito, diwata, umalagad
o Tulog
 Tagalog – anito
o Ang Kwento ng Pajo  Blade of Kali
o Symbolizes snake (underworld)
 Ginamit ang alamat ng Pajo tree upang
maipakita sa mga tao ang  Handle of Kali
o Symbolizes “sarimanok” (messenger)  Mga institusyong ipinakilala ng mga Espanyol
 Panday o Encomienda
o Creates weapons  Lupang bigay sayo if you help sakop
o Ginamit ng Kastila to make santo, the place
simbahan, etc.  Encomendero
 Bayani  Provide Evangelization and
o Eskrima masters who went underground Proteccion (if may pirates,
or hid during Spanish colonization organize people to fight pirates) to
 If reject offer of Christianity, you Indigenas
can be killed bec tingin sa kanila  Tributo en Trabaho forzado
is sugo ng demonyo o Tributo in the form of forced
 Kung pumigil sa pagspread ng labor as payment for
Christianity, devil evangelism and protection,
 Tago bec rejected not the but not really equal
Kastila but the offer o Tributo
 Tago also bec sanay sa  Inutos ni Carlos V noong 1522 ang
malayang buhay pagkolekta ng buwis
o “ang bida ng dating lipunan ay naging  Halagang ginagamit sa pagpapatakbo
kontrabida ng bagong lipunan” ng pamahalaan
o Warriors during precolonial time o Polo y Servicio
o Belong in Maharlika  Construction of infrastructure
 Babaylan  Ex: Intramuros made under forced
o Matatalinong babae/priestesses labor
(masters of epikos, constellations, and  Lalaki na may edad 16-60 kailangang
weapons) magtrabaho para sa pagsasaayos ng
o Siniraan ng Kastila at tinawag na bruha kolonya sa loob ng 60 araw sa isang
o Ginawan ng Kastila ng kumbento upang taon
magbago ng ugali  Kababaihang 16-60 ay magtrabaho sa
 Sistema ng Lipunan simbahan sa loob ng 60 araw sa isang
o Maguinoo taon
o Maharlika/timawa o Bandala
o Alipin  For Kastila to sustain their stay in the
 Classification of Alipin Philippines
o Namamahay  Lahat ng ani ng mga Indio ay ibebenta
 Household servant sa pamahalaang Espanyol
 Walang bahay  Binibili sa murang halaga
 Can’t be sold by maharlika  Utang na di binabayaran
o Saguiguilid o Monopolyo
 Slave worker  “absolute control” ng pamahalaan sa
 Lives with maharlika produksyon at pagbebenta ng mga
 Can be sold by marhalika partikular na produkto o pagkakakitaan
o Bulislis  Tabako, sabong, sugal
 Alipin ng alipin  Focused on production of tobacco
 Continuity and Change kaya di nagproduce rice
c5. REDUCCION  Bumaba produksyon
 “reduce” or “to gather”/”to defeat”  Galit ang Espanyol sa Chinese bec
 Method used to spread Christianity hindi macontrol ang opium
o Previous method was one tribe to another,  British monopolyo ng opium sa
but when gone back to the first tribe, Hong Kong
Christianity was already forgotten o Kalakalang Galyon
o SOLUTION: gather people to one place  Dala ng tobacco
 Pueblo  Kalakalang Maynila-Acapulco
o Referred to people before but evolved to  Hindi lahat kasali
 Polave
town
o Reduccion was the term before  Tree only grown if may marble
o Can also be Poblacion  Used for Galleon ships para
 Ex: Manila Cathedral matibay
d. 3 REAKSYON NG PILIPINAS SA PAG-IISIP NG
 Bajo La Campana
o If rinig bell, gather around KASTILA
 Pagtanggap o Steam ship was invented to chase Muslims bec
 Pagtanggi no wind before
o Pagtanggal  Tobacco plantation in Norte ran by Muslims
o Remontado  Political Development
 Pumunta sa bundok at bumalik o Liberals vs. conservatives (pro-monarchy) in
o Indigenous people Spain (constant political battle)
 Ifugao, Kalinga – North  Leader always changes, that’s why Kastila
 Igorot – generic na pagpunta sa bundok from PH may be poor when gone to Spain
dahil ayaw sa Reduccion  In effect, nangungurakot sa mga
