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Cheatle-2006.

book Page iii Monday, February 20, 2006 11:05 AM

Fundamentals of
Test Measurement
Instrumentation

by Keith R. Cheatle
Cheatle-2006.book Page ix Monday, February 20, 2006 11:05 AM

Table of
Contents

About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv

1 Introduction to Test Measurement Instrumentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Why and Where Test Measurement Instrumentation Is Used 2
1.3 Components of a Test Measurement System 3
1.4 Characteristics of an Ideal Test Measurement System 10
1.5 Differences between Test Measurement Instrumentation and
Process Instrumentation 14
1.6 Smart Transducers 16

2 Static Transducer Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

2.1 Hysteresis 26
2.2 Deadband 29
2.3 Linearity 32
2.4 Conformity 39
2.5 Repeatability 39
2.6 Accuracy 41
2.7 Resolution 42
2.8 Environmental Effects on Transducer Characteristics 43

ix
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x Fundamentals of Test Measurement Instrumentation

3 Dynamic Transducer Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45

3.1 Frequency Response 47


3.2 Response Time 49
3.3 Damping 50

4 Transducer Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53

4.1 Temperature Transducers 53


4.2 Pressure Transducers 67
4.3 Flow Transducers 77
4.4 Displacement Transducers 89
4.5 Velocity Transducers 99
4.6 Acceleration Transducers 100
4.7 Force Transducers 105
4.8 Strain Transducers 108

5 Signal Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117


5.1 Voltage Amplifiers 119
5.2 Linearizing Amplifiers 122
5.3 Strain Gauge Amplifiers 123
5.4 Charge Amplifiers 126
5.5 Filters 128
5.6 Signal Isolators 129
5.7 Analog-to-Digital Converters 130
5.8 Differential versus Single-Ended Inputs 131

6 Transducer Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135

6.1 Wiring and Cabling 136


6.2 Grounding 138
6.3 Connecting to the Test Rig 138

7 Data Acquisition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143

7.1 Digital Indicators 143


7.2 Recorders 146
7.3 Data Loggers 146
7.4 Data Acquisition Systems 147
7.5 Filters 151
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Table of Contents xi

8 Data Reduction and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153

8.1 Graphing 154


8.2 Sorting 155
8.3 Signal Analyzers 156

9 Equipment Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159

9.1 Component Calibration 165


9.2 System Calibration 166
9.3 In Situ Calibration 166
9.4 Calibration Standards 167
9.5 Multifunction Calibrators 168
9.6 Calibration Records 169
9.7 Calibration Laboratory Requirements 171
9.8 Calibration System Software 172
9.9 Software Validation 174
9.10 Quality Assurance System Requirements 175
9.11 International, National, and Other Standards 176
9.12 Calibration Equipment Specifications 178

10 Pressure Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183


10.1 Dead-Weight Testers 183
10.2 Water Dead-Weight Testers 189
10.3 Oil Dead-Weight Testers 190
10.4 Pneumatic Dead-Weight Testers 190
10.5 Digital Calibrators 191
10.6 Manometers 193

11 Temperature Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197

11.1 Temperature Calibration Baths 198


11.2 Dry Block Calibrators 203
11.3 Temperature Calibration Furnaces 204
11.4 Infrared Calibrators 205
11.5 Thermocouple and RTD Simulators 206
11.6 Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers 208
11.7 Triple Point of Water Cells 210
11.8 Metal Fixed Point Cells 212
11.9 Ice Baths 214
11.10 Boiling Point of Water 215
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xii Fundamentals of Test Measurement Instrumentation

12 Electrical Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217

12.1 Voltage 217


12.2 Current 219
12.3 Resistance 220
12.4 Thermocouples 222
12.5 Multifunction Calibrators 223

13 Force Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227


13.1 Dead-Weight Force Calibration 227
13.2 Proving Rings 233
13.3 Hydraulic Presses 234
13.4 Shunt Calibration 235

14 Flow Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239


14.1 Provers 241
14.2 Weigh Tank 243
14.3 PVTt Calibration Facility 245
14.4 Reference Flow Sensor 246

15 Displacement Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249

15.1 Gauge Blocks 250


15.2 Dial Indicators 251

16 Vibration Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .253

16.1 Shaker Table 260


16.2 Reference Accelerometer 262

17 Strain Gauge Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263


17.1 Bridge Shunt Calibration 264

18 System Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269

18.1 System Accuracy Statistics 270


18.2 Root Sum Square Versus Sum of Errors 275
18.3 Standards Accuracy 277
18.4 Test Uncertainty Ratio 278
18.5 Uncertainty Versus Accuracy 279
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Table of Contents xiii

19 Transducer Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285

19.1 Interpreting Manufacturer’s Specification Sheets 286


19.2 Transducer Type 297
19.3 Operating Principle 298
19.4 Accuracy (% of full scale vs. % of reading) 298
19.5 Linearity 299
19.6 Hysteresis 300
19.7 Environmental Operating Limits 300

20 Test Procedure Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303


20.1 Test Objective 304
20.2 Required Measurements 304
20.3 Accuracy Requirements 304
20.4 Frequency Response Requirements 305
20.5 Transducer Test Environment Limits 306
20.6 Transducer Connections and Space Limitations 306
20.7 Test Data Format 307
20.8 Test Data Analysis 308
20.9 Transducer Selection 309
20.10 Calibration Requirements 309

Appendix 1
Internet Links to Measurement Instrumentation Information. . . . .311

Appendix 2
Internet Links to General Engineering Information . . . . . . . . . . . . .323

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325