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Objectives

The general method of obtaining internal forces at certain cross-section of a system under a given loading

(and support) condition is by applying the concepts of equilibrium (Lecture 2). To illustrate, let us consider

the beam-column AB in Figure 2.7 for which we have to find the internal forces at section a - a . As we have

learned earlier, equilibrium conditions are best studied through free body diagrams. We can find the

reactions at supports A and B using a free body diagram of the whole beam-column AB (Figure 2.8). We

solve the three equations for static equilibrium for this free body:

Figure 2.7 Loading and support conditions for planar beam-column system AB

If a system is in static equilibrium condition, then every segment of it is also in equilibrium. So, we can

consider the equilibrium for each of AC or CB independently. Let us consider the equilibrium of part AC , and

draw its free body diagram (Figure 2.9). In addition to externally applied forces and the support reaction

and , this free body is acted upon by forces P , V and M on the surface a - a . These are nothing but the

internal forces (axial force, shear force and bending moment, respectively) acting at the cross-section a - a

of AB . Note that these forces are drawn in their respective positive directions in order to avoid sign

confusion. Solving the three static equilibrium equations for AC we find these internal forces:

Figure 2.9 Free body diagram of part AC

Thus we obtain the internal forces at section a - a . These could also be obtained by considering the

equilibrium of the part at the other side of section a - a , that is of part CB . Figure 2.10 shows the free

body diagram of CB . Again, the internal forces are drawn in their positive directions on surface a - a , which

is a negative x-surface for this free body. Solving the three equations we find the values for these internal

forces:

Note that these values match exactly with the values obtained previously by considering the equilibrium of

segment AC . This is true for any system because there is always a unique set of internal forces on an

internal surface for a given loading condition.

Recap

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