 Stayed as they were until Pilipino
Americans/present o Changes in rulers bring new Spanish
 Pag-aalsa employees
o Rebellion ≠ Revolution o Filipinos deprived of positions given to
Mga pag-aalsang Pilipino bago ang Pambansang Spaniards who don’t know anything
Himagsikan ng 1896; Uri ng Pag-aalsa o Graft and corruption
 Pag-aalsang politikal  Countryside = poverty
 Pag-aalsang relihiyoso  People alis pueblo
o Babaylan tinawag na bruha  Go to mountains
 Pag-aalsang agraryo  Raid goods in pueblo
o Prayle owned lupa and singil  Tulisang Aso
*see table for list of pag-aalsa o Patay after salakay
e. 19th CENTURY  Tulisang Bulbol
 Starts at 1780, not 1800 o Steal only
 1776 (Cause) o “Tulisanes” multiplied in provinces prompting
o Revolution in America formation of “guardia civil” which committed
o Britain and Spain were threatened more abuses
 1780 (Effect)  Guardia civil
o Issuance of cedula (royal decree galing sa hari)  Tambay/walang trabaho kaya binigyan
o Centralization of government posisyon
 Religious orders dapat malapit sa o More corruption
gobernador heneral para mas ugnay sa  Symbol of Spanish oppression
local government instead of maestro from  Filipinos, not Spaniards
in Rome  Cultural Developments
o British also ayaw mapasukan ng Kastila kaya o Educational reforms of 1860s
strengthened army/navy  Indios allowed to enter school
e1. DEVELOPMENTS o Steps:
 Economic Development  Maestro
o Manila Acapulco Galleon Trade (with Mexico)  No fixed number of years
 Hawak ng prayle  Colegio
 Ended in 1815  4 years leading to “Bachiller en Artes”
 Mexican revolution right after led by  High school
Hidalgo (secular priest)  Ateneo Municipal
 Reason why Spain natakot sa secular  Universidad
priest  4 years or more
o Encomienda to Hacienda  Bachiller (4 yrs)
 Hacienda divided into Inquilinatos  Licenciado (2 yrs)
(managed by Inquilinos)  Doctorado (2 yrs)
 Inquilino turned into middle class kasi  Religious Developments
yumaman (Jose Rizal’s father) = o Development of anti-clerical sentiments (formed
BIGGEST CHANGE bec higher grades than Kastila but still called Tu
 Inquilinatos divided among “kasamas” (informal 3rd person) instead of Usted (3rd
(bungkal and tanim sa lupa) person with respect))
 Religious orders as owners pa rin because  Secularization
encomienda is given to who helps sakop  Paring Pilipino ready for position
the place, but once dead, given to friars  If parokya is self-supporting, dapat
o End of Tobacco monopoly and other bigay ng prayle to secular priests, but
monopolies doesn’t happen
 Privatization instead  Jesuits left/Recollects went to
Mindanao
 Absence = secularization e2. 3 SALAYSAY
 De-secularization  Ibang kaisipan sa Sala, Kasalanan, Krimen,
 Bumalik Jesuits Kriminalidad
 Naging assistants ang secular priests  Kriminalidad at Pananampalatayang Kristiyano
again o Salaysay na Panlipunan
 Re-secularization  Tao ay centered sa pakikipag-kapwa sa
 Pedro Pelaez headed re- anito, pinuno, bayan
secularization movement  PAKIKIPAGKAPWA
 Secular priest ---> parish priest o Salaysay na Eklesiyastiko
[FILM]  Superstitions lamang belief ng taong
 1558 = religious orders came Pilipino
 2 important people for Spanish colonization  MGA MAKASALANAN ang Pilipino
o Miguel Lopez de Legaspi o Salaysay na Sibil
 1559 = Panay (second Spanish  Tao dapat maglingkod sa monarkiya
settlement)  MGA KRIMINAL ang Pilipino
o Andres de Urdaneta o Both institutions (Eklesiyastiko and Sibil)
 1568 = death want to impose Bagong Nakaraan/Krimen at
o Both came back after Magellan was Kasalanan bilang Konsepto
defeated o Panlipunan tumanggi ---> Pagbalikwas ng
o Both from Mexico Bayan
o Legaspi died then Urdaneta went back to  “Kasalanan” at “Krimen” bilang
Mexico panlaban sa kawalang pakikipag-kapwa
 Reduccion ng mga kolonisador
 Positive aspect of colonialization  Salaysay na Panlipunan (from Filipino)
o Influences that make up a Filipino o Tao/mamamayan
 European influence  Pakikipagkapwa
 Mexican influence  Anito
 Native influence  Pinuno
 Chinese influence o Manifests kagalingan ng anito
o Manila Acapulco Trade  Bayan
 Chinese goods were actually traded, o If pinuno may pakikipag-
not Filipino goods kapwa with anito, may
 Chinese became rich pakikipagkapwa with bayan
 Rise of Chinese mestizo also
o Architecture  Kaayusan Panlipunan/ Kaginhawahang
 Bahay kubo ---> Bahay-na-bato Panlahat
 Bahay-na-bato  “sala” if di naganap
o symbol of wealth  Salaysay na Eklesiyastiko (from Prayle)
o many Chinese own a house o Tao/Infilies
like this, married to Filipina  Walang paniniwala
o prevents air circulation unlike  Makasalanan if pananampala-taya is
Bahay Kubo diff from Katoliko
 24 lighthouses created to guide ships  Humartolos/Hamartiya
o Propaganda movement  Sumala
 Many illustrados were Chinese mestizo o Bagong nakaraan
 Death of GOMBURZA led to many  Ang bayang nasa dilim, hawak ng
Illustrados questioning Spanish rule demonyo, dapat linisin, “sala” sa lahat
 Participated by exiles and students of o Bagong kasalukuyan
European universities (UST)  Bayang nilinis sa “Kasalanan”/ Bayan
 Wanted reforms only, not independence ng Diyos
o 1896 Revolution  Salaysay na Sibil
 Supposedly peaceful reforms only o Tao/Infilies
 1892 La Liga Filipina that led to exile of  Kriminal kapag:
Rizal in Dapitan  Di tumira sa reduccion
 Execution of Rizal in 1896  Di nagbayad tributo
 Bec of these, revolution started  Walang polo y servicios
 2 groups
 Di naglingkod sa monarkiya
 Eskrimador o Bagong nakaraan
 Bahay-na-bato (Illustrados)
 Bayang walang batas, pamahalaan,
kalinangan, kaayusan
o Bagong kasalukuyan
 Bayang kinupkop ng hari at/o reyna
 “Krimen” ang hindi pagsunod sa kanila
Year Pag-aalsa Namuno Sanhi Kinahinatnan
Mga Pag-aalsa ng ika-16 na Dantaon (Political)
1544-1545 Pag-aalsa nina Lakandula at  Legaspi (Northern side of  Natigil ang pag-aalsa dahil
Lakandula at Soliman Sulayman Pasig River) nakipag- sa paghimok (persuasion)
(Sulayman)  Pinuno ng kasundo kay Lakandula ng Kastila about pagbigay
Maynila (Malate area) pero di ng pribilehiyo
natupad
 Pagpataw ng tributo
 Pagbigo ng Espanyol sa
pangakong karapatan
bilang mamamayan
1587-1588 “Sapakatan Magat Salamat  Paalisin ang mga  Not successful
(conspiracy) sa  Anak ni Espanyol sa Maynila  Martin Pangan
Tondo” sa pamumuno Lakandula (gobernadorcillo)
ni Magat Salamat Agustin de Legaspi nagtraydor and sinumbong
 Pamangkin ni sa Kastila
Lakandula  Death of Salamat and
 Pinsan ni Legaspi
Salamat o Legaspi
 Sent navy to  Binitay
 Tinali sa kabayo
drive Kastila
around Intramuros
away
 Hinati body sa 4
corners of
Intramuros
 Kastila gave privileges to
datus (ginoo) para di na
mag-alsa
o Can opt not to pay tax
o Collect tax
Mga Pag-aalsa ng ika-17 na Dantaon (Religious)
1621-1622 Tamblot sa Bohol; Tamblot  Panunumbalik ng  Nasupil ng pwersa ng
Bankaw sa Leyte  Babaylan katutubong relihiyon Kastila
Bankaw  Girls required to go to
 Babaylan kumbento
 Lalaki  Babaylan shifted from girl
to boy
 Giginhawa ang buhay
kung bumalik sa dating
relihiyon
1629-1631 Pag-aalsa ni Magalat Magalat  Pagpataw ng buwis o  Pinatay ng sariling
(1596) sa Tuguegarao, Tributo sundalo bec promised
Cagayan (Magalat  Polo y servicios reward from Gob. Hen.
Revolt) Francisco Tello
1643 Pedro Ladia sa Pedro Ladia  Hinimok ni Ladia ang mga  Kaagad napigilan matapos
Bulacan  Taga-Malolos taga-Malolos na mag-alsa madakip at patayin si
laban sa pamahalaan ng Ladia
Kastila
1649-1650 Pag-aalsa ni Juan Ponce Sumuroy  Ayaw ipadala Visayan  Pinatay
Sumuroy, anak ng and Pedro Caamug laborers (taga-Samar) to
isang Babaylan at ni Cavite for shipbuilding
Pedro Caamug, isang
Datu, Samar, Leyte,
Bicol...
1660 Pag-aalsa nina Francisco Maniago  Forced buying of  Hindi tinuloy dahil
Francisco Maniago Andres Malong pamahalaan sa produkto gantimpala sa pagsuko
ng Pampanga at ni ng katutubo, lalo na rice  Macapagal ang
Andres Malong  Forced labor nagsumbong saan
nagtago si Maniago
1663 Pag-aalsa ni Tapar, Tapar  Ibalik ang katutubong  Dinakip at pinakain sa
isang kabibinyag na  Panay relihiyon buwaya si Tapar
Babaylan mula sa
Oton, Iloilo
1680  Pinasabog yung place of
ritual ng mga Babaylan
 Sinunog mga Babaylan na
unang nahuli
Mga Pag-aalsa ng ika-18 na Dantaon (Agraryo)
1718 Pag-aalsa ni Francisco Rivera  Gobernadorcillo
Francisco Rivera sa  Alyas “Papa Rey” Bustamante gusto ibalik
Cagayan (Pope and King) economic system
(Magtangaga Revolt)  Trade with Thailand but
ayaw ng friars bec they
are conservative
(Thailand = Buddhist)
 Ayaw ikalat Kristiyanismo
1719 Pag-aalsa ni Juan Juan Caragay  Stop alkalde mayor using  Killed alkalde but slain by
Caragay sa Dagupan force to collect tribute and Juan Ramos
draft labor
1744-1829 Pag-aalsa ni Francisco Dagohoy  Brother is former  Nasupil ang pag-aalsa
Francisco Dagohoy Babaylan but ayaw ibless
sa Bohol (Longest and give Kristiyanong
rebellion) libing nung namatay sa
duel
1745 Pag-aalsa ng mga Jose de la Vega  Usurpation of Filipino  Failed
(Agraryo) Maginoo ng Silang, Francisco Santos de lands
Cavite (umabot Medina
hanggang Bulacan at
Batangas)
1762 Diego Silang sa Diego Silang  Pagpataw ng tributo  Pinatay ang mga Silang
Ilocos at Juan dela Gabriela Silang  Binitay at hinati-hati
Cruz Palaris sa Juan dela Cruz katawan ni Palaris
Pangasinan Palaris
1785 Pag-aalsa ni Labutao, Labutao  Imposition against  Killed
isang kalinga, at ni Baladdon monopolyo ng tobako
Baladdon, isang
Babaylan sa Cagayan
1787 Pag-aalsa ni Andres Andres Magtanong  Monopolyo ng tobako  Hanged
Magtanong at Francisco Malibiran  Bodies quartered
Francisco Malibiran  Heads put on stake
dahil sa monopolyo
ng tobako
Mga Pag-aalsa ng ika-19 na Dantaon (Agraryo)
1807 Pag-aalsa ni Padre Padre Mateo  Government monopoly of  Failed
Mateo Basi manufacturing
1822 Pag-aalsa nina Luis Luis de los Santos
de los Santos Juan Sinestre
(Panang) at Juan
Sinestre (Juan Upay)
sa Cavite
 Continuation of
1745 pag-aalsa
1832-1841 Pagbubuo at pag- Apolinario de la Cruz  Gusto maging prayle pero  Binaril at pinagputul-putol
aalsa ng Cofradia sa ayaw dahil Indio siya ang kamay
pamumuno ni
Apolinario de la Cruz
sa Tayabas
1860 Pag-aalsa ni Casimiro Casimiro Camerino  Against land grabbing of
Camerino sa Cavite friars
1870-1871 Pagbuhay ni Januario Januario Labios  Nagpalit gobernador
Labios sa Cofradia ni heneral from dela Torre
Apolinario de la Cruz (liberal) to a conservative
one
o Tanggal benefits
1872 Pag-aalsa sa Cavite
Puerto (last rebellion
before Cavite Mutiny)

 Cavite Mutiny
o Brief uprising of 200 Filipino troops and workers at the Cavite arsenal
o GOMBURZA was executed in connection to this
 Led to shared consciousness na even if matalino (Burgos = 8 degrees) or same level with Kastila, executed
pa rin
 From 1574-1872, hindi nabigay ng Espanyol ang ginhawa despite sandugo
 All failed pag-aalsa = failed pakikipagkapwa
American Colonization  Ayaw ng Kastila pumasok si
1896 Aguinaldo sa Intramuros
 Himagsikan  Dapat U.S. papasok sa
 Pamahalaang Sibil corrupted both Filipinos and Intramuros para equal race ang
Spaniards makatalo sa Kastila
1897  Spain = talo na nga sa Cuba
 Tejeros Convention from Latin Americans, dapat
o April equal race makatalo
o Cavite  Filipinos were viewed as inferior
o People were angry that Bonifacio won race kaya di worthy
as DILG kasi di naman siya abogado  Mock Battle of Manila
o BUT Bonifacio was in fact the one who o August 13, 1898
o Kunwari laban U.S. and Spain pero no
goes to BIG wars. Cavite yung duwag.
o Aguinaldo’s government system is good bala tumama
o Para dating is Spain didn’t give up PH
reputation to foreigners (external/no
without a fight
pakikipagkapwa) kasi Americans di
o U.S. and Spain secretly joint plan of
recognize ang pre-occupation ni
Aguinaldo transferring control of Manila (city
 Trying to prove na existing siya center) while keeping Philippine
 Local governments Revolutionary Army led by Aguinaldo out
o Same style of government system na of the city center
nakuha from Kastila (corrupt)  Treaty of Paris
o December 10, 1898
1898
o Spain relinquishing nearly all remaining
 Kastila limited to Intramuros because central
government was here Spanish Empire, esp Cuba, and ceding
 Filipinos nanalo na sa provinces Puerto Rico, Guam and PH to U.S.
 Aguinaldo declared surrender then went with  1776
o American revolution from British
Goyo to Hong Kong
 Uncle Sam
 Germany, French, British (and sometimes Dutch
 U.S. personification
nasa Indonesia)
 John Bull
o Eyed for Philippines bec weakest colony
 Britain personification
in 19th century was Spain
 Bipartite View
 Wala na Mexico, so PH na
o Kastila
o Sends reports of what’s happening sa
 Kristanisasyon (rehash) as way
PH to their own country
to civilize PH
 U.S.
o U.S.
o Malaking part ng investments is in Cuba
 No civilization to civilization
 Ex: sugar, cigar
 White Man’s Burden
o Cuban Revolution
 U.S. and British believe
 Can’t produce products for U.S.
they (white) have the
 Colony of Spain na nagrebel
o U.S.S. Maine responsibility na idala
ang black to civilization
 Sumabog sa port ng Cuba
 U.S. blamed Cuba for it pero di  Americans established themselves as rulers of
naman talaga nila fault PH starting 1898
 Reason why U.S. was at war  PH-American war
with Spain o Ended 1902
o Inuna outposts (Cuba, PH)  America’s POV
o Battle of Manila Bay o Ended 1913
 Pacific fleet  Filipino’s POV
 Battle of Bud Bagsak in
 May 1, 1898
 Declaration of Philippine Independence (from Mindanao by Moros (last battle)
 The establishment of an independent
Spaniards)
o June 12, 1898 Philippines, however, became a long struggle
o Why Kawit, Cavite? from both the elite and non-elite Filipinos
o Political elite
 Kasi surrounded ang Intramuros
 Filipinos sent politicians to U.S. o UP
in order to diplomatically work  Handled by Americans
for the independence of the (pumasok Thomasites
Philippines establishing public schools)
o Non-elite  Built 1908
 Struggle ranged from diff social  State university (but Chartered
movements to continuous university before)
resistance on the diff levels of  Guerrilla/Conventional Warfare
society o Declared on Nov 15, 1899
 U.S. president William McKinley
o Issued benevolent assimilation
 Dec 21, 1898
 “future control, disposition, and American troops Filipino troops
government of PH ceded to o Antonio Luna
U.S.”  Best known for this
 Did not declare PH’s  Siya nagsabi na guerrilla
independence warfare dapat, but no one
 Applied U.S. government to PH listened
(White House) 1901
1899  “Sedition Law” of 1901 outlawed any Philippine
 Start of Philippine-American War advocacy of independence
o February 1907
o Fiilipino was shot by an American beside  “Flag Law” of 1907 prohibited the display of the
Pasig River Philippine flag
 1899-1902  Macario Sakay
o Countryside yung wars o Execution, people may PH flag outside
 Hamletting para balutan bangkay, but pinagbawalan
o Method used by Americans flag
o Transform pueblo into military camp  These became occasions for the rise of creative
o Entrance/exit hinarangan, need may ways of resistance expressed through literature
pass and popular culture
o Pag lumabas ng pueblo, di na o Kahapon, ngayon at bukas
makakabalik  Title of a play
o Inalis mga Pilipino far from fields,  Actors wore red, blue, yellow,
sinunog ng Americans para di na white, dikit-dikit to show flag,
matulungan mga Pilipino sa labas then disperse when Americans
 Gen. Miguel Malvar enter
o Last Filipino General to surrender to 1913
Americans  End of war
o Surrendered para stop na war within 1918
pueblo  November 1918, the Philippine Legislature
 Others continued war created the Commission of Independence, “for
o Amigo warfare the purpose of studying all matters related to the
 Morning nasa pueblo, friends negotiation and organization of the
with Americans independence of the Philippines
 Alam ng soldiers ano o PH assembly
mga supplies  Looking out for interest ng PH
 Evening meeting for guerrilla o Thoughts of Filipinos fully controlled na
warfare (di pa alam ng by Americans, kaya Americans thought
Americans at that time) pwede nang pakawalan
 Ambush platoons  Composed of 11 senators headed by Manuel L.
 Papaputok twice then Quezon and Sergio Osmena, they presented
retreat para mag-aaim independence as the national ideal of the
palang Americans, wala Filipino people
na Filipinos  Lobbyists
 Justification: need to colonize o Influence congressman
kasi acting like children (di o Ex: want CCTV, ask congressman to
marunong warfare) create batas to build CCTV
o Partylist marami from lobbyists o Anahaw leaf helmet
1919 Japanese Colonization (1941-1945)
 The first Parliamentary Mission was sent to the [FILM]
U.S. in 1919. This resulted to Woodrow Wilson’s 1942
recommendation to Congress in favor of  Japanese entered after bombing of open city
Philippine Independence and attack on Pearl Harbor (in Hawaii) through
o Parliamentary Mission bicycles and yelled banzai (PH didn’t know it
 Lobbyists lobby laws in favor of was a battle cry)
PH independence o Jan 2, 1942
o The only Parliamentary Mission 3 PHASES OF WWII
successful 1. Philippine Defense Campaign
1922 o Dec 7-8, 1941 – May 6, 1942
 April 1922, 2nd mission led again by Quezon and o Attack on Pearl Harbor
Osmena went to Washington. The succeeding  Dec 7-8, 1941
missions of 1923, 1924 and 1925 were o Gen. Douglas MacArthur left
unsuccessful in gaining legislation for Philippine  March 11, 1942
Independence o Bataan Death March
1933  April 9, 1942
 Osmena-Roxas (OsRox) Commission from o South West Pacific Area (SWPA)
1931-1933  Name given to Allied supreme
o succeeded in securing the passage of military command
Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act which became  Last command disappeared
a law in Jan 17, 1933 when Corregidor fell on May 6
o Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act 2. Japanese Colonization
3. Philippine Liberation Campaign
 Independent PH after 10 years
o Meat of Filipino contribution
 Quezon
o Ayaw magpatalo sa pogi points kaya left o Youngsters inculcated with patriotism
for U.S. for the purpose of securing a and nationalism
o Hunters ROTC
“better” law, Tydings-McDuffie Act (10
 Jan 15, 1942
years transition period also)
 70-80 young boys
o Vetoed Hare-Hawes-Cutting na same
 Residents of San Juan
lang naman with Tydings-Mcduffie  Raided center
 American gave independence to PH because of  Miguel Ver
Great Depression 1925-1933  Military commander
o Cannot sustain PH anymore  Gustavo Ingles
o Politically, independent during 1933, but  Intelligence officer
people believe in 1898  Knows Bisaya and
1935 Tagalog
 Inauguration of the PH Commonweatlh  How to avoid Japanese
o Nov 15, 1935 to get to center
o Administrative body that governed PH til  Nakapasok then kinuha
1946 firearms
o Aguinaldo vs Quezon  Underestimated bec
 J. Edgar Hoover very young
 Has list of mistresses of  National Bilibid Prison
Quezon (broke in then freed
 Japanese Bugaboo prisoners; successful on
o There were already formal arguments of 2nd time)
the Japanese menace before passing o Philippine Guerrilla Movement
the Tydings-McDuffie Act since  No shoes and gun
pumapasok na Hapon sa PH o July 4, 1942
o Bugaboo was the derisive term used  Miguel Ver died
when this potential threat was dismissed  Revenge became idealism
in discussion o Aug 30, 1942
o But Quezon still saw this as a potential  Pugad Lawin Ambush
threat  200 Japanese
 Commonwealth Act No. 1  19 Filipinos
o Quezon created PH army
 Walang binuhay na o Hawaii connected U.S. to PH
Japanese o Without Hawaii, no U.S.
o Hunters grew to 25000 armed men plane has direct flight to PH
o Anti-Guerrilla Operations by Japanese o
kasi strong yung Hunters
 Sona
 Arrest men, bring to
church, keep them there
 Use of threat and torture
 High ranking officers
 Ingles as leader was
tortured to spill info pero
di naggive in
o Laurel
 Caused hate sa hunters kasi di
pro-Japanese  Japanese bombed
o Christmas Truce o Isla ng Wake
 Hunters (17-18 yrs old) asked  Bombed kasabay ng Pearl
Sakai who agreed Harbor
 Hunters felt they knew o Nichols Air base (Villamor)
better o Sangley Point, Cavite
 Pride of youth o Clark Field, Pampanga
 Marking’s Guerrillas (20-30 yrs o Davao
old) o Baguio
 Killed Sakai o Aparri
o Battle of Leyte Guld  Intelligence reports to Japanese came from:
 MacArthur arrived on Leyte and o Davao-kuo
removed Japanese there  Japanese community in Davao
 Oct 20, 1944 full of spies providing
o Nasugbu Landing
intelligence report tungkol sa
 American troops landed in
Pilipinas
Nasugbu and liberated o Karayuki-san
Batangas  Japanese prostitutes
o Shimbu Line
somewhere in Sampaloc, near
 50,000 Japanese soldiers
Intramuros
 Failed bec Filipino troops at
 American army goes to
front and back of line
Sampaloc
o Sept 2, 1945
 Karayuki-san gets info from
 Japan surrenders USS Missouri
American soldier by pabebe
[PPT]
Dec 22, 1941
 Thailand
 Malakihang pagdating ng Japanese sa
o Only place not colonized
Lingayen, Mauban, Atimonan at Siain
o If pumasok foreigners, deal lang
Dec 24, 1941
 Bridge in River Kwai
 Quezon, his family and kasapi ng gabinete ay
o Pinag-aagawan ng Axis and Allied
inilikas sa Corregidor
 Meiji Restoration
 Mahalaga ang paglikas na ito bec hindi
o Reconstruct Japan into Westernized,
nagtagumpay si Masaharu Homma na palibutan
modern military power
ang USAFFE sa Manila
o Last samurai
o United States Armed Forces of the Far
 Pinalitan with military
East
 Japan had no idea that PH is independent
o
during 1898 Bataan
 Japan attacked Hawaii so no airplane can
supply aid to PH
Manila
Destroy before
t
gh

enter
fi
ct
ire
ed

Japan Corregidor
an

US
pl

Supply aid
attack
through plane
Hawaii
No

PH
o Opened schools with vocational studies
that teaches agriculture, medicine,
o War Plan Orange fishing and engineering
 All army will be placed in  Kempei-Tai
Corregidor and peninsula of o Japanese police
Bataan Oct 14, 1943
 Unlike other countries in Southeast Asia, hindi  Jose P. Laurel declared as President of PH
nakuha ng Japan ang PH sa kabila ng 50 days under Japan
na itinakda para sa pananakop. Ikinagalit ng o Tried ipasok nationalism into Filipinos
Hapones despite colonization
o Japanese expected PH will welcome o Made Tagalog into pambansa at opisyal
them like others na wika
o Indonesia welcomed Japan bec arrival = o Hindi pumayag nag awing “conscripts”
fulfillment of Indonesian prophecy that ng hukbong Hapones ang mga Pilipino
yellow people will save them from Dutch o Asked by Quezon to take presidency
(by Joyo Boya) kasi magiging pro-Japanese ang leader
 Gen. Homma o Not seen as “puppet leader” by Guerrilla
o “Dumating kami upang palayain kayo sa people
mapang-aping dominasyon ng Amerika o Told by Japanese na sabihing we’re at
at hayaan kayong makapagtatag ng war
isang “Pilipinas para sa mga Pilipino” o Said we’re in “state of war” only
bilang kasapi ng Greater East Asia Co-  Aguinaldo
Prosperity Sphere at upang magkamit o Sent letter to Guerrilla in Bataan saying
kayo ng satiling pag-unlad at kultura” sumuko na
(Jan 3, 1942) o Want Japanese to give him pension
 Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity o Sipsip sa Japanese
Sphere o May katana kasi Honorary Samurai
 All will go to Japan’s  Benigno S. Aquino and Ramon Avancena
Legislative Assembly o Mga pangalawang pangulo ni Laurel
 Feb and March, 1942 o Aquino is a collaborator ng Japanese
o Wala pang nangyayari (believes Japanese is the solution)
 April, 1942  Guerrilla Movement
o Death March o 2 primary groups
 May 1942  USAFFE and ROTC
o Di pa rin sumuko si Gen. Wainwright  HUKBALAHAP
o Pres. Roosevelt promised convoy and o These are the groups that provided info
supplies but tapusin muna battle with regarding movements of enemies in PH
Europe before SE Asia o These groups ang masasabing
o Yamashita continued fight and freed us from
 Tiger of Malaya Japanese
 Replaced Homma o Nung dumating mga Amerikano,
 Convicted and punished in PH napaalis na ng Guerrilla ang Hapon sa
 Binago ang Kaayusang Pampamahalaan Leyte
o Named Central Administrative
 Makapili
Organization o Armed group of Filipinos who are pro-
 Composed of the ff 15epts..:
Japanese
 Interior o Need money to feed family
 Pananalapi (Bank) o Covered face with paper bag
 Justice
o Traitors
 Agriculture and
 Pillbox
Business o Fortification
 Education
o Box with machine gun used in war
 Health
 War changed attitude of Filipinos
 Public Works and
o Before, no need for police because
Communication
trustworthy, but war taught us robbery
 Pagbabagong Pang-edukasyon
 Japanese destroyed bridges, so we built
o Public schools opened in March 31,
pontoon bridges
1942
PROBLEM
 Great Cultural Divide
o Spanish
 Ladino
 Bridge bet Kastila and Pilipino
 Paring Sekular
 Burgos (mas malayo pa sa
Pilipino bec educated in seminary
 Orientation is very far from nasa
baba
 Separated Bahayan/ Filipinos into:
 Estadong etniko (Ifugao)
 Estadong kolonyal (pueblo,
reduccion)
o Americans (19th century)
 Ilustrado
 Can study abroad
 Modern na ang Europe after
1789 French revolution
(liberalized) and wanted idea of
Nation State introduced sa PH
(specifically Rizal)
 Rizal forgot concept of Bayan
that evolved from Bahayan
(Spanish time pa)
 Rizal not aware of Dambuhalang
Pagkakahati
 Bonifacio
 1896 used Bayan model
 Each ay kapatid (Bayan = one
kalooban)
 That’s why called PH, Haring
Bayang Katagalugan
 Saw both Nation State and pag-
uugnay ng Haring Bayang
Katagalugan
 But 1897 Tejeros Convention,
Aguinaldo takes position
 Aware of Dambuhalang
Pagkakahati
 Pensionado
 Fulbright
 Government pays for expenses
of students studying abroad
 Koreans and Japanese sponsor
Fil. scholars in their country, then
babalik sa PH thinking we should
learn Korean! Kaya nakapasok
ang Korean sa DepEd language
 Same uri naghahawak sa Pilipinas
o Political dynasty, kaya di makamove on

SOLUTION
 Paano pagkaisahin ang Dambuhalang
Pagkakahati?

